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  • 51.
    Bergh, Claes-Hakan
    et al.
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Andersson, Bert
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Forfang, Kolbjorn
    Rikshosp University Hospital.
    Kivikko, Matti
    Orion Pharma.
    Sarapohja, Toni
    Orion Pharma.
    Ullman, Bengt
    Soder Sjukhuset, Stockholm.
    Wikstrom, Gerhard
    Akad Hospital.
    Intravenous levosimendan vs. dobutamine in acute decompensated heart failure patients on beta-blockers2010In: EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF HEART FAILURE, ISSN 1388-9842, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 404-410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims The aim of this study is to compare the effects of a 24 h intravenous infusion of levosimendan and a 48 h infusion of dobutamine on invasive haemodynamics in patients with acutely decompensated chronic NYHA class III- IV heart failure. All patients were receiving optimal oral therapy including a beta- blocker. Methods and results This was a multinational, randomized, double- blind, phase IV study in 60 patients; follow- up was 1 month. There was a significant increase in cardiac index and a significant decrease in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) at 24 and 48 h for both dobutamine and levosimendan. The improvement in cardiac index with levosimendan was not significantly different from dobutamine at 24 h (P = 0.07), but became significant at 48 h (0.44 +/- 0.56 vs. 0.66 +/- 0.63 L/min/m(2); P = 0.04). At 24 h, the reduction in the mean change in PCWP from baseline was similar for levosimendan and dobutamine, however, at 48 h the difference was more marked for levosimendan (23.6 +/- 7.6 vs. 28.3 +/- 6.7 mmHg; P = 0.02). No difference was observed between the groups for change in NYHA class, beta- blocker use, hospitalizations, treatment discontinuations or rescue medication use. Reduction in B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) was significantly greater with levosimendan at 48 h (P = 0.03). According to physicians assessment, the improvement in fatigue (P = 0.01) and dyspnoea (P = 0.04) was in favour of dobutamine treatment, and hypotension was significantly more frequent with levosimendan (P = 0.007). No increase in atrial fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia was seen in either group. Conclusion A 24 h levosimendan infusion achieved haemodynamic and neurohormonal improvement that was at least comparable at 24 h and superior at 48 h to a 48 h dobutamine infusion.

  • 52.
    Berglund, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Karlsson, Erling
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Betydande underbehandling av hög kolesterolnivå vid kranskärlssjukdom.2000In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 97, p. 155-157Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 53.
    Berglund, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Olin, Christian
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Diskutabel metodik ger missvisande resultat. SBU-studie av indikationer för ingrepp i hjärtats kranskärl kan ifrågasättas.1999In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 96, p. 700-702Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 54.
    Berglund, Ulf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Radiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Richter, Arina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Clopidogrel treatment before percutaneous coronary intervention reduces adverse cardiac events2002In: The Journal of invasive cardiology, ISSN 1042-3931, E-ISSN 1557-2501, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 243-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Platelet inhibition during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) generally reduces adverse cardiac events. There are very few data on the combination of aspirin and the platelet adenosine diphosphate-receptor inhibitor clopidogrel given before the intervention. Design. In a non-randomized comparison, a total of 706 consecutive patients received clopidogrel 375 mg in addition to aspirin on the day before PCI. The control group consisted of 724 consecutive PCI patients receiving only aspirin pre-treatment. Results. The two groups were well balanced regarding baseline characteristics. Pre-treatment with clopidogrel reduced the in-hospital composite of death, myocardial infarction or urgent revascularization by 41% compared to the control (8.2% versus 4.8%, respectively, p = 0.010). This was due to a decreased incidence of myocardial infarction (7.2% versus 4.4%, p = 0.024) and percutaneous reintervention (1.2% versus 0.3%, p = 0.039). There was no difference in femoral complications between the groups. For every patient in the clopidogrel group, there was a cost reduction of SEK 447 ($40 United States currency). Conclusion. Clopidogrel treatment in addition to aspirin before PCI was associated with a reduction of inhospital adverse cardiac events. It was also safe and cost-saving.

