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  • 51.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköpings Universitet.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures, Sweden.
    Eklund, Daniel
    Swerea Sicomp, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Marie
    Swerea Sicomp, Sweden.
    Low-cost Automation for Prepreg Handling - Two Cases from the Aerospace Industry2016In: SAE International Journal of Materials & Manufacturing, ISSN 1946-3979, E-ISSN 1946-3987, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 68-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an increased use of composite materials within the aerospace industry follows a need for rational and cost-effective methods forcomposite manufacturing. Manual operations are still common for low to medium manufacturing volumes and complex products.Manual operations can for example be found in material handling, when picking prepreg plies from a cutter table and stacking them toform a plane laminate in preparation for a subsequent forming operation. Stacking operations of this kind often involves a greatnumber of different ply geometries and removal of backing paper and other protecting materials like plastic. In this paper two differentdemonstrator cells for automated picking of prepreg plies and stacking of plane laminates are presented. One demonstrator is utilizinga standard industrial robot and an advanced end-effector to handle the ply variants. The other demonstrator is using a dual arm robotwhich allow for simpler end-effector design. In combination with a previously developed system for automated removal of backingpapers both systems have shown to be capable of automatically picking prepreg plies from a plane surface and stack them to generate aflat multistack laminate. The dual arm approach has shown advantageous since it result in simpler end-effector design and a successivelay down sequence that result in good adhesion between the plies in the laminate.

  • 52.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem2013In: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

  • 53.
    Blom, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Förstudie av elektrolytpolering vid HZ Rostfria AB2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med examensarbetet har varit att undersöka möjligheter och förutsättningar för verkstadsföretaget HZ Rostfria AB, med verksamhet i Sandviken, att införskaffa utrustning för elektrolytpolering av rostfria detaljer.

    För att kunna få en helhetsbild över hur elektrolytpoleringsbranschen ser ut i Sverige har de företag som öppet annonserar med att de arbetar med elektrolytpolering studerats. Företagen har studerats utifrån en rad kriterier, där den huvudsakliga inriktningen på verksamheten samt företagens läge geografiskt relativt Sandviken ansetts vara de viktigaste.

    Utöver de företag som arbetar med elektrolytpolering har även olika tekniker för att åstadkomma elektrolytpolering studerats. Teknikerna har studerats med de produkter som idag tillverkas, samt som i framtiden skulle kunna komma att tillverkas av HZ Rostfria AB i åtanke.

    I och med att elektrolytpolering klassas som en miljöfarlig verksamhet har även frågor rörande tillstånd för verksamheten studerats. Det primära har varit att studera processen som leder fram till att tillstånd för verksamheten erhålls, vilket per automatik också innefattat att studera vilka insatser som krävs av företaget.

  • 54.
    Boberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Fredrikson, Tove
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Child Comfort in Rear Seats of Cars: A seating comfort study of how to improve and evaluate older children’s perceived comfort when riding on a belt-positioning booster2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last couple of years several studies have been conducted to investigate how children move and position during car rides. This in order to map when, and for how long children sit in positions that are not safe as well as to identify the reason for these movements. One of the conclusions is that children do not always sit comfortable in today’s belt-positioning boosters and thereby they chose positions that are unwanted for safety reasons.

    The aim for the master thesis has thereby been to improve seating comfort for children while traveling safely in the rear seat of a car. The target group has been children in ages 5-11 years old with body height 110-145 cm, a Swedish population 50 percentile has been used for the extreme dimensions.

    The master thesis process is divided in three phases; Discovery, Development and Testing and Evaluation. In the Discovery phase information in the areas child safety, child methodology and comfort was gathered through literature study, interviews with experts, benchmarking and a focus group with parents. As a final step customer needs were formulated. In the Development phase a workshop with children was initially performed to complement the customer needs with inputs from the users. The customer needs were afterwards reformulated into a specification of requirements and five comfort hypotheses. Finally a prototype was developed, designed from the requirements with the purpose to validate the comfort hypotheses, using an anthropometric design method (Osvalder, et al., 2010). In the final phase, Testing and Evaluation, the prototype and reference belt-positioning boosters were evaluated by children in two user studies; one static study and one on road study, to evaluate comfort features and try out different seating comfort evaluation methods.

    The result is divided into child seating comfort characteristics and child seating comfort methodology guidelines. To assist future development of belt-positioning boosters, seven comfort features are defined to help children ride comfortable in a safe position in the car. Furthermore, 13 child methodology guidelines are formulated to help further seating comfort evaluation with children.

    Conclusively to make children sit comfortable and safe positioned in the car they should be seated in a belt-positioning booster with headrest, backrest, seat cushion and foot support, the supporting parts need to be perceived as soft around head, back and under the buttock and all parts need to be dimensioned for all children in the target group. The size of the belt-positioning booster and the combination of foam thickness, foam hardness and shape are the main factors for affecting the perceived seating comfort. Furthermore, children shall be included as both design partners and testers during the development of belt-positioning boosters. During the prototype development static comfort evaluation with children should be done repeatedly to verify measurements, shape and foam hardness. To evaluate comfort both static evaluation and on road evaluation should be performed since comfort varies over time. Data should be collected subjectively from children through quantitative methods, such as rating scales, and qualitative methods, such as general questions regarding comfort/discomfort experience. Video observations can identify children’s position during car rides. Different positions can be timed and together with subjective data reasons for repositioning can be identified.

  • 55.
    Borg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Stralström, Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Industrikombinat: en affärsmöjlighet för Vattenfall2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to identify locations in Sweden with investment opportunities considering Industrial Symbiosis. Electricity generation has to be enabled by the investment since the thesis is written on behalf of Vattenfall Generation within the Nordic Business Group. The concept of Industrial Symbiosis is used to denote collaborations regarding exchange of energy.

    The lines of business using most energy are found to be most interesting to cooperate with. Companies within these lines of business are scanned in order to mark their location on a map of Sweden. The locations of certain companies in other lines of businesses are also marked on the map if the company in question uses a lot of energy. The aim of marking locations on the map is to find firms with geographic proximity offering the possibility to collaborate in the form of Industrial Symbiosis. The designs of the symbiosis and the Net Present Values of the investment opportunities found by means of this scanning are presented in this thesis.

    The most interesting investment opportunities are analysed more thoroughly and two business cases are built. The analysis includes building a model of the energy system and optimizing the collaboration regarding heat between firms in the model using the program Modest.

    One of the business cases concerns Grycksbo Paper in Grycksbo. The identified opportunity is investing 541 MSEK in a CHP-plant to provide Grycksbo Paper with the steam needed in their paper production. The NPV of the investment is 613 MSEK based on 10 years with an interest rate of 6 %. Similar investment opportunities are identified concerning Arctic Paper in Åsensbruk and Munkedal.

    The other business case concerns Spendrups brewery and the district heating networks in Ludvika and Grängesberg. The opportunity is investing 247 MSEK in a CHP-plant in order to deliver heat to Spendrups and to the district heating networks. An investment in a connection between Ludvika and Grängesbergs district heating networks is also included in the 247 MSEK mentioned above. The NPV of the investment is – 12 MSEK based on 10 years with an interest rate of 6 %. This NPV is strongly dependent on the investment cost of the CHP-plant. Investment costs in CHP-plants have risen drastically during the last couple of years. This investment would be more profitable if the cost of CHP-plants were to fall.

    Vattenfall is recommended to start discussing a collaboration regarding a CHP-plant with Grycksbo Paper and Arctic Paper. Vattenfall is also recommended to start discussing a collaboration regarding a CHP-plant with Spendrups and to observe the costs of CHP-plants in order to notice a possible decline in prices making the collaboration with Spendrups more profitable.

  • 56.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Early stages of designing resource-efficient offerings: An initial view of their analysis and evaluation2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of natural resources and the pollution it causes calls for new ways of addressing customer needs. Additionally, a more uncertain and complex world also presents new challenges. In this thesis, these new challenges are tackled through inter and transdisciplinary research, which require more interaction across disciplines to tackle complex phenomena.

    The manner in which companies address customer needs starts from the designing (a multiplestakeholder perspective) of offerings where companies rely on different types of support (guidelines, standards, methods and tools). In this thesis, these offerings, include products, services, systems, and solutions. This plays an important role in the use of natural resources and its impact on the environment. In this Licentiate, I present results to show initial cues on how to design resource-efficient offerings, and more specifically their analysis and evaluation in the early stages of the design process. This type of offerings is suggested to be crucial for the circular economy, which can be understood as a paradigm shift towards sustainability. In this paradigm shift, designing is carried out by taking into account reuse, remanufacture and recycling of products as strategies by multiple stakeholders and companies. Other strategies include providing services, a function or a solution through dematerialization and transmaterialization.

