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  • 51.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ASR “Sweet Sixteen”: An Evaluation of Nuance Swedish Speech Recognizer Success Rates in 69 Commercial Applications 16 years After Its Inception and an Assessment of Inter- and Intralabeler Agreement2012In: Proceedings FONETIK 2012. The XXVth Swedish Phonetics Conference May 30–June 1, 2012, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg , 2012, p. 113-116Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an analysis of success ratesof the Nuance Swedish Speech Recognizer in 69commercial applications provided by VoiceProvider Sweden. The analysis is based on 185quality assurance reports from the periodJanuary 2007 through October 2011. An interandintralabeller agreement analysis is included.

  • 52.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Crosslinguistic Disfluency Modeling: A Comparative Analysis of Swedish and Tok Pisin Human–Human ATIS Dialogues2000In: Proceedings of 6th international conference on Spoken language processing : ICSLP 2000 : the proceedings of the conference : Oct. 16-20, 2000, Beijng, China, 2000, p. 991-994Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies disfluencies in authentic human–humandialogues in Swedish and Tok Pisin. It is found that while there are no major differences as to types or frequencies on a macro level, there are dissimilarities on a micro level, notably in the characteristics of how prolonged segments are realized. The paper also discusses the results in the light of reported disfluencies in English, German, Ilokano and Tagalog.

  • 53.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grimaldi’s “Discovery of the Cat Language”: A theory in need of revival (or perhaps not?)2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015. Working Papers 55/2015, 8–10 June 2015, Centre for Languages and Literature, General Linguistics/Phonetics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Lund, Sweden: Lund university , 2015, p. 27-30Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have seen a growing number of studies on both felid vocalizations ingeneral and human–felid communication in particular. Frequently considered as the starting point for this line of research is Mildred Moelk’s seminal paper from 1944, in which she provides a taxonomy of basic felid vocalizations, complete with phonetic transcriptions. Less known is the fact that Cat Language was decoded in far more detail half a century earlier, by one “Prof. Grimaldi”, who sadly never published his findings. However, an English translation of Grimaldi’s findings was published by Marvin Clark in 1895, so the astonishing observations made by Grimaldi are not lost to the world. In the present paper a summary of Grimaldi’s results will be provided, in the hope that this research will serve as a source ofinspiration to present and future researchers of Cat Language.

  • 54.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Ingressive Speech As An Indication That Humans Are Talking To Humans (And Not To Machines)2002In: Conference Proceedings: ICSLP 2002, 7th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing; INTERSPEECH 2002; September 16 - 20, 2002, Denver, Colorado, 2002, Vol. 2, p. 837-840Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulmonic ingressive speech is often mentioned anecdotally in the linguistic research. Most previous studies investigating the phenomenon have stressed the paralinguistic function of ingressive speech (IS).

    This paper studies IS in two corpora of spontaneous Swedish speech. Eight subjects made business travel bookings in two data collections. In one corpus the subjects talked with a real, human travel agent; in the other theyspoke with what they believed was a computer, played by a professional actor. The results show that all subjects made use of IS in the human–human setting, while no one used IS in the human–machine setting.

    These results strengthen the notion that IS is a speech phenomenon that is truly associated with human interactions. The results are discussed from the perspective of possible underlying factors, including discourse structure, gender issues, and possible enhancements in automatic speech-based dialog systems.

  • 55.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    “Ko Tok Ples Ensin bilong Tok Pisin” or the TP-CLE: A first report from a pilot speech-to-speech translation project from Swedish to Tok Pisin1998In: 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 30th November - 4th December, 1998 Sydney, Australia ICSLP'98 Proceedings / [ed] Robert H. Mannell and Jordi Robert-Ribes, Australian Speech Science and Technology Association, Incorporated (ASSTA) , 1998, Vol. 4, p. 1131-1134, article id 804Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an operational speech-to-speech translation system from Swedish to Tok Pisin within the framework of the Spoken Language Translator project, SLT[1]. The domain of translation is ATIS [11]. The grammar formalism used in the SLT project is the Core Language Engine, CLE [2]. A general presentation of Tok Pisin is provided, as well as a description of some grammatical characteristics of Tok Pisin of potential interest for the testing of grammar machines. The first step of a CLE implementation of Tok Pisin is described. A corpus of Tok Pisin ATIS data hasbeen created from data collected on location in New Ireland, Papua New Guinea, and observations are made as to the relative importance of some of the grammatical phenomena discussed in the paper. A Tok Pisin synthesizer based on an already existing Swedish concatenative synthesis is described. Despite a marked Swedish accent, preliminary evaluation indicates that intelligible speech output is produced.

  • 56.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Languages with pulmonic ingressive speech: updating and adding to the list2015In: Working Papers, 55 2015, Proceedings from Fonetik 2015 Lund, June 8–10, 2015 / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis and Joost van de Weijer, Lund: Lund University , 2015, p. 31-34Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speaking on inhalation, pulmonic ingressive speech, is well-known in Scandinaviaand often believed to be unique to this part of the world. It has, however been shown (Eklund, 2002, 2007, 2008) that not only is ingressive speech not confined to the northernmost part of Europe, it is found all over the world and might be regarded as a linguistic universal, and can be placed in one of the different universal categories described by Croft (2003). In connection with the Eklund(2008) publication, a website was created, devoted to ingressive speech and phonation: http://ingressivespeech.info. Over the years incoming comments and reports have both offered further evidence for languages already on the list, as wellas new languages with ingressives. Some of these are described in this paper.

