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  • 51.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Characterisation of creep deformation during slow strain rate tensile testing2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The strain-rate dependent deformation of the superalloy Haynes 282 during slow strain-rate tensile testing (SSRT) at 700 C has been investigated. The stress-strain response is remarkably well described by a simple constitutive model over a wide range of different strain-rates. The microstructure development is characterised and related to the influence of both strainrate dependent and independent deformation. Damage and cracking similar to what has been observed previously during conventional creep testing of Haynes 282 was found and explained. The model and the microstructure investigations show that the deformation and damage mechanisms during SSRT are essentially the same as under creep.

  • 52.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Advanced Microstructure Studies of an Austenitic Material Using EBSD in Elevated Temperature In-Situ Tensile Testing in SEM2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study an advanced method for investigation of the microstructure such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) together with in-situ tensile test in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been used at room temperature and 300°C. EBSD analyses provide information about crystallographic orientation in the microstructure and dislocation structures caused by deformation. The in-situ tensile tests enabled the same area to be investigated at different strain levels. For the same macroscopic strain values a lower average misorientation in individual grains at elevated temperature indicates that less residual strain at grain level are developed compared to room temperature. For both temperatures, while large scatters in grain average misorientation are observed for grains of similar size, there seems to be a tendency showing that larger grains may accumulate somewhat more strains.

  • 53.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Segersäll, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using the Student Diversity as a Strength in a Material Selection Course2014Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Ceschini, Lorella
    et al.
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologa, Italy.
    Morri, Alessandro
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologa, Italy.
    Morri, Andrea
    Industrial Research Centre for Advanced Mechanics and Materials, University of Bologna, Italy.
    Toschi, Stefania
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Italy.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Dept of Materials and Manufacturing, Jönköping University.
    Effect of Microstructure and Overaging on the Tensile Behavior at Room and Elevated Temperature of C355-T6 Cast Aluminum Alloy2015In: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 83, p. 626-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study was focused on the microstructural and mechanical characterization of the Al–Si–Cu–Mg C355 alloy, at room and elevated temperature. In order to evaluate the influence of microstructural coarseness on mechanical behavior, samples with different Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing (SDAS) (20–25 μm for fine microstructure and 50–70 μm for coarse microstructure), were produced through controlled casting conditions. The tensile behavior of the alloy was evaluated at T6 condition and at T6 with subsequent high temperature exposure (41 h at 210 °C, i.e. overaging), both at room and elevated temperature (200 °C). Microstructural investigations were performed through optical and electron microscopy.

    The results confirmed the important role of microstructure on the tensile behavior of C355 alloy. Ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure strongly increased with the decrease of SDAS. Larger SDAS, related to lower solidification rates, modify microstructural features, such as eutectic Si morphology and size of the intermetallic phases, which in turn influence elongation to failure. Overaging before tensile testing induced coarsening of the strengthening precipitates, as observed by STEM analyses, with consequent reduction of the tensile strength of the alloy, regardless of SDAS. A more sensible decrease of tensile properties was registered at 200 °C testing temperature.

  • 55.
    Ceschini, Lorella
    et al.
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologa, Italy.
    Morri, Alessandro
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Italy.
    Toschi, Stefania
    Dept of Industrial Engineering (DIN), University of Bologna, Italy.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Seifeddine, Salem
    Dept of Materials and Manufacturing, Jönköping University.
    Microstructural and Mechanical Properties Characterization of Heat Treated and Overaged Cast A354 Alloy with Various SDAS at Room and Elevated Temperature2015In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 648, p. 340-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to carry out a microstructural and mechanical characterization of the A354 (Al–Si–Cu–Mg) cast aluminum alloy. The effect of microstructure on the tensile behavior was evaluated by testing samples with different Secondary Dendrite Arm Spacing, (SDAS) values (20–25 μm and 50–70 μm for fine and coarse microstructure, respectively), which were produced through controlled casting conditions. The tensile behavior of the alloy was evaluated both at room and elevated temperature (200 °C), in the heat treated and overaged (exposure at 210 °C for 41 h, after heat treatment) conditions. Optical, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were used for microstructural investigations.

    Experimental data confirmed the significant role of microstructural coarseness on the tensile behavior of A354 alloy. Ultimate tensile strength and elongation to failure strongly increased with the decrease of SDAS. Moreover, solidification rate influenced other microstructural features, such as the eutectic silicon morphology as well as the size of the intermetallic phases, which in turn also influenced elongation to failure. Coarsening of the strengthening precipitates was induced by overaging, as observed by STEM analyses, thus leading to a strong reduction of the tensile strength of the alloy, regardless of SDAS. Tensile properties of the alloy sensibly decrease at elevated temperature (200 °C) in all the investigated heat treatment conditions.

  • 56.
    Chai, G.
    et al.
    R and D Centre, Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Lillbacka, R.
    FS Dynamics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Micro heterogeneous deformation and strain localization behavior in austenitic ferritic duplex stainless steels2011In: Advances in heterogeneous material mechanics 2011: proceedings of the Third International Conference on Heterogeneous Material Mechanics, Destech Publications , 2011, p. 186-193Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides a review on the recent work done on the micro heterogeneous deformation and strain localization behavior in austenitic ferritic duplex stainless steels studied using TEM, SEM and in-situ X-ray diffractometer and neutron diffractometer and the simulation using multi-scale material modelling. The results from both studies show that the difference in the elasto-plastic properties of the austenite and ferrite phases has caused different amounts of plastic deformations occurring in these two phases, and consequently different static and cyclic stress strain behaviours and substructures. From the simulations it is found that the coupling effect plays a key role in producing the changes in the cyclic stress-strain behaviour and also on the substructure evolution. TEM investigation also shows that the dislocation slipping behaviour and substructures strongly depend on the elasto-plastic properties of the individual phases and also on the coupling effect. The study indicates that the material damage and crack initiation in a two phase metal start mainly in the weakest phase if the deformation hardening is considered.

  • 57.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Advanced Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels and Composite Tube Materials for High Efficient Clean Energy Production2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Analysis of microdamage in a nickel-base alloy during very high cycle fatigue2016In: Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, ISSN 8756-758X, E-ISSN 1460-2695, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 712-721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue damage in a metallic material during very high cycle fatigue can strongly be correlated to the microstructure. This paper provides a review and a discussion on the micro damage behaviours in a nickel-base alloy during very high cycle fatigue using microplasticity and material mechanics. The results show that cyclic plastic deformation in this material can occur very locally even with an applied stress that is much lower than the yield strength. The fatigue damage occurs mainly at grain or twin boundaries because of local impingement and interaction of slip bands and these boundaries. The crystallographic properties, Schmid factors and orientations of grain and boundaries play very important roles to the fatigue damage. Subsurface fatigue crack initiation in the matrix is one of very high cycle fatigue mechanisms. Twinning and detwinning can also occur during the very high cycle fatigue process.