    The methods used in this research are narrative and systematic literature reviews, thematic analysis and a case study. The results show a lack of interdisciplinary research in the academic literature in subjects relevant to the design of resource-efficient offerings. The results also show a need to clarify what transdisciplinary research entails. Moreover, current practice shows that support used by companies needs to consider several factors for it to be useful, for example, the vision of the company, participation of potential users of the support and everyday operations, among other characteristics. Finally, more practical support coming from academia is necessary to improve its use in industry.

    List of papers
    1. Interdisciplinary Insights Found for Product/Service System Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interdisciplinary Insights Found for Product/Service System Design
    2016 (English)In: DS 84: PROCEEDINGS OF THE DESIGN 2016 14TH INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-4, The Design Society, 2016, p. 137-144Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service System (PSS) is a different way of fulfilling customer needs by providing a bundle of products and services. PSS is by nature an interdisciplinary field of research that needs collaboration across disciplines. This research paper investigates how much interdisciplinary research has been carried in terms of insights used between two important disciplines, namely, Engineering Design and Industrial Marketing. The results show that few insights have been used across disciplines which shows a gap for further research.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    The Design Society, 2016
    Series
    Proceedings of the International Design Conference, ISSN 1847-9073
    Keywords
    product-service systems (PSS), interdisciplinary collaboration, engineering design, industrial marketing
    National Category
    Environmental Management
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135352 (URN)000395390600014 ()
    Conference
    14th International Design Conference (DESIGN), Dubrovnik, Croatia, May 16-19, 2016
    Funder
    Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
    Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2018-01-17Bibliographically approved
    2. Do We Share an Understanding of Transdisciplinarity in Environmental Sustainability Research?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do We Share an Understanding of Transdisciplinarity in Environmental Sustainability Research?
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 170, p. 1399-1403Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This letter postulated that there is a need to clarify the statement of the journal as a transdisciplinaryplatform. It first provided an understanding of transdisciplinary research based on the literature. Second,it explained why an understanding of transdisciplinarity is important, and how such an understandingwill enhance the research and practice in the topics of the entire journal. Third, taking environmentalsustainability design research as an example subject, it commented on among others six articles publishedin the journal, and showed the relevance of this issue within this example subject. Overall, thisletter is expected to contribute to enhance the quality of the research and practice in the topics of thejournal.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2018
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142361 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.09.226 (DOI)000414879300123 ()
    Projects
    Mistra REES
    Funder
    Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, 2014/16
    Note

    Funding agencies: Mistra REES (Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions) program - Mistra (The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research) [DIA 2014/16]

    Available from: 2017-10-28 Created: 2017-10-28 Last updated: 2018-01-17
  • 57.
    Bäckstrand, Jenny
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The potential of information sharing to improve supply chain performance inconstruction projects2018In: EurOMA 2018 Proceedings: To Serve, to Produce and to Servitize in the Era of Networks, Big Data, and Analytics, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is toexplore the potential of increased supply chain performance by improved informationsharing between suppliers and contractors in the construction supply chains.Six suppliers are included, representing different combinations of supplyingmaterials and tools for the product or services to support production as wellas few or continuous deliveries during the project. The study show that suppliersneed different information sharing practices if they continuously present atsite or have few deliveries. Based on this and information sharing literature,we have developed a model of what information different suppliers need, includinghow and when to exchange it.

  • 58.
    Calmsund, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Tillämpning av induktionsuppvärmning i automatisk ytbehandlingsutrustning med termoplast för metalldetaljer2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work has been written on assignment of Korroterm AB. The company is situated in Linghem which is located just east of Linköping. Korroterm AB is a small subcontractor with around 25 employees who is specialised in surface treatment with thermoplastic coatings on metal objects.

    The purpose with this thesis work has been to study induction heating to learn what possibilities it offers for the production on Korroterm AB and to implement the technique in an automated production line. The goal for this equipment is that it should be able to handle parts with an estimated size of a small shoebox (30*30*30cm).

    Thru a study of literature, verbal sources and practical work an understanding of thermoplastics and induction heating has been made. The focus point of the study has been on the basics, how they work and what limits the techniques have.

    A method in ”Systematisk Konceptutveckling” by Ulf Liedholm has been used with a small modification. The solution for the whole problem would easily become very large and complicated therefore it was divided in to smaller parts which gave a better view of the system. Several concepts where then developed for each part of the system and then assembled into a concept for the whole equipment.

    As a result of this thesis a recommendation was given that the company Korroterm AB should keep developing the existing equipment that implements induction heating instead of investing in a new. After an investigation for suitable parts in the production today with regards to size, number and frequency it became clear that no suitable parts for the equipment were to be found. However a potential for implementing induction heating were discovered for the smaller detail sizes. A study of these should be made to see the possibilities of treatment in existing induction heating equipment.

  • 59.
    Can, Kemal Caglar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Postponement, Mass Customization, Modularization and Customer Order Decoupling Point: Building the Model of Relationships2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on four interrelated strategies: postponement, mass customization, modularization and customer order decoupling point. The goal of the postponement is to delay the customization as late as possible in the supply chain. It is also known as delayed differentiation. Mass customization is a relatively new term, which began to gain attention in the industry a decade ago. It was an obligatory invention as a response to the global market which becomes more turbulent day by day for the last two decades. Its goal is to produce customized products at low costs. Modularization is a common term that is used in many areas. In this study, we will focus on product architecture modularity and process modularity. Customer order decoupling point, which is also known as order penetration point, is used to distinguish the point in the supply chain where a particular product is associated to a specific order.

    Our target is building a model that explains how these four concepts are related. In order to achieve this, we will, first, research every concept individually; we will state the definitions, levels, benefits, enablers, success factors, drivers, etc. of the concepts. Then we will study the pair-wise relationships of these strategies. We will build our model according to the findings we have found in the literature. After building our model, we will explore it in Autoliv Electronics to see how it works in practice.

    Briefly, our model states the following:

    Modularization is an enabler of customization and it is necessary for the success of mass customization where set-up costs are critical. Product architecture modularity provides rapid assembly and cost efficiency that is required for postponement and mass customization. In addition, it is used to measure the mass customization degree according to some others.

    Postponement requires process modularity, and it moves the customer order decoupling point downstream in the value added material flow. It contributes the mass customization by increasing both the leanness and agility.

    Customer order decoupling point uses the customer requirements and existing capabilities of the mass customization for optimizing the flexibility-productivity balance.

  • 60.
    Carlsson, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Analys och åtgärdsförslag för ledtidsreducering vid fönstertillverkning2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har utförts vid Elitfönster AB i Vetlanda. Elitfönster AB är Sveriges största leverantör av fönster och fönsterdörrar.

    Syftet med arbetet är att ta fram åtgärdsförslag för att minska ledtiderna, då korta leveranstider blir ett allt viktigare konkurrensmedel. Arbetet innebar en kartläggning av nuvarande produktionsflöde och identifiering av problemområden.

    Arbetet genomfördes med hjälp av tidsstudier och intervjuer med arbetsledare och personal. Arbetet bygger även en hel del på observationer, iakttagelser och studerande av statistik.

    I stora drag kan man dra slutsatsen att de långa ledtiderna beror på främst två orsaker;

    • hyvelbanornas långa ställtider som medför körningar i veckosatser

    • kvalitetsbrister och bristfälliga kvalitetskontroller samt trästycken som ”försvinner” längs förädlingskedjan. Detta leder till att order får ställas åt sidan i väntan på nya/omlackade bitar.

    För att erhålla en reducering av produktionsledtiden bör Elitfönster AB i första hand;

    • överväga att flytta ut ett eller två produktsortiment, vilket skulle medföra reducerade ställtider i hyvelbanorna och därmed en möjlighet att bryta ner veckosatserna i mindre satser.

    • sträva mot att synkronisera de olika resursernas cykeltider mot takttiden.

    • skapa stabila processer, det vill säga tillförlitlig utrustning och mångkunnig personal, för att kunna minimera buffertar och mellanlager.

    • kontinuerligt kvalitetsarbete i form av leverantörssamverkan och kvalitetsutbildningar till personal.

  • 61.
    Carlsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Nordin, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Logistikens roll i industrialiserat byggande: en fallstudie av2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is always a demand for lower constructions costs, shorter lead-times, less products with errors and more generous guarantees within the area of construction. During the last few years the attention has turned towards the more traditional industry to see if there is something to learn from there. The concept of industrial construction is born and is in this study defined as prefabrication of construction components and units in a factory to be assembled at the construction site. It is seen that this building technique could be a way of responding to the existing demands. This master thesis investigates whether logistics could be of help in responding to the demands; how logistics can enable industrial construction. A case study of a company, in this thesis named ”Trähus”, is carried out. ”Trähus” is a company in the industrial construction business producing wooden houses. The purpose with this master thesis it to study how, from a logistics perspective, the construction process at ”Trähus” can be made more effective.