  • 57.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Languages with pulmonic ingressive speech:updating and adding to the list2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015. Working Papers 55/2015, 8–10 June 2015, Centre for Languages and Literature, General Linguistics/Phonetics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Lund, Sweden: Lund University , 2015, p. 31-34Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speaking on inhalation, pulmonic ingressive speech, is well-known in Scandinavia and often believed to be unique to this part of the world. It has, however been shown (Eklund, 2002, 2007, 2008) that not only is ingressive speech not confined to the northernmost part of Europe, it is found all over the world and might be egarded as a linguistic universal, and can be placed in one of the differentuniversal categories described by Croft (2003). In connection with the Eklund(2008) publication, a website was created, devoted to ingressive speech and phonation: http://ingressivespeech.info. Over the years incoming comments and reports have both offered further evidence for languages already on the list, as well as new languages with ingressives. Some of these are described in this paper.

  • 58.
    Eklund, Robert
    Stockholm University.
    NODALIDA ’93 - Proceedings of ‘9:e Nordiska Datalingvistikdagarna’1994Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 59.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Proceedings of DiSS 2013, the 6th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech and TMH-QPSR Volume 54(1)2013Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the successes of the previously organized Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech workshops held in Berkeley (1999), Edinburgh (2001), Göteborg (2003), Aix-en-Provence (2005) and Tokyo (2010), the organizers are proud to present DiSS 2013, held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, in August 2013.

    As was the case with the previous workshops, a wide variety of papers addressing disfluency from an equally varied array of disciplines is included.

    The organizers would like to extend their thanks to everyone who helped organize this event, including the Scientific Committee members and, of course, all the contributors.

    Stockholm, August 2013

    Jens Edlund, Robert Eklund, Joakim Gustafson, Sofia Strömbergssson

  • 60.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Telia Research.
    Proceedings of DiSS’03 – Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech. Gothenburg Papers in Theoretical Linguistics 902003Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech is not like text. Because speech is real-time and on-line, editing is ìin the openî ñ not hidden as it is in written text (like this foreword, for example). Since very few of us speak completely fluently without changing our minds, with consistently perfectly eloquent wordings, and without any hesitation or slips, one characteristic of spontaneous speech is that it includes phenomena such as pauses, hesitations, ìerrî words, truncated words, repetitions, prolonged sounds, repairs, etc.

    Although studied earlier, the formal study of disfluency really took off in the 1950ís beginning somewhat independently in three separate disciplines. Within stuttering research, seminal work was carried out by Wendell Johnson and his colleagues. Disfluencies were also studied within general linguistics, pioneered by Frieda Goldman-Eisler among others. Also, within psychotherapy, much work on disfluency was carried out by George F. Mahl and colleagues. During the following decades disfluency has received attention from a wide variety of other fields.

    These proceedings are the result of a workshop held in Gothenburg, Sweden, the third in a series of workshops devoted to disfluency. The first, Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech, was a one-day event, held at Berkeley University, 30 July, 1999, as a satellite of the 14th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences in San Francisco. The second event was a three-day workshop held at Edinburgh University, 29ñ31 August, 2001, as a satellite of Eurospeech 2001 in Aalborg, and was given the acronym DiSS í01. This was also an official ISCA tutorial and research orkshop. What you are now holding in your hands are the proceedings of DiSS í03, held at Gˆteborg University, 5ñ8 September, 2003, as a satellite of Eurospeech 2003 in Geneva.

    The name of these workshops ñ and consequently the title of these proceedings ñ includes the word ìdisfluencyî, which may or not may not be considered a felicitous term. Indeed, the phenomenon under scrutiny is known under a wide variety of different terms including "non-fluencyî, ìdysfluencyî, ìdiscontinuityî, ìflustered speechî, ìspeech disturbanceî, ìhesitationî, ìspeech managementî, ìown communication managementî, ìturnholding devicesî, ìchanges of mindî, ìself repairî, ìself correctionî, ìself editingî, and even such a self-contradictory term (from an etymological point of view) as ìnormal dysfluencyî. This list gives only the more common hyperonyms. It goes without saying that the choice of term(s) depends on the particular research perspectives which are numerous. Thus, disfluency research has been carried out within (just to name a few) stuttering research, general linguistics, cognitive psychology, consciousness philosophy, phonetics, gender studies, physiology, acoustics, and, more recently, within speech and language technology which was motivated by the launching of computerised dialogue systems. This diversity is reflected in the present volume which is somewhat arbitrarily divided into seven different parts.

    In the first part, General Aspects, Kirsner, Dunn & Hird take a closer look at pausing, and reviews recent research on pause analysis using a novel approach, arguing that short and long pause duration distributions are functionally independent. The second paper, by Nicholson, Bard, Lickley, Anderson, Mullin, Kenicer & Smallwood, address the causes of disfluency and assess the claim that, on the one hand, disfluency is a strategic device for intentional signalling to an interlocutor that the speaker is committed to an utterance, and on the other hand, that disfluency is an automatic effect of cognitive burdens. In the third paper, Finlayson, Forrest, Lickley & Beck study whether restricted ability to use gestures has an impact on speech fluency, thus correlating disfluency with the other communication mode.

    The second part, Production, Perception and Monitoring, starts out with a paper by Nooteboom, who looks at the role of self-monitoring in the lexical bias of phonological speech errors. In another paper on monitoring, Howell questions whether a perceptual monitor is needed at all to explain speech repairs. Broadening the concept of monitoring from self-perception to the perception of other speakers, Hartsuiker, Corley, Lickley & Russell study perception of fluency in people who either do or do not stutter.

    In the third part, Disfluencies in First and Second Language Development, Rieger investigates hesitation strategies of intermediate learners of German as a second or foreign language. The second paper, by Menyh·rt, studies alterations of disfluency phenomena as a function of age.