  • 59.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Damage Behaviors at Twin and Grain Boundary in Alloy 690 Material in Very High Cycle Fatigue Regime2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Damage Mechanism of Low Cycle Fatigue in an Advanced Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel at High Temperature2014In: Procedia Materials Science, ISSN 2211-8128, Vol. 3, p. 1754-1759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sandvik Sanicro 25 is a newly developed heat resistant austenitic stainless steel grade for the next generation of coal fired advanced ultra-super critical (AUSC) power plants. In this paper, low cycle fatigue behavior and damage mechanisms of the material were studied. The low cycle fatigue test was performed in air at room temperature, 600 °C to 700 °C. The microstructures were studied using electron back scatter diffraction and electron channeling contrast image techniques. At room temperature, the material shows a conventional hardening and softening behavior as most metal materials. At high temperatures, however, it shows only a cyclic hardening behavior. Dynamic strain ageing is found to be one of the mechanisms. The damage and fatigue crack initiation mechanisms due to cyclic loading at different temperatures and loading conditions have been identified. The interactions between dislocations or slip bands with grain boundary or twin boundary are the main damage mechanism at low temperature or at high temperature with large strain amplitudes. Strain localization due to dislocation slipping is the main mechanism for the fatigue damage in grains.

  • 61.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Fatigue Crack Initiation in Metallic Matrix2014In: TMS 2014 SUPPLEMENTAL PROCEEDINGS, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 647-654Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will provide a study on the behaviors of fatigue crack initiation in metal matrix in five metallic materials using very high cycle fatigue testing and electron microscopy with electron backscatter diffraction and electron channeling contrast technique. The damage and crack initiation mechanisms in metal matrix have been focused. It shows that straining in these materials during the fatigue process was highly localized. This strain localization has led to the damage or fatigue crack initiation at grain boundaries or twin boundaries by impingement cracking. High strain localization causes dislocation accumulation during each cyclic straining and consequently the formation of local "fine grain zone" that increases the local damage by plasticity exhaustion. This can cause the formation of fatigue crack origin in the matrix. Strain localization and local plasticity exhaustion can be used to explain this phenomenon.

  • 62.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior and Mechanism of Newly Developed Advanced Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steels at High Temperature2014In: 11th International Fatigue Congress, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2014, Vol. 891-892, p. 377-382Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Austenitic stainless steel grade UNS S31035 (Sandvik Sanicro® 25) has been developed for the next generation of 700°C A-USC power plant. This paper will mainly focus on the study of low cycle fatigue behavior and damage mechanisms of the material at room temperature, 600C to 700C by using electron back scatter diffraction and electron channeling contrast image techniques. At room temperature, the material shows a hardening and softening behavior as usual. At high temperature, however, it shows only a cyclic hardening behavior. Dynamic strain ageing can be one of the mechanisms. The damage and fatigue crack initiation mechanisms due to cyclic loading at different temperatures and loading conditions have been identified. The interactions between dislocations or slip bands with grain boundary or twin boundary are the main damage mechanism at low temperature or at high temperature with large strain amplitudes. Strain localization due to dislocation slipping is the main mechanism for the damage in grain.

  • 63.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Micro Heterogenous Fatigue Cracking Behavior in Dual Phase Materials2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    On Fatigue Crack Initiaition in th Matrix in Very High Cycle Fatigue Regime2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Chai, Guocai
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Subsurface Non Defect Fatigue Crack Origin and Local Plasticity Exhaustion2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Andersson, Marcus
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Secondary Hardening Behavior in Super Duplex Stainless Steels during LCF in Dynamic Strain Ageing Regime2013In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 55, p. 123-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclic deformation behaviors in five modified duplex stainless steel S32705 grades have been studied at 20 °C, 200 °C, 250° and 350 °C. The influence of temperature and nitrogen concentration on the occurrence of the second hardening phenomenon, in the stress response curve was focused. An increase in nitrogen concentration can have a positive effect on dynamic strain ageing by increasing the first hardening and also the second hardening behavior during cyclic deformation. Furthermore, an increase in nitrogen concentration in the super duplex stainless steel increases the fatigue life in the strain ageing temperature range. The occurrence of strain ageing in duplex stainless steel has greatly changed dislocation structures. The formation of irreversible dislocation structures and stacking faults can contribute to the formation of second hardening in the stress response curve.

  • 67.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Boström, Magnus
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Olaison, Magnus
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Creep and LCF Behaviors of Newly Developed Advanced Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel for A-USC2013In: Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058, E-ISSN 1877-7058, Vol. 55, p. 232-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Austenitic stainless steel grade UNS S31035 (Sandvik Sanicro® 25) has been developed for use in super-heaters and reheaters in the next generation of A-USC power plants. This new grade shows very good resistances to steam oxidation and hot corrosion, and higher creep rupture strength than other austenitic stainless steels available today. This makes it an interesting alternative for super-heaters and reheaters in future high-efficient coal fired boilers. This paper will mainly focus on the study of the creep and LCF behavior of the material at temperatures from 600 °C to 750 °C by using TEM and ECCI. The mechanisms at different temperatures and loading conditions have been identified. The interactions between dislocations and precipitates and their contribution to the creep rupture strength have been discussed. In this paper, different models have been used to evaluate the long-term creep behavior of the grade. A creep rupture strength near 100 MPa at 700 °C for 100 000 h has been predicted.

  • 68.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toughening Behavior in Alloy 617 with Long Term Ageing2017In: Solid State Phenomena, ISSN 1012-0394, E-ISSN 1662-9779, Vol. 258, p. 302-305Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 69.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Materials Technology, Strategy research, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Calmunger, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Odqvist, Joakim
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Strategy research, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Influence of Dynamic Strain Ageing and Long Term Ageing on Deformation and Fracture Behaviors of Alloy 6172016In: THERMEC 2016 / [ed] C. Sommitsch, M. Ionescu, B. Mishra, E. Kozeschnik and T. Chandra, Trans Tech Publications, 2016, Vol. 879, p. 306-311Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influences of dynamic strain ageing and long term ageing on deformation, damage and fracture behaviors of Alloy 617 material have been studied. Dynamic strain ageing can occur in this alloy at temperature from 400 to 700°C, which leads to a strain hardening and also an increase in fracture strain due to plastic deformation caused by twinning. Long term ageing at 700°C for up to 20 000 hours can cause different precipitation such as γ ́, M6C (Mo-rich) and M23C6 (Cr-rich) carbides. These carbides are both inter-and intra-granular particles. The long term ageing reduces the fracture toughness of the material, but the alloy can still have rather high impact toughness and fracture toughness even with an ageing at 700°C for 20 000 hour. The mechanisms have been studied using electron backscatter detection and electron channeling contrast imaging. It shows that besides dislocation slip, twinning is another main deformation mechanism in these aged Alloy 617 materials. At the crack front, plenty of micro or nanotwins can be observed. The formation of these twins leads to a high ductility and toughness which is a new observation or a new concept for this type of material.