    One major issue when it comes to industrial construction is to find a balance between standardization and flexibility. Standardization is needed to reach an effective process and flexibility is needed to satisfy the customer. Standardization is defined as regularity and repetition of successful practice, do something in a good way and make it a standard. With a starting-point in the theories of coordination it is examined how coordination of the flow of material and information can be a way of reaching a more standardized construction process and thereby a lower total cost. One fundamental requirement to enable coordination is information. To strategically manage a process it has to be known what the process looks like, what problems there are and what the consequences of choices made are. Lack of information is identified as a problem in this study; this defines the potential of reaching a good coordination. Information is also identified as a common problem in the practice of coordination.

    Deficient coordination generates waste in the process; waste is defined as something that does not create value. It could be time spent waiting or products containing errors. This study shows that deficient coordination increases the need for coordination since all extra work that needs to be done to solve upcoming problems also demands coordination, which requires resources and generates costs. This study identifies several wastes that are deduced to lacking coordination somewhere in the process.

    The initial activities in the construction process are of great importance for the continuing process. The performance of sales, procurement and design determine how the following activities in the process can be performed. This since all other activities is directly or indirectly dependent on sales, procurement and design. The consequence of this is that it is of high importance that these initial activities are well performed so that it enables the activities that follow to be well performed.

    The analysis shows that the exchange of information between sales, procurement and design needs to be more effective and efficient. This could be reached through standardization of the information exchanged and of the form in which it is exchanged. Another action proposed shows how the coordination of material in stock can be improved. It shows the need of more rules, routines and that there is a need of computerizing the coordination.

    One general conclusion in the case of ”Trähus” is that it should be of high priority to reach a better control of the processes meaning that there needs to be an awareness of the consequences of certain choices, existing waste, the extent of the waste and what it is due to. This kind of information is necessary to enable a good coordination and a continuous work with improvements. A higher degree of standardization of information and information exchange, rules and routines stock management are examples of actions proposed in this study. These actions lead to a higher degree of standardization in the construction process since they aim to reach a repetition of successful practice. A first step is therefore to develop rules and routines for stock control but then a second and obvious step is to follow them to reach standardization.

    Quantitative and qualitative data indicate that the wastes in the construction process are extensive and this gives that an improved coordination could give the processes of ”Trähus” a higher degree of standardization in the construction process and thereby a reduction of the total cost.

    A conclusion is that the construction process of ”Trähus” can be made more effective through the implementation of coordination mechanisms presented in this study. ”Trähus” is a construction company within industrial construction and through showing how, from a logistics perspective, the construction process at ”Trähus” can be made more effective it is also shown how logistics can enable industrialised construction.

  • 62.
    Cederborg, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Advanced Planning Systems: Master Planning in the Process Industry2008In: Proceedings of the 15th EurOMA Conference, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Cederborg, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rudberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Customer Segmentation and Capable-to-promise in a Capacity Constrained Manufacturing Environmen2009In: Proceedings of the 16th EurOMA Conference, 2009, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyse customer segmentation and capable-to-promise functionality in a demand fulfilment process. This is done through a literature review and a case study, the case showing that the company has experienced good results from using an advanced planning system based on customer segmentation and capable-to-promise functionality.

  • 64.
    Chicksand, Daniel
    et al.
    Warwick Business School.
    Kumar, Naveen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Walker, Helen
    Cardiff Business School.
    Global Purchasing – Implications for Purchasing and Logistics: A research synthesis2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalisation and the dynamics of the new economic geography is increasingly influencing supply chain management across different industries. Although the literature combining purchasing and logistics in the global supply chain is crucial, it has scarcely been reviewed in this combined approach. With companies like DELL, Walmart, and Li & Fung who are orchestrators in supply chains capitalising upon globalisation, the future trend is for a greater need to understand the purchasing and logistics aspects of global supply chains. In this study a review, analysis and synthesis of the literature in purchasing and logistics in global purchasing is conducted to. The research synthesis will aid both practitioners and researchers in a broader and better understanding of purchasing and logistics issues in the context of global supply chain design.

  • 65.
    Dahlström, Nicklas
    et al.
    Lund University School of Aviation, Ljungbyhed, Sweden/Swedish Defence Research Agency, Linköping, Sweden.
    Magnusson Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comparison of Two Recorders for Obtaining In-flight Heart Rate Data2006In: Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback, ISSN 1090-0586, E-ISSN 1573-3270, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 273-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measurement of mental workload has been widely used for evaluation of aircraft design, mission analysis and assessment of pilot performance during flight operations. Heart rate is the psychophysiological measure that has been most frequently used for this purpose. The risk of interference with flight safety and pilot performance, as well as the generally constrained access to flights, make it difficult for researchers to collect in-flight heart rate data. Thus, this study was carried out to investigate whether small, non-intrusive sports recorders can be used for in-flight data collection for research purposes. Data was collected from real and simulated flights with student pilots using the Polar Team System sports recorder and the Vitaport II, a clinical and research recording device. Comparison of the data shows that in-flight heart rate data from the smaller and less intrusive sports recorder have a correlation of.981 with that from the clinical recorder, thus indicating that the sports recorder is reliable and cost-effective for obtaining heart rate data for many research situations.

  • 66.
    Dahlström, Nicklas
    et al.
    Lund University School of Aviation, Ljungbyhed, Sweden.
    Magnusson Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish Defence Research Agency , Linköping, Sweden.
    Mental Workload in Aircraft and Simulator during Basic Civil Aviation Training2009In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 309-325Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated mental workload in basic civil aviation training. Heart rate, eye movement and subjective ratings from eleven students were collected during simulator and aircraft sessions. Results show high correspondence in psychophysiological reactions between the sessions. For some flight segments heart rate was consistently lower in the simulator, suggesting higher mental workload in the aircraft. Differences in heart rate during rejected take-off and engine failure indicate that the increase of workload starts in advance of an “unexpected“ event in the simulator and seem to be of preparatory nature, while more connected to management of the situation in the aircraft. Descriptors: psychophysiology, mental workload, aviation training, flight simulation, learning transfer

  • 67.
    Dahlström, Nicklas
    et al.
    Lund University School of Aviation, Ljungbyhed, Sweden.
    Magnusson Nählinder, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish Defence Research Agency , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wilson, Glenn F.
    Air Force Research Laboratory , Wright-Patterson Air Force Base , Ohio, USA.
    Svensson, Erland
    Swedish Defence Research Agency , Stockholm, Sweden.
    Recording of Psychophysiological Data during Aerobatic Training2011In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 105-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring pilot mental workload can be important for understanding cognitive demands during flight involving unusual movements and attitudes. Heart rate, eye movements, EEG and subjective ratings from seven flight instructors was collected for a flight including a repeated aerobatics sequence. Heart rate data and subjective ratings showed that aerobatic sequences produced the highest levels of mental workload and that heart rate can identify low-G flight segments with high mental workload. Blink rate and eye movement data did not support previous research regarding their relation to mental workload. EEG data was difficult to analyze due to muscle artifacts.

  • 68.
    Danielsson, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementations of the Convolution Operation1982Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first part of this article surveys a large number of implementations of the convolution operation (which is also known as the sum-of-products, the inner product) based on a systematic exploration of index permutations. First we assume a limited amount of parallelism in the form of an adder. Next, multipliers and RAM:s are utilized. The so called distributed arithmetic follows naturally from this approach.

    The second part brings in the concept of pipelining on the bitlevel to obtain high throughput convolvers adapted for VLSI-design (systolic arrays). The serial/parallel multiplier is analyzed in a way that unravels a vast amount new variations. Even more interesting, all these new variations can be carried over to serial/parallel convolvers. These novel devices can be implemented as linear structures of identical cells where the multipliers are embedded at equidistant intervals.

  • 69.
    de Paula, Andes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dynamics of corporate strategy from a value chain perspective: A study of the Swedish telecom and construction industries during the 90’s2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in sectors and industries have brought new challenges to corporations as well as been important driving forces for the dynamics in strategy at the corporate level. With the dramatic developments of the 1990’s in mind, such as multilateral free-trade agreements, liberalization, privatization, sharp industry growth/decline, increased competition and globalization, in particular within the telecom and the construction industry, this study contributes to describing and understanding strategic change at the corporate level as well as changes in the division of work within value chains. Strategy is defined as intentions, decisions and actions that relate to bundling and unbundling at different strategic levels, aiming to establish and reestablish a value chain position. Thus, outsourcing, M&As, modularization and systems development and sales are important strategic components which are examined from a value chain perspective. From a value chain perspective, the purpose of this study is to describe and understand strategic change at the corporate level in the telecom and construction industries during the 1990’s. More specifically this study shall contribute to describing and understanding (i) the dynamics of and between M&As, outsourcing, modularization and systemization, as well as (ii) industrial and financial drivers to strategic change.