    The fourth part, Computational Aspects, opens with a paper by Aylett, who investigates how different factors influence the behaviour of an automatic speech recogniser. While automatic speech recognisers have reached accuracy levels that make such applications practical in public settings, disfluency still constitutes a problem for such systems. Funakoshi & Tokunaga describe a parser designed to handle ill-formed Japanese speech. Lager presents a computational model capable of dealing with spontaneous speech phenomena, such as hesitation and repairs. Lendvai, van den Bosch & Krahmer investigate how machine learning can be used for automatic disfluency chunking of spontaneous speech. In the closing paper, Adda-Decker, Habert, Barras, Adda, Boula de Mareuil & Paroubek compare different types of audio transcripts of French radio interviews with the goal of obtaining a better model of spontaneous speech.

    Part five, Repeats and Repairs in Different Languages, begins with a paper by Tseng, who presents a study of repairs and repetitions in Mandarin Chinese. Henry & Pallaud study the interaction of repeats and word fragments in French. Benkenstein & Simpson take an acoustic look at self-initiated repairs in German, comparing phonetic differences between reparandum and repair.

    The sixth part, Phonology and Prosody, contains two papers. In the first, Den presents a study of segmental prolongation in Japanese, taking into account factors such as speaker gender, word classes, word position, preceding fillers and others. In the second paper, Savova & Bachenko look for prosodic cues for different disfluency types, using intonation and duration to detect disfluency sites.

    The final session, Corpus and Annotation, is represented in the proceedings by a paper by Yang, Heeman & Strayer, who present a tool for annotation of speech disfluency called DialogueView. In particular, they describe a specific feature called ìclean playî which deletes annotated speech reparanda and editing terms, and plays back the remaining speech.

    The papers included in these proceedings cover several different disciplines, and are thus illustrative of the interdisciplinary character of this area.

    It has been a rewarding task to edit the ensuing suite of papers, covering a wide array of different angles and approaches to the subject matter. It is my contention and conviction that they will contribute to an enhanced understanding of spontaneous speech in general, and disfluency in particular.

    Robert Eklund

    Västerhaninge, 2003-08-13

  • 61.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Prolongations: A dark horse in the disfluency stable2001In: Proceedings of DiSS ’01 Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech: ISCA Tutorial and Research Workshop / [ed] Robin Lickley, 2001, p. 5-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies a specific type of disfluency, viz. segment prolongation (PR), i.e., the “stretching out” of speech sounds as a means of hesitation. It is shown that the occurrence of PRs varies as a function of phone type, position in the word, lexical factors and word class, and that PRs are subject to phonotactic constraints in Swedish. A comparison between Swedish and Tok Pisin suggests that there are language specific traits associated with PR production.

  • 62.
    Eklund, Robert
    Karolinska Institute/Stockholm Brain Institute Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pulmonic ingressive phonation: Diachronic and synchronic characteristics, distribution and function in animal and human sound production and in human speech2008In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 235-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the phenomenon of ingressive speech, i.e. speech produced on a pulmonic ingressive airstream, set in the context of human and animal ingressive phonation. The literature on ingressive speech and phonation spanning several centuries is reviewed, as well as contemporary reports of their incidence and characteristics from both functional and acoustic perspectives. Ingressive phonation has been used as a deliberate means of speech or sound production for hundreds of years in order to achieve specific effects, and it is still used for the same purposes, by e.g. shamans and ventriloquists. In normal spoken conversation – contrary to what is often claimed – present-day ingressive speech is not limited to Scandinavia or Nordic languages, but is found on all continents, in genetically unrelated languages. Where ingressive speech occurs, it serves more or less the same paralinguistic functions, such as a feedback marker in a dialog. Since pulmonic ingressive phonation is also common in the calls of monkeys and apes, thus exhibiting a biological basis, it is suggested that ingressive speech might constitute a neglected universal phenomenon, rather than being highly marked, which is how it is commonly described in the literature.

  • 63.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pulmonic Ingressive Speech2019In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Human Communication Sciences and Disorders / [ed] Jack S. Damico & Martin J. Ball, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 2019, p. 1529-1532Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Eklund, Robert
    TeliaSonera Sweden, Farsta, Sweden .
    Pulmonic ingressive speech: a neglected universal?2007In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2007, 30 May – 1 June 2007, Stockholm, Sweden.TMH-QPSR, vol. 50, Stockholm: Universitetsservice , 2007, p. 21-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes major review work on pulmonic ingressive speech (Eklund,under revision), e.g., words like ja (yes) and nej (no) that are commonly produced on inhalation airstream in Swedish. Contrary to what is generally believed, ingressive speech is not limited to Scandinavia or present-day Nordic languages. Instead, it is shown that ingressive speech is found on all continents, in languages that are genetically unrelated. Moreover, whenever ingressive speech occurs it serves more or less the same paralinguistic functions, e.g., being predominantly a feedback marker in dialog. Since pulmonic ingressive phonation is also common in the calls of monkeys and apes, thus exhibiting a biological basis, it is argued that ingressive speech might constitute a neglected universal phenomenon, rather than being highlymarked, which is how it is commonly described in the literature.

  • 65.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Språk, och medvetande  – ett neurokognitivt och evolutionärt perspektiv2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood, Mikael Jensen, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 463-474Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitionsvetenskap är den första boken på svenska som beskriver kärnan i kognitionsvetenskap - att förstå hur människor tänker. Den spänner därmed över ett brett tvärvetenskapligt fält som inrymmer filosofi, lingvistik, psykologi, antropologi, datavetenskap och neuro­vetenskap. Författarna beskriver hur ämnet har vuxit fram och hur man kan studera kognition utifrån filosofiska, psykologiska och neurovetenskapliga aspekter. Även språkvetenskapliga och sociala aspekter på tänkande presenteras. Författarna tar dessutom upp relationen mellan mänskligt tänkande och djurs tänkande, samt utvecklingen av kognition från barndom till vuxen ålder. Avslutningsvis berörs flera aspekter av tänkande i förhållande till teknologi, både som stöd för tänkande och som simulering av tänkande.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter som läser introduktionskurs eller grundkurs i kognitionsvetenskap, men är även lämplig för beteendevetenskapliga eller språkinriktade utbildningar. Den kan även vara av intresse för alla som vill förstå mer om mänskligt tänkande