  • 55.
    Bergström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Andersson, B
    Edner, M
    Dept Cardiol, Linkoping, Sweden Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Danderyd Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nylander, E
    Persson, H
    Dept Cardiol, Linkoping, Sweden Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden Linkoping Univ, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Danderyd Hosp, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Carvedilol improves diastolic function in patients with diastolic heart failure.2001In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 104, no 17, p. 3388-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Bergström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Andersson, B
    Edner, M
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Clinical Physiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Persson, H
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Effect of carvedilol on diastolic function in patients with diastolic heart failure and preserved systolic function. Results of the Swedish Doppler-echocardiographic study (SWEDIC)2004In: European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN 1388-9842, E-ISSN 1879-0844, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 453-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of carvedilol on diastolic function (DF) in heart failure patients with preserved left ventricular (LV) systolic function and abnormal DF. Patients and Methods: We randomised 113 patients with diastolic heart failure (DHF) (symptomatic, with normal systolic LV function and abnormal DF) into a double blind multi-centre study. The patients received either carvedilol or matching placebo in addition to conventional treatment. After uptitration, treatment was continued for 6 months. Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography were used for quantification of LV function at baseline and at follow-up. Four different DF variables were evaluated by Doppler echocardiography: mitral flow E:A ratio, deceleration time (DT), isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT) and the ratio of systolic/diastolic pulmonary venous flow velocity (pv-S/D). Primary endpoint was change in the integrated quantitative assessment of all four variables during the study. Results: Ninety-seven patients completed the study. A mitral flow pattern reflecting a relaxation abnormality was recorded in 95 patients. There was no effect on the primary endpoint, although a trend towards a better effect in carvedilol treated patients was noticed in patients with heart rates above 71 beats per minute. At the end of the study, there was a statistically significant improvement in E:A ratio in patients treated with carvedilol (0.72 to 0.83) vs. placebo (0.71 to 0.76), P<0.05. Conclusions: Treatment with carvedilol resulted in a significant improvement in E:A ratio in patients with heart failure due to a LV relaxation abnormality. E:A ratio was found to be the most useful variable to identify diastolic dysfunction in this patient population. This effect was observed particularly in patients with higher heart rates at baseline. © 2004 European Society of Cardiology.

  • 57.
    Berterö, Carina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Carlsson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lundgren, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm, a one-year follow up: An interview study2010In: Journal of Vascular Nursing, ISSN 1062-0303, E-ISSN 1532-6578, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 97-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) and the finding of an enlarged aorta cause worries and affect the living situations of men with aneurysms or of their families within a 12-month follow-up period. Men invited to ultrasound screening and having an enlarged aorta (>/=30 mm) were invited for an interview. In total, 10 men were interviewed. The semi-structured interview was conducted by using an interview guide. Data was analyzed by using an interpretative phenomenological method. Three themes were identified: (i) feeling secure being under superintendence; (ii) living as usual, but repressing thoughts; and (iii) feeling disillusionment due to negative outcome. Being given the message that an enlarged aorta was discovered at the screening was manageable; hence, continuing growth of the aorta led to some unpleasant feelings. The men were living as usual; however, they all had some reflections about having an AAA and that something could happen when they least expected it. They reported thoughts about the consequences of the enlarged aorta itself and the surgery. In a one-year retrospective interview, men who have had an aneurysm detected in a screening program for AAA reported feeling secure being under superintendence. The one finding in our study concerning worries and effects on life situation could be interpreted as disillusionment due to negative outcomes. Decisions to introduce screening for AAA in Sweden and other countries with ongoing programs should be considered to include guidelines for how to handle disillusionment.

  • 58.
    Bjarnegård, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Arnqvist, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lindström, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Internal Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Jonsson, Anders
    Jönköping Hospital.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Long-term hyperglycaemia impairs vascular smooth muscle cell function in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus2009In: DIABETES and VASCULAR DISEASE RESEARCH, ISSN 1479-1641, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 25-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observations of increased stiffness in the elastic aorta in women with diabetes, but not men, emphasise the need for further analysis regarding early abnormalities in arterial wall properties of women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM).

    Ultrasound was used to study the wall properties of the distal brachial artery (BA) in 37 type 1 diabetic women (aged 22-45 years) without evident complications and in 53 controls (C). Blood samples were drawn for later analysis.

    Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was slightly lower in DM than C, 8.1 +/- 4.3% vs. 10.3 +/- 4.9% (p&lt;0.05), and nitrate-mediated dilatation (NMD) was markedly lower, 21.7 +/- 6.6% vs. 31.4 +/- 5.7% (p&lt;0.001). Lumen diameter, intima-media thickness and distensibility were similar in DM and C. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) was lower in DM than C, 231 +/- 65 vs. 349 +/- 68 ng/ml (p&lt;0.001). Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1C)) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9) were independent predictors of the reduced NMD in the DM.