    The conclusions describe strategic change from a value chain perspective using three descriptive patterns, including an increasing degree of specialization and need for interorganizational coordination across the value chain. In addition, outsourcing and modularization of systems and an increased scope of offering through systemization and BOT-projects, result in the fact that due to M&As the horizontal boundary of the firm sometimes goes beyond the industry scope while the vertical scope is often narrowed through outsourcing. The conclusions also focus on understanding the content of strategic change, that is to say the dynamics of and between mergers and acquisitions, outsourcing, modularization and system sales. These findings are summarized in nine explanatory patterns. These patterns show that the strategic decisions of bundling and unbundling at the corporate and functional level through mergers and acquisitions, outsourcing, systemization and modularization are guided by an industrial as well as a financial logic. By considering the descriptive and explanatory patterns found this study, the conclusions also include what to expect during the next decade with regard to corporate strategy from a value chain perspective in five predictive patterns.

  • 70.
    Diffner, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Edlund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Utvärdering av 3dvia Composer: -För arbetsinstruktioner och beredning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With recent technical development computer aided design and manufacturing has taken amore important role in the product life cycle. New business segments such as Product/ServiceSystems and remanufacturing is emerging. This development demands better control of theproduct data throughout the entire product life cycle. Computer aided design is widelyrecognized and used within the manufacturing industries and in recent years the importance ofDigital manufacturing has increased. One part of Digital manufacturing is paperlessproduction which involves all orders and working instruction shown for example on a screenrather than on a piece of paper. In order to aid companies in creating better workinginstructions Dassault Systémes has launched the product 3Dvia Composer.The company DELFOi is working with digital manufacturing on the Nordic market and is areseller of Dassault Systémes products. DELFOi wants to know if 3Dvia Composer hasanything valuable to add to their product portfolio, what profits may be gained from it andwhat type of costumers that can make use of the product. DELFOi also wants to know whatparts of the product life cycle that can be covered by 3Dvia Composer and how to implementthe program into their product portfolio.To achieve this five companies that operate in different parts of the product life cycle wasinterviewed in order to map how they work with instructions and to identify their needsregarding their methodology. Theories about man/machine-interface have been studied andthese theories, together with the result from the interviews, form the base from which thepossibilities of 3Dvia Composer are evaluated. The software is also compared to other similarsoftware in a benchmarking. A document that describes the implementation process for 3DviaComposer at a customer site is compiled and presented.The study shows that interactive working instructions has a lot of advantages and can solve alot of problems related to work instructions that are identified in this study. 3Dvia Composeris a competent software for creating interactive work instructions. Regardless, great deals ofresources are required to sell 3Dvia Composer due to that most companies, even though theyidentify a lot of problems, seem satisfied with the current method for working instructions,and therefore do not seek change.

  • 71.
    Doktorian, Paul
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Tuvesson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Management and Engineering.
    DFM för Lasersvetsning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    The purpose with this thesis was to develop a designguideline which will simplify the development of new products that will be laser welded. The need for this thesis has come forward from the quality problems that Volvo Construction Equipment, Components Division is having with their laser welding manufacturing unit. The reason for the problems emerges from the bad communication between the development unit and the manufacturing unit within the company when the products produced today was developed. This resulted in products that were hard to and in some cases almost impossible to weld.

     

    To avoid these problems from occurring again it was needed to gather the experiences within this area and compile it and present in a brief a pedagogical manner. The information for the groundwork of our results has been gathered by interviews of several key persons in Volvo Construction Equipment, Components Division. Other information channels have been a literary study, visiting other companies, participating in the manufacturing processes and participation in the project for non-destructive testing.

     

     

    We have considered the following subjects after compiling the gathered information:

     

    ·         Product design

    ·         Choice of material

    ·         Weld joint design

    ·         The limiting dimensions of the laser welding unit

    ·         The Heat Affected Zone, HAZ, after laser welding

    ·         Washing/Cleanliness

    ·         Testing – Destructive or non-destructive

     

     

    There is no other company in the world that welds products with the same method and the same material as they do in Volvo Construction Equipment, Components Division. The conclusion is that the complications that arose when the products that are manufactured today were developed can be avoided if our designguideline were to be followed in the future new development.

  • 72.
    Domeij Bäckryd, Rebecka
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics.
    Ryberg, Ann-Britt
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Combitech AB, Trollhättan, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Larsgunnar
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics.
    Multidisciplinary design optimisation methods for automotive structures2017In: International Journal of Automotive and Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 2229-8649, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 4050-4067Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multidisciplinary design optimisation (MDO) can be used as an effective tool to improve the design of automotive structures. Large-scale MDO problems typically involve several groups who must work concurrently and autonomously in order to make the solution process efficient. In this article, the formulations of existing MDO methods are compared and their suitability is assessed in relation to the characteristics of automotive structural applications. Both multi-level and single-level optimisation methods are considered. Multi-level optimisation methods distribute the design process but are complex. When optimising automotive structures, metamodels are often required to relieve the computational burden of detailed simulation models. The metamodels can be created by individual groups prior to the optimisation process, and thus offer a way of distributing work. Therefore, it is concluded that a single-level method in combination with meta-models is the most straightforward way of implementing MDO into the development of automotive structures. If the benefits of multi-level optimisation methods, in a special case, are considered to compensate for their drawbacks, analytical target cascading has a number of advantages over collaborative optimisation, but both methods are possible choices.

  • 73.
    Dunbäck, Otto
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Reverse logistic challenges within the remanufacturing of automotive components2011In: Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Remanufacturing: July 26-29, Glasgow, UK, 2011, p. 74-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The remanufacturing industry as a whole, and the automotive sector in particular, have over the years proven to be beneficial to the environment and economically lucrative to the companies involved as well as to their customers. However, the different processes within remanufacturing are associated with complicating characteristics, not least to mention the process of core acquisition, which is not present in traditional manufacturing.

    This paper presents a qualitative study based on interviews from six SMEs regarding challenges linked to the reverse logistics of SMEs remanufacturing and trading automotive components, acting as a first attempt to identify the specific challenges concerning the collection phase of automotive mechatronics and electronics remanufacturing. Challenges previously identified by researchers are confirmed, additional challenges within the collection phase are recognized and challenges expected to arise when remanufacturing and trading automotive CAN bus components are identified and discussed. The major concern for the involved companies when auspicating future challenges is the handling, transportation and storing of cores. Even though the cores today mainly consist of mechanical components, these challenges are still present; they are expected, however, to become even more crucial when cores contain electronic components.

  • 74.
    Edh Mirzaei, Nina
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Winroth, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Strategic consensus on manufacturing strategy content: including the operators' perceptions2016In: International Journal of Operations & Production Management, ISSN 0144-3577, E-ISSN 1758-6593, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 429-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Strategic consensus between operators and managers is an important means to accomplish a successful manufacturing strategy (MS) process. Previous studies largely left out individual operators from this concept. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to empirically examine the level of strategic consensus on the MS within the operations function, that is, the operators’ and managers’ perceptions of MS.

    Design/methodology/approach – Interviews were conducted with both operators and managers at three small and medium-sized enterprises in Sweden. The MS dimensions were selected based on previous research; the data was analysed by using thematic coding.

    Findings – The study shows that the levels of strategic consensus on the MS vary among companies. Even when strategic consensus exists between operators and managers, their underlying reasons often differ. Furthermore, the levels of strategic consensus vary among MS dimensions. The companies’ usage of information-sharing channels, along with their size and position in the supply chain, can be important for the level of strategic consensus.

    Originality/value – This paper contributes to the body of knowledge in three ways. First, it expands the scope of the MS dimensions under study, thus offering a stronger, resource-based perspective on MS and strategic consensus than what earlier studies showed. Second, it goes beyond the management level by including both managers and operators as the unit of analysis. Third, compared to previous research, it focuses on a new context and is based on indepth case studies.

  • 75.
    Eek, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Study of Industrially Applied Methods for Verification, Validation & Uncertainty Quantification of Simulator Models2015In: International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing, ISSN 1793-9623, E-ISSN 1793-9615, Vol. 6, no 2, article id 1550014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To better utilize the potential of system simulation models and simulators, industrially applicable methods for Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification(VV&UQ) are crucial. This paper presents an exploratory case study of VV&UQ techniquesapplied on models integrated in aircraft system simulators at Saab Aeronauticsand in driving simulators at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute(VTI). Results show that a large number of Verification and Validation (V&V)techniques are applied, some of which are promising for further development and use insimulator credibility assessment. Regarding the application of UQ, a large gap betweenacademia and this part of industry has been identified, and simplified methods areneeded. The applicability of the NASA Credibility Assessment Scale (CAS) at the studied organizations is also evaluated and it can be concluded that the CAS is consideredto be a usable tool for achieving a uniform level of V&V for all models included in asimulator, although its implementation at the studied organizations requires tailoringand coordination.

