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  • 51.
    Galis, Vasilis
    et al.
    IT University, Copenhagen.
    Gyberg, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research.
    Energy behaviour as a collectif: the case of Colonia: student dormitories at a swedish university2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 97-125Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Grip, Carl-Erik
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Division Energy Technology, Luleå.
    Elfgren, Erik
    Luleå University of Technology, Division Energy Technology, Luleå.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berntsson, Thore
    Chalmers University of Technology, Division Heat and Power Technology, Gothenburg.
    Åsblad, Anders
    CIT Industriell Energi, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wang, Chuan
    Swerea MEFOS, Luleå .
    Possibilities and problems in using exergy expressions in process integration2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011), 9-13 May, Linköping., Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 7, p. 1605-1612Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy systems are complicated networks, where changes in one process influence its neighboring processes. Saving energy in one unit does not necessarily lead to energy savings for the total system. A study has been carried out on the possibility to use the exergy concept in the analysis of industrial energy systems. The exergy concept defines the quality of an amount of energy in relation to its surrounding, expressing the part that could be converted into work. The study consists of literature studies and general evaluations, an extensive case study and an interview study. In the latter it was found that non technical factors are major obstacles to the introduction of exergy.

  • 53.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy performance indicators as policy support for public bus transport: The case of Sweden2018In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 65, p. 697-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The share of renewable fuels in Swedish public transport is steadily increasing, in line with European energy and climate goals as well as a national goal of a fossil-free vehicle fleet by 2030. However, the progression towards this goal is quite different among the Swedish regions, and efforts have been made on a national level to compare the public bus transport systems and provide a foundation for policymaking. This paper investigates different ways of assessing and presenting the energy performance of public bus transport systems. The analysis includes use of renewable and fossil fuels as well as energy efficiency and its underlying factors. Various energy performance indicators are presented and discussed with regards to practical implications and applicability for policy support.

    A life cycle perspective on fuels (“well-to-wheel”) is found to have clear advantages when it comes to global reductions of fossil energy use and emissions. This requires detailed information about the fuel use, which is not always the case with the existing reporting system. Setting the energy use in relation to number of passengers transported rather than just the distance covered would better reflect the function of the transport system, but is also more uncertain with the current data available.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-10-24 12:11
  • 54.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Gavle Energi AB, Sweden; University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Ronnelid, Mats
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Bjorn
    University of Gavle, Sweden.
    CO2 emission evaluation of energy conserving measures in buildings connected to a district heating system - Case study of a multi-dwelling building in Sweden2016In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 111, p. 341-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When taking action to fulfill the directives from the European Union, energy conserving measures will be implemented in the building sector. If buildings are connected to district heating systems, a reduced heat demand will influence the electricity production if the reduced heat demand is covered by combined heat and power plants. This study analyze five different energy conserving measures in a multi-dwelling building regarding how they affect the marginal production units in the district heating system in Gavle, Sweden. For CO2 emission evaluations, two different combinations of heat and electricity conserving measures are compared to an installation of an exhaust air heat pump. The different energy conserving measures affect the district heating system in different ways. The results show that installing an exhaust air heat pump affects the use/production of electricity in the district heating system most and electricity conserving measures result in reduced use of electricity in the building, reduced use of electricity for production of heat in the district heating system and an increase of electricity production. The conclusion is that electricity use in the building is the most important factor to consider when energy conserving measures are introduced in buildings within the district heating system in Gavle. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 55.
    Gustafsson, Mattias
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Thygesen, Richard
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Bjorn
    University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Ödlund, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rev-Changes in Primary Energy Use and CO2 Emissions-An Impact Assessment for a Building with Focus on the Swedish Proposal for Nearly Zero Energy Buildings2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 7, article id 978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Unions Energy Performance of Buildings Directive, the energy efficiency goal for buildings is set in terms of primary energy use. In the proposal from the National Board of Housing, Building, and Planning, for nearly zero energy buildings in Sweden, the use of primary energy is expressed as a primary energy number calculated with given primary energy factors. In this article, a multi-dwelling building is simulated and the difference in the primary energy number is investigated when the building uses heat from district heating systems or from heat pumps, alone or combined with solar thermal or solar photovoltaic systems. It is also investigated how the global CO2 emissions are influenced by the different energy system combinations and with different fuels used. It is concluded that the calculated primary energy number is lower for heat pump systems, but the global CO2 emissions are lowest when district heating uses mostly biofuels and is combined with solar PV systems. The difference is up to 140 tonnes/year. If the aim with the Swedish building code is to decrease the global CO2 emissions then the ratio between the primary energy factors for electricity and heat should be larger than three and considerably higher than today.

  • 56.
    Gustafsson, Moa Swing
    et al.
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden; Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna Univ, Sweden.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Malardalen Univ, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Life Cycle Cost of Building Energy Renovation Measures, Considering Future Energy Production Scenarios2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 14, article id 2719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common way of calculating the life cycle cost (LCC) of building renovation measures is to approach it from the building side, where the energy system is considered by calculating the savings in the form of less bought energy. In this study a wider perspective is introduced. The LCC for three different energy renovation measures, mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and two different heat pump systems, are compared to a reference case, a building connected to the district heating system. The energy system supplying the building is assumed to be 100% renewable, where eight different future scenarios are considered. The LCC is calculated as the total cost for the renovation measures and the energy systems. All renovation measures result in a lower district heating demand, at the expense of an increased electricity demand. All renovation measures also result in an increased LCC, compared to the reference building. When aiming for a transformation towards a 100% renewable system in the future, this study shows the importance of having a system perspective, and also taking possible future production scenarios into consideration when evaluating building renovation measures that are carried out today, but will last for several years, in which the energy production system, hopefully, will change.

  • 57.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Colonising the future: the case of carbon capture and storage2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 217-237Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Barriers to and Drivers for Improved Energy Efficiency in the Swedish Aluminium Industry and Aluminium Casting Foundries2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 2043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy efficiency is important for reducing CO2 emissions and could be a competitive advantage for companies because it can reduce costs. However, cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not always implemented because there are barriers inhibiting their implementation. Drivers for energy efficiency could provide means for overcoming these barriers. The aim of this article was to study the importance of different barriers to and drivers for improved energy efficiency in the Swedish aluminium industry and foundries that cast aluminium. Additionally, the perceived usefulness of different information sources on energy efficiency measures was studied. The data were collected through a questionnaire covering 39 barriers and 48 drivers, divided into different categories. Both the aluminium and foundry industries considered technological and economic barriers as the most important categories. The most important category of drivers for the aluminium industry was organisational drivers, while the foundries rated economic drivers as the most important. Colleagues within the company, the company group and sector, and the trade organisation were considered the most useful information sources. Important factors for driving work with improved energy efficiency included access to knowledge within the company, having a culture within the company promoting energy efficiency, and networking within the sector. The policy implications identified included energy labelling of production equipment, the law on energy audit in large companies and subsidy for energy audits in small- and medium-sized companies, voluntary agreements that included long-term energy strategies, increased taxes to improve the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures, and EUs Emission Trading System.

  • 59.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy Efficiency in the Supply Chains of the Aluminium Industry: The Cases of Five Products Made in Sweden2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 245-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in supply chains can reduce both environmental impact and lifecycle costs, and thus becomes a competitive advantage in the work towards a sustainable global economy. Viewing the supply chain as a system provides the holistic perspective needed to avoid sub-optimal energy use. This article studies measures relating to technology and management that can increase energy efficiency in the supply chains of five aluminium products made in Sweden. Additionally, energy efficiency potentials related to the flows of material, energy, and knowledge between the actors in the supply chains are studied. Empirical data was collected using focus group interviews and one focus group per product was completed. The results show that there are several areas for potential energy efficiency improvement; for example, product design, communication and collaboration, transportation, and reduced material waste. Demands from other actors that can have direct or indirect effects on energy use in the supply chains were identified. Despite the fact that companies can save money through improved energy efficiency, demands from customers and the authorities would provide the additional incentives needed for companies to work harder to improve energy efficiency.

  • 60.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Impact analysis of energy efficiency measures in the electrolysis process in primary aluminium production2019In: WEENTECH Proceedings in Energy, 2019, Vol. 4(2), p. 177-184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Paris Agreement includes the goals of ‘holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels’ and ‘making finance flows consistent with a pathway towards low greenhouse gas emissions’. Industrial energy efficiency will play an important role in meeting those goals as well as becoming a competitive advantage due to reduced costs for companies. The aluminium industry is energy intensive and uses fossil fuels both for energy purposes and as reaction material. Additionally, the aluminium industry uses significant amounts of electricity. The electrolysis process in the primary production of aluminium is the most energy- and carbon-intensive process within the aluminium industry. The aim of this paper is to study the effects on primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs when three energy efficiency measures are implemented in the electrolysis process. The effects on the primary energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and costs are calculated by multiplying the savings in final energy use by a primary energy factor, emissions factor and price of electricity, respectively. The results showed significant savings in primary energy demand, greenhouse gas emissions and cost from the implementation of the three measures. These results only indicate the size of the potential savings and a site-specific investigation needs to be conducted for each plant. This paper is a part of a research project conducted in close cooperation with the Swedish aluminium industry.

  • 61.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Review of measures for improved energy efficiency in production-related processes in the aluminium industry: From electrolysis to recycling2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 93, p. 525-548Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aluminium industry is facing a challenge in meeting the goal of halved greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, while the demand for aluminium is estimated to increase 2–3 times by the same year. Energy efficiency will play an important part in achieving the goal. The paper’s aim was to investigate possible production-related energy efficiency measures in the aluminium industry. Mining of bauxite and production of alumina from bauxite are not included in the study. In total, 52 measures were identified through a literature review. Electrolysis in primary aluminium production, recycling and general measures constituted the majority of the 52 measures. This can be explained by the high energy intensity of electrolysis, the relatively wide applicability of the general measures and the fact that all aluminium passes through either electrolysis or recycling. Electrolysis shows a higher number of emerging/novel measures compared to the other processes, which can also be explained by its high energy intensity. Processing aluminium with extrusion, rolling, casting (shape-casting and casting of ingots, slabs and billets), heat treatment and anodising will also benefit from energy efficiency. However, these processes showed relatively fewer measures, which might be explained by the fact that to some extent, these processes are not as energy demanding compared, for example, to electrolysis. In many cases, the presented measures can be combined, which implies that the best practice should be to combine the measures. There may also be a future prospect of achieving carbon-neutral and coal-independent electrolysis. Secondary aluminium production will be increasingly important for meeting the increasing demand for aluminium with respect to environmental and economic concerns and strengthened competitiveness. Focusing on increased production capacity, recovery yields and energy efficiency in secondary production will be pivotal. Further research and development will be required for those measures designated as novel or emerging.