  • 70.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Forsman, T.
    Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, F.
    Sandvik Mat Technology, Sweden.
    Wang, C.
    University of Paris Ouest Nanterre La Def, France.
    Formation of fine grained area in martensitic steel during very high cycle fatigue2015In: Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, ISSN 8756-758X, E-ISSN 1460-2695, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 1315-1323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fine grained area around a subsurface fatigue crack origin can usually be observed on fracture surface of a metallic material after very high cycle fatigue. This paper provides a fundamental study on the mechanisms to form this fine grained area using a martensitic stainless steel and advanced analysis instruments. The results show that the formation of a fine grained zone is a local behaviour. It is only a few micrometres in the transversal direction (cross section) and one micrometre in the longitudinal direction (crack propagation direction). High plastic deformation such as localized dislocation slip bands can be observed in this fine grained area. They interact with grain boundaries and cause the formation of damage by impingement cracking. The results indicate that occurrence of cyclic localized plastic deformation during very high cycle fatigue near the subsurface defect leads to the formation of fine grained area.

  • 71.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. R&D Center, Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Forsman, Tomas
    R&D Center, Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Fredrik
    R&D Center, Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Microscopic and Nanoscopic Study on Subsurface Damage and Fatigue Crack Initiation During Very High Cycle Fatigue2016In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 83, no 2, p. 288-292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “Fish eye” is a typical phenomenon of fatigue crack initiation at a subsurface defect such as inclusion during very high cycle fatigue. The formation of a fine grained area and micro-debonding is believed to cause fatigue crack initiation. This paper provides a basic study on the formation of the fine grained area in a martensitic stainless steel during very high cycle fatigue using scanning electron microscopy, SEM, focused ion beam technique, FIB, electron backscatter diffraction, EBSD, and electron channeling contrast imaging, ECCI. The results show that the formation of a fine grained zone is a local behavior. The fine grained zone is very near the fatigue crack initiation origin. In the transversal direction (cross section), the depth of the fine grained zone is only few micrometers. In the longitudinal direction (crack propagation direction), the depth of the fine grain zone is about one micrometer. ECCI analysis shows that in the fine grained area with high retained strain, high plastic deformation can be found. Dislocation slip bands can be observed. They interact with grain boundaries and cause the formation of damage due to impingement cracking. The results indicate that occurrence of plastic deformation in metallic material during very high cycle fatigue is very localized, mainly near the front of the crack tip or a defect.

  • 72.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Materials Technology,Sandviken, Sweden .
    Hernblom, Johan
    Sandvik Materials Technology,Sandviken, Sweden .
    Peltola, Timo
    Sandvik Materials Technology,Sandviken, Sweden .
    Forsberg, Urban
    Sandvik Materials Technology,Sandviken, Sweden .
    Creep Behavior in A Newly Developed Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel2015In: Berg- und Huttenmännische Monatshefte (BHM), ISSN 0005-8912, E-ISSN 1613-7531, Vol. 160, no 9, p. 400-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    UNS S31035 austenitic stainless steel grade is a newly developed advanced heat resistant material for use in coal fired boilers at metal temperatures up to 700 °C. This new grade that has recently got two AMSE code cases shows good resistance to steam oxidation and flue gas corrosion and high creep rupture strength. This paper will mainly focus on the characterization of long term structure stability and performances such as the creep behaviors at different temperatures for up to 86,000 h at high temperatures. The creep damage mechanisms were studied using electron transmission microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and electron channeling contrast image analysis. The results show that the creep strength is related to the intragranular nano particles that act as obstacles for dislocation movements. Plastic deformation and transgranular fracture is the main creep fracture mechanism in the creep test samples of UNS S31035. The material has good creep ductility by formation of twins during the creep test. This material has been installed and tested in several European power plants, and has shown good performance. The material is an excellent alternative for superheaters and reheaters in future high-efficient coal fired boilers with design material temperatures up to 700 °C, instead of more costly nickel based alloy. 

  • 73.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hernblom, Johan
    R&D Centre, Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken.
    Peltola, Timo
    Global Product Management and Global Technical, Sandviken.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Global Product Management and Global Technical, Sandviken.
    Sanicro 25 - An Advanced High Strength Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Kangas, Pasi
    R&D Centre, Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Recent Developments of Advanced Austenitic and Duplex Stainless Steels for Applications in Oil & Gas Industry2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 Energy Materials Conference  (CD-ROM), Wiley-TMS , 2014, p. 703-709Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands for fuel and the development of the fuel exploitation processes have make it economically possible to produce oil-gas from deeper and more corrosive wells where the parameters such as high chloride, H2S or CO2 content, high temperature and pressure, erosion and bioactivities in seawater should be considered. In these applications, special grades of stainless steels with greater corrosion resistance at a broad range of temperatures and high strength have to be used to meet the requirements. This paper provides an overview on the development, properties and applications of these advanced materials for oil & gas industry. They include recently developed advanced super austenitic stainless steels with high Mo, Ni, Cr and N contents with a PRE number up to 52 and hyper duplex stainless steels.

  • 75.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sandvik Mat Technol, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Kangas, Pasi
    Sandvik Mat Technol, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Super and hyper duplex stainless steels: structures, properties and applications2016In: 21ST EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON FRACTURE, (ECF21), ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 2, p. 1755-1762Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In oil-gas industry, the exploration and development are now targeted to the deep reservoirs with high pressures, high temperatures and extreme corrosive environments. This requires that the materials used should have a good combination of extra high strength and excellent corrosion resistance. In order to meet these challenges, hyper duplex stainless steels have recently been developed. These materials have nitrogen contents up to about 0.5% and PRE-values close to 50, and show both highest corrosion pitting resistance and highest strength among the existing duplex stainless steels. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview on hyper duplex stainless steels. It will mainly focus on the material development, microstructures, corrosion properties such as critical pitting corrosion temperature and crevice corrosion resistance, heterogeneous deformation behaviour of duplex stainless steel, and mechanical properties such as tensile properties and fatigue properties. These properties and the ratios of strength/weight will then be compared with those of other type of duplex stainless steels. The potential applications for hyper duplex stainless steels are also discussed. Copyright (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 76.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Kivisäkk, Ulf
    Sandvik Materials Technology, R&D Centre, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking Behavior in Duplex Stainless Steels2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Patrik
    Strategy Research, Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Boström, Magnus
    Strategy Research, Sandvik materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Creep and Fracture Behaviors of an Advanced Heat Resistant Austenitic Stainless Steel for A-USC Power Plant2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 78.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lillbacka, Robert
    FS Dynamics, Göteborg.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Micro Heterogeneous Fatigue Behavior of Duplex Stainless Steel During Cyclic Loading2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Liu, Ping
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Zhou, Nian
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Frodigh, Johan
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Low and High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Nickel-base Alloy att High Temperatures2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low and high cycle fatigue behaviors of Alloy 690 have been investigated at temperatures up to 330 °C and number of cycles up to 2 × 109. Two interesting phenomena were observed. At high temperature, the alloy shows a secondary strain hardening in the cyclic stress-strain response. Formation of nano-twins and interactions between moving dislocations and stacking faults or interstitial atoms could contribute to this secondary strain hardening. For very high cycle fatigue, subsurface fatigue crack initiation at grain boundaries has been observed. EBSD investigation shows that strain accumulation is much localized. The fatigue damage is a localised plasticity exhaustion process.