  • 76.
    Egeröd, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics .
    Nordling, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics .
    Strategic Supplier Evaluation - Considering environmental aspects2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at presenting a strategic supplier evaluation model that can assist Cederroth in strategic supplier selection and give indications on potential areas for strategic supplier development. The evaluation model aims at assessing supplier performance also with respect to environmental aspects. The final model has been developed through five steps, five models, with starting point in a theoretical review and basic empirical data. Following the model was developed through four iterations of workshops, interviews, weighting and case studies. The final model includes 7 criteria categories and 41 criteria whereas one category including 7 criteria assesses a supplier’s environmental performance.

  • 77.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Observation Methods in the Context of Interactive Research2019In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 20TH CONGRESS OF THE INTERNATIONAL ERGONOMICS ASSOCIATION (IEA 2018), VOL VII: ERGONOMICS IN DESIGN, DESIGN FOR ALL, ACTIVITY THEORIES FOR WORK ANALYSIS AND DESIGN, AFFECTIVE DESIGN, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2019, Vol. 824, p. 1845-1849Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interactive research approach was applied in an evaluation of a potential organizational change for mail carriers. Interviews and observations were performed. The results showed that specialization of mail carriers into either mail sorting or mail delivery would lead to more monotonous jobs. Observations showed that sorting mail in a new district takes substantially more time than in a well-known district. An interactive research approach creates a participative collaboration between employers, union representatives and researchers within a project. This influences the choice, planning and execution of methods, of which observation is one. Through the interactive discussions, the planning of how, who, when and where to perform the observations can be improved. This contributes to creating better opportunities to obtain valid results. The use of video recordings enables joint analysis, which contributes to higher acceptance of outcomes and results. The overall conclusion is that the combination of an interactive approach and observation methods is a way to improve both methodological validity and higher validity of the results in addition to higher acceptance of the results and subsequent decisions.

  • 78.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Marielle
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Truong, Xu-Bin
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    High-rate anaerobic co-digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge and activated sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 56, p. 166-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for thebiogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibresludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation.Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800 days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludgeand activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, theCa:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abatedby short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robustconditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4 gvolatile solids (VS) L1 day1, a hydraulic retention time of 4 days and a methane production of230 ± 10 Nm L per g VS.

  • 79.
    Ekstrand, Jonathan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Hallberg, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Rekryterares uppfattning av anonymisering: Tankar kring ett första urval2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen syftar till att studera verksamma HR(Human resources)-praktiker inom rekryteringsområdets uppfattning gentemot användningen av ett anonymiserat första urval i rekryteringsprocessen. För att studera detta formuleras frågeställningar kring hur ett anonymiserat urval uppfattas av dessa praktiker samt vilka negativa och positiva aspekter de kan identifiera med ett sådant arbetssätt. Studien ämnar att undersöka detta via en kvalitativ studie med en induktiv ansats. Datainsamlingen sker via semistrukturerade intervjuer där praktikernas uppfattningar kring ämnet skiljer sig markant. Anonymisering ses som ett gynnsamt verktyg för kandidater där de får en mer rättvis chans att avancera i rekryteringsprocesser på bekostnad av rekryteraren som får en större arbetsbelastning. Studien mynnar ut i att rekryteringsförfarandet präglas av en situationsbetingad paradigm där olika organisationer är i behov av olika åtgärder. Således kan ett anonymiserat urval anses behövligt i organisationer där diskriminering förekommer medan organisationer med redan standardiserade och beprövade processer kan anse det som överflödigt.

  • 80.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gremyr, Ida
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Martin, Jason
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch-Jensen, Andrea
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    The Future of Work for Quality Management – Challenges in the Digitalized Era2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Digitalization provides both challenges and opportunities for Quality Management (QM). The purpose of this paper is to identify challenges induced by digitalization on current QM practices, in order to uncover the potential of how QM may support digitalization in organizations. This issue is addressed through an analytical framework that stresses two dimensions: first exploration and exploitation of digitalized QM processes and second value creation, which is performed by the customer or in interaction facilitated by the provider.

    Design/methodology/approach This paper is based on a cross-case study design with interview data collected from 33 quality management professionals in four large Swedish organizations.

    Findings Six different challenges and corresponding roles are proposed for QM: The gardener involved in the design of the many different currently utilized technologies; the bridge-builder - a role that connects implemented digitalized solutions that enable the movement from human-to-human to a human-to-digital interface; the assistant a contributor to better value in the customer sphere for already implemented digitalized solutions; the architect including planning, designs, and reviews together with many different stakeholders; the connector focusing on the continuous management of value-in-use and open up for  opportunities for continuous interaction and value-adding;  and explorer drawing attention towards the challenges of the existing power structures.

    Originality/value This paper contributes with empirical evidence on challenges induced by digitalization, an area often discussed but not as often studied empirically.  Further, the study identifies challenges of digitalization affecting both exploitative and explorative practices throughout an organisations value-creation process.

  • 81.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kollberg, Beata
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    En metodansats för utvärdering av prestionsmätningssystem2004Report (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Elg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Langstrand, Jostein
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Balanced Scorecard as Organizational Practice: A multi-perspective analysis2010Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much academic attention has been directed towards management models, but there is limited research into the details of how these models are put to use in organizations. In this paper, we employ a multi-theoretical process perspective on the introduction of Balanced Scorecard in a Swedish healthcare organization. Through the application of actor-network theory, behavior setting theory and distributed cognition, we have identified a set of complementary observations and conclusions. First, we claim that a critical mass of actors is needed to support the change effort. We also emphasize the need for a problematization process in which critical voices are given room to influence the introduction. Further, we stress the importance of aligning the physical environment with organizational goals, and argue that well-designed feedback mechanisms may prevent undesired decoupling of managerial practice.

  • 83.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Julia
    Lydebrandt, Kristian
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automation of Plastic Recycling – A case study2009In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2009, Sapporo, Japan, Springer, 2009, p. 935-940Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plastic recycling is an increasingly important issue intoday’s society. The number of plastics and theirvariation with additives has increased lately, affecting inturn the possibilities for plastic material recycling.However, trends in e.g. Japan show a reduction in thenumber of plastics used in e.g. household appliances.This reduction has been put into force in order to easeplastic recycling for those kinds of products.In Sweden, more efforts are put on collecting plasticfor material recycling. The intention for doing this is tohave more plastic material recycled rather thanincinerated and energy recovered. This paper deals witha conceptual investigation and development of anautomatic plastic recycling plant in Sweden. In order toreach a recycling plant that fulfills required technical andeconomic specifications, a large investigation of existingtechniques was performed. This investigation revealedmany techniques described in research, but also whichtechniques that were used by recycling industry today.The results of these studies became a conceptual andpotential well-functioning material recycling plant forplastics which is fully automatic. However, the focus ofthis development has been to sort out and materialrecycle the most common plastics, namely polyetene(LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene(PET), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polystyrene (PS)whereas the other plastics have been sorted out forenergy recovery. Having these delimitations, a goodrecycling process plant can be achieved.

  • 84.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Automatic Dismantling Challenges in the Structural Design of LCD TVs2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 15, p. 251-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs) end up in the waste stream today. The combination of hazardous materials such as mercury and liquid crystal, and the labor-intensive disassembly of LCD TVs, make the recycling process interesting to automate. However, since there are so many manufacturers the variation of LCD TVs is high, making automation a challenge. Todays most common automatic process utilizes shredders, resulting in degradation of recycled material and possible decontamination of machine equipment. This paper aims to investigate the challenges related to the structural design of LCD TVs for an automatic dismantling process for the recycling of LCD TVs. The challenges identified during the empirical study were related to the mixture of materials, inhomogeneous materials, thin design, separation of the different components and finding a suitable dismantling sequence without unnecessary removal of components.

  • 85.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaporation of Mercury from CCFLs during Recycling of LCD Television Sets2013In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2013 International Symposium, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The element mercury is one of the most hazardous substances known. Still, it is common in the air, water, soil and products we use in our daily life. LCD TVs is one of these products. To prevent the mercury in the LCD TVs from polluting the environment, the LCD TVs are recycled. This is done through automatic shredding or manual disassembly where the mercury can spread in the work environment, the process equipment or to the recycled material. This is due to broken CCFLs in the LCD TVs which contain the mercury. The aim of this paper is to investigate, through a literature review and an empirical study, the amount of mercury released into the work environment due to broken CCFLs from LCD TVs. In the literature review there were found the amount of mercury other researchers has found in CCFLs from LCD TVs, and also where the mercury was found. In the empirical study, the amount of mercury in a LCD due to broken CCFLs were measured and validates the results from other researcher and states that the mercury is difficult to predict.