  • 66.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Effect of Directed and Open Disambiguation Prompts in Authentic Call Center Data on the Frequency and Distribution of Filled Pauses and Possible Implications for Filled Pause Hypotheses and Data Collection Methodology2010In: Proceedings of DiSS-LPSS Joint Workshop 2010, The 5th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech and The 2nd International Symposium on Linguistic Patterns in Spontaneous Speech., 2010, p. 23-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies the frequency and distribution of filledpauses (FPs) in ecologically valid data where unaware andauthentic customers called in to report problems with theirtelephony and/or Internet services and were met by a novelWizard-of-Oz paradigm using real call center agents aswizards. The data analyzed were caller utterances followinga directed or an open disambiguation prompt. While nosignificant differences in FP production were observed as afunction of prompt type, FP frequency was found to beconsiderably higher than what is usually reported in theliterature. Moreover, a higher proportion of utterance-initialFPs than normally reported was also observed. The results arecompared to previously reported FP frequencies. Potentialimplications for data collection methodology are discussed.

  • 67.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Wanpela deitabeis long Tok Pisin bilong baim tiket bilong balus. (An ATIS database in Tok Pisin.) Methodological observations with regard to the collection of human–human data2000In: Fonetik 2000 : proceedings the XIII Swedish Phonetics Conference, May 24-26 2000 / [ed] Antonis Botinis and Niklas Torstensson, Skövde: Department of Languages, University of Skövde , 2000, p. 49-52Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the collection of authentic human–human air travel information data in Tok Pisin, the pidgin/creole language spoken in Papua New Guinea. Pros and cons ofauthentic data are discussed, as compared to data collected in more controlled settings like Wizard-of-Oz simulations. Some unexpected real-life phenomena that affect the data, and normally do not occur in corpora compiled from Wizard-of-Oz simulations, are described

  • 68.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden .
    What is invariant and what is optional in the realization of a FOCUSED word?: A cross-dialectal study of Swedish sentences with moving focus1996In: Proceedings ICSLP 96: Fourth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing / [ed] H. Timothy Bunnell and William Idsardi, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 1996, p. 97-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State-of-the-art speech recognition systems handle continuous speech and are speaker-independent. However, the linguistic information conveyed in the intonational contour is neglected. To be able to fully recognize speech, this information must be interpreted. To this end, explicit knowledge of dialectal and individual variation is required. Some acoustic correlates of wh-focus in three Swedish dialects are described. Variation within and between dialects is accounted for, as well as individual differences and optional phenomena.

  • 69.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Xenophone2019In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Human Communication Sciences and Disorders / [ed] Jack S. Damico & Martin J. Ball, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 2019, p. 2127-2129Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    International Computer Science Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Bates, Rebecca
    Computer & Information Sciences, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN, USA.
    Kuyper, Chad
    Computer & Information Sciences, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN, USA.
    Willingham, Elizabeth
    Computer & Information Sciences, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN, USA.
    Shriberg, Elizabeth
    International Computer Science Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    The Annotation and Analysis of Importance in Meetings2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meetings typically contain important regions that are likely to be the focus of summarization and recall requests. We present a new approach for labeling speech corpora with categories of importance at the level of utterance groups; these labels may help to identify focus regions for browsing, summarization, or question-answering. We ask whether importance can be consistently labeled by humans with the idea that these regionsmight be used to improve speech understanding and automatic summarization of speechand text. We present information about related annotation schemes for high-level speech labeling, including the relationship between this labeling scheme and pre-existing labels at the levels of utterances and groups of utterances. We provide a summary of the annotation system and labeling procedure, as well as preliminary inter-annotator reliability statistics on the ICSI Meeting Recorder Corpus.

  • 71.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fransson, Peter
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neural correlates of the processing of unfilled and filled pauses2015In: The 7th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (DiSS 2015), Edinburgh, Scotland (2015) / [ed] Robin Lickley, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spontaneously produced Unfilled Pauses (UPs) andFilled Pauses (FPs) were played to subjects in an fMRI experiment. While both stimuli resulted in increased activity in the Primary Auditory Cortex, FPs, unlike UPs, also elicited modulation in the Supplementary Motor Area, Brodmann Area 6. This observation provides neurocognitive confirmation of the oft-reported difference between FPs and other kinds of speech disfluency and also could provide a partial explanation for the previously reported beneficial effect of FPs on reaction times in speech perception. The results are discussed in the light of the suggested role of FPs as floor-holding devices in human polylogs.

  • 72.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Supplementary Motor Area Activation in Disfluency Perception: An fMRI Study of Listener Neural Responses to Spontaneously Produced Unfilled and Filled Pauses2016In: Interspeech 2016 8-12 Sep 2016, San Francisco / [ed] Nelson Morgan, ISCA-INT SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOC , 2016, p. 1378-1381Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spontaneously produced Unfilled Pauses (UPs) and Filled Pauses (FPs) were played to subjects in an fMRI experiment. For both stimuli increased activity was observed in the Primary Auditory Cortex (PAC). However, FPs, but not UPs, elicited modulation in the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA), Brodmann Area 6. Our results provide neurocognitive confirmation of the alleged difference between FPs and other kinds of speech disfluency and could also provide a partial explanation for the previously reported beneficial effect of FPs on reaction times in speech perception. Our results also have potential implications for two of the suggested functions of FPs: the “floor-holding” and the “help-me-out” hypotheses.