  • 80.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Micro Deformation Behavior in Duplex Stainless Steels2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fatigue Behaviors in Duplex Stainless Steel Studied Using In-Situ SEM-EBSD Method2014In: Procedia Materials Science, ISSN 2211-8128, Vol. 3, p. 1748-1753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Austenite and ferrite in duplex stainless steels have different physical and mechanical properties. They can behave different during cyclic loading. To understand the fatigue behaviors of these two phases, an in-situ SEM/EBSD fatigue test has been performed. Flat specimens made from the specimens of pre-fatigue tested with three point bending were cyclically loaded in a scanning electron microscope via a compact test rig. By in situ/ex situ SEM/EBSD examination, slip activities and propagation of the fatigue cracks have been studied. Microstructures along the path of the fatigue crack were characterized. The different phase properties seem to lead to certain difference in the slip activity and formation of PSBs. Inhomogeneous slip activities and local strain concentrations were also found, which developed with increasing number of load cycles. Crack propagation behaviors in grain and cross the grain or phase boundaries have been discussed. Crack deflection occurs at the phase boundaries, but crack branching occurs mainly in the grains due to the dislocation slip. In-situ SEM/EBSD fatigue test confirms that crack propagation deflection and formation of crack branches can significantly reduce the crack propagation rate.

  • 82.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Micro Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior in a Duplex Stainless Steel Studied Using In Situ SEM/EBSD Method2014In: 11TH INTERNATIONAL FATIGUE CONGRESS, PTS 1 AND 2, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2014, Vol. 891-892, p. 313-318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue crack propagation behaviors in a duplex stainless steel have been studied using an in-situ SEM/EBSD fatigue test and a conventional da/dN test. Crack propagation behaviors in grain, effect of Schmid factor, propagation cross the grain or phase boundaries have been discussed. Crack propagation occurs mainly in the grains with a high Schmid factor, but with very small Schmid factor. Crack deflection occurs mainly at the phase boundaries, but crack branching occurs mainly in the grains due to the dislocation slip. In-situ SEM/EBSD fatigue test confirms that crack propagation deflection can lead to a decrease in crack propagation rate. Formation of crack branches can significantly reduce the crack propagation rate, which can cause crack growth retardation in the main crack path in the worst case. The crack branches formed are usually not ideal. They can propagate almost transversely to the main crack direction with a mode II stress intensity factor, SIF, and a rate that is much higher than that of the main crack.

  • 83.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kivisäkk, Ulf
    Sandvik Materials Technology, R&D Centre, Sandviken.
    Hydrogen Induced Stress Cracking in Heterogeneous Materials2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 84. Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Slamecka, Karel
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fatigue Crack Branching Behavior in Dual Phase Material2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue crack branching behaviour in a dual phase steel has been investigated using an in-situ SEM/EBSD fatigue test and a conventional da/dN test. Crack branching results mainly from the extrusions and intrusions of slip bands developed in the grains. The number of crack branches formed depends strongly on the loading condition and the microstructure of the material. The in-situ observation confirms that the formation of crack branches can significantly reduce the crack propagation rate that leads to crack growth retardation in the main mode I crack path. The crack branches formed are usually not ideal. They can propagate almost transversely to the main crack direction with a mode II stress intensity factor, SIF, and a rate that is much higher than that of the main crack.

  • 85.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Slamecka, Karel
    Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In Situ SEM(EBSD analysis of fatigue crack propagation behavior of a super duplex stainless steel2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 86.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Sandvik Mat Technology.
    Ronneteg, Sabina
    Sandvik Mat Technology.
    Kivisakk, Ulf
    Sandvik Mat Technology.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mechanisms of Hydrogen Induced Stress Crack Initiation and Propagation in Super Duplex Stainless Steels2009In: STEEL RESEARCH INTERNATIONAL, ISSN 1611-3683, Vol. 80, no 7, p. 482-487Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Austenitic and ferritic duplex stainless steels, DSS, have recently suffered from hydrogen stress induced cracking, HISC, in subsea components with a cathodic protection. This paper provides discussions on possible HISC mechanisms. HISC initiation can occur at the ferritic grain boundaries and phase boundaries at a stress lower than the yield strength, but dominantly at phase boundaries at a stress higher than the yield strength. EBSD analysis shows that HISC in DSS results from the interaction between the dynamic plasticity by creep and hydrogen diffusion. A model on the formation of microstresses in these two phases under creep conditions is proposed, which explains why HISC occurs mainly in the ferritic phase. Discontinuous two-dimensional HISC paths were observed. The austenitic phase acts as obstacles for crack propagation. The fracture covers "valleys" and "peaks" with the cleavage ferrite and the austenite with microfacets or striations due to the hydrogen-enhanced localized-plasticity.

  • 87.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Sand, Tommy
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Hernblom, Johan
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Peltola, Timo
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Development of Advance Heat Resistant materials for IGCC and AUSC Power Plants2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 Energy Materials Conference  (CD-ROM), Wiley-TMS , 2014, p. 227-234Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants and advanced ultra-supercritical (AUSC) thermal power plants are believed to be used as future power plants for high efficient and clean energy production. Increase in the efficiency of these plants is mainly attributed to the increase in temperature and pressure, and the consequent environments become much tougher. This will give a great challenge to the materials used in these plants. The new materials with even higher creep strength combined with better corrosion resistance need to be developed. This paper will provide an overview on the newly developed advanced heat resistant materials for these applications. It will mainly focus the following two types of materials. One is a newly developed advanced heat resistant austenitic stainless steels for AUSC boilers. The material has been tested in several boilers in Europe. Another is one type of composite tube material for convective syngas cooler in the coal gasification process, reverse composite tubes for the fire-tube boiler. A 15 years' application experience of this type of composite tube material will be discussed.

  • 88.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Stenvall, Peter
    Strategy Research, Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken, Sweden.
    Mechanisms for Cleavage Fracture in Duplex Stainless Steels2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 89.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stenvall, Peter
    Study of Impact Toughness Behaviour of Duplex Stainless Steels Using Instrumental Testing Machine2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 90.
    Chai, Guocai
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zhou, Nian
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken.
    Ciurea, Sorina
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken.
    Andersson, Marcus
    Sandvik Materials Technology, Sandviken.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Local Plasticity Exhaustion in a Very High Cycle Fatigue Regime2012In: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 66, no 10, p. 769-772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very high cycle fatigue behaviors of four metal materials with different microstructures have been studied focusing on their damage mechanisms. It was found that the cyclic plastic deformation in the materials was highly localized in the very high cycle regime or the elastic deformation regime. This high strain localization can cause local plasticity exhaustion, which leads to a stress concentration and consequently fatigue crack initation, and finally the formation of a subsurface non-defect fatigue crack origin.

  • 91.
    Chen, Zhe
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface Integrity and Fatigue Performance of Nickel-based Superalloys2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to global warming, the demand for more efficient gas turbines has increased. A way to achieve this, is by increasing the operating temperature of the gas turbine. Therefore, nickel-based superalloys have been developed to withstand these extreme temperatures and loads, especially in the hot sections. Today, the way of operating land-based gas turbines is changing. Instead of running for long periods of time, the operation is becoming more flexible, with ever-increasing cyclic loads and number of start and stop cycles. To handle the increased stress and cycles, component resistance to fatigue failures need to be improved.