  • 86.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Process concepts for semi-automatic dismantling of LCD televisions2014In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 23, no 2014, p. 270-275Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large variety of electrical and electronic equipment products, for example liquid crystal display television sets (LCD TVs), in the waste stream today. Many LCD TVs contain mercury, which is a challenge to treat at the recycling plants. Two current used processes to recycle LCD TVs are automated shredding and manual disassembly. This paper aims to present concepts for semi-automated dismantling processes for LCD TVs in order to achieve higher productivity and flexibility, and in turn increase the value of the recycled materials, improve the work environment for operators and remove mercury from the recycled materials. A literature review and two empirical studies were performed to be able to present a concept for dismantling direct illuminated LCD TVs. The process used a circular saw and/or a band saw to machine two cuts in LCD TVs to gain access to the mercury-containing cold cathode fluorescent lamps inside. This conceptual process is compared to the other processes found in the literature.

  • 87.
    Elo, Kristofer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Requirements and needs of automatic material recycling of flat panel displays2010In: Proceedings of Going Green CARE INNOVATION 2010, 8th International Symposium, November 8-11, Vienna, Austria, paper 107 on CD., 2010, p. 107-107Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of flat panel displays in the World is increasing and the day whenthe displays will start to end up in the waste stream in great number is getting closer. Themost common flat panel display, the liquid crystal display, contains liquid crystals, indiumand mercury. The capacity of the recycling plants is not dimensioned according to theamount of displays that needs to be recycled in the near future. To increase the capacity ofthe recycling plants and achieve a better work environment there is a possibility to automatethe recycling process in a greater extends comparing with today. The requirements andneeds of the automated processes are to handle; all incoming material, e.g. liquid crystaldisplays, plasma display panel, organic light emitted diode, other types of displays andother electronic waste, identify and separate the different incoming materials, disassemblethe material and separate the components and materials of interest.

  • 88.
    Elvnäs, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Vad arbetsledare ska göra och varför de inte gör det: En beskrivning av tillämpad beteendeanalys för utveckling av arbetsledares arbetssätt2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral science has over 80 years of scientific studies and history. The application of its methodology within the business community has been taking place for approximately 30 years, but in Sweden it has hardly begun. The core of its application is taken from behavior analysis that is a scientific methodology that aims to understand why people do what they do in different situations. To apply behavior analysis within individual psychological treatment such as CBT (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy) has been shown to be time and cost efficient, as well as a successful method. The application of the methodology within the business community for group and organizational development is nearly non-existent in Sweden despite its breakthrough abroad in many big companies.

    The organizational literature of behavior science and its researchers claim that leadership without knowledge of scientific behavioral methods damages productivity, personal development and motivation at work. There is sustainable and scientifically supported research, successful reference companies and a potentially great amount of profit with this approach. Nevertheless companies and their managers continue to chase short-term profits and invest in efforts that do not result in concrete change in their businesses. Companies lose personnel, profitability and commitment and still try more and harder with an already poor operational strategy. The strategy is often based on incorrect assumptions and convictions of why employees do what they do.

    In this thesis, I will clarify the aim of this methodology and explain its central concepts. According to ten Swedish companies there are some direct benefits from applying this methodology. The obstacles they refer to are lack of time and ignorance about the methodology and its application.

    Companies in general need specific help and guidance on site for their supervisors. The biggest difference between this methodology and more traditional leadership lies in the basic assumption about what governs people's behavior. The application of this methodology works in a different way of what we are traditionally taught within management. We have to concentrate on what happens after the actual behavior instead of focusing on what we should be done before it happens. The initiative requires a new way of acting, but there will be more sustainable effects and it will be more favorable for both employees and the overall business development.

  • 89.
    Engbåge, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Flodell, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Effektivisering av layout i produktionshallen på ETP Transmission AB: Layoutoptimering2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis is made on behalf of ETP Transmission AB during spring2019 to develop and produce layouts that are optimized for future demands. The proposals of the layouts should consider aspects such as ergonomics, economics and efficiency.

    ETP:s products include casings and chucks. The production is located in Linköping, Sweden. In 2017 the company had 52 employees and the turnover was 110 million SEK. ETP:s vision for the production is to make it more efficient to be able to produce more. Therefore, they have decided to invest in the production hall by adding a lathe and three paternoster lifts. They also want to make space for two sanding machines. Because of the changes in the production hall, ETP needs a new layout to fulfill their new demands.

    The method “Systematic Layout Planning” has been used to develop different proposals of layouts. Together with theory from different types of productions has three different layout concepts created. These concepts have been analysed through an extensive SWOT analysis process. Based on ETP:s suggestion, only two concepts were focused on. The result includes two layouts, both of them are fulfilling ETP:s demands.

    The report describes the ideology “Lean”, with focus on the 5S tool. 5S is a tool that helps keep the workplace organized and maximize efficiency and effectiveness. The ideology Lean was used in the development of the concepts.

  • 90.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Perspectives on recycling centres and future developments2016In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 57, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this paper is to draw combined, all-embracing conclusions based on a long-term multidisciplinary research programme on recycling centres in Sweden, focussing on working conditions, environment and system performance. A second aim is to give recommendations for their development of new and existing recycling centres and to discuss implications for the future design and organisation. Several opportunities for improvement of recycling centres were identified, such as design, layout, ease with which users could sort their waste, the work environment, conflicting needs and goals within the industry, and industrialisation. Combining all results from the research, which consisted of different disciplinary aspects, made it possible to analyse and elucidate their interrelations. Waste sorting quality was recognized as the most prominent improvement field in the recycling centre system. The research identified the importance of involving stakeholders with different perspectives when planning a recycling centre in order to get functionality and high performance. Practical proposals of how to plan and build recycling centres are given in a detailed checklist. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 91.
    Englund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial ergonomics .
    Röststyrning av aggregatet på en engreppsskördare: En Wizard of Oz-studie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att utreda hur röststyrning kan användas för kontroll av aggregatet på en engreppsskördare.

     

    För att studera röststyrning genomfördes en så kallad Wizard of Oz-studie. Metoden går ut på att en människa ersätter en funktion i ett system som ännu inte finns eller är färdigutvecklad. I studien var det röstigenkänningen och inmatningen av korrekt respons som utfördes av en människa, trollkarlen. Rollen som trollkarl utfördes av en före detta skördarförare som numera arbetar som forskare på Skogforsk.

     

    Studien genomfördes i Skogforsks skogsmaskinsimulator. I den kan en försöksperson på ett verklighetstroget sätt arbeta med en engreppsskördare. Som försökspersoner användes fem professionella förare.

     

    Innan en förare provade röststyrningen fick han köra simulatorn med konventionell styrning för att vänja sig vid hur maskinen kändes att köra i den simulerade miljön. Därefter fick föraren använda sig av röststyrning. Försökspersonerna som var omedvetna om trollkarlens existens fick endast instruktion om att slutavverka ett bestånd genom att kontrollera aggregatet med rösten. De fick inga förslag på kommandon eller uttryck att använda utan fick själva utforska systemet och använda det som de ville. Kranen kontrollerade de som vanligt med spakarna.

     

    Under studien observerades försökspersonernas agerande av försöksledaren och efteråt genomfördes en intervju om upplevelsen av röststyrningen.

     

    Alla förarna lärde sig snabbt att använda systemet och använde sig av samma princip. En knapptryckning ersattes med ett kommando. Förarna använde sig till en början av uttryck de var bekanta med sedan tidigare. De rationaliserade medvetet uttrycken de använde till att bli korta och nästan alltid bara innehålla ett ord.

     

    Överlag tyckte försökspersonerna att röststyrningen var en positiv upplevelse och tyckte att det fungerade bra men förutsåg att det skulle bli problematiskt att använda vid svårarbetad skog som kräver mycket manuell inblandning i apteringen.

     

    Röststyrningen verkar gynna användning av automatiska sekvenser.

  • 92.
    Engström, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics .
    Gembäck, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics .
    Lagerdimensionering vid bearbetningsproduktionen hos Volvo Powertrain i Skövde2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Powertrain produces engines and drivelines to AB Volvo's subsidiaries except to Volvo Aero. At the plant in Skövde engines and parts for engines and transmissions are manufactured and the facility includes all three essential areas of production; casting, machining and assembly. When the current recession hit Volvo Powertrain were working with very high inventory levels, which the company was quickly forced to cut since it became the main focus of the group management to reduce the capital tied up. Without conducting any proper analysis were new stock limit levels set in all sections of the company. The aim of this master thesis was to develop a methodology for setting of safety stocks at optimum levels while maintaining high delivery reliability. This would allow the company's inventory levels to be defined using a theoretical basis.