  • 62.
    Hasan, A. S. M. Monjurul
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh.
    Chakraborty, Sanjib
    Go For Green, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hasan, A. S. M. Muhaiminul
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh.
    Ashraf Niloy, Tousif
    Ahsanullah University of Science and Technology, Bangladesh.
    Prospect analysis of biofuel production and usage for transportation in Dhaka city, Bangladesh2015In: 2015 3RD INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON GREEN ENERGY AND TECHNOLOGY (ICGET), IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    World is heading towards the crisis of fossil fuel. Energy crisis is more acute in Bangladesh, as there is no petro-fuel source but only natural gas. It has among the lowest per capita energy (240 kg oil equivalents) consumption in the world and is severely dependent on additional environmentally friendly renewable energy resources in the future. To cope up with present situation and to reduce dependency on imported fuel, Bangladesh government is encouraging the use of renewable energy sources. In this circumstances, biofuel can be a very good alternative fuel for transportation. This paper gives insight into biofuel production feasibility and its usage for road transport can play an important role in the biggest metropolitan city of Bangladesh and contributes to knowledge on how to perform similar studies. Resource-focused assessment including feedstock from the waste sector, agricultural sector, forestry sector and aquatic environments partially considering technological and economic constraints. Sufficient evidence have been found for biofuel production and can met at-least 10% of energy demand for road transport of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. Without compromising with food security the study suggests that it is possible to significantly increase the biofuel production, and to do this as an integrated part of the existing society also contributing with positive societal synergies.

  • 63.
    Hasan, A. S. M. Monjurul
    et al.
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Hoq, Md Tanbhir
    Univ Asia Pacific, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy management practices in Bangladeshs iron and steel industries2018In: Energy Strategy Reviews, ISSN 2211-467X, E-ISSN 2211-4688, Vol. 22, p. 230-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to study energy management and improved energy efficiency among large iron and steel mills in Bangladesh. The results show that there are some barriers to energy management practices among large steel mills, the most important barriers being the perceived absence of cost-effective technical measures, high perceived risks due to uncertain future energy costs and poor information quality. However, this study has shown that the reduction in energy costs due to improved energy efficiency constitutes the most important driver for energy efficiency in the studied steel mills. The results also show that most of the steel mills have not had any technical energy efficiency improvement measures implemented in the production process. Moreover, the steel mills seem unfamiliar with the concept of including energy service companies, and the lack of information or awareness seems to be the main reason behind this. The paper also finds that energy efficiency is perceived to be able to be improved by 6%-8% through energy management practices.

  • 64.
    Hasan, A. S. M. Monjurul
    et al.
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Hossain, Rakib
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Tuhin, Rashedul Amin
    East West Univ, Bangladesh.
    Sakib, Taiyeb Hasan
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Empirical Investigation of Barriers and Driving Forces for Efficient Energy Management Practices in Non-Energy-Intensive Manufacturing Industries of Bangladesh2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency is being considered as one of the significant challenges to mitigating climate change all over the world. While developed countries have already adopted energy management and auditing practices to improve energy efficiency, the developing countries lag far behind. There are a limited number of studies which have been conducted in the context of developing countries, which mostly revolve around highly energy-intensive sectors. This study looks into the existence and importance of the challenges to and motivating forces for the adoption of energy management practices in Bangladesh, a developing country, focusing on the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industries. Conducted as a multiple case study, the results indicate the existence of several barriers towards adopting and implementing the management of energy practices in the non-energy-intensive industries of Bangladesh, where among them, other preferences for capital venture and inadequate capital expenditure are the most dominant. This study also identified a number of driving forces that can accelerate the acceptance of energy efficiency practices, such as the demands from the owner, loans, subsidies, and a lowered cost-benefit ratio. Findings of this study could assist the concerned stakeholders to develop beneficial policies and a proper regulatory framework for the non-energy-intensive industries of developing countries like Bangladesh.

  • 65.
    Hasan, A. S. M. Monjurul
    et al.
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Rokonuzzaman, Mohammad
    Deakin Univ, Australia.
    Tuhin, Rashedul Amin
    East West Univ, Bangladesh.
    Salimullah, Shah Md.
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Ullah, Mahfuz
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Sakib, Taiyeb Hasan
    Bangladesh Army Int Univ Sci and Technol, Bangladesh.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Drivers and Barriers to Industrial Energy Efficiency in Textile Industries of Bangladesh2019In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 1775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bangladesh faced a substantial growth in primary energy demand in the last few years. According to several studies, energy generation is not the only means to address energy demand; efficient energy management practices are also very critical. A pertinent contribution in the energy management at the industrial sector ensures the proper utilization of energy. Energy management and its efficiency in the textile industries of Bangladesh are studied in this paper. The outcomes demonstrate several barriers to energy management practices which are inadequate technical cost-effective measures, inadequate capital expenditure, and poor research and development. However, this study also demonstrates that the risk of high energy prices in the future, assistance from energy professionals, and an energy management scheme constitute the important drivers for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the studied textile mills. The studied textile industries seem unaccustomed to the dedicated energy service company concept, and insufficient information regarding energy service companies (ESCOs) and the shortage of trained professionals in energy management seem to be the reasons behind this. This paper likewise finds that 3-4% energy efficiency improvements can be gained with the help of energy management practices in these industries.

  • 66.
    Hultgren, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Sustainability in the UK domestic sector: A review and analysis of the sustainable energy innovations available to homeowners2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The UK Government has set an ambitious legislative goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % by 2050. Of the total energy used in the UK, 31 % is used in the domestic sector. In the domestic sector energy is used for space and hot water heating, lighting, appliances and cooking. Space and hot water heating make up 82 % of the total energy used in the UK domestic sector. Almost all of the energy used in the UK domestic sector originates from depletable resources. In order for the UK to reach its goal of decreasing greenhouse gas emissions by 80 % by 2050, the way energy is used in the UK domestic sector needs to change dramatically. The aim of this study is to identify opportunities for homeowners to be more sustainable without compromising their standard of living, by changing the way they use and supply energy. Homeowners’ ways of using and supplying energy today will be reviewed followed by an identification of measures that can be taken to create a more sustainable home from an energy perspective. Identified measures not only include usage of small-scale energy technologies but also application of energy efficiency measures and changes in behaviour that result in homeowners using energy in a more efficient way.

     

    The aim has been achieved by conducting a literature review, collecting statistical data regarding energy use from the Department of Energy and Climate Change and the undertaking of a case study. The literature review revealed that air source and solar assisted heat pumps, solar photovoltaic (solar PV) and fuel cell micro combined heat and power (fuel cell mCHP) are the most promising and widely available microgeneration technologies on the market today. LED light bulbs, wall and loft insulation and energy efficient appliances are the energy efficiency measures identified as having the highest potential to decrease the amount of energy used. The literature review also proved that behaviour in relation to energy use is a key area to address in order to make homeowners use energy in a more efficient way.

     

    The case study consisted of six case houses, based on the most common house types in the UK. The reference heating system used in the case study was a gas boiler connected to a central heating system of the house. 80 % of the homes in the UK are heated with a gas boiler and that is why it was chosen as a reference scenario. The case study showed that all of the microgeneration technologies use resources and energy in a more efficient way than the reference scenario. But despite the financial support of governmental subsidies none of the microgeneration technologies were financially viable options compared to a gas boiler. Energy efficiency measures, especially LED lighting, wall and loft insulation, significantly lowered the amount of energy used, they lowered the influence on greenhouse gas emissions and were financially viable options without the support of governmental subsidies.

     

    It was identified that microgeneration technologies are impacted by behaviour and that they can enable demand-side management, especially as the number of supply-driven sources such as wind and solar PV increases.

     

    In summation microgeneration technologies and energy efficiency measures have a large potential to help make homeowners become more sustainable from an energy perspective. Governmental support has a determining role in making them financially viable and therefore accessible to the public. 

  • 67.
    Iacobuta, Gabriela
    et al.
    Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands; German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut fur Entwicklungspolitik (DIE), Bonn, Germany.
    Dubash, Navroz K.
    Centre for Policy Research, New Delhi, India.
    Upadhyaya, Prabhat
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. olicy and Futures Unit, World Wide Fund for Nature, South Africa, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Deribe, Mekdelawit
    Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands.
    Hoehne, Niklas
    Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, Netherlands; NewClimate Institute, Cologne, Germany.
    National climate change mitigation legislation, strategy and targets: a global update2018In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 18, no 9, p. 1114-1132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global climate change governance has changed substantially in the last decade, with a shift in focus from negotiating globally agreed greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets to nationally determined contributions, as enshrined in the 2015 Paris Agreement. This paper analyses trends in adoption of national climate legislation and strategies, GHG targets, and renewable and energy efficiency targets in almost all UNFCCC Parties, focusing on the period from 2007 to 2017. The uniqueness and added value of this paper reside in its broad sweep of countries, the more than decade-long coverage and the use of objective metrics rather than normative judgements. Key results show that national climate legislation and strategies witnessed a strong increase in the first half of the assessed decade, likely due to the political lead up to the Copenhagen Climate Conference in 2009, but have somewhat stagnated in recent years, currently covering 70% of global GHG emissions (almost 50% of countries). In comparison, the coverage of GHG targets increased considerably in the run up to adoption of the Paris Agreement and 89% of global GHG emissions are currently covered by such targets. Renewable energy targets saw a steady spread, with 79% of the global GHG emissions covered in 2017 compared to 45% in 2007, with a steep increase in developing countries.