    Surface integrity is critical to fatigue performance, since fatigue cracks normally initiate at a surface. Machining changes the surface integrity which can result in worse fatigue resistance. The work presented in this Ph.D. thesis was conducted in collaboration with Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Finspång, Sweden. Surface integrity changes which are induced during machining and their effects on fatigue performance have been studied on the alloy Inconel 718. Inconel 718 is a widely-used nickel-based superalloy for high temperature applications in modern gas turbines.

    Broaching, milling, and wire electrical discharge machining, related to component manufacturing in turbo machinery industries, were included in this study. Machining induced surface defects provide preferential sites for fatigue crack initiation which influence the fatigue performance of the alloy. If compressive residual stresses are induced during machining, they benefit the fatigue life by retarding fatigue crack initiation away from surface regions. Shot peening was performed on machined Inconel 718, by which high compressive residual stresses are deliberately induced. It results in enhanced fatigue performance.

    The high temperatures in gas turbines generally deteriorate the surface integrity. Recrystallization often occurs in the highly deformed surface layer. Microstructural degradation, in the form of α-Cr precipitates, have also been frequently observed in the deformed surface and sub-surface microstructure. Oxidation at elevated temperatures degrades the surface integrity and thereby also the fatigue performance. Fatigue cracks are preferably initiated at oxidized surface carbides, if thermal exposure has been made prior to the test. It is even worse when high temperatures relax the beneficial surface compression induced by shot-peening and thereby lowering the fatigue resistance.

    Machinability of a newly developed nickel-based superalloy, AD 730TM, and the surface integrity induced during turning have also been studied in this thesis project. AD 730TM is a candidate for turbine disc applications with an operating temperature above 650 °C. At such high temperatures, Inconel 718 is no longer stable and its mechanical properties start to degrade.

    To summarize, the results from this thesis work show the importance of understanding surface integrity effects for fatigue applications, especially in harsh environments. Moreover, the knowledge gained through this work could be used for surface enhancement of turbine components which are subjected to a high risk of fatigue failure. These will contribute to more efficient and flexible power generation by gas turbines.

    List of papers
    1. Surface Integrity and Structural Stability of Broached Inconel 718 at High Temperatures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Integrity and Structural Stability of Broached Inconel 718 at High Temperatures
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 47A, no 7, p. 3664-3676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The current study focused on the surface integrity issues associated with broaching of Inconel 718 and the structural stability of the broached specimen at high temperatures, mainly involving the microstructural changes and residual stress relaxation. The broaching operation was performed using similar cutting conditions as that used in turbo machinery industries for machining fir-tree root fixings on turbine disks. Thermal exposure was conducted at 723 K, 823 K, and 923 K (450 A degrees C, 550 A degrees C, and 650 A degrees C) for 30, 300, and 3000 hours, respectively. Surface cavities and debris dragging, sub-surface cracks, high intensity of plastic deformation, as well as the generation of tensile residual stresses were identified to be the main issues in surface integrity for the broached Inconel 718. When a subsequent heating was applied, surface recrystallization and alpha-Cr precipitation occurred beneath the broached surface depending on the applied temperature and exposure time. The plastic deformation induced by the broaching is responsible for these microstructural changes. The surface tension was completely relaxed in a short time at the temperature where surface recrystallization occurred. The tensile layer on the sub-surface, however, exhibited a much higher resistance to the stress relief annealing. Oxidation is inevitable at high temperatures. The study found that the surface recrystallization could promote the local Cr diffusion on the broached surface.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2016
    Keywords
    Structural integrity, Broaching, Inconel 718, Plastic deformation, Residual stresses, Thermal exposure, Superalloy
    National Category
    Materials Engineering Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111056 (URN)10.1007/s11661-016-3515-6 (DOI)000377434700041 ()
    Funder
    Linköpings universitet, 2009-00971
    Note

    The original title of this article when published in manuscript form was Structural integrity of broached Inconel 718 subjected to thermal exposure.

    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
    2. On the Conjoint Influence of Broaching and Heat Treatment on Bending Fatigue Behavior of Inconel 718
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Conjoint Influence of Broaching and Heat Treatment on Bending Fatigue Behavior of Inconel 718
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 671, p. 158-169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the conjoint effect of a broaching operation, similar to that used for machining fir-tree slots on turbine discs, and subsequent heat treatments at 550 °C and 650 °C on the fatigue performance and corresponding crack initiation behavior of forged Inconel 718 has been investigated. Four-point bending fatigue tests were conducted under load control on specimens of two groups, i.e. a polished group and a broached group, with totally six different surface conditions. Compared to the as-polished specimens, a beneficial effect of the broaching operation was found on the fatigue life due to the high compressive residual stresses on the broached surface which transfer the fatigue crack initiation from surface to sub-surface regions. Introducing a heat treatment generally deteriorated the fatigue performance of the alloy because of the oxidation assisted crack initiation, while the reduction in fatigue life was found to be more remarkable for the broached specimens, in particular when heat treated at 650 °C, as the thermal impact also led to a great relaxation of the compressive residual stresses; the combined effect, together with the substantial anomalies created by broaching on the surface, such as cracked carbides and machining grooves, caused an increased propensity to surface cracking in fatigue and consequently a loss of the lifetime. Furthermore, it was found that the occurrence of surface recrystallization at elevated temperatures in machined Inconel 718 could lead to intergranular oxidation, creating micro-notches as preferable sites for the fatigue crack initiation.

    Keywords
    Broaching, Inconel 718, Surface integrity, thermal impact, Fatigue, Crack initiation
    National Category
    Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129843 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2016.06.030 (DOI)000381165400016 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Faculty grant SFO-MAT-LiU at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB

    Available from: 2016-06-29 Created: 2016-06-29 Last updated: 2017-11-28
    3. Nano-scale characterization of white layer in broached Inconel 718
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nano-scale characterization of white layer in broached Inconel 718
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    2017 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 684, p. 373-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [sv]

    The formation mechanism of white layers during broaching and their mechanical properties are not well investigated and understood to date. In the present study, multiple advanced characterization techniques with nano-scale resolution, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), atom probe tomography (APT) as well as nano-indentation, have been used to systematically examine the microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanical properties of a surface white layer formed when broaching the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718.