    As a starting point, a stock-level design with the service concept SERV2 together with allowing all articles to have differentiated levels of service was used. On the basis of Volvo Powertrain's conditions an optimization problem have been formulated. It turns out that this problem is a nonlinear integer problem, which makes solution very difficult. To overcome these computational problems one of the constraints were approximated in purpose to develop a heuristics. However, it was detected after several attempts, that the heuristics did not satisfy all the constraints at all times so it was decided to use the heuristic solution to act as a starting solution to a search method to search for a local optimum.

    The report describes in detail the parameters that need to be measured and how to ensure that all departments are using the same method in the preparation of the necessary input data. The method has been implemented in Excel where the user may enter values for these parameters which are then used in the necessary calculations. The results that are presented includes what batch-sizes that are to be produced, the safety stock level to be applied, which re-order point  to be used and achieved service level.

    In addition the report also presents a new way to manage stock control in cases where there is a bottleneck early in the production flow which therefore determines the rate of production in the rest of the flow. Since this creates a pull system through the process flow, the stock between the production steps is unnecessary. A drawback is that the production becomes more sensitive to disturbances but means that previously hidden problems in the production reach the surface.

    The results of the simulations attempted show that the method involves reduction of inventory levels at the same time as the desired service level is maintained. By implementing the method Volvo Powertrain in Skövde will have a method to support their decisions which optimizes inventory levels at the same time as high service levels are guaranteed.

  • 93.
    Eriksson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Märta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interface Development for Semi-Autonomous Trucks: Visual and Auditory Feedback2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles are becoming increasingly autonomous, as automotive industries are investing in innovative technology. Therefore the technology becomes more available and affordable, making it possible for Toyota Material Handling Europe (TMHE) to introduce automated features in their trucks. Vehicles that have a forward collision warning system, and thus are partly autonomous, are involved in less accidents than those without. In manufacturing industries there is currently a problem with truck collisions and an automated solution might be a suitable way to prevent these. When implementing an automation device, human machine interaction and user-friendliness are aspects to keep in mind during the development.

    The thesis concerns how autonomous features can assist the truck driver, and how to provide the driver with intuitive feedback. The purpose was to ensure the drivers’ and surrounding personnel’s safety as well as increase the productivity. Research was performed regarding in what situation an assisting device is needed and how to communicate information in an intuitive manner to help the driver in this situation. A conceptual interface was developed that allows communication between the driver and a future all-knowing system, that tracks all objects and personnel in a warehouse.

    The drivers have had a central role in the process. The observations were performed in the TMHE warehouse to identify situations. The most perilous and frequent situation was when drivers need to focus both in the fork and drive wheel directions simultaneously. This either puts the surroundings or the driver in danger. A conceptual interface was developed to help the driver in this situation. This resulted in a concept implementable in both current and future trucks, to harmonise the solution and ensure a safe warehouse environment. A lo-fi prototype was constructed and evaluated iteratively with drivers to ensure the quality and usability of the concept.

    The resulting feedback solution consists of sounds from speakers mounted in the headrest and a display interface with warning symbols. The sounds are directional to notify the driver if the danger is to the left or right behind his back. If the danger is only semi-close, the driver receives a warning, but if it is very close, the truck is stopped autonomously. The symbols appear on the display simultaneously as the sounds are heard, to provide further feedback. Additionally, an Autonomous Positioning feature has been developed, that consists of symbols and buttons on the display interface, as well as an alert sound from the display to indicate the system’s activation and deactivation. Safety is enhanced since neither personnel nor trucks are in risk of collision when implementing the concept. As the concept helps the driver position the truck effortlessly towards the pallet the productivity is also improved. 

  • 94.
    Eriksson, Linda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Gustafsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Lappning eller kuggslipning: Av kronhjul och pinjonger på Scanias transmissionsavdelning2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is accomplished in the transmission department, DX, on Scania, Södertälje. The purpose is to compare the method lapping, that are used today, with the method grinding. The two methods are used for hard surfacing on bevel gears, one of the components in the transmission for trucks and busses. The methods are compared with a widely perspective and constructions, production, logistic and economy are taken in to considerations.

    Scania has experienced some problems with the lapping process and that’s why they want this pre-study done. In the lapping process the material removal occurs when the flanks of the wheel and pinion touches, this makes it necessary to synchronise the production flow for wheel and pinion before the machining. This cause loses in efficiency and makes it difficult to plan the production. With grinding the removal of material is carried out by a grinding wheel that separate the production and planning for the wheel and pinion. Lapping has also a very limited capacity in removal of material. With grinding it is possible to remove more materials, up to five times.

    During the study even more problem with lapping occurs. The method can’t guarantee a stable quality and automatization of the hard surfacing of the gear is not possible with lapping. Grinding on the other hand guarantee constant quality and creates opportunities for automatization. Grinding solves a lot of the problems that appears today but it also has other advantages. More complex forms on the flank can be created with grinding then with lapping, making opportunities for the construction department. By using modification of the flank form the gear can evolving in both load carrying capacity and noise behaviour.

    There are also risks with grinding. This report identifies several and burnings are one of them. Burning appears when the temperature between the flank and the grinding wheel get to high. This causes damage on the flank surface. Another risk has to do with the heat treatment. Because of the higher removal of material with grinding, it is necessary to leave more material on the flank in the cutting. The consequence could be that a longer time is required in the furnace to get the same depth of case.

    Even more indirect effects of a change in method are observed in the report. By using grinding, potential for cutting with a higher speed appears which leads to reduction in cycle time. In the hard turning machine, where the wheels are machined, the cycle time will increase.

    The conclusion of the report is, with respect to the purpose, that Scania should grind all their bevel gears. The strongest argument is the potential in separating the production system for wheel and pinion, the increased performance of the bevel gear and the constant quality that grinding achieves.

  • 95.
    Ersson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ammenberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry2015In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 269-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

  • 96.
    Eslami, Mohammad H.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Knowledge integration with customers in collaborative product development project2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Driven by rapid technological developments, greater customer expectations, and increased product complexity,product development processes increasingly rely on the integration of dispersed specialist knowledge.Consequently, many industrial firms are changing the way they approach product development. Productdevelopment increasingly relies on knowledge integration across firm boundaries. Customers are one of the mostindispensable sources of knowledge, and their knowledge needs to be integrated during product development.However, little is known about the processes and mechanisms used to integrate customer knowledge in productdevelopment.Therefore, firms must devise processes and mechanisms that support knowledge integration withcustomers. This thesis aims to investigate knowledge integration with customers in collaborative productdevelopment.

    The work described in this thesis combines a case study with a survey approach. More specifically, five casestudies were conducted at three industrial manufacturing firms. Data were collected in 46 interviews, along withinformal discussions, workshops, and secondary material. The case studies revealed the role of knowledgeintegration, knowledge integration mechanisms, and the importance of contextual factors related to the customer’stechnical capability, and the locus of initiative for the product development project. A cross-sectional survey wasperformed in order to ascertain the role of knowledge integration and its effect on innovation performance and theeffect of firms and customers’ technical capability and locus of initiative on knowledge integration withcustomers. The survey study generated 216 responses from firms operating in the Swedish manufacturingindustry.

    This thesis consists of a compiled summary and five appended papers. The results in these provide the basis formodelling knowledge integration with customers. The findings confirm that integrating knowledge withcustomers in product development is associated with better innovation performance. Further, the results point tothe dynamic characteristics of knowledge integration in product development processes. More specifically, firmstend to apply different combinations of mechanisms in different phases, depending on the intended content of theknowledge contribution of the customer and the requirements of each phase in the development process. Inaddition, the degree of technical capability, internal integration capability, and locus of initiative are importantfactors influencing knowledge integration processes. This thesis sheds new light on collaborative productdevelopment with customers by demonstrating that knowledge, and particularly the integration of knowledgeacross firm boundaries, is a central property of product development. The study focuses on industrial andmanufacturing firms, complementing current perspectives on the role of customers in other sectors. In thisparticular sector, complexity and system-wide implications need to be resolved together with customers throughknowledge integration activities. An important implication of the thesis is that firms need to devise mechanismsfor knowledge integration with customers, and be prepared to redevise these as the firm progresses through theproduct development phases.