    Key policy insights

    • The number of countries that have national legislation and strategies in place increased strongly up to 2012, but the increase has levelled off in recent years, now covering 70% of global emissions by 2017 (48% of countries and 76% of global population).

    • Economy-wide GHG reduction targets witnessed a strong increase in the build up to 2015 and are adopted by countries covering 89% of global GHG emissions (76% not counting USA) and 90% of global population (86% not counting USA) in 2017.

    • Renewable energy targets saw a steady increase throughout the last decade with coverage of countries in 2017 comparable to that of GHG targets.

    • Key shifts in national measures coincide with landmark international events – an increase in legislation and strategy in the build-up to the Copenhagen Climate Conference and an increase in targets around the Paris Agreement – emphasizing the importance of the international process to maintaining national momentum.

  • 68.
    Inganäs, Olle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundström, V
    Chemical Physics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Solar energy for electricity and fuels.2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45 (Suppl 1), p. S15-S23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy conversion into electricity by photovoltaic modules is now a mature technology. We discuss the need for materials and device developments using conventional silicon and other materials, pointing to the need to use scalable materials and to reduce the energy payback time. Storage of solar energy can be achieved using the energy of light to produce a fuel. We discuss how this can be achieved in a direct process mimicking the photosynthetic processes, using synthetic organic, inorganic, or hybrid materials for light collection and catalysis. We also briefly discuss challenges and needs for large-scale implementation of direct solar fuel technologies.

  • 69.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Broberg Viklund, Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating on greenhouse gas emissions: A systems perspective2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 100, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European policy promotes increased use of excess heat as a means to increase the efficiency of resourceuse. By studying possible effects on greenhouse gases, this article aims to analyze and discuss systemaspects of the use of industrial excess heat in district heating. Effects on greenhouse gas emissions arestudied by applying different energy market conditions with different system boundaries in time andspace. First, life cycle assessment is used to assess the introduction of excess heat in district heating in acontemporary system with different geographical system boundaries. Thereafter, future energy marketscenarios for Europe are investigated to explore possible future outcomes. This study concludes that boththe heat production system and the energy market conditions affect the system emission effects of usingexcess heat in district heating. Industrial excess heat in district heating can be beneficial even if it leadsto reduced local electricity production when unused biomass can be used to replace fossil fuels. It isrecommended that a strengthened EU policy should encourage the use of biomass where it has the mostfavorable effects from a systems perspective to ensure emission reductions when industrial excess heatis used in district heating.

  • 70.
    Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Anders
    Tuenter, Gerard
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Björkman, Thomas
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Moberg, Johanna
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Swedish energy manager networks for energy-intensive industry as a driver for improved energy efficiency2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the potential for improved energy efficiency in industryis large, deployment of measures is often inhibited by a numberof barriers. In order to overcome these barriers, a number ofenergy end-use policies is functioning in Sweden, the two largestbeing a Voluntary Agreements (VA) for energy-intensiveindustry, an energy audit program, and in addition, various energymanager networks for improved energy efficiency. Whilethe two former have been evaluated and are well-known, theSwedish energy efficiency networks have so far neither beenpresented nor evaluated previously. The aim of this paper is topresent the current Swedish energy efficient network, and theirrole in the energy policy mix from a theoretical viewpoint. TheSwedish energy network, Energiintensiven consisting of about100 companies from the major electricity-intensive sectors isadministrated by the Swedish Energy Agency. Participatingcompanies are all part of the Swedish VA, the PFE. In additionthe aluminum companies have an energy network (GeniAl),one network is functioning among Swedish saw mills (EESI), aswell as there is a network in the iron- and steel industry ENETSteel.Results of the paper show that despite the low emphasison networks as a part of the policy mix, the networks havean important role in overcoming barriers to energy efficiencyamong the participating companies.

  • 71.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Bio-synthetic natural gas as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: A case study of economic performance and effects on global COemissions2013In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 57, p. 699-708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is of great concern for society today. Manufacturing industries and construction account for approximately 20% of global CO2 emissions and, consequently, it is important that this sector investigate options to reduce its CO2 emissions. One option could be to substitute fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. This paper describes a case study in which four future energy market scenarios predicting 2030 were used to analyse whether it would be profitable for a steel plant to produce bio-SNG (bio-synthetic natural gas) in a biomass gasifier and to substitute LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with bio-SNG as fuel in reheating furnaces. The effects on global CO2 emissions were analysed from a perspective in which biomass is considered a limited resource. The results from the analysis show that investment in a biomass gasifier and fuel conversion would not be profitable in any of the scenarios. Depending on the scenario, the production cost for bio-SNG ranged between 22 and 36 EUR/GJ. Fuel substitution would reduce global CO2 emission if the marginal biomass user is a producer of transportation fuel. However, if the marginal user of biomass is a coal power plant with wood co-firing, the result would be increased global CO2 emissions

  • 72.
    Johansson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improved Energy Efficiency and Fuel Substitution in the Iron and Steel Industry2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    IPCC reported in its climate change report 2013 that the atmospheric concentrations of the greenhouse gases (GHG) carbon dioxide (CO2), methane, and nitrous oxide now have reached the highest levels in the past 800,000 years. CO2 concentration has increased by 40% since pre-industrial times and the primary source is fossil fuel combustion. It is vital to reduce anthropogenic emissions of GHGs in order to combat climate change. Industry accounts for 20% of global anthropogenic CO2 emissions and the iron and steel industry accounts for 30% of industrial emissions. The iron and steel industry is at date highly dependent on fossil fuels and electricity. Energy efficiency measures and substitution of fossil fuels with renewable energy would make an important contribution to the efforts to reduce emissions of GHGs.

    This thesis studies energy efficiency measures and fuel substitution in the iron and steel industry and focuses on recovery and utilisation of excess energy and substitution of fossil fuels with biomass. Energy systems analysis has been used to investigate how changes in the iron and steel industry’s energy system would affect the steel plant’s economy and global CO2 emissions. The thesis also studies energy management practices in the Swedish iron and steel industry with the focus on how energy managers think about why energy efficiency measures are implemented or why they are not implemented. In-depth interviews with energy managers at eleven Swedish steel plants were conducted to analyse energy management practices.

    In order to show some of the large untapped heat flows in industry, excess heat recovery potential in the industrial sector in Gävleborg County in Sweden was analysed. Under the assumptions made in this thesis, the recovery output would be more than three times higher if the excess heat is used in a district heating system than if electricity is generated. An economic evaluation was performed for three electricity generation technologies for the conversion of low-temperature industrial excess heat. The results show that electricity generation with organic Rankine cycles and phase change material engines could be profitable, but that thermoelectric generation of electricity from low-temperature industrial excess heat would not be profitable at the present stage of technology development. With regard to fossil fuels substituted with biomass, there are opportunities to substitute fossil coal with charcoal in the blast furnace and to substitute liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) with bio-syngas or bio synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG) as fuel in the steel industry’s reheating furnaces. However, in the energy market scenarios studied, substituting LPG with bio-SNG as fuel in reheating furnaces at the studied scrap-based steel plant would not be profitable without economic policy support. The development of the energy market is shown to play a vital role for the outcome of how different measures would affect global CO2 emissions.

    Results from the interviews show that Swedish steel companies regard improved energy efficiency as important. However, the majority of the interviewed energy managers only worked part-time with energy issues and they experienced that lack of time often was a barrier for successful energy management. More efforts could also be put into engaging and educating employees in order to introduce a common practice of improving energy efficiency at the company.

    List of papers
    1. Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion
    2011 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 191-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The processes of iron and steel making are energy intensive and consume large quantities of electricity and fossil fuels. In order to meet future climate targets and energy prices, the iron and steel industry has to improve its energy and resource efficiency. For the iron and steel industry to utilize its energy resources more efficiently and at the same time reduce its CO2 emissions a number of options are available. In this paper, opportunities for both integrated and scrap-based steel plants are presented and some of the options are electricity production, fuel conversion, methane reforming of coke oven gas and partnership in industrial symbiosis. The options are evaluated from a system perspective and more specific measures are reported for two Swedish case companies: SSAB Strip Products and Sandvik AB. The survey shows that both case companies have great potentials to reduce their CO2 emissions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keywords
    Iron and steel industry, Energy efficiency, Fuel conversion, Industrial symbiosis, Excess energy, CO2 emissions
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66142 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2010.10.053 (DOI)000286781800021 ()
    Note

    Original Publication: Maria Johansson and Mats Söderström, Options for the Swedish steel industry - Energy efficiency measures and fuel conversion, 2011, ENERGY, (36), 1, 191-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.10.053 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/