    TEM observations showed that the broached white layer consists of nano-sized grains, mostly in the range of 20–50 nm. The crystallographic texture detected by TKD further revealed that the refined microstructure is primarily caused by strong shear deformation. Co-located Al-rich and Nb-rich fine clusters have been identified by APT, which are most likely to be γ′ and γ′′ clusters in a form of co-precipitates, where the clusters showed elongated and aligned appearance associated with the severe shearing history. The microstructural characteristics and crystallography of the broached white layer suggest that it was essentially formed by adiabatic shear localization in which the dominant metallurgical process is rotational dynamic recrystallization based on mechanically-driven subgrain rotations. The grain refinement within the white layer led to an increase of the surface nano-hardness by 14% and a reduction in elastic modulus by nearly 10% compared to that of the bulk material. This is primarily due to the greatly increased volume fraction of grain boundaries, when the grain size was reduced down to the nanoscale.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2017
    Keywords
    Surface integrity; White layer; Broaching; Inconel 718; Adiabatic shear band; Mechanically-based subgrain rotation
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry Inorganic Chemistry Other Materials Engineering Paper, Pulp and Fiber Technology Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-134123 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2016.12.045 (DOI)000393938300045 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: AForsk Foundation [15-334];  [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2017-01-24 Created: 2017-01-24 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
    4. Surface Integrity and Fatigue Performance of Inconel 718 in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Integrity and Fatigue Performance of Inconel 718 in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining
    2016 (English)In: 3RD CIRP CONFERENCE ON SURFACE INTEGRITY, 2016, Vol. 45, p. 307-310Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study to characterize the surface integrity in wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) of Inconel 718 and investigate its effect on the fatigue performance of the alloy in a four-point bending fatigue mode at room temperature. The EDM process generates a rough recast surface with multi-types of defects. Surface craters, micro-cracks and micro-voids within the recast layer have been found to be most detrimental from the point of view of fatigue as they could provide many preferential initiation sites for fatigue cracks. As a consequence, the specimens with an EDM cut surface show an approximately 30% decrease in fatigue life compared to those with a polished surface, and multiple crack origins were observed on the fracture surface. The high tensile residual stresses generated on the EDM cut surface, on the other hand, are also believed to be partly responsible for the loss in fatigue life of the alloy machined by EDM.

    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271
    Keywords
    wire electrical discharge machining (wire EDM), surface integrity, fatigue, crack initiation, Inconel 718
    National Category
    Materials Engineering Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130582 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.053 (DOI)000417326500077 ()
    Conference
    3rd CIRP Conference on Surface Integrity (CIRP CSI)8-10 June, 2016, Charlotte, USA
    Note

    Funding agencies: Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB; Strategic Faculty Grant AFM at Linkoping University

    Available from: 2016-08-17 Created: 2016-08-17 Last updated: 2018-03-28
    5. Effect of Cooling and Shot Peening on Residual Stresses and Fatigue Performance of Milled Inconel 718
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Cooling and Shot Peening on Residual Stresses and Fatigue Performance of Milled Inconel 718
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Residual Stresses 2016 ICRS 10 / [ed] T.M. Holden, O. Muránsky, and L. Edwards, 2017, Vol. 2, p. 13-18Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study highlights the effect of cooling and post-machining surface treatment of shot peening on the residual stresses and corresponding fatigue life of milled superalloy Inconel 718. It was found that tensile residual stresses were created on the milled surface, regardless of the use of coolant, however, the wet milling operation led to a lower surface tension and a reduced thickness of the tensile layer. The shot peening performed on the dry-milled specimens completely annihilated the surface tensile residual tresses and introduced a high level of surface compression. A comparable fatigue life for the wet-milled specimens was obtained as compared with the specimens prepared by dry milling. This is very likely attributed to that the milling-induced surface damage with respect to cracked non-metallic inclusions is the predominant cause of the fatigue failure. The presence of the compressive layer induced by shot peening resulted in a significant increase of the fatigue life and strength, while the extent to which the lifetime was prolonged was decreased as the applied load was increased.

    Series
    Materials Research Proceedings, ISSN 2474-395X
    Keywords
    Residual stresses, surface integrity, milling, shot peening, superalloys, fatigue
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132001 (URN)10.21741/9781945291173-3 (DOI)000401041500003 ()978-1-9452-9116-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    10th International Conference on Residual Stresses ICRS-10, Sydney, Australia, 3-8 July 2016
    Note

    Funding agencies: Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Ytstruktur Arboga AB; Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB

    Available from: 2016-10-13 Created: 2016-10-13 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
  • 92.
    Chen, Zhe
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Surface Integrity of Broached Inconel 718 and Influence of Thermal Exposure2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inconel 718 is a nickel-based superalloy that is extensively used as a disc material in gas turbine engines. The service life of gas turbine discs is normally governed by the modes of material degradation and fatigue failure since they work mostly at high temperatures and are subjected to cyclic mechanical loadings. Fatigue failures often start with the initiation of cracks at the surface and the precise details of the failure process significantly depend on the surface conditions. In turbine disc production, one of the last manufacturing steps is to broach root fixings, commonly of fir-tree design, for blade mounting. It has always been a challenge when machining Inconel 718 due to its high strength retention at elevated temperatures, rapid work hardening, as well as low thermal conductivity. This usually leads to rapid tool wear, and consequently shorter tool life, and at the end to the deterioration of the surface integrity of the machined components.

    The aim of this licentiate thesis is to increase our knowledge about the surface integrity, especially microstructure and residual stresses, of broached Inconel 718 and its stability under thermal exposure. This knowledge can later be used for analyzing the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks in broached Inconel 718, particularly in the case of high temperature fatigue, thereby giving a better understanding of the failure mechanism of gas turbine discs from a fatigue point of view.

    A broaching operation has been performed using similar cutting conditions as that used in turbo machinery industries for producing fir-tree root fixings. In addition, service damages were analyzed in a retired dis of Inconel 718. Surface defects, severe plastic deformation and generation of high tensile residual stresses have been found to be the main damages to the surface integrity caused by the broaching operation. The machining induced plastic deformation was found to accelerate the microstructural degradation beneath the broached surface when subjected to thermal exposure. The surface tensile residual stresses can be completely removed after short thermal exposure, the tensile layer in the sub-surface region, however, exhibited a high resistance to stress relief at high temperatures. The damage analysis on the retired disc indicated that presence of the highly deformed layer on the machined surface is negative for preventing the occurrence of fretting fatigue in turbine discs.

    List of papers
    1. Surface Integrity and Structural Stability of Broached Inconel 718 at High Temperatures
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Integrity and Structural Stability of Broached Inconel 718 at High Temperatures
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 47A, no 7, p. 3664-3676Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The current study focused on the surface integrity issues associated with broaching of Inconel 718 and the structural stability of the broached specimen at high temperatures, mainly involving the microstructural changes and residual stress relaxation. The broaching operation was performed using similar cutting conditions as that used in turbo machinery industries for machining fir-tree root fixings on turbine disks. Thermal exposure was conducted at 723 K, 823 K, and 923 K (450 A degrees C, 550 A degrees C, and 650 A degrees C) for 30, 300, and 3000 hours, respectively. Surface cavities and debris dragging, sub-surface cracks, high intensity of plastic deformation, as well as the generation of tensile residual stresses were identified to be the main issues in surface integrity for the broached Inconel 718. When a subsequent heating was applied, surface recrystallization and alpha-Cr precipitation occurred beneath the broached surface depending on the applied temperature and exposure time. The plastic deformation induced by the broaching is responsible for these microstructural changes. The surface tension was completely relaxed in a short time at the temperature where surface recrystallization occurred. The tensile layer on the sub-surface, however, exhibited a much higher resistance to the stress relief annealing. Oxidation is inevitable at high temperatures. The study found that the surface recrystallization could promote the local Cr diffusion on the broached surface.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2016
    Keywords
    Structural integrity, Broaching, Inconel 718, Plastic deformation, Residual stresses, Thermal exposure, Superalloy
    National Category
    Materials Engineering Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111056 (URN)10.1007/s11661-016-3515-6 (DOI)000377434700041 ()
    Funder
    Linköpings universitet, 2009-00971
    Note

    The original title of this article when published in manuscript form was Structural integrity of broached Inconel 718 subjected to thermal exposure.