    Brachial artery responsiveness to an exogenous donor of nitric oxide (NO) was markedly reduced in type 1 diabetic women despite only limited reduction in endothelium-dependent dilatation. The negative association between NMD and HbA(1C) suggests that long-term hyperglycaemia impairs vascular smooth muscle cell function in DM.

  • 59.
    Bjorck, L.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rosengren, A.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Wallentin, L.
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Smoking in relation to ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction: Findings from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions2009In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, Vol. 95, no 12, p. 1006-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: In the past few decades, clinical presentation in AMI has been reported to be changing, with milder cases and less ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the most serious form of AMI. The better outcome may be due to improved medical and interventional management, as well as more sensitive methods for detecting AMI. However, changes in risk factors have also been documented, especially lower tobacco-smoking rates. Therefore, the relation between smoking and ST-elevation AMI in a large observational cohort was analysed. Methods: Data were derived from 93 416 consecutive patients aged 25 to 84 years and admitted to hospital between 1996 and 2004 with a first AMI. Results: Tobacco smoking was more prevalent in younger patients (ie, less than65 years). More than 50% of younger patients presenting with STEMI were smokers at the time of hospitalisation. After multiple adjustments, smoking was found to be an independent determinant for presenting with STEMI compared with non-STEMI. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) associated with smoking was 2.01 (99% CI 1.75 to 2.30) in younger women and 1.33 (99% CI 1.22 to 1.43) in younger men, with a significant interaction between smoking and gender. In older women and men (=65 years), the corresponding ORs were 1.33 (99% CI 1.20 to 1.48) and 1.14 (99% CI 1.04 to 1.25), respectively. Conclusion: Tobacco smoking is a major determinant for presenting with STEMI compared with non-STEMI, particularly among younger patients and among women. These results indicate that smoking is one of the major risk factors for presenting with more severe AMIs.

  • 60.
    Bjorck, Lena M
    et al.
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Sahlgrens University Hospital.
    Medication in Relation to ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: Findings from the Register of Information and Knowledge About Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA)2009In: CIRCULATION, ISSN 0009-7322: vol 119, issue 10, 2009, Vol. 119, no 10, p. E355-E355Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 61.
    Bjorck, Lena
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Wallentin, Lars
    Uppsala Clinical Research Centre.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Lappas, George
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Rosengren, Annika
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital.
    Medication in Relation to ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction in Patients With a First Myocardial Infarction Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge About Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA)2010In: ARCHIVES OF INTERNAL MEDICINE, ISSN 0003-9926, Vol. 170, no 15, p. 1375-1381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The extent and the severity of acute myocardial infarction (MI) is decreasing. Out-of-hospital medical management before the hospital admission could alter clinical presentation in acute MI. We used a large national patient register to investigate the relation between previous medication use (aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitors, and statins) and the risk of presenting with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) or non-STEMI. Methods: We included 103 459 consecutive patients from the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge About Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA) admitted between January 1, 1996, and December 31, 2006, with a first acute MI. Results: The patients with STEMI (43.5% of the total) were younger, had less prior cardiovascular disease, and used fewer medications before hospitalization. Of the STEMI patients, 61.4% had used no medication vs 45.9% of the patients with non-STEMI. After multiple adjustments, use of aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, and statins before hospitalization were all associated with substantially lower odds of presenting with STEMI. Furthermore, the risk decreased with the number of previous medications, and the use of 3 or more medications was associated with a multiply adjusted odds ratio of presenting with STEMI of 0.48 (99% confidence interval, 0.44-0.52) compared with no medications at admission. Conclusions: Use of aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors, or statins before hospital admission in patients with a first acute MI is associated with substantially less risk of presenting with STEMI. The risk decreases with the increasing number of these medications used before acute MI, underlining the benefit of preventive medication in high-risk patients.