    Available from: 2011-03-04 Created: 2011-03-04 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Technologies for utilization of industrial excess heat: Potentials for energy recovery and CO2 emission reduction
    2014 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 77, p. 369-379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial excess heat is a large untapped resource, for which there is potential for external use, whichwould create benefits for industry and society. Use of excess heat can provide a way to reduce the useof primary energy and to contribute to global CO2 mitigation. The aim of this paper is to present differentmeasures for the recovery and utilization of industrial excess heat and to investigate how the developmentof the future energy market can affect which heat utilization measure would contribute the mostto global CO2 emissions mitigation. Excess heat recovery is put into a context by applying some of theexcess heat recovery measures to the untapped excess heat potential in Gävleborg County in Sweden.Two different cases for excess heat recovery are studied: heat delivery to a district heating system andheat-driven electricity generation. To investigate the impact of excess heat recovery on global CO2 emissions,six consistent future energy market scenarios were used. Approximately 0.8 TWh/year of industrialexcess heat in Gävleborg County is not used today. The results show that with the proposed recoverymeasures approximately 91 GWh/year of district heating, or 25 GWh/year of electricity, could be suppliedfrom this heat. Electricity generation would result in reduced global CO2 emissions in all of the analyzedscenarios, while heat delivery to a DH system based on combined heat and power production frombiomass would result in increased global CO2 emissions when the CO2 emission charge is low.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Industrial excess heat; Heat recovery; Electricity generation; District heating; CO2 emission; Energy market scenario
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102611 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2013.09.052 (DOI)000330494600041 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2013-12-17 Created: 2013-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Electricity generation from low-temperature industrial excess heat—an opportunity for the steel industry
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electricity generation from low-temperature industrial excess heat—an opportunity for the steel industry
    2014 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 203-215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness of climate change and the threat of rising energy prices have resulted in increased attention being paid to energy issues and industry seeing a cost benefit in using more energy-efficient production processes. One energy-efficient measure is the recovery of industrial excess heat. However, this option has not been fully investigated and some of the technologies for recovery of excess heat are not yet commercially available. This paper proposes three technologies for the generation of electricity from low-temperature industrial excess heat. The technologies are thermoelectric generation, organic Rankine cycle and phase change material engine system. The technologies are evaluated in relation to each other, with regard to temperature range of the heat source, conversion efficiency, capacity and economy. Because the technologies use heat of different temperature ranges, there is potential for concurrent implementation of two or more of these technologies. Even if the conversion efficiency of a technology is low, it could be worthwhile to utilise if there is no other use for the excess heat. The iron and steel industry is energy intensive and its production processes are often conducted at high temperatures. As a consequence, large amounts of excess heat are generated. The potential electricity production from low-temperature excess heat at a steel plant was calculated together with the corresponding reduction in global CO2 emissions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2014
    Keywords
    Low-temperature excess heat, Heat recovery, Electricity generation, Thermoelectric generator (TEG), Organic Rankine cycle (ORC), Phase change material (PCM) engine
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-94561 (URN)10.1007/s12053-013-9218-6 (DOI)000332789200003 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2013-06-26 Created: 2013-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    4. Bio-syngas as fuel in the steel industry's heating furnaces: a case study on feasibility and CO2 mitigation effects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-syngas as fuel in the steel industry's heating furnaces: a case study on feasibility and CO2 mitigation effects
    2011 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, climate change is at the top of the political agenda. The European Commission has set atarget to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % by 2020, compared to 1990 levels. The steelindustry contributes significantly to industrial CO2 emissions, and thus it is important for thissector to find options to reduce its CO2 emissions. One alternative is to substitute fossil fuelswith biomass derived fuels; a promising option is to replace LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) used asfuel in heating furnaces with bio-syngas produced through the gasification of biomass. This paperis a feasibility study of the implementation of this concept at a Swedish scrap-based steel plant.The results have been obtained through a case study approach with interviews and literaturesurveys. The study shows that if a fuel gas mixture of 50 vol% bio-syngas and 50 vol% LPG would beused, the global CO2 emissions would be reduced by 5,400 tonnes/year. Moreover, a full-scale fuelsubstitution would result in reduced emissions by 68,600 tonnes/year. In the case of a partial fuelsubstitution, a 4 MWth High Temperature Agent Gasifier (HTAG) is a suitable choice while a 45 MWthindirectly heated Circulating Fluidised Bed Gasifier (CFBG) would be suitable for a full-scale fuelsubstitution. In the case of a fuel switch, the lower heating value of syngas, compared to LPG, notonly implies that a different combustion technology must be used, but also that the exhaust gasflows will be substantially larger, and consequently the exhaust gas cleaning system must bedesigned with dimensions suitable for larger flows. Excess heat from the gasifier can be used forspace heating, but if the excess heat replaces district heating from a Combined Heat and Power(CHP) plant, the global CO2 emissionsreductions would be less than if the excess heat is not recovered.

    Keywords
    Fuel conversion, steel industry, biomass, case study, gasification
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71824 (URN)
    Conference
    ECOS 2011 - 24th International Conference on Efficiency, Cost, Optimization, Simulation and Environmental Impact of Energy Systems, July 4-7, Novi Sad, Serbia
    Available from: 2011-11-07 Created: 2011-11-07 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
    5. Bio-synthetic natural gas as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: A case study of economic performance and effects on global COemissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bio-synthetic natural gas as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: A case study of economic performance and effects on global COemissions
    2013 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 57, p. 699-708Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is of great concern for society today. Manufacturing industries and construction account for approximately 20% of global CO2 emissions and, consequently, it is important that this sector investigate options to reduce its CO2 emissions. One option could be to substitute fossil fuels with renewable alternatives. This paper describes a case study in which four future energy market scenarios predicting 2030 were used to analyse whether it would be profitable for a steel plant to produce bio-SNG (bio-synthetic natural gas) in a biomass gasifier and to substitute LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) with bio-SNG as fuel in reheating furnaces. The effects on global CO2 emissions were analysed from a perspective in which biomass is considered a limited resource. The results from the analysis show that investment in a biomass gasifier and fuel conversion would not be profitable in any of the scenarios. Depending on the scenario, the production cost for bio-SNG ranged between 22 and 36 EUR/GJ. Fuel substitution would reduce global CO2 emission if the marginal biomass user is a producer of transportation fuel. However, if the marginal user of biomass is a coal power plant with wood co-firing, the result would be increased global CO2 emissions

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Biomass gasification, Steel industry, Case study, Fuel substitution, Bio-synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG), CO2 emissions
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96677 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2013.06.010 (DOI)000323355600073 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2013-08-22 Created: 2013-08-22 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    6. Improved energy efficiency within the Swedish steel industry: the importance of energy management and networking
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improved energy efficiency within the Swedish steel industry: the importance of energy management and networking
    2015 (English)In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 713-744Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry is an energy-intensive industry that consumes a significant portion of fossil fuel and electricity production. Climate change, the threat of an unsecure energy supply, and rising energy prices have emphasized the issue of improved energy efficiency in the iron and steel industry. However, an energy efficiency gap is well recognised, i.e. cost efficient measures are not implemented in practice. This study will go deeper into why this gap occurs by investigating energy management practices at 11 iron and steel companies in Sweden. Energy managers at the steel plants were interviewed about how they perceived their own and their companies’ efforts to improve energy efficiency and how networking among energy managers influenced the efforts to improve energy efficiency. Reported barriers to improved energy efficiency were, for example, too long of a payback period, lack of profitability, lack of personnel, risk of production disruption, lack of time, and lack of commitment. Only three out of the eleven companies had assigned a person to work full time with energy management, and some of the energy managers were frustrated with not having enough time to work with energy issues. Generally, the respondents felt that they had support from senior management and that energy issues were prioritised, but only a few of the companies had made great efforts to involve employees in improving energy efficiency. Networking among Swedish steel companies was administered by the Swedish Steel Producers’ Association, and their networking meetings contributed to the exchange of knowledge and ideas. In conclusion, Swedish steel companies regard improved energy efficiency as important but have much work left to do in this area. For example, vast amounts of excess heat are not being recovered and more efforts could be put into engaging employees and introducing a culture of energy  efficiency.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Netherlands, 2015
    Keywords
    Energy efficiency, Energy management, Networking, Iron and steel industry, Interviews
    National Category
    Energy Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105873 (URN)10.1007/s12053-014-9317-z (DOI)000358046700006 ()
    Available from: 2014-04-11 Created: 2014-04-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
  • 73.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Djuric Ilic, Danica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Review of sustainable development of the road transport sector: Are there geographical differences?2018In: WEENTECH Proceedings in Energy 4 (2018) 67-87, WEENTECH Ltd. , 2018, Vol. 4, p. 67-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the share of renewable energy in the transport sector has increased during the last decade, the sector is still highly dependent on fossil fuels. Consequences are for example emissions of greenhouse gases, particulates, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. This is of great concern for the environment, climate change, and human health. This study reviews scientific publications about sustainable development of the road transport sector, published 2005-2018. The aim of the study is to investigate if there are differences in the measures and strategies presented in the publications depending on the geographical areas studied, and to analyse if there are differences depending on year of publication. The authors analysed to what extent local conditions influence the choice of proposed measures and strategies. A system perspective was applied in order to include measures related to the whole life cycle of the road transport, as well as other sectors, which influence or are influenced by the transport sector. A literature review was performed using the search-engine Web of Science. Results show that important local conditions that may influence the research focus within the area of sustainable development of the road transport sector are for example: energy supply security (e.g. availability of biomass and renewable electricity, as well as access to domestic fossil fuel resources), possibilities for developing infrastructure for biofuel supply and charging of electric vehicles, political priorities and approaches, and traditions.

  • 74.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Haraldsson, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy efficient supply chain of an aluminium product in Sweden – What can be done in-house and between the companies?2018In: eceee 2018 Industrial Summer Study proceedings / [ed] Therese Laitinen Lindström, Ylva Blume & Nina Hampus, Stockholm, Sweden: European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2018, p. 369-377Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Energy Efficiency Directive executed by the European Union, each member state is obliged to set a national target on energy efficiency. This requirement constitutes the basis for governments to formulate policy measures directed towards industrial companies. Such policy measures, along with the demand for cost-effective production to remain competitive on the market, motivates industrial companies to improve their energy efficiency. The aluminium industry is energy intensive and consumes substantial amounts of electricity and fossil fuels, resulting in both direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a study of the production of an aluminium product in Sweden in terms of implemented energy efficiency measures in the supply chain and potential areas for further improvement. Most previous studies have focused on energy efficiency measures in individual companies (value chains). However, this paper presents and analyses energy efficiency measures not only in each individual company but also in the entire supply chain of the product. The supply chain studied starts with secondary aluminium production followed by the production of a part of an automobile motor and ends with installing the motor detail in a car. Empirical data were gathered through a questionnaire and a focus group. The study shows the great potential for further energy efficiency improvements in the value chains of each individual company and in the whole supply chain. The work shown here is a part of a larger research project performed in close cooperation with the Swedish aluminium industry.