    List of papers
    1. Knowledge integration with customers in collaborative product development projects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Knowledge integration with customers in collaborative product development projects
    2016 (English)In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 31, no 7, p. 889-900Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose This paper addresses the need for managerial and organizational approaches to knowledge integration with customer in collaborative product development projects. The purpose is to identify the roles of customers in terms of the customerᅵs knowledge contribution and timing of customer collaboration in the product development process. Design/methodology/approach This study is based on a multi-case study approach, comprising four product development projects from two large international suppliers. The cases were selected following the theoretical replication logic. Data consist of interviews, workshops, and secondary information. For each of the cases, a within case analysis was performed followed by a cross-case analysis. Findings The study shows that the customerᅵs knowledge contribution is aligned with the specific requirements of each phase of the product development. Three specific customer roles are identified and connected to the customerᅵs knowledge contribution and the timing of customer collaboration. The technical capability of the customer and the locus of initiative of the product development project are affecting the prerequisites for knowledge integration with customers. Research limitations/implications The study is performed from the perspective of supplier firms. We have not been able to capture the perspective of the customer in detail. As it is expected that both customers and suppliers benefit from a systematic knowledge exchange, future studies could examine knowledge contributions in both directions. Practical implications The findings can be used to devise effective approaches for collaborative product development with customers related to the customerᅵs knowledge contribution and the timing of customer collaboration and provide guidance to firms seeking to benefit from knowledge residing at customers. Originality/value This is one of the first studies to focus on the integration of customersᅵ knowledge in product development processes. This paper contributes to the customerᅵsupplier collaboration literature by presenting further insight into customersᅵ knowledge contributions, the timing of customer collaboration in product development processes and the prerequisites for knowledge integration with customers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 2016
    National Category
    Economics Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130858 (URN)10.1108/JBIM-05-2014-0099 (DOI)000393884400006 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: European Community [644938]

    Available from: 2016-08-29 Created: 2016-08-29 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Internal integration in complex collaborative product development projects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Internal integration in complex collaborative product development projects
    2016 (English)In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-28, article id 1650008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    While the importance of internal integration for effective inter-firm collaboration with suppliers is widely acknowledged, it is presently unclear how it is achieved in complex collaborative product development projects. This paper aims to address this gap in extant knowledge by investigating the internal integration approaches and exploring related project management challenges. Specifically, three internal integration approaches are found, namely integration based on multidirectional, frequent interaction; integration based on delimited, problem-solving; and based on unidirectional, information-oriented interaction. The study findings suggest that internal integration approaches are related to the degree of uncertainty in the subsystems of the suppliers, rather than the overall product system. Consequently, in complex product development projects involving many internal functions and several different suppliers, the specific supplier tasks, rather than the overall project structure and aims, determine the mode of internal integration required. This complexity creates important challenges for organisation, and requires flexibility in internal integration approaches.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Imperial College Press, 2016
    Keywords
    Internal integration, supplier involvement, task uncertainty, collaborative projects, subsystem, case study
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114889 (URN)10.1142/S1363919616500080 (DOI)000387132300008 ()2-s2.0-84959565960 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    The previous status of this article was Manuscript.

    Available from: 2015-03-05 Created: 2015-03-05 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
  • 97.
    Falconi, Valentina
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Colledani, Marcello
    Politecnico di Milano.
    Copani, Giacomo
    Institute of Industrial Technologies and Automation, CNR, Italy.
    Key success factors for implementing Upgrading Remanufacturing2017In: Proceedings of International Conference on Remanufacturing (ICoR-17), 2017, p. 33-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing volume of waste in Europe, reduced availability of critical primary resources and new emerging trends towards “green” products push European manufacturers towards the implementation of ‘circular economy’. Product upgrading, i.e. the process of providing new functionalities to products through collection, disassembly/substitution and remanufacturing, could represent an effective solution to support the transition to circular economy. However, economic and environmental sustainability, legislation boundaries, industrial benefits and social impact of design for upgradability and upgrading remanufacturing are still debated in many sectors, and companies still perceive high risks in this transition.

     

    The aim of the paper is to clarify the key success factors for companies that have the willingness to include upgrading remanufacturing in their businesses. An emphasis is placed on how the application of new service-oriented business models for product upgrade and design for remanufacturing can support this implementation and bring high value-added to circular economy businesses.

     

    The methodology used to reach the aim of the paper was to map existing business approaches through a literature review focused on the existing upgrading strategies. Next, a study of real existing case studies of product upgrading was developed. Within this step, the identification of common success factors and a favourable scenario for the implementation of upgrading remanufacturing was conducted.

  • 98.
    Falk, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Flexibla fixturer i bearbetande maskiner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was conducted at Linköping University and Saab Aerostructures DPS, Linköping, and focuses on the possibilities of flexible fixturing in machining applications. The thesis is part of the research project "Koofix", which is collaboration between Linköping University and a number of companies.

    The thesis is aimed towards small batch production which, for Saab Aerostructures DPS, means diverse part geometry and that parts are manufactured in very small numbers, sometimes just one piece. The result of this is that expensive dedicated fixtures are made for most parts. By introducing more flexible fixturing methods to this kind of production the cost of fixtures and tooling will be reduced, and make the production more efficient.

    New flexible fixturing methods has been presented and evaluated through the thesis, which has resulted in three different concepts. These concepts have been the result of literature screening and study of current manufacturing process at Saab Aerostructures DPS. The concepts has been evaluated according to there ability to meet Saab Aerostructures DPS needs and a final concept has been chosen. The concept that is considered being the best solution employs an adjustable frame to encompass several different part geometries. This concept allows the workpiece to be machined in a single step and the fixture can be adjusted to fit workpieces with different geometries. On other concept considered in the thesis employs electromagnet with adjustable elements and is capable of fixing more complex geometries. The concept also allows the fixture to be adjusted between different products to be machine by the CNC-machine itself. Also a concept that’s not a fixture itself but a method that allows a simpler fixture to be used has been developed. This concept uses adhesives to combine extra material to the part, which allows for less complex fixtures to be used in the machining process.

    The concepts with the adjustable frame and the electromagnet and adjustable elements are both using the machines control system to locate the detail by probing before the machining process starts. Probing is done by equipping the spindle with a touch trigger probe which measures pre-programmed contact points and calculates exact part position.

  • 99.
    Fallenius, Lotta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Systematiskt arbetsmiljöarbete och behovet av utbildning inom H&M2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to make a survey of a larger company in Sweden to analyze if it complied to the stipulated Systematic Work Environment Management rules in Sweden. The company chosen was Hennes & Mauritz. The key question was to see if the company was examining and judging the risks, developing handling plans and if they were making yearly follow ups so that problems could be attended to. Further, I also wanted to examine if there was lack of competence within different departments as well as give some substantiate proposals on educations in Systematic Work Environment Management. The method used to investigate this was interviews and observations on how the Systematic Work Environment Management was handled in the company. The interview study included ten different directors of stores. The observation was made during two weeks at the headquarter following the daily work concerning the Systematic Work Environment Management from management´s point of view. The result of the study and the observation showed that in general H&M is working very well with the Systematic Work Environment Management at the store level. The local managers considered that they had sufficient knowledge but they were lacking continuous education and updates in the area. Specifically, the results showed that there is some lack of knowledge in the field of responsibility for work environment and that the local management doesn’t get the yearly education according to top management´s intention. A short suggestion on a yearly educational plan in Systematic Work Environment Management has been added to the report based on the results in the survey. A reasonable time for this education is one day per year to update the responsible local management in the area of Systematic Work Environment Management.

  • 100.
    Farid, Amro M.
    et al.
    Masdar Institute of Science & Technology, Masdar City, Abu Dhabi, UAE.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Axiomatic Design of a Multi-Agent Reconfigurable Manufacturing System Architecture2014In: Proceedings of ICAD2014 The Eighth International Conference on Axiomatic Design Campus de Caparica – September 24-26, 2014 / [ed] António M. Gonçalves-Coelho, Miguel Cavique and António Mourão, 2014, p. 51-58Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the fields of reconfigurable manufacturing systems, holonic manufacturing systems, and multi-agent systems have made technological advances to support the ready reconfiguration of automated manufacturing systems.  While these technological advances have demonstrated robust operation and been qualitatively successful in achieving reconfigurability, their ultimate industrial adoption remains limited.  Amongst the barriers to adoption has been the relative absence of formal and quantitative multi-agent system design methodologies based upon reconfigurability measurement.  Hence, it is not clear 1.) the degree to which these designs have achieved their intended level of reconfigurability 2.) which systems are indeed quantitatively more reconfigurable and 3.) how these designs may overcome their design limitations to achieve greater reconfigurability in subsequent design iterations.  To our knowledge, this paper is the first multi-agent system reference architecture for reconfigurable manufacturing systems driven by a quantitative and formal design approach.  It is rooted in an established engineering design methodology called axiomatic design for large flexible engineering systems and draws upon design principles distilled from prior works on reconfigurability measurement.  The resulting architecture is written in terms of the mathematical description used in reconfigurability measurement which straightforwardly allows instantiation for system-specific application.

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