  • 62. Bjorklund, E
    et al.
    Dellborg, M
    Lindahl, B
    Pehrsson, K
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Van de Werf, F
    Wallentin, L
    Outcome of myocardial infarction in the unselected population is vastly different from samples of eligible patients in large-scale clinical trials2002In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 23, p. 625-625Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 63. Bjorklund, E
    et al.
    Lindahl, B
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Dellborg, M
    Pehrsson, K
    Van De Werf, F
    Wallentin, L
    Outcome of ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis in the unselected population is vastly different from samples of eligible patients in a large-scale clinical trial2004In: American Heart Journal, ISSN 0002-8703, E-ISSN 1097-6744, Vol. 148, no 4, p. 566-573Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Patients in clinical trials of fibrinolytic agents have been shown to be younger, less often female, and to have lower risk characteristics and a better outcome compared with unselected patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. However, a direct comparison of patients treated with fibrinolytic agents and not enrolled versus those enrolled in a trial, including a large number of patients, has not been performed. Methods Prospective data from the Swedish Register of Cardiac Intensive Care on patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents in 60 Swedish hospitals were linked to data on trial participants in the ASsessment of Safety and Efficacy of a New Thrombolytic (ASSENT)-2 trial of fibrinolytic agents. Baseline characteristics, treatments, and long-term outcome were evaluated in 729 trial participants (A2), 2048 nonparticipants at trial hospitals (non-A2), and 964 nonparticipants at other hospitals (non-A2-Hosp). Results Nontrial patients compared with A2 patients were older and had higher risk characteristics and more early complications, although the treatments were similar. Patients at highest risk of death were the least likely to be enrolled in the trial. The 1-year mortality rate was 8.8% versus 20.3% and 19.0% (P < .001 for both) among A2 compared with non-A2 and non-A2-Hosp patients, respectively. After adjustment for a number of risk factors, the 1-year mortality rate was still twice as high in nontrial compared with A2 patients. Conclusions The adjusted 1-year mortality rate was twice as high in patients treated with fibrinolytic agents and not enrolled in a clinical trial compared with those enrolled. One major reason for the difference in outcome appeared to be the selection of less critically ill patients to the trial.

  • 64.
    Björck, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Länne, Toste
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Alehagen, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Persson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rundkvist, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hamsten, A
    Karolinska Institute.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Eriksson, P
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Association of genetic variation on chromosome 9p21.3 and arterial stiffness2009In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 265, no 3, p. 373-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome wide association studies have consistently reported associations between a region on chromosome 9p21.3 and a broad range of vascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease (CAD), aortic and intracranial aneurysms and type-2 diabetes (T2D). However, clear associations with intermediate phenotypes have not been described so far. To shed light on a possible influence of this chromosomal region on arterial wall integrity, we analysed associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and degree of stiffness of the abdominal aorta in elderly individuals.

    A total of 400 subjects, 212 men and 188 women, aged 70-88 years were included. Arterial stiffness was examined at the midpoint between the renal arteries and the aortic bifurcation. Two CAD- and aneurysm-associated SNPs (rs10757274 and rs2891168) and one T2D-associated SNP (rs1081161) within the 9p21.3 region were genotyped. Aortic compliance and distensibility coefficients were higher in carriers of the rs10757274G and rs2891168G alleles in men reflecting a decrease in aortic stiffness. Adjustment for age and mean arterial pressure had no effect on these associations. The two SNPs were not associated with intima-media thickness or lumen diameter of the abdominal aorta. There were no associations between the rs10811661 SNP and any measure of aortic stiffness.

    Impaired mechanical properties of the arterial wall may explain the association between chromosome 9p21.3 polymorphisms and vascular disease.

  • 65. Björck, L
    et al.
    Rosengren, A
    Wallentin, L
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Medication in relation to ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction -findings from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA)2008In: ESC,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract supplement: 198 

  • 66. Björck, L
    et al.
    Rosengren, A
    Wallentin, L
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Smoking and presentation with ST elevation in Swedish men and women with acute myocardial infarction.2006In: World Congress of Cardiology - ECS,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      Abstract 3988. European Heart J 2006. 