  • 73.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Voice Provider Sweden.
    Kognition och kommunikationsteknologi: en introduktion2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood & Mikael Jensen, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 563-571Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitionsvetenskap är den första boken på svenska som beskriver kärnan i kognitionsvetenskap - att förstå hur människor tänker. Den spänner därmed över ett brett tvärvetenskapligt fält som inrymmer filosofi, lingvistik, psykologi, antropologi, datavetenskap och neuro­vetenskap. Författarna beskriver hur ämnet har vuxit fram och hur man kan studera kognition utifrån filosofiska, psykologiska och neurovetenskapliga aspekter. Även språkvetenskapliga och sociala aspekter på tänkande presenteras. Författarna tar dessutom upp relationen mellan mänskligt tänkande och djurs tänkande, samt utvecklingen av kognition från barndom till vuxen ålder. Avslutningsvis berörs flera aspekter av tänkande i förhållande till teknologi, både som stöd för tänkande och som simulering av tänkande.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter som läser introduktionskurs eller grundkurs i kognitionsvetenskap, men är även lämplig för beteendevetenskapliga eller språkinriktade utbildningar. Den kan även vara av intresse för alla som vill förstå mer om mänskligt tänkande

  • 74.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kaja, Jaan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Neumeyer, Leonardo
    Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Weng, Fuliang
    Intel China Research Center.
    Digalakis, Vassilis
    Department of Electronic and Computer engineering of the Technical University of Crete.
    Porting a Recognizer to a New Language2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, Dave Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 265-273Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 75.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Kåselöv, Helen
    Stockholm University.
    Några observationer rörande akustiskt korrelat till restriktiv bisats1992Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is a well-known fact that intonation proper can change the meaning of a phrase. In this paper we have examined whether syntax on a more general level is signalled or marked intonationally, or, to be more specific, whether restrictive sub-ordinate clauses are somehow marked by the F0-contour. Two groups of phrases were created, one group containing pure statement phrases, and the other containing phrases with embedded sub-ordinate clauses. The phrases of the two groups had the same metrical structure, and as far as was possible similar segmental structure. Each phrase was given four different stresses: stress on the final word, stress on the penultimate word, stress on the first word and "neutral" stress. Each phrase was also given two different initial and final words, one being an accent 1 (acute) word, the other being an accent 2 (grave) word. Each phrase (32 in all) was recorded and analysed with two subjects - one male and one female, both with Stockholm accents. F0-contours were compared to plottings of points of maxima and minima in the three words alternatively given focus, and compared to earlier models of intonation. It was found that almost no distinguishable differences were made between the statement phrases and the phrases containing embedded subordinate clauses in the experiment. The male subject exhibited a slight tendency towards continuation tone in the phrases containing subordinate clauses, but it can be questioned whether this difference is of a perceptable degree. All post-focal maxima/minina were entirely suppressed, and the post-focal F0-contour fell asymptotically relative to the base-line. In summary, nothing palpable was found indicating that syntactic structure is signalled by F0-contour, for whose realization the metrical structure apparently is the major factor.

  • 76.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    fovox AB, Text-to-Speech Division, Stockholm.
    Lindberg, Janne
    fovox AB, Text-to-Speech Division, Stockholm.
    An Algorithm for End-of-Sentence Detection in Text1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Automatisk detektering av meningsslut i text är ett desideratum inom ett flertal lingvistiska tillämpningar. Dels kan det sägas vara en förutsättning for automatisk parsning av text, dels är det behjälpligt inom text-till-tal-tillämpningar. Även om text är en mycket "hanterligare" källa än en talström när det gäller att hitta satsgränser är uppgiften långt ifrån problemfri. Även om interpunktion visserligen utgör ett reglerat system är bruket av interpunktionstecken inte helt konsistent eftersom samma tecken kan användas på flera olika sätt avhängigt kontexten.

    I denna uppsats presenteras an algoritm för automatisk detektering av meningsslut i text. Dessutom beskrivs en av Liberman & Church (1989) tidigare anvisad metod som legat till grund för den alternativa metod som vi presenterar i denna uppsats. En jämförelse mellan metoderna tillhandahålls.

  • 77.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Lindström, Anders
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    How To Handle “Foreign” Sounds in Swedish Text-to-Speech Conversion: Approaching the ‘Xenophone’ Problem1998In: 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 30th November - 4th December, 1998 Sydney, Australia ICSLP'98 Proceedings / [ed] Robert H. Mannell and Jordi Robert-Ribes, 1998, Vol. 7, p. 2831-2834, article id 514Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the problem of handling “foreign” speech sounds in Swedish speech technology systems, in particular speech synthesis. A production study is made, where it is shown that Swedish speakers add foreign speech sounds, here termed ‘xenophones’, to their phone repertoire when reading Swedish sentences with embedded English names and words. As a result of the observations, the phone set of a Swedish concatenative synthesizer is extended, and it is shown (by example) that this produces more natural-sounding synthetic speech.

  • 78.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, Sweden.
    Lindström, Anders
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, Sweden.
    Pronunciation in an internationalized society: a multi-dimensional problem considered1996In: FONETIK 96, 1996, p. 123-126Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the treatment of foreign words and proper names in Swedish. Preliminary results from a production study are presented, and guidelines are suggested for broad, phonematic transcription, covering alternative pronunciations. Such a transcription scheme is a prerequisite for applications such as speech synthesis and multi-dialectal speaker-independent speech recognition.