    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2018-02-27Bibliographically approved
    2. Effect of thermal exposure on microstructure and nano-hardness of broached Inconel 718
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of thermal exposure on microstructure and nano-hardness of broached Inconel 718
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: MATEC Web of Conferences Vol. 14 (2014) EUROSUPERALLOYS 2014 – 2nd European Symposium on Superalloys and their Applications: Session 8: Recrystallization and Grain Growth / [ed] J.Y. Guédou and J. Choné, Les Ulis, France: E D P Sciences , 2014, p. 08002-p.1-08002-p.6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inconel 718 is a high strength, heat resistant superalloy that is used extensively for components in hot sections of gas turbine engines. This paper presents an experimental study on the thermal stability of broached Inconel 718 in terms of microstructure and nano-hardness. The broaching process used in this study is similar to that used in gas turbine industries for machining fir-tree root fixings on turbine discs. Severe plastic deformation was found under the broached surface. The plastic deformation induces a work-hardened layer in the subsurface region with a thickness of ∼50 μm. Thermal exposure was conducted at two temperatures, 550 C and 650 C respectively, for 300 h. Recrystallization occurs in the surface layer during thermal exposure at 550 C and α-Cr precipitates as a consequence of the growth of recrystallized δ phases. More recrystallized grains with a larger size form in the surface layer and the α-Cr not only precipitates in the surface layer, but also in the sub-surface region when the thermal exposure temperature goes up to 650 C. The thermal exposure leads to an increase in nano-hardness both in the work-hardened layer and in the bulk material due to the coarsening of the main strengthening phase γ′′.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Les Ulis, France: E D P Sciences, 2014
    Series
    MATEC Web of Conferences, ISSN 2261-236X ; Volume 14
    Keywords
    Structural integrity, Broaching, Inconel 718, Plastic deformation, Residual stresses, Thermal exposure, Superalloy
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111058 (URN)10.1051/matecconf/20141408002 (DOI)000351930400024 ()2-s2.0-84906910411 (Scopus ID)
    Conference
    2nd European Symposium on Superalloys and Their Applications, May 12-16, 2014, French Riviera, Giens, France
    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2016-09-07Bibliographically approved
    3. Analysis of Thermal Effect on Residual Stresses of Broached Inconel 718
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of Thermal Effect on Residual Stresses of Broached Inconel 718
    Show others...
    2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inconel 718 is a nickel based superalloy that is widely used as a turbine disc material in gas turbine industries. This study details the effect of thermal exposure on the residual stresses produced when broaching Inconel 718. The chosen parameters for broaching in this study are similar to those used when manufacturing turbine discs. The broaching operation produced a high level of tensile residual stresses at the broached surface. A layer with tensile residual stresses was formed in the sub-surface region, followed by a layer several times thicker with compressive residual stresses. Thermal exposure was conducted at 550 °C. The depth distributions of residual stresses after thermal exposure are presented and discussed in this paper. Complete relaxation of the surface tensile residual stresses was observed after 30 h thermal exposure, whereas the 3000 h thermal exposure influenced both the surface and sub-surface residual stress states.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2014
    Series
    Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 1022-6680 ; 996
    Keywords
    Broaching, Incone 718, Residual Stresses, Thermal Exposure, Recrystallization
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111057 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.996.574 (DOI)000348282100093 ()
    Conference
    ECRS9 6-10 July, Troyes, Frankrike
    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2015-02-20Bibliographically approved
    4. Damage analysis of a retired gas turbine disc
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Damage analysis of a retired gas turbine disc
    2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2014 Energy Materials Conference, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 405-410Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas turbine discs operate mostly at high temperature gradients and are subjected to mechanical loads simultaneously. The high thermal and mechanical loads eventually could result in degradation and damages in disc material, thereby increasing the risk of disc failure. In this study, a damage analysis was performed in a retired gas turbine disc made of Inconel 718. Oxidation attack and microstructural degradation as the consequence of the high service temperature have been found to be the main damages that take place in the non-contact area of the retired disc. In the blade/disc contact area, fretting fatigue occurs, with a result that cracks initiate from the oxide/metal interface and propagate in the disc alloy parallel to the sliding direction of fretting, consequently reducing the stability and safety of the disc. Meantime, oxygen diffuses into the fretting fatigue cracks, thereby exacerbating the oxidation attack. A multi-layered scale with periodic formation of the Fe-oxide/spinel layer and the metallic layer is formed on the contact surface. In both contact and non-contact area, recrystallization and α-Cr precipitation take place in the surface layer of the disc alloy. The locations where α-Cr precipitates are commonly considered to be the natural sites for mechanical weakness.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2014
    National Category
    Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111060 (URN)000364592900047 ()978-1-119-02794-2 (ISBN)
    Conference
    Energy Materials 2014 TMS, November 4-6, 2014, Xi’an, China
    Available from: 2014-10-06 Created: 2014-10-06 Last updated: 2015-12-07Bibliographically approved
  • 93.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hörnqvist Colliander, Magnus
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sundell, Gustav
    Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhou, Jinming
    Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nano-scale characterization of white layer in broached Inconel 7182017In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 684, p. 373-384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    The formation mechanism of white layers during broaching and their mechanical properties are not well investigated and understood to date. In the present study, multiple advanced characterization techniques with nano-scale resolution, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD), atom probe tomography (APT) as well as nano-indentation, have been used to systematically examine the microstructural evolution and corresponding mechanical properties of a surface white layer formed when broaching the nickel-based superalloy Inconel 718.

    TEM observations showed that the broached white layer consists of nano-sized grains, mostly in the range of 20–50 nm. The crystallographic texture detected by TKD further revealed that the refined microstructure is primarily caused by strong shear deformation. Co-located Al-rich and Nb-rich fine clusters have been identified by APT, which are most likely to be γ′ and γ′′ clusters in a form of co-precipitates, where the clusters showed elongated and aligned appearance associated with the severe shearing history. The microstructural characteristics and crystallography of the broached white layer suggest that it was essentially formed by adiabatic shear localization in which the dominant metallurgical process is rotational dynamic recrystallization based on mechanically-driven subgrain rotations. The grain refinement within the white layer led to an increase of the surface nano-hardness by 14% and a reduction in elastic modulus by nearly 10% compared to that of the bulk material. This is primarily due to the greatly increased volume fraction of grain boundaries, when the grain size was reduced down to the nanoscale.

  • 94.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface Integrity and Fatigue Performance of Inconel 718 in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining2016In: 3RD CIRP CONFERENCE ON SURFACE INTEGRITY, 2016, Vol. 45, p. 307-310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study to characterize the surface integrity in wire electrical discharge machining (EDM) of Inconel 718 and investigate its effect on the fatigue performance of the alloy in a four-point bending fatigue mode at room temperature. The EDM process generates a rough recast surface with multi-types of defects. Surface craters, micro-cracks and micro-voids within the recast layer have been found to be most detrimental from the point of view of fatigue as they could provide many preferential initiation sites for fatigue cracks. As a consequence, the specimens with an EDM cut surface show an approximately 30% decrease in fatigue life compared to those with a polished surface, and multiple crack origins were observed on the fracture surface. The high tensile residual stresses generated on the EDM cut surface, on the other hand, are also believed to be partly responsible for the loss in fatigue life of the alloy machined by EDM.