  • 67. Björkelund, Cecilia
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Calle
    Göteborg.
    Schenk-Gustafsson, Karin
    Kard klin KS Stockholm.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Hantering av hjärt-kärlsjukdom präglas av manligt perspektiv.2001In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 98, p. 3314-3318Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 68. Björklund, E
    et al.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Lindback, J
    Svensson, L
    A prehospital diagnostic strategy reduces time to treatment and mortality in real life STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention2005In: Congress of the European Society of Cardiology,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 69. Björklund, E
    et al.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Lindback, J
    Svensson, L
    Prehospital diagnosis and start of treatment reduces time delay and mortality in real life patients with STEMI2005In: Congress of the European Society of Cardiology,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 70. Björklund, E
    et al.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Lindbäck, J
    Svensson, L
    Wallentin, L
    Lindahl, B
    Prehospital diagnosis and start of treatment reduces time delay and mortality in real-life patients with STEMI2005In: Journal of Electrocardiology, ISSN 0022-0736, E-ISSN 1532-8430, Vol. 38, p. 186-186Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 71. Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Lindbäck, Johan
    Svensson, Leif
    Lindahl, Bertil
    Pre-hospital thrombolysis delivered by paramedics is associated with reduced time delay and mortality in ambulance-transported real-life patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction2006In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 1146-1152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: There are sparse data on the impact of pre-hospital thrombolysis (PHT) in real-life patients. We therefore evaluated treatment delays and outcome in a large cohort of ambulance-transported real-life patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) according to PHT delivered by paramedics or in-hospital thrombolysis. Methods and results: Prospective cohort study used data from the Swedish Register of Cardiac intensive care on patients admitted to the coronary care units of 75 Swedish hospitals in 2001-2004. Ambulance-transported thrombolytic-treated patients younger than age 80 with a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction were included. Patients with PHT (n = 1690) were younger, had a lower prevalence of co-morbid conditions, fewer complications, and a higher ejection fraction (EF) than in-hospital-treated patients (n = 3685). Median time from symptom onset to treatment was 113 min for PHT and 165 min for in-hospital thrombolysis. One-year mortality was 7.2 vs. 11.8% for PHT and in-hospital thrombolysis, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, after adjusting for baseline characteristics and rescue angioplasty, PHT was associated with lower 1-year mortality (odds ratio 0.71, 0.55-0.92, P = 0.008). Conclusion: When compared with regular in-hospital thrombolysis, pre-hospital diagnosis and thrombolysis with trained paramedics in the ambulances are associated with reduced time to thrombolysis by almost 1 h and reduced adjusted 1-year mortality by 30% in real-life STEMI patients. © The European Society of Cardiology 2006. All rights reserved.

  • 72.
    Blomstrand, Peter
    et al.
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jököping, Sweden.
    Maret, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ohlsson, Jan
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Scheike, Morten
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jan-Erik
    County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Säfström, Kåge
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahn, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Clinical Physiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pulsed tissue Doppler imaging for the detection of myocardial ischaemia, a comparison with myocardial perfusion SPECT2004In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 289-295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to compare the diagnostic ability of pulsed tissue Doppler and myocardial perfusion Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in patients with a history of unstable coronary artery disease, CAD, 26 patients, 22 men and four women, age 47-76 years, were investigated in a prospective study, 5-10 day after an episode of unstable angina. Tissue Doppler and two-dimensional echocardiography were performed during dobutamine stress testing and myocardial scintigraphy after bicycle exercise and at rest. Patients with a normal SPECT had higher peak systolic velocity during dobutamine infusion, 18.9 +/- 4.1 cm s(-1), than patients with ischaemia, 12.2 +/- 3.8 cm s(-1) (P<0.001) or scar, 8.8 +/- 3.0 cm s(-1) (P<0.01). In a territorial analysis the difference in peak systolic velocity between areas with a normal and abnormal SPECT was less apparent. Failure to achieve >/=13 cm s(-1) in mean-peak systolic velocity was the most accurate criterion for detection of significant CAD on SPECT. We conclude that pulsed tissue Doppler can be used for objective quantification of left ventricular wall motion during dobutamine stress testing and for identification of patients with CAD on SPECT but not for identification of regional ischaemia.

  • 73.
    Bolse, Kärstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Ingela
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Organisation of care for Swedish patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator, a national survey2011In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 20, no 17-18, p. 2600-2608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To describe the clinical aspects of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICD) care in Sweden with focus on organisation, the role and education of nurses, patient information and education, and areas in need of improvement.

    Background: ICD implantations have developed rapidly in recent years and is now an established arrhythmia treatment. The expanding indication for ICD implantation demands new competencies and resources in the ICD team members.

    Methods: Participants were recruited among physicians and nurses in all of the hospitals implanting ICDs (N=16). Data was collected by a questionnaire. Additionally, all written educational materials provided to patients pre- and post-implant were collected from all 16 hospitals. Deductive content analysis using Sarvimäki and Stenbock-Hult’s five holistic dimensions was employed to ascertain how information was provided in brochures and information materials.