  • 79.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Integration of Foreign Items. A Corpus-based Study of Cross-lingual Influence with Examples from Swedish2009In: Corpus Linguistics: an international handbook / 2 / [ed] Anke Lüdeling & Merja Kytö, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2009, 1, p. 1024-1043Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This handbook provides an up-to-date survey of corpus linguistics. Spoken, written, or multimodal corpora serve as the basis for quantitative and qualitative research on many questions of linguistic interest. The volume comprises 61 articles by internationally renowned experts. They sketch the history of corpus linguistics and its relationship with neighboring disciplines, show its potential, discuss its problems, and describe various methods of collecting, annotating, and searching corpora, as well as processing corpus data. Key features: up-to-date and complete handbook includes both an overview and detailed discussions gathers together a great number of experts

  • 80.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, System Res. Spoken Language Processing.
    Lyberg, Bertil
    Telia Research AB, System Res. Spoken Language Processing.
    Inclusion of a prosodic module in spoken language translation1995In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 2894-2895, article id 2aSC27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current speech recognition systems mainly work on statistical bases and make no use of information signalled by prosody, i.e. the segment duration and fundamental frequency contour of the speech signal. In more advanced applications for speech recognition, such as speech-to-speech translation systems, it is necessary to include the linguistic information conveyed by prosody. Earlier research has shown that prosody conveys information at syntactic, semantic and pragmatic levels. The degree of linguistic information conveyed by prosody varies between languages, from languages such as English, with a relatively low degree of prosodic disambiguation, via tone-accent languages such as Swedish, to pure tone languages. The inclusion of a prosodic module in speech translation systems is not only vital in order to link the source language to the target language, but could also be used to enhance speech recognition proper.  Besides syntactic and semantic information, properties such as dialect, sociolect, sex and attitude etc is signalled by prosody. Speech-to-speech recognition systems that will not transfer this type of information will be of limited value for person-to-person communication. A tentative architecture for the inclusion of a prosodic module in a speech-to-speech translation system is presented.

  • 81.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Anita
    Swedish Museum of Performing Arts, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An acoustic analysis of Swedish cattle calls,‘kulning’, performed outdoors at three distances2019In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2019 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Kulning is a Swedish cattle call singing style with an almost mythical status inSwedish folklore. In previous studiestwo of the authors (RE, AM) studied kulning produced by a kulning singer (FP) in both indoor and outdoor settings. In this paper we report kulning as produced by a second singer (the third author, KD), recorded outdoors in a forest setting, with simultaneous recordings at 1, 11 and 22 meters. The results of amplitude, FFT and LPC analyses reported, and compared to theearlier studies reported in Eklund, McAllister and Pehrson (2013) and McAllister and Eklund (2015).

  • 82.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Voice Provider, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsinstitut Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Ananthakrishnan, Gopal
    Centre for Speech Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mabiza, Evans
    Antelope Park, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
    An acoustic analysis of lion roars. I: Data collection and spectrogramand waveform analyses2011In: Quarterly Progress and Status Report TMH-QPSR, Volume 51, 2011. Proceedings from Fonetik 2011. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 8–10 June 2011, pp. 1–4., Stockholm: Universitetsservice , 2011, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the collection of lion roar data at two different locations, anoutdoor setting at Antelope Park in Zimbabwe and an indoor setting at Parken Zooin Sweden. Preliminary analyses of spectrographic and waveform data are provided.

  • 83.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Weise, Florian
    N/a’an ku sê Foundation, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Munro, Florian
    N/a’an ku sê Foundation, Windhoek, Namibia.
    An acoustic analysis of agonistic sounds in wild cheetahs2012In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2012 / [ed] Åsa Abelin and Anders Eriksson, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg , 2012, p. 37-40Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cheetah ranks among the more vocal felids,and is above all a prominent purrer. However,the cheetah also produces a wide variety ofother sounds, and this paper takes a closer lookat a category of sounds produced by wildcheetahs, agonistic vocalizations, that can bedivided into moaning, growling, hissing andspitting sounds.

  • 84.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Weise, Florian
    N/a’an ku sê Foundation, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Munro, Stuart
    N/a’an ku sê Foundation, Windhoek, Namibia.
    A comparative acoustic analysis of purring in four cheetahs2012In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2012 / [ed] Åsa Abelin and Anders Eriksson, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg , 2012, p. 41-44Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results from a comparativeanalysis of purring in four tame cheetahs. Theresults exhibited individual variation forrelative phase duration and number of cyclesper phase, while egressive phases were louderand had higher fundamental frequency in allfour cheetahs.

  • 85.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, USA.
    Carter, David
    SRI International, USA.
    Bretan, Ivan
    SRI International, USA.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Kirchmeier-Andersen, Sabine
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Denmark.
    Philp, Christina
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Denmark.
    Rational Re-Use of Linguistic Data2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, David Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 212-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 86.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rose, RalphWaseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Proceedings of DiSS 2017, the 8th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the successes of the previously organized Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (DiSS) workshops held in Berkeley (1999), Edinburgh (2001), Göteborg (2003), Aix-en-Provence (2005), Tokyo (2010), Stockholm (2013) and Edinburgh (2015), the organizers are proud to present DiSS 2017, held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, in August 2017. As was the case with the previous workshops, a wide variety of papers addressing disfluency from an equally varied array of disciplines are included.

    The organizers would like to extend their thanks to everyone who helped organize this event, including the Scientific Committee members and, of course, all the contributors.

    Thanks to ISCA for administrative and financial support. Special thanks to Anders Eriksson, Olof Engwall, Gerard Bailly and Martin Cooke.

    Stockholm, August 2017

    Robert Eklund

    Robin Lickley

    Jens Edlund

    Joakim Gustafson

  • 87.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Telia Research, Farsta, Sweden.
    Shriberg, Elizabeth
    SRI International, Menlo Park, California, USA.
    Crosslinguistic Disfluency Modelling: A Comparative Analysis of Swedish and American English Human–Human and Human–Machine Dialogues1998In: 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 30th November - 4th December, 1998 Sydney, Australia ICSLP'98 Proceedings / [ed] Robert H. Mannell and Jordi Robert-Ribes, 1998, Vol. 6, p. 2627-2630, article id 805Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report results from a cross-language study of disfluencies (DFs) in Swedish and American English human--machine and human--human dialogs. The focus is on comparisons not directly affected by differences in overall rates since these could be associates with task details. Rather, we focus on differences of how speakers utilize DFs in the different languages, including: relative rates of the use of hesitation forms, the location of hesitations, and surface characteristics of DFs. Results suggest that although the languages differ in some respects (such as the ability to insert filled pauses within 'words'), in many analyses the languages show similar behavior. Such results provide suggestions for cross-linguistic DF modeling in both theoretical and applied fields.