  • 75.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bio-SNG as fuel in steel industry heating furnaces: integration of a biomass gasifier with a steel plant2012In: Asia Steel International Conference 2012, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change, as a result of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, is of great concern for society today. Industry accounts for almost 40% of global CO2 emissions and consequently it is important that this sector investigate options to reduce its CO2 emissions. In this paper, an economic evaluation of integration of a biomass gasifier with a steel plant is performed. Synthetic natural gas (bio-SNG) from the gasifier substitutes liquefied petroleum gas as fuel in the steel plant’s heating furnaces. Eight future market scenarios are used to analyse investment opportunities to integrate production of bio-SNG with a case study steel plant. Results from the analysis show that high fossil fuel prices could make integration of a biomass gasifier and fuel conversion profitable. Moreover, profitability is highly dependent on biomass price. At current price levels, production cost for bio-SNG is 82 EUR/MWh.

  • 76.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Lindkvist, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    Tranås Energi, Sweden.
    Methodology for Analysing Energy Demand in Biogas Production Plants: A Comparative Study of Two Biogas Plants2017In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1822Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas production through anaerobic digestion may play an important role in a circular economy because of the opportunity to produce a renewable fuel from organic waste. However, the production of biogas may require energy in the form of heat and electricity. Therefore, resource-effective biogas production must consider both biological and energy performance. For the individual biogas plant to improve its energy performance, a robust methodology to analyse and evaluate the energy demand on a detailed level is needed. Moreover, to compare the energy performance of different biogas plants, a methodology with a consistent terminology, system boundary and procedure is vital. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for analysing the energy demand in biogas plants on a detailed level. In the methodology, the energy carriers are allocated to: (1) sub-processes (e.g., pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, gas cleaning), (2) unit processes (e.g., heating, mixing, pumping, lighting) and (3) a combination of these. For a thorough energy analysis, a combination of allocations is recommended. The methodology was validated by applying it to two different biogas plants. The results show that the methodology is applicable to biogas plants with different configurations of their production system.

  • 77.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bio-syngas as fuel in the steel industry's heating furnaces: a case study on feasibility and CO2 mitigation effects2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, climate change is at the top of the political agenda. The European Commission has set atarget to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 20 % by 2020, compared to 1990 levels. The steelindustry contributes significantly to industrial CO2 emissions, and thus it is important for thissector to find options to reduce its CO2 emissions. One alternative is to substitute fossil fuelswith biomass derived fuels; a promising option is to replace LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) used asfuel in heating furnaces with bio-syngas produced through the gasification of biomass. This paperis a feasibility study of the implementation of this concept at a Swedish scrap-based steel plant.The results have been obtained through a case study approach with interviews and literaturesurveys. The study shows that if a fuel gas mixture of 50 vol% bio-syngas and 50 vol% LPG would beused, the global CO2 emissions would be reduced by 5,400 tonnes/year. Moreover, a full-scale fuelsubstitution would result in reduced emissions by 68,600 tonnes/year. In the case of a partial fuelsubstitution, a 4 MWth High Temperature Agent Gasifier (HTAG) is a suitable choice while a 45 MWthindirectly heated Circulating Fluidised Bed Gasifier (CFBG) would be suitable for a full-scale fuelsubstitution. In the case of a fuel switch, the lower heating value of syngas, compared to LPG, notonly implies that a different combustion technology must be used, but also that the exhaust gasflows will be substantially larger, and consequently the exhaust gas cleaning system must bedesigned with dimensions suitable for larger flows. Excess heat from the gasifier can be used forspace heating, but if the excess heat replaces district heating from a Combined Heat and Power(CHP) plant, the global CO2 emissionsreductions would be less than if the excess heat is not recovered.

  • 78.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electricity generation from low-temperature industrial excess heat—an opportunity for the steel industry2014In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 203-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Awareness of climate change and the threat of rising energy prices have resulted in increased attention being paid to energy issues and industry seeing a cost benefit in using more energy-efficient production processes. One energy-efficient measure is the recovery of industrial excess heat. However, this option has not been fully investigated and some of the technologies for recovery of excess heat are not yet commercially available. This paper proposes three technologies for the generation of electricity from low-temperature industrial excess heat. The technologies are thermoelectric generation, organic Rankine cycle and phase change material engine system. The technologies are evaluated in relation to each other, with regard to temperature range of the heat source, conversion efficiency, capacity and economy. Because the technologies use heat of different temperature ranges, there is potential for concurrent implementation of two or more of these technologies. Even if the conversion efficiency of a technology is low, it could be worthwhile to utilise if there is no other use for the excess heat. The iron and steel industry is energy intensive and its production processes are often conducted at high temperatures. As a consequence, large amounts of excess heat are generated. The potential electricity production from low-temperature excess heat at a steel plant was calculated together with the corresponding reduction in global CO2 emissions.

  • 79.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ökad energieffektivitet i aluminiumindustrins värdekedjor2015In: Aluminium Scandinavia, ISSN 0282-2628, Vol. 32, no 5, p. 1Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet är att undersöka energieffektiviseringspotentialerna och möjligheterna att realisera dessa i hela värdekedjan (från metallframställning till återvinning) i aluminiumindustrin. Branschen använder årligen ca 3 TWh och delar av den är mycket energiintensiv, 30-40% av kostnaderna för produktion av primäralúminium är energi.

  • 80.
    Johansson, Maria T.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects on global CO2 emissions when substituting LPG with bio-SNG as fuel in steel industry reheating furnaces: The impact of different perspectives on CO2 assessment2016In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 1437-1445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The iron and steel industry is the second largest user of energy in the world industrial sector and is currently highly dependent on fossil fuels and electricity. Substituting fossil fuels with renewable energy in the iron and steel industry would make an important contribution to the efforts to reduce emissions of CO2. However, different approaches to assessing CO2 emissions from biomass and electricity use generate different results when evaluating how fuel substitution would affect global CO2 emissions. This study analyses the effects on global CO2 emissions when substituting liquefied petroleum gas with synthetic natural gas, produced through gasification of wood fuel, as a fuel in reheating furnaces at a scrap-based steel plant. The study shows that the choice of system perspective has a large impact on the results. When wood fuel is considered available for all potential users, a fuel switch would result in reduced global CO2 emissions. However, applying a perspective where wood fuel is seen as a limited resource and alternative use of wood fuel is considered, a fuel switch could in some cases result in increased global CO2 emissions. As an example, in one of the scenarios studied, a fuel switch would reduce global CO2 emissions by 52 ktonnes/year if wood fuel is considered available for all potential users, while seeing wood fuel as a limited resource implies, in the same scenario, increased CO2 emissions by 70 ktonnes/year. The choice of method for assessing electricity use also affects the results.

  • 81.
    Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A review of barriers to and driving forces for improved energy efficiency in Swedish industry: Recommendations for successful in-house energy management2018In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 82, no Part 1, p. 618-628Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental point of view, reduced use of energy remains a cornerstone in global greenhouse gas mitigation. However, without full internalization of external costs, greenhouse gas mitigation as such may not be highly prioritized among business leaders. Rather, it is the magnitude of production costs and ultimately the size of market revenue that articulates success or failure for business leaders. Nevertheless, reduced energy use or improved energy efficiency can have a vast impact on profitability even for companies with low energy costs, as the reduced energy costs directly lead to increased profits. In this paper, a review of ten years of empirical research in the field of industrial energy management in Swedish industry is presented. Based on the review, the paper proposes success factors for efficient energy management, factors which could help guide individual energy managers as well as policy makers in order to close the energy efficiency and management gaps. The paper also presents an overview of important industrial energy management tools, which would facilitate in-house energy management in industry.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-10-06 12:45
  • 82.
    Johansson, Per-Erik
    et al.
    DynaMate Industrial Services AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards increased energy efficiency in industry – a manager’s perspective2011In: Proceedings of the World Renewable Energy Congress 2011 (WREC 2011), 9-13 May, Linköping., Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 7, p. 1644-1651Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industry is one of the major users of fossils fuels resulting in emissions of GHG (Green House Gases), leading to global climate change. One means of promoting energy efficiency in industry is energy management. The aim of this paper is to outline a number of energy management related factors which affects energy management in industry positively. The paper is a result of collaboration between industry professionals and researchers within an ongoing research project and addresses the issue using a bottom-up energy management perspective. Results indicate that that the “soft” issues of energy management play a crucial role in the success (or not) of energy management in industry, e.g. the manager’s role and attitude towards the employees cannot be understated. Instead it addresses that implementation is not only about technology but equally or even more important, concerns the diffusion and adoption of energy management practices and principals.

  • 83.
    Johansson, Viktor
    et al.
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Lehtveer, Mariliis
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Goransson, Lisa
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Biomass in the electricity system: A complement to variable renewables or a source of negative emissions?2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 168, p. 532-541Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass is often assigned a central role in future energy system scenarios as a carbon sink, making negative greenhouse gas emissions possible through carbon capture and storage of biogenic carbon dioxide from biomass-fuelled power plants. However, biomass could also serve as a strategic complement to variable renewables by supplying electricity during hours of high residual load. In this work, we investigate the role of biomass in electricity systems with net zero or negative emissions of carbon dioxide and with different levels of biomass availability. We show that access to biomass corresponding to ca. 20% of the electricity demand in primary energy terms, is of high value to the electricity system. Biomass for flexibility purposes can be a cost-efficient support to reach a carbon neutral electricity system with the main share of electricity from wind and solar power. Biomass-fired power plants equipped with carbon capture and storage in combination with natural gas combined cycle turbines are identified as being the cost-effective choice to supply the electricity system with flexibility if the availability of biomass within the electricity system is low. In contrast, in the case of excess biomass, flexibility is supplied by biomethane-fired combined cycle turbines or by biomass-fired power plants. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 84.
    Johnsson, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Energy savings and greenhouse gas mitigation potential in the Swedish wood industry2019In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 187, article id 115919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving energy efficiency in industry is recognized as one of the most crucial actions for mitigating climate change. The lack of knowledge regarding energy end-use makes it difficult for companies to know in which processes the highest energy efficiency potential is located. Using a case study design, the paper provides a taxonomy for energy end-use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on a process and energy carrier level. It can be seen that drying of wood is the largest energy using and GHG emitting process in the studied companies. The paper also investigates applied and potentially viable energy key performance indicators (KPIs). Suggestions for improving energy KPIs within the wood industry include separating figures for different wood varieties and different end-products and distinguishing between different drying kiln technologies. Finally, the paper presents the major energy saving and carbon mitigating measures by constructing conservation supply curves and marginal abatement cost curves. The energy saving potential found in the studied companies indicates that significant improvements might be achieved throughout the Swedish wood industry. Even though the scope of this paper is the Swedish wood industry, several of the findings are likely to be relevant in other countries with a prominent wood industry.