    Results: Half of the hospitals (n=8) had nurse-based outpatient clinics and several others planned to introduce them. Three hospitals carried out distance follow-ups by means of telemonitoring. The nurses had received specific ICD education from ICD companies and/or various university courses. The biophysical dimension dominated in the information material while the emotional, intellectual, and socio-cultural dimensions were scarcely described, and the spiritual- existential was not referred to at all.

    Conclusion: Holistic care of ICD patients can be achieved by means of a multi-disciplinary ICD team and more patient-centred educational strategies. In Sweden, the organisation of ICD care and follow-up is developing towards more nurse-based clinics.

    Relevance to clinical practice: Development and implementation of structured care programmes with a more holistic approach, can improve future ICD care. The content of the written educational materials need to be more holistic, rather than mainly focusing on the biophysical and technical aspects of living with an ICD.

  • 74.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    How can nurses objectively measure sleep and sleep disordered breathing in patients with heart failure? A methodological description2005In: Annual spring meeting of the working group on cardiovascular nursing,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Sleep disturbances in patients with chronic heart failure and their holistic consequences-what different care actions can be implemented?2005In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 183-197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sleep disturbances are prevalent among elderly, especially among those with chronic heart failure (CHF) and can affect all dimensions of quality of life (QOL) negatively. Aim: To describe the most common causes leading to sleep disturbances in patients with CHF, their consequences from a holistic perspective and different care actions that can be implemented. Methods: MEDLINE and CINAHL databases were searched from 1989 to July 2004. Findings: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB), and insomnia were the most common causes for sleep disturbances and occurs in 45-82% (SDB) and one-third (insomnia) of all patients with CHF. SDB cause a disturbed sleep structure with frequent awakenings, as well as several adverse effects on the cardiovascular system causing increased morbidity and mortality. Insomnia, caused by anxiety, an unknown life situation in relation to the debut of CHF, or symptoms/deteriorations of CHF can lead to negative effects on all aspects of QOL, as well as daytime sleepiness. Conclusion: The high prevalence of sleep disturbances and their holistic consequences should be taken into account when nurses asses and plan the care for patients with CHF. Randomized studies with large sample sizes evaluating non-pharmacological nursing interventions that improve sleep are needed. © 2005 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 76.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Sleep disturbances in patients with chronic heart failure from a holistic perspective - A new nursing topic2005In: Annual spring meeting of the working group on cardiovascular nursing,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 77.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Albers, Jan
    City Hospital Ryhov.
    Wiberg, Jan
    City Hospital Ryhov.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Vaxjö University.
    6-month CPAP-treatment in a young male patient with severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome - A case study from the couples perspective2008In: European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, ISSN 1474-5151, E-ISSN 1873-1953, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 103-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) is independently associated with an increased risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can reduce mortality and morbidity, but low compliance rates are seen. Aim: To explore and describe the experiences of CPAP-treatment in a young male patient with severe OSAS during a 6-month period from the couples perspective.

    Methods and the case: A single case study with a phenomenographic approach was employed. Diagnostic procedures of OSAS and initiation of treatment with Auto-CPAP, humidifier and a nasal mask were performed during 4 visits. Conceptions were collected at 4 different occasions during the 6-month period (before, and 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after treatment initiation) by means of interviews with a 33-year old male patient and his female partner.

    Findings: Totally 17 different structural aspects were found to fluctuate during the 6-month period in relation to; influence of stressors, social reactions and adaptation to increase compliance.

    Conclusion: An increased knowledge about the influence of stressors, the social reactions, and the adaptation can help healthcare personnel to identify and better understand concerns of other patients and spouses during different time phases of the initial 6-month period of CPAP-treatment.