  • 88.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute / Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / Voice Provider Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden / Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effects of open and directed prompts on filled pauses and utterance production2010In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2010, Lund, June 2–4, 2010 / [ed] Susanne Schötz and Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Lund: Mediatryck , 2010, p. 23-28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an experiment where open and directed prompts werealternated when collecting speech data for the deployment of a call-routingapplication. The experiment tested whether open and directed prompts resulted inany differences with respect to the filled pauses exhibited by the callers, which isinteresting in the light of the “many-options” hypothesis of filled pause production.The experiment also investigated the effects of the prompts on utterance form andmeaning of the callers.

  • 89.
    Eriksson Barajas, Katarina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet.
    Avid versus struggling readers: co-construed pupil identities in school booktalk2009In: 42nd Annual Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics: Language, Learning, and Context, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper, we argue for a combination of reader reception studies and discursive psychology that we would like to call discursive reception studies: that is, discursive-psychological analyses of reader reception data. Such approaches provide possibilities to analyse the role of social interaction in the co-construction of the reading of a given book (or talk on a film or other reader reception data).

    Drawing on detailed analyses of video-recorded teacher-led booktalk sessions in grades 4­7, pupils’ self presentations and other types of co-construed categorizations of readers are examined and discussed in relation to the pupils’ and teachers’ co-construction of two contrasting categories of reader positions: avid readers (bokslukare; literally, book-devourers), on the one hand, and struggling readers, on the other.

    These categorizations in turn involve two different sets of continua in terms of the participants’ (pupils’) spontaneous positionings: one based on motivation (willing versus unwilling readers) and one based on reading speed (fast versus slow readers). Both sets of contrasting categories involve implicit local hierarchies, yet these two continua do not necessarily overlap. An important finding is that the position of a fast reader does not imply the position of a book-lover.

    Through detailed examinations of the participants’ co-construed local hierarchies in booktalk, this study documents ways in which discursive reception studies may contribute to a deeper understanding of reading as a situated social practice. Our findings have implications for teacher training, with respect to the promotion of literary reading among children.

  • 90.
    Francis, Alexander L.
    et al.
    Department of Speech, Language & Hearing Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.
    Tigchelaar, Laura J.
    Universiteit Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Zhang, Rongrong
    Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Effects of Second Language Proficiency and Linguistic Uncertainty on Recognition of Speech in Native and Nonnative Competing Speech2018In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 61, no 7, p. 1815-1830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2nd language proficiency and linguistic uncertainty on performance and listening effort in mixed language contexts.

    Method Thirteen native speakers of Dutch with varying degrees of fluency in English listened to and repeated sentences produced in both Dutch and English and presented in the presence of single-talker competing speech in both Dutch and English. Target and masker language combinations were presented in both blocked and mixed (unpredictable) conditions. In the blocked condition, in each block of trials the target–masker language combination remained constant, and the listeners were informed of both prior to beginning the block. In the mixed condition, target and masker language varied randomly from trial to trial. All listeners participated in all conditions. Performance was assessed in terms of speech reception thresholds, whereas listening effort was quantified in terms of pupil dilation.

    Results Performance (speech reception thresholds) and listening effort (pupil dilation) were both affected by 2nd language proficiency (English test score) and target and masker language: Performance was better in blocked as compared to mixed conditions, with Dutch as compared to English targets, and with English as compared to Dutch maskers. English proficiency was correlated with listening performance. Listeners also exhibited greater peak pupil dilation in mixed as compared to blocked conditions for trials with Dutch maskers, whereas pupil dilation during preparation for speaking was higher for English targets as compared to Dutch ones in almost all conditions.

    Conclusions Both listener's proficiency in a 2nd language and uncertainty about the target language on a given trial play a significant role in how bilingual listeners attend to speech in the presence of competing speech in different languages, but precise effects also depend on which language is serving as target and which as masker.

  • 91.
    Geneid, Ahmed
    et al.
    Department of Otolaryngology and Phoniatrics – Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finlan.
    Laukkanen, Anne-Maria
    Speech and Voice Research Laboratory, School of Education, University of Tampere, Finland.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kulning: A study of the physiological basis for long-distance sound propagation in Swedish cattle calls2018In: Proceedings of FONETIK 2016, KTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholm, Sweden8-10 June 2016 / [ed] Jens Edlund, Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology , 2018, p. 25-30Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish cattle call song, kulning, is an example of very marked and far-reaching sound propagation of vocal communication. While earlier studies have investigated the acoustic characteristics of kulning, the present study focuses on its physiological basis from the point of view of vocal fold functionand supralaryngeal posture by applying electroglottography and stroboscopy to two types singing: falsetto (head voice)and kulning. It is shown that kulning, ascompared to falsetto, exhibits a better contact of the vocal folds and a longer glottal closure in the phonation cycle. Nasofiberendoscopy also showedmedial and anteroposterior narrowing of the laryngeal inlet and approximation of the false vocal folds in kulning.

  • 92.
    Golriz, Ali
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Conceptual Construction through Contextual Modulation: A Case Study of Happiness and Happy2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of the emotion terms happy and happiness conducted in order to identify the possible grounds in which these notions are perceived by the British English speaking speech community and how people use these terms according to their conceptual frameworks. Basically, it is supposed that the terms happy and happiness are very close in their meanings and they imply more or less the same sense from different angles. This prediction, however, is only partly true. Through this study it is found that there is not as much overlap in the meaning of happy and happiness as one would expect.