  • 85.
    Jonkers, Eline
    et al.
    TNO, Den Haag, The Netherlands.
    Nellthorp, John
    Institute for Transport Studies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Wilmink, Isabel
    TNO, Den Haag, The Netherlands.
    Olstam, Johan
    VTI, SE-581 95 Linköping, Sweden.
    Evaluation of eco-driving systems: A European analysis with scenarios and micro simulation2018In: Case Studies on Transport Policy, ISSN 2213-624X, E-ISSN 2213-6258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, various field operational tests (FOTs) have been carried out in the EU to measure the real-world impacts of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). A challenge arising from these FOTs is to scale up from the very localised effects measured in the tests to a much wider set of socio-economic impacts, for the purposes of policy evaluation. This can involve: projecting future take-up of the systems; scaling up to a wider geographical area – in some cases the whole EU; and estimating a range of economic, social and environmental impacts into the future. This article describes the evaluation conducted in the European project ‘ecoDriver’, which developed and tested a range of driver support systems for cars and commercial vehicles. The systems aimed to reduce CO2 emissions and energy consumption by encouraging the adoption of green driving behaviour. A novel approach to evaluation was adopted, which used scenario-building and micro-simulation to help scale up the results from field tests to the EU-28 level over a 20 year period, leading to a cost-benefit analysis (CBA) from both a societal and a stakeholder perspective. This article describes the method developed and used for the evaluation, and the main results for eco-driving systems, focusing on novel aspects, lessons learned and implications for policy and research. © 2018 World Conference on Transport Research Society

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-08-07 12:23
  • 86.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Building, Energy & Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Svedung, Harald
    SSAB Europe, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Influence of reflective interior surfaces on indoor thermal environment and energy use using a coupling model for energy simulation and CFD2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing the building energy use and maintaining the desired indoor climate has long inspired creative solution such as optimized optical properties for building surfaces. This paper aims to address the influence of interior thermal reflective surfaces on both indoor thermal environments with high spatial resolution and energy use. To do so, this work employs a coupling method using building energy simulation (BES) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results indicate increase in the mean radiation temperature (MRT) and reduction in the floor heating energy use by the use of interior reflective surfaces. The study yields analysis of operative temperatures and interior surface heat fluxes. Overall, the interior reflective surfaces can contribute to improved building thermal performance and energy saving.

  • 87.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; SSAB Europe, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Building, Energy & Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden .
    Svedung, Harald
    Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; SSAB Europe, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Energy Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden .
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Building, Energy & Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden .
    Numerical and experimental investigation of the influence of infrared reflective interior surfaces on building temperature distributions2017In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 355-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiative properties of interior surfaces can affect not only the building heat flux but also the indoor environment, the latter of which has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of surface emissivity on indoor air and surface temperature distributions in a test cabin with reflective interior surfaces. This was done by comparing experimental and simulation data of the test cabin with that of a normal cabin. This study employs transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using re-normalisation group (RNG) kε model, surface-to-surface radiation model and an enhanced wall function. Boundary conditions were assigned to exterior surfaces under variable outdoor conditions. The numerical and the measurement results indicate that using interior reflective surfaces will affect the indoor air temperature distribution by increasing the vertical temperature gradient depending on the time of the day. CFD simulations with high spatial resolution results show increased interior surface temperature gradients consistent with the increased vertical air temperature gradient. The influence of reflective surfaces is potentially greater with higher indoor surface temperature asymmetry. The vertical indoor air temperature gradient and surface temperatures are important parameters for indoor thermal comfort.

  • 88.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    School of Technology and Business Studies, SERC, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    School of Technology and Business Studies, SERC, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Svedung, Harald
    School of Technology and Business Studies, SERC, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Wäckelgård, Ewa
    School of Technology and Business Studies, SERC, Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Energy Efficient Buildings with Functional Steel Cladding2011In: World Renewable Energy Congress, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 8, p. 2004-2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to develop a model for the energy balance of buildings that includes the effect from the radiation properties of interior and exterior surfaces of the building envelope. As a first step we have used ice arenas as case study objects to investigate the importance of interior low emissivity surfaces. Measurements have been done in two ice arenas in the north part of Sweden, one with lower and one with higher ceiling emissivity. The results show that the low emissivity ceiling gives a much lower radiation temperature interacting with the ice under similar conditions. The dynamic modelling of the roof in ice arenas shows a similar dependence of the roof-to-ice heat flux and the ceiling emissivity. A second part of the study focus on how to realise paints with very low thermal emissivity to be used on interior building surfaces.

  • 89.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Svedung, Harald
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Bales, Chris
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Högskolan Dalarna, Energi och miljöteknik.
    Highly reflective coatings for interior and exterior steel cladding and the energy efficiency of buildings2011In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 12, p. 4655-4666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface heat-radiation properties of coil-coated steel cladding material on the energy efficiency of buildings in Nordic climate is addressed by parallel temperature and energy usage measurements in a series of test cabins with different exterior solar reflectivity and interior thermal reflectivity. During one year, a number of one- or two-week experiments with air conditioner cooling and electrical floor heating were made while logging air-, radiation- and surface temperatures, energy consumption and weather conditions. Measurements show significant energy savings in the test cabins by the use of high thermal reflectivity interior surfaces both during heating and cooling and a strongly reduced cooling demand by the use of high solar reflectivity exterior surfaces. Results are interpreted within the context of a steady-state energy flux model, to illuminate the importance of surface resistance properties (radiation and convective heat dissipation).

  • 90.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Svedung, Harald
    SSAB Europe, Borlänge, Sweden.
    Cehlin, Mathias
    Högskolan i Gävle, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden .
    Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance2013In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 103, p. 562-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

  • 91.
    Joudi, Ali
    et al.
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Svedung, Harald
    SSAB EMEA, SE-78184 Borlänge, Sweden.
    Rönnelid, Mats
    Energy and Environmental Technology, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Energy efficient surfaces on building sandwich panels - A dynamic simulation model2011In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 2462-2467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of building envelope is critical for the energy performance of buildings. The major part of the energy used by a building during its lifetime is used for maintaining a suitable interior thermal climate under varying exterior conditions. Although exterior heat radiation properties (i.e. total solar reflectivity and long wave thermal emissivity) have been well accepted to have a large impact on the need for active cooling in warmer climate, the effect of a reduced thermal emissivity on interior surfaces on the building thermal energy flux is rarely studied. This paper addresses the sensitivity of the thermal energy flux through a sandwich panel, by systematically varying the surface thermal emissivity (both interior and exterior) and total solar reflectance of exterior surface, for three geographical locations: southern, middle and northern Europe. A model is introduced for calculating the effect of both interior and exterior optical properties of a horizontal roof panel in terms of net energy flux per unit area. The results indicate potential energy saving by the smart choice of optical properties of interior and exterior surfaces.

  • 92.
    Joudi, Mohammad Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Radiation properties of coil-coated steel in building envelope surfaces and the influence on building thermal performance2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have shown that the optical properties of building exterior surfaces are important in terms of energy use and thermal comfort. While the majority of the studies are related to exterior surfaces, the radiation properties of interior surfaces are less thoroughly investigated. Development in the coil-coating industries has now made it possible to allocate different optical properties for both exterior and interior surfaces of steel-clad buildings. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the influence of surface radiation properties with the focus on the thermal emittance of the interior surfaces, the modeling approaches and their consequences in the context of the building energy performance and indoor thermal environment.

    The study consists of both numerical and experimental investigations. The experimental investigations include parallel field measurements on three similar test cabins with different interior and exterior surface radiation properties in Borlänge, Sweden, and two ice rink arenas with normal and low emissive ceiling in Luleå, Sweden. The numerical methods include comparative simulations by the use of dynamic heat flux models, Building Energy Simulation (BES), Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and a coupled model for BES and CFD. Several parametric studies and thermal performance analyses were carried out in combination with the different numerical methods.

    The parallel field measurements on the test cabins include the air, surface and radiation temperatures and energy use during passive and active (heating and cooling) measurements. Both measurement and comparative simulation results indicate an improvement in the indoor thermal environment when the interior surfaces have low emittance. In the ice rink arenas, surface and radiation temperature measurements indicate a considerable reduction in the ceiling-to-ice radiation by the use of low emittance surfaces, in agreement with a ceiling-toice radiation model using schematic dynamic heat flux calculations.

    The measurements in the test cabins indicate that the use of low emittance surfaces can increase the vertical indoor air temperature gradients depending on the time of day and outdoor conditions. This is in agreement with the transient CFD simulations having the boundary condition assigned on the exterior surfaces. The sensitivity analyses have been performed under different outdoor conditions and surface thermal radiation properties. The spatially resolved simulations indicate an increase in the air and surface temperature gradients by the use of low emittance coatings. This can allow for lower air temperature at the occupied zone during the summer.

    The combined effect of interior and exterior reflective coatings in terms of energy use has been investigated by the use of building energy simulation for different climates and internal heat loads. The results indicate possible energy savings by the smart choice of optical properties on interior and exterior surfaces of the building.

    Overall, it is concluded that the interior reflective coatings can contribute to building energy savings and improvement of the indoor thermal environment. This can be numerically investigated by the choice of appropriate models with respect to the level of detail and computational load. This thesis includes comparative simulations at different levels of detail.