  • 78.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Albers, Jan
    Wiberg, Jan
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    P374 3-Month CPAP treatment in a young male patient with severe obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome - a qualitative case study from the couple´s perspective2006In: 8th World Congress on Sleep Apnea 27-30 September 2006,2006, 2006, p. 76-76Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Kihl, J
    Forslund, P
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Fridlund, B G
    Depressive symptoms in patients with chronic heart failure - effects on insomnia, daytime sleepiness and health-related quality of life2006In: World Congress of Cardiology,2006, 2006, p. 224-224Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Albers, J
    County Hospital Ryhov.
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome - Patients' perceptions of their sleep and its effects on their life situation2007In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 318-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Title. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome - patients' perceptions of their sleep and its effects on their life situation Aim. This paper reports a descriptive study of how untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome perceived their sleep situation and how the syndrome affected their life situation. Background. Obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome is a prevalent problem independently associated with an increased risk for hypertension, cardiovascular disease, chronic heart failure and mortality. Increased consumption of healthcare resources can often be seen among patients over a long period of time since many have been undiagnosed and untreated. Methods. A phenomenographic approach was employed. Data were collected by interviews during 2005 with 20 purposively selected participants with untreated obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. Findings. Participants described loud snoring, frequent awakenings, dyspnoea, frustration over nocturia, fear of dying during sleep and partners' anxiety about the apnoea, as being night-time effects of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. They described dry and sore throats, tiredness and daytime sleepiness, shame about falling asleep and snoring, thoughts about complications and depressed mood as daytime effects. Needs, such as increased alertness, improved ability to concentrate, improved relationship, adequate information as well as effective treatment, were described. Participants tried self-care strategies such as information-seeking about sleep disturbances and treatment, adapted sleeping routines, change of bedroom arrangements, adapted daily schedules, hyperactivity and avoidance of difficult situations. Conclusion. The perceived effects and needs, as well as tried self-care actions by the patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome in this study, could be used to identify and evaluate concerns of other patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome waiting for treatment. © 2007 The Authors.

  • 81.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science.
    Albers, Jan
    Wiberg, Jan
    Mårtensson, Jan
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome - Patient perceptions of their life situation before initiation of CPAP treatment2006In: 8th World Congress on Sleep Apnea 27-30 September, 2006,2006, 2006, p. 124-124Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, P
    n/a.
    Ulander, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Swahnborg, E
    n/a.
    Fridlund, B
    n/a.
    Adherence to CPAP treatment - a qualitative contnt analysis in patients with OSAS.2009In: 9th Annual Spring Meeting on Cardiovascular Nursing, CCNAP., 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 83.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Ulander, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Jonköping University.
    Putative facilitators and barriers for adherence to CPAP treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: A qualitative content analysis2010In: SLEEP MEDICINE, ISSN 1389-9457, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 126-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Effective treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) can reduce morbidity and mortality, but adherence rates are low without a clear consensus Of causes. Objective: To explore the experiences of adherence to CPAP treatment in patients with OSAS. Methods: A qualitative content analysis was employed. Data were collected by in-depth interviews with 23 purposively selected patients. Results: Adherence to CPAP treatment was summarized according to "facilitators" and "barriers" to CPAP treatment. Facilitators for adherence, as described by the patients were a desire to avoid symptoms, knowledge about the risk for medical consequences, fear of negative social consequences and disturbing the sleep of significant others. Other facilitators were a positive attitude to CPAP treatment, trust in healthcare personnel, a sense of engagement from the spouse and a feeling of physical improvement. Barriers included experiencing practical problems, negative psychological effects of the equipment, and negative attitudes to the treatment. Other barriers were side-effects as well as insufficient support from healthcare personnel and the spouse. Conclusion: Adherence to CPAP treatment is a multifaceted problem including patient, treatment, condition, social and healthcare related factors. Knowledge about facilitators and barriers for adherence to CPAP treatment can be used in interventional Strategies.

  • 84.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Ulander, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Fridlund, B
    Mårtensson, J
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Informational needs, side effects and their consequences on adherence: A comparison between swedish healthcare professionals and CPAP-treated patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome2007In: World Sleep 07,2007, 2007, p. 141-141Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 85.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Ulander, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fridlund, Bengt
    Vaxjö University.
    Martensson, Jan
    Jönköping University.
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Neurophysiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Perceived informational needs, side-effects and their consequences on adherence-A comparison between CPAP treated patients with OSAS and healthcare personnel2009In: Patient Education and Counseling, ISSN 0738-3991, E-ISSN 1873-5134, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 228-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To compare perceptions among continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treated patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and healthcare personnel with regard to informational needs, side-effects and their consequences on adherence.

    Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive design was used including 350 CPAP treated OSAS patients from three Swedish hospitals and 105 healthcare personnel from 26 Swedish hospitals. Data collection was performed using two questionnaires covering informational needs, side-effects and adherence to CPAP.

    Results: Both groups perceived all surveyed informational areas as very important. Patients perceived the possibilities to learn as significantly greater in