  • 95.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, David
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, SE-61283 Finspång, Sweden.
    On the Conjoint Influence of Broaching and Heat Treatment on Bending Fatigue Behavior of Inconel 7182016In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 671, p. 158-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the conjoint effect of a broaching operation, similar to that used for machining fir-tree slots on turbine discs, and subsequent heat treatments at 550 °C and 650 °C on the fatigue performance and corresponding crack initiation behavior of forged Inconel 718 has been investigated. Four-point bending fatigue tests were conducted under load control on specimens of two groups, i.e. a polished group and a broached group, with totally six different surface conditions. Compared to the as-polished specimens, a beneficial effect of the broaching operation was found on the fatigue life due to the high compressive residual stresses on the broached surface which transfer the fatigue crack initiation from surface to sub-surface regions. Introducing a heat treatment generally deteriorated the fatigue performance of the alloy because of the oxidation assisted crack initiation, while the reduction in fatigue life was found to be more remarkable for the broached specimens, in particular when heat treated at 650 °C, as the thermal impact also led to a great relaxation of the compressive residual stresses; the combined effect, together with the substantial anomalies created by broaching on the surface, such as cracked carbides and machining grooves, caused an increased propensity to surface cracking in fatigue and consequently a loss of the lifetime. Furthermore, it was found that the occurrence of surface recrystallization at elevated temperatures in machined Inconel 718 could lead to intergranular oxidation, creating micro-notches as preferable sites for the fatigue crack initiation.

  • 96.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moverare, Johan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Damage analysis of a retired gas turbine disc2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 Energy Materials Conference, John Wiley & Sons, 2014, p. 405-410Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas turbine discs operate mostly at high temperature gradients and are subjected to mechanical loads simultaneously. The high thermal and mechanical loads eventually could result in degradation and damages in disc material, thereby increasing the risk of disc failure. In this study, a damage analysis was performed in a retired gas turbine disc made of Inconel 718. Oxidation attack and microstructural degradation as the consequence of the high service temperature have been found to be the main damages that take place in the non-contact area of the retired disc. In the blade/disc contact area, fretting fatigue occurs, with a result that cracks initiate from the oxide/metal interface and propagate in the disc alloy parallel to the sliding direction of fretting, consequently reducing the stability and safety of the disc. Meantime, oxygen diffuses into the fretting fatigue cracks, thereby exacerbating the oxidation attack. A multi-layered scale with periodic formation of the Fe-oxide/spinel layer and the metallic layer is formed on the contact surface. In both contact and non-contact area, recrystallization and α-Cr precipitation take place in the surface layer of the disc alloy. The locations where α-Cr precipitates are commonly considered to be the natural sites for mechanical weakness.

  • 97.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Avdovic, Pajazit
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery, Finspång, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Zhou, Jinming
    Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund university.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of Thermal Effect on Residual Stresses of Broached Inconel 7182014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inconel 718 is a nickel based superalloy that is widely used as a turbine disc material in gas turbine industries. This study details the effect of thermal exposure on the residual stresses produced when broaching Inconel 718. The chosen parameters for broaching in this study are similar to those used when manufacturing turbine discs. The broaching operation produced a high level of tensile residual stresses at the broached surface. A layer with tensile residual stresses was formed in the sub-surface region, followed by a layer several times thicker with compressive residual stresses. Thermal exposure was conducted at 550 °C. The depth distributions of residual stresses after thermal exposure are presented and discussed in this paper. Complete relaxation of the surface tensile residual stresses was observed after 30 h thermal exposure, whereas the 3000 h thermal exposure influenced both the surface and sub-surface residual stress states.

  • 98.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Avdovic, Pajazit
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Zhou, Jinming
    Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund university, Sweden.
    Moverare, Johan
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effect of thermal exposure on microstructure and nano-hardness of broached Inconel 7182014In: MATEC Web of Conferences Vol. 14 (2014) EUROSUPERALLOYS 2014 – 2nd European Symposium on Superalloys and their Applications: Session 8: Recrystallization and Grain Growth / [ed] J.Y. Guédou and J. Choné, Les Ulis, France: E D P Sciences , 2014, p. 08002-p.1-08002-p.6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inconel 718 is a high strength, heat resistant superalloy that is used extensively for components in hot sections of gas turbine engines. This paper presents an experimental study on the thermal stability of broached Inconel 718 in terms of microstructure and nano-hardness. The broaching process used in this study is similar to that used in gas turbine industries for machining fir-tree root fixings on turbine discs. Severe plastic deformation was found under the broached surface. The plastic deformation induces a work-hardened layer in the subsurface region with a thickness of ∼50 μm. Thermal exposure was conducted at two temperatures, 550 C and 650 C respectively, for 300 h. Recrystallization occurs in the surface layer during thermal exposure at 550 C and α-Cr precipitates as a consequence of the growth of recrystallized δ phases. More recrystallized grains with a larger size form in the surface layer and the α-Cr not only precipitates in the surface layer, but also in the sub-surface region when the thermal exposure temperature goes up to 650 C. The thermal exposure leads to an increase in nano-hardness both in the work-hardened layer and in the bulk material due to the coarsening of the main strengthening phase γ′′.

  • 99.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Avdovic, Pajazit
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Zhou, Jinming
    Division of Production and Materials Engineering, Lund university.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Surface Integrity and Structural Stability of Broached Inconel 718 at High Temperatures2016In: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions. A, ISSN 1073-5623, E-ISSN 1543-1940, Vol. 47A, no 7, p. 3664-3676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study focused on the surface integrity issues associated with broaching of Inconel 718 and the structural stability of the broached specimen at high temperatures, mainly involving the microstructural changes and residual stress relaxation. The broaching operation was performed using similar cutting conditions as that used in turbo machinery industries for machining fir-tree root fixings on turbine disks. Thermal exposure was conducted at 723 K, 823 K, and 923 K (450 A degrees C, 550 A degrees C, and 650 A degrees C) for 30, 300, and 3000 hours, respectively. Surface cavities and debris dragging, sub-surface cracks, high intensity of plastic deformation, as well as the generation of tensile residual stresses were identified to be the main issues in surface integrity for the broached Inconel 718. When a subsequent heating was applied, surface recrystallization and alpha-Cr precipitation occurred beneath the broached surface depending on the applied temperature and exposure time. The plastic deformation induced by the broaching is responsible for these microstructural changes. The surface tension was completely relaxed in a short time at the temperature where surface recrystallization occurred. The tensile layer on the sub-surface, however, exhibited a much higher resistance to the stress relief annealing. Oxidation is inevitable at high temperatures. The study found that the surface recrystallization could promote the local Cr diffusion on the broached surface.

  • 100.
    Chen, Zhe
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Peng, Ru Lin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhou, Jinming
    Bushlya, Volodymyr
    Saoubi, Rachid M
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Moverare, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of Cutting Conditions on Machinability of AD 730 TM during High Speed Turning with PCBN Tools2017Conference paper (Refereed)
1234567 51 - 100 of 427
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