    List of papers
    1. Highly reflective coatings for interior and exterior steel cladding and the energy efficiency of buildings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly reflective coatings for interior and exterior steel cladding and the energy efficiency of buildings
    2011 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 88, no 12, p. 4655-4666Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of surface heat-radiation properties of coil-coated steel cladding material on the energy efficiency of buildings in Nordic climate is addressed by parallel temperature and energy usage measurements in a series of test cabins with different exterior solar reflectivity and interior thermal reflectivity. During one year, a number of one- or two-week experiments with air conditioner cooling and electrical floor heating were made while logging air-, radiation- and surface temperatures, energy consumption and weather conditions. Measurements show significant energy savings in the test cabins by the use of high thermal reflectivity interior surfaces both during heating and cooling and a strongly reduced cooling demand by the use of high solar reflectivity exterior surfaces. Results are interpreted within the context of a steady-state energy flux model, to illuminate the importance of surface resistance properties (radiation and convective heat dissipation).

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2011
    Keywords
    Total solar reflectivity, Reflective coating, Thermal emissivity, Building interior heat flux, Energy efficient buildings Energy saving
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118285 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2011.06.002 (DOI)000295387200041 ()
    Available from: 2011-09-01 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Energy efficient surfaces on building sandwich panels - A dynamic simulation model
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy efficient surfaces on building sandwich panels - A dynamic simulation model
    2011 (English)In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 43, no 9, p. 2462-2467Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of building envelope is critical for the energy performance of buildings. The major part of the energy used by a building during its lifetime is used for maintaining a suitable interior thermal climate under varying exterior conditions. Although exterior heat radiation properties (i.e. total solar reflectivity and long wave thermal emissivity) have been well accepted to have a large impact on the need for active cooling in warmer climate, the effect of a reduced thermal emissivity on interior surfaces on the building thermal energy flux is rarely studied. This paper addresses the sensitivity of the thermal energy flux through a sandwich panel, by systematically varying the surface thermal emissivity (both interior and exterior) and total solar reflectance of exterior surface, for three geographical locations: southern, middle and northern Europe. A model is introduced for calculating the effect of both interior and exterior optical properties of a horizontal roof panel in terms of net energy flux per unit area. The results indicate potential energy saving by the smart choice of optical properties of interior and exterior surfaces.

    Keywords
    Total solar reflectivity, Reflective coating, Thermal emissivity, Building heat flux, Energy efficiency
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118286 (URN)10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.05.026 (DOI)000294834900048 ()
    Available from: 2011-09-01 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    3. Energy Efficient Buildings with Functional Steel Cladding
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Efficient Buildings with Functional Steel Cladding
    2011 (English)In: World Renewable Energy Congress, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011, Vol. 8, p. 2004-2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study is to develop a model for the energy balance of buildings that includes the effect from the radiation properties of interior and exterior surfaces of the building envelope. As a first step we have used ice arenas as case study objects to investigate the importance of interior low emissivity surfaces. Measurements have been done in two ice arenas in the north part of Sweden, one with lower and one with higher ceiling emissivity. The results show that the low emissivity ceiling gives a much lower radiation temperature interacting with the ice under similar conditions. The dynamic modelling of the roof in ice arenas shows a similar dependence of the roof-to-ice heat flux and the ceiling emissivity. A second part of the study focus on how to realise paints with very low thermal emissivity to be used on interior building surfaces.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2011
    Series
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 57
    Keywords
    energy balance, low emissivity, radiation properties
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118287 (URN)10.3384/ecp110572004 (DOI)978-91-7393-070-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    World Renewable Energy Congress – Sweden; 8–13 May, 2011, Linköping, Sweden
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2018-01-29Bibliographically approved
    4. Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reflective coatings for interior and exterior of buildings and improving thermal performance
    2013 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 103, p. 562-570Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing building energy usage and thriving for more energy efficient architectures, has nurtured creative solutions and smart choices of materials in the last few decades. Among those are optimizing surface optical properties for both interior and exterior claddings of the building. Development in the coil-coating steel industries has now made it possible to allocate correct optical properties for steel clad buildings with improved thermal performance. Although the importance of the exterior coating and solar gain are thoroughly studied in many literatures, the effect of interior cladding are less tackled, especially when considering a combination of both interior and exterior reflective coatings. This paper contemplates the thermal behavior of small cabins with reflective coatings on both interior and exterior cladding, under different conditions and climates with the aim to clarify and point out to the potential energy saving by smart choices of clad coatings.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford: Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Reflective coatings, Low energy building, Energy simulation, Total solar reflectance, Interior thermal emittance
    National Category
    Energy Systems Building Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118288 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2012.10.019 (DOI)000314669500053 ()2-s2.0-84871715773 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2014-11-09 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
    5. Numerical and experimental investigation of the influence of infrared reflective interior surfaces on building temperature distributions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Numerical and experimental investigation of the influence of infrared reflective interior surfaces on building temperature distributions
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Indoor + Built Environment, ISSN 1420-326X, E-ISSN 1423-0070, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 355-367Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Radiative properties of interior surfaces can affect not only the building heat flux but also the indoor environment, the latter of which has not been thoroughly investigated. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of surface emissivity on indoor air and surface temperature distributions in a test cabin with reflective interior surfaces. This was done by comparing experimental and simulation data of the test cabin with that of a normal cabin. This study employs transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) using re-normalisation group (RNG) kε model, surface-to-surface radiation model and an enhanced wall function. Boundary conditions were assigned to exterior surfaces under variable outdoor conditions. The numerical and the measurement results indicate that using interior reflective surfaces will affect the indoor air temperature distribution by increasing the vertical temperature gradient depending on the time of the day. CFD simulations with high spatial resolution results show increased interior surface temperature gradients consistent with the increased vertical air temperature gradient. The influence of reflective surfaces is potentially greater with higher indoor surface temperature asymmetry. The vertical indoor air temperature gradient and surface temperatures are important parameters for indoor thermal comfort.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2017
    Keywords
    Reflective interior surfaces, indoor air temperature gradient, Transient computational fluid dynamics, surface-to-surface radiation, building thermal performance
    National Category
    Energy Systems Building Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118289 (URN)10.1177/1420326X15609966 (DOI)000399487300007 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies|SSAB Europe; Dalarna University; University of Gävle; Linköping University.

    At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2017-05-05Bibliographically approved
    6. Influence of reflective interior surfaces on indoor thermal environment and energy use using a coupling model for energy simulation and CFD
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of reflective interior surfaces on indoor thermal environment and energy use using a coupling model for energy simulation and CFD
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    2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of reducing the building energy use and maintaining the desired indoor climate has long inspired creative solution such as optimized optical properties for building surfaces. This paper aims to address the influence of interior thermal reflective surfaces on both indoor thermal environments with high spatial resolution and energy use. To do so, this work employs a coupling method using building energy simulation (BES) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The results indicate increase in the mean radiation temperature (MRT) and reduction in the floor heating energy use by the use of interior reflective surfaces. The study yields analysis of operative temperatures and interior surface heat fluxes. Overall, the interior reflective surfaces can contribute to improved building thermal performance and energy saving.

    Keywords
    Thermal reflective surfaces, mean radiation temperature, building thermal performance, coupling building energy simulation and CFD
    National Category
    Energy Systems Building Technologies
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118290 (URN)
    Available from: 2015-05-25 Created: 2015-05-25 Last updated: 2015-05-26Bibliographically approved
  • 93.
    Kaijser, Arne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Summerton, Jane
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Att välja värmesystem: Motalas framtida värmeförsörjning ur organisatorisk synvinkel1983Report (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Karami Rad, Meysam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Omid, Mahmoud
    Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Rajabipour, Ali
    Univ Tehran, Iran.
    Tajabadi, Fariba
    Mat and Energy Res Ctr, Iran.
    Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza
    Aalborg Univ, Denmark.
    Optimum Thermal Concentration of Solar Thermoelectric Generators (STEG) in Realistic Meteorological Condition2018In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2425Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming and air pollution concerns make renewable energies inevitable. Thermoelectric (TE) generatorssolid-state devices which can convert thermal energy into electricityare one of the candidates to capture the energy of the suns rays. Impact of high thermal on flat panel Solar Thermoelectric Generator (STEG) performance is known. In this research, a method to optimize thermal concentration in realistic terrestrial condition is introduced. To this end, a Simulink model of the STEG was developed, and module performance curves are determined. According to the results, Thermal concentration in realistic condition is more than double, compared to standard condition. The efficiency of the STEG was 4.5%, 6.8%, and 7.7% when the module figure of merit (ZT) was set to 0.8, 1.2, and 1.5, respectively, in locations with a higher ratio of diffused radiation (e.g., Aalborg and Denmark). These values corresponded to 70%, 106%, and 121% of the electrical power produced by parabolic troughs under the same meteorological condition. Furthermore, the possibility of controlling the ratio of heat and electricity in the cogeneration system is possible by controlling the heating flow or electric current. Heating flow can be controlled by the electrical current in STEG over 17 percent of its value in optimum condition.

  • 95.
    Karimi Asli, Kaveh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Strategies for promoting sustainable behavior regarding electricity consumption in student residential buildings in the city of Linköping2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Achieving sustainable consumption of energy is an important issue due to the increasing demand for energy and its environmental impact. One of the biggest consumers of the global energy production is the residential sector. Factors determining pattern of energy consumption in this sector are firstly, characteristics of the buildings and equipment and appliances which are used inside them and secondly, people who are using the buildings. The former could be approached by using efficiency strategies; i.e. designing and using materials and utilities which are low energy demanding or reducing consumption of energy. The latter could be reached by adoption of demand side management strategies which could improve pattern of energy consumption by the end users. Combining these strategies bring out energy-smart buildings with energy-smart people as the users. This project aims at introducing potential approaches to strategies of promoting sustainable behavior regarding energy consumption in individuals, with the focus on the students of Linköping University living in the properties of housing company of the city, Studentbostäder.

    For fulfilling this purpose, literature review has been done for finding influencing factors on and strategies for shaping of pro-environmental behavior. In the next step, two projects with focus on demand side management for changing energy consumption of individuals have been studied. Afterward, a questionnaire based on the results of the literature review was prepared and used to gain an understanding of first: attitude, values, knowledge, and awareness of students of Linköping University regarding environmental issues, and second: point of view of the students toward the strategies for shaping pro-environmental behavior.

    Results of the above mentioned methods were used for identifying characteristics of a demand side management project based on provision of feedback on energy consumption for the users. It has been proposed that designing and implementing such project has the potential of affecting pattern of energy consumption by people and lead to its reduction, especially among students accommodating at housing company of city of Linköping, Studentbostäder. More studies are needed for finding feasibility of implementing such project.

  • 96.
    Karlkvist, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Johansson, Albin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Intermediärers bidrag till stödsystemet och deras förmåga att främja eko-innovation: En fallstudie på Östergötland2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom litteraturen för innovationsintermediärer har många studier utförts med syftet att kartlägga intermediärers bidrag till enskilda företag. Däremot finns det ett forskningsgap gällande hur intermediärer bidrar till det system de verkar inom. Den här uppsatsen adresserar detta gap genom att visualisera hur ett regionalt stödsystem är organiserat och förklarar hur aktiviteter inom systemet kan analyseras i relation till litteratur på intermediärer inom innovation. För att åstadkomma detta kombineras en litteraturstudie med empiriska data insamlade från det regionala stödsystemet i Östergötland. Vidare kategoriseras systemiska aktörer och projekt i ett modifierat nätverk för interna nischprocesser med syftet att kunna analysera deras individuella funktioner och kvantifiera deras kollektiva bidrag för att underlätta utvecklingen och spridningen av eko-innovationer.  

    Studien indikerar att stödsystemet som helhet har gjort mycket för att generera och sprida information om systemförbättringar – ett arbete som underlättas genom det gemensamma målet som stödsystemets ingående aktörer verkar för att uppfylla, samt genom den transparens som råder mellan offentligt förankrade aktörer. Vidare har ett stort genomslag av den europeiska kommissionens reformerade sammanhållningspolitik i regionen resulterat i omfattande åtaganden för att bygga nätverksplattformar utifrån regionala styrkeområden. 

    Erhållna resultat antyder dessutom att det studerade systemet är koordinerat kring ett centraliserat kluster av aktörer med stora ekonomiska resurser samt med en potential att på ett effektivt sätt förmedla kontakter i nätverket, vilket bedöms vara en följd av systemaktiviteternas höga beroende av strukturfondsmedel från EU som genom sina krav på medfinansiering ”förskjuter” makt åt resursstarka organisationer. I det studerade systemet karaktäriseras dessa framförallt genom sin starka koppling till offentligheten. I Östergötland är det Region Östergötland, regionens motsvarighet till landsting, som har det offentliga ansvaret för tillväxt. Detta går också i linje med organisationens centrala roll och inflytande i nätverket samt övergripande strategiska och koordinerade roll inför resterande aktörer i systemet, vilket bland annat demonstreras genom organisationens förmåga att samla och mobilisera andra aktörer i systemet. Centralt i systemet förekommer även Linköpings Universitet, vars roll i stödsystemet framförallt består i att överföra kunskap från akademin till systemet, vilket bland annat illustreras i nätverkskartorna där universitetets starka inflytande springer ur forskares och studenters frekventa inblandning i olika typer av samverkansprojekt. 

    Bland de decentraliserade organisationerna i nätverket återfinns i större utsträckning offentligt (via finansiering) förankrade organisationer som operativt tillhandahåller företags- och innovationsstöd, och därmed fyller en viktig roll som ”förlängda armar” ut i näringslivet, samt som ingångsportar till systemet för entreprenörerna som söker stöd. Dessa decentraliserade organisationer arbetar även ofta med nischade fokusområden och erbjudanden, där till exempel Cleantech Östergötland arbetar för att främja samverkan mellan miljöteknikbolag från näringslivet med offentligheten och akademin, samtidigt som organisationen politiskt representerar miljöteknikbolag för uppströms påverkansarbete. 

    I vetenskaplig litteratur rörande intermediärers roll för att främja nischer presenteras policy- och regimförnyelse vara ett av de viktigaste åtagandena som systemiska intermediärer åtar sig. I uppsatsen redogörs det för hur Region Östergötland och Länsstyrelsen Östergötland är de organisationer i det studerade systemet som arbetar med de tydligaste kanalerna för uppströms påverkansarbete och att utmana existerande samhällsstrukturer, vilket bland annat verkställs genom organisationernas åtagande att artikulera behov för det regionala näringslivet. Som offentliga organisationer präglade av teknologisk och politisk neutralitet finns det däremot en utmaning för dessa organisationer att kunna främja eko-innovation som nisch, vilket för stödsystemet i allmänhet, och Region Östergötland i synnerhet, bör innebära ökade incitament att belysa, vårda och främja de organisationer i systemet som fokuserar på att främja eko-innovation. 

  • 97.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center.
    Final report for BRC EP3 (New industries)2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In BRC EP3 focus has been on new industries. The goal has been to find some new industries where biogas production is a resource‐efficient way to take advantage of material flows that are not used today. From this goal seven activities were formulated and are in short: (A1) Present biogas solutions, (A2) Overview of new industrial sectors in Sweden regarding biogas production, (A3) Possibilities and impossibilities process‐wise, (A4) Energy and environmental impacts, (A5) Societal aspects, (A6) Selection of case studies, and (A7) Case study design. These activities needed different angles of approach and therefore a variety of methods were used in the project, e.g. literature studies, calculations, measurements, interviews and workshops. The results from the activities are presented in short below.

    A1: International comparison of biogas production at industrial sites, for example, is impossible to carry out as different classifications are used in different countries. In A1 a way to categorize biogas plants is proposed and discussed.

    A2: By screening and geographically pin‐pointing the food industry, eight clusters were chosen for deeper studies. A mapping of biogas potential was thereafter carried out in these clusters. The activity shows great potentials for some of the clusters regarding biogas production.

    A3: Process‐related feasibility for opportunities for the clusters studied in A2 is targeted. The general conclusion is that there are no severe aspects that imply that one should not continue working with a specific cluster or a specific substrate found in those clusters, regarding biogas production.

    A4: Each cluster found in A2 is assessed in terms of environmental aspects (climate, acidification and eutrophication), energy balance and economy, which were found being the most important assessment criteria when it comes to efficient biogas solutions. The results show, for example, that even though some of the clusters hold a large potential for biogas production some of these clusters do not imply profitable solutions or environmental advantages compared to the present situation of using the substrates. Moreover, the study shows that the end use of the biogas (electricity, heat and vehicle fuel) has significant influence on the results. It is shown that each cluster has a unique combination of substrates and unique alternatives for use of both substrates and produced biogas, implying different beneficial solutions. Sometimes the beneficial solutions differ dependent on what assessment criterion used.

    A5: Societal aspects were explored for each cluster found in A2. It is shown that there are differences between the clusters regarding institutional and organizational prerequisites. Important areas have been identified on both a national level (e.g. taxes) and regional level (e.g. cooperation between public and private sectors).

    A6: When selecting case studies it is found that the following aspects needs to be considered: (1) biogas potential, (2) character of substrates and other materials, (3) environmental aspects (climate, acidification and eutrophication), (4) influence on energy balances (5) economy, (6) use of biogas, and (7) societal aspects.

    A7: When designing case studies the same aspects as for A6 applies. However, when designing the case study it is also vital to consider where to put the system border and also consider the localization of the production unit (e.g. internal at a company or detached).

    Moreover, integration of biogas solutions with other types of material or energy flows has to be considered.

    All the stated parts in “Motivation and aim” are addressed in the project. Consequently, the target of the project is achieved.

  • 98.
    Karresand, Helena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Creating new energy orders: restrictions and opportunities for energy efficient behavior2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 47-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Karresand, Helena
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Molin, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Johannes
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, KTH, Stockholm.
    Åberg, Magnus
    Uppsala universitet.
    How passive are your activities?: An interdisciplinary comparative energy analysis of passive and conventional houses in Linköping2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a number of new built passive and conventional houses in the residential area of Lambohov, Linköping, are studied. The effect of household activities on the building’s energy balance is investigated along with an investigation of the effects of an extensive adaptation to passive houses in the energy system of Linköping. The study compares how the heating system affects the thermal indoor climate for the tenants. Further on, the study also contains in-depth interviews on the expectations on the passive houses of the recently moved in tenants. Also the expectations from the housing company on the tenants and the factors that motivated the actual building of the passive houses are investigated, both out of the housing company’s perspective and the perspective of the City of Linköping.

  • 100.
    Kim, Shi Hyeong
    et al.
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Lima, Márcio D.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Kozlov, Mikhail E.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Haines, Carter S.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Aziz, Shazed
    Intelligent Polymer Research Institute, ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Choi, Changsoon
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Sim, Hyeon Jun
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Wang, Xuemin
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Lu, Hongbing
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Qian, Dong
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Madden, John D. W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Advanced Material and Process Engineering Laboratory, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Baughman, Ray H.
    Alan G. MacDiarmid NanoTech Institute, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, USA.
    Kim, Seon Jeong
    Center for Bio-Artificial Muscle and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Harvesting temperature fluctuations as electrical energy using torsional and tensile polymer muscles2015In: Energy & Environmental Science, ISSN 1754-5692, E-ISSN 1754-5706, Vol. 8, p. 3336-3344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diverse means have been deployed for harvesting electrical energy from mechanical actuation produced by low-grade waste heat, but cycle rate, energy-per-cycle, device size and weight, or cost have limited applications. We report the electromagnetic harvesting of thermal energy as electrical energy using thermally powered torsional and tensile artificial muscles made from inexpensive polymer fibers used for fishing line and sewing thread. We show that a coiled 27 μm-diameter nylon muscle fiber can be driven by 16.7 °C air temperature fluctuations to spin a magnetic rotor to a peak torsional rotation speed of 70 000 rpm for over 300 000 heating–cooling cycles without performance degradation. By employing resonant fluctuations in air temperature of 19.6 °C, an average output electrical power of 124 W per kg of muscle was realized. Using tensile actuation of polyethylene-based coiled muscles and alternating flows of hot and cold water, up to 1.4 J of electrical energy was produced per cycle. The corresponding per cycle electric energy and peak power output, per muscle weight, were 77 J kg−1 and 28 W kg−1, respectively.

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