  • 93.
    Grigorjev, Piret
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Keevallik, Leelo
    Uppsala universitet, Finsk-ugriska institutionen.
    Niit, Ellen
    Estonia.
    Paldre, Leho
    Estonia.
    Sak, Kristi
    Estnoia.
    Veismann, Ann
    Estonia.
    Kihnu murde assimileerumise mustreid Manilaiul [The patterns of assimilation of Kihnu dialect on Manilaid]1997In: Pühendusteos Huno Rätsepale, 28.12.1997 / [ed] Mati Erelt, Meeli Sedrik, Ellen Uuspõld, Tartu: Tartu Ülikool , 1997, p. 26-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Gruber, Sabine
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Det är ju bara så att man ska gå i svenskatvå": Institutionell ordning och reproduktion i skolan2003Report (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Guendouzi, Jacqueline
    et al.
    Southeastern Louisiana University, USA.
    Meaux, A.
    Southeastern Louisiana University, USA.
    Müller, Nicole
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Avoiding interactional conflict in dementia: the influence of gender styles on interactions.2016In: Journal of Language Aggression and Conflict, ISSN 2213-1272, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 9-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sociolinguistic research in the general population has established the existence of gender differences in the social use of language. In particular, it has been noted that women use more markers of politeness, small talk and structural devices (e.g. minimal responses, tag questions) to help maintain their conversations. Analysis of interactions involving people with dementia (PWD) suggests that these gender based differences were still present in the face of dementia. Furthermore, the use of these forms of language helped the women with dementia to avoid conflict and extend the length of their interactions. This study investigated whether the use of such language helped or hindered women with dementia in maintaining conversational satisfaction.

  • 96.
    Guhlemann, Mareike
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture.
    Personality, Motivation and Communication Strategy Use: Individual Differences in the language classroom. A Study of Language Students and Language Teachers2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences have been of special interest in the field of second language acquisition for decades. Recent studies show special interest in the stability of various individual differences. The results, however, have not proven to be coherent. This thesis aimed to investigate individual differences of Swedish students enrolled in a German course in 2011 and addressed the issue of stability and correlation, in terms of personality, motivation/attitude and communication strategy use. Furthermore, teachers' perception of their students‟ individual differences, as well the enhancement of ID factors in the language classroom were determined. The results could not verify recent criticism on previous individual difference research, since ID factors analyzed proved to be stable and to be highly correlated with each other. Especially the correlation between anxiety and extroversion, as well as communication strategy use proved to be interesting. Furthermore, a correlation between teaching practices and students' individual differences could be found.

  • 97.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Cognitive Science, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Researching Virtual Environments and Virtual Characters2008In: A Smorgasbord of Cognitive Science / [ed] Peter Gärdenfors and Annika Wallin, Bokförlaget Nya Doxa, 2008, p. 13-31Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Gósy, Mária
    et al.
    Department of Phonetics, Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language-Specific Patterns of Segment Prolongation in Hungarian2018In: the Phonetician, ISSN 0741-6164, Vol. 115, p. 36-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Segment prolongation has been shown to be one of the most common forms of non-pathological speech disfluency. The distribution in the word (initial– medial–final segment) seems to vary across languages based on morphological complexity, making it interesting to study segment prolongation in languages that exhibit different degrees of morphological complexity. In this paper we study segment prolongation in Hungarian, a language with very complex morphology. Our results indicated that distribution of prolongations according to their placements in words in Hungarian is comparable to English and Swedish, with a similar degree of morphological complexity, but not to Japanese or Mandarin Chinese, languages with a less complex morphology. Prolongations involve more vowels than consonants, more function words than content words, and word length does not influence the duration of the prolonged segment. Phonologically long vowels were produced shorter durations than phonologically short vowels. Finally, we suggest a ‘phonotactics matters hypothesis”, emphasizing the complexity of permissible syllable structures, which seems to be the main cause of the observed differences in how prolongation is realized in different languages.

  • 99.
    Gósy, Mária
    et al.
    Dept. of Phonetics, Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Segment prolongation in Hungarian2017In: Proceedings of DiSS 2017, The 8th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech / [ed] Robert Eklund & Ralph Rose, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017, p. 29-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Segment prolongation (PR) has been shown to be one of the most common forms of non-pathological speech disfluencies (Eklund, 2001). The distribution of PRs in the word (initial–medial–final segment) seems to vary between languages of different syllable-structure complexity, making it interestingto study segment prolongation in languages that exhibit different syllable structure characteristics. Previous studies have studied languages with complex syllable structure, such as English and Swedish (Eklund & Shriberg, 1998; Eklund, 2001, 2004) where affixation creates complex consonant clusters, and languages with very simple syllable, such as Japanese (Den, 2003) or Tok Pisin (Eklund, 2001, 2004), as well as Mandarin Chinese (Lee et al., 2004). In this paper we study PRs in Hungarian. Our results indicate that PRs in Hungarian are more similar to English and Swedish than it is toJapanese, Tok Pisin or Mandarin Chinese, which lends support to the notion that underlying morphology plays a role in how PRs is realised.

  • 100.
    Hassanzadeh Nezami, Setareh
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Study of Errors, Corrective Feedback and Noticing in Synchronous Computer Mediated Communication2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the different types of errors that EFL learners produce in chat logs and also analyzed the different types of corrective feedback given by the teacher. An eye tracker was employed to study the eye movements of the participants to see how they notice the corrective feedback. This investigation can assist teachers to act better in online classrooms and helps them understand which type of corrective feedback is most likely to result in uptake based on noticing. The results showed that the most common errors in chat logs were related to grammar. It was also found that both recasts and metalinguistic feedback were noticed most of the time during the chat sessions although only a few of them led to uptake in post task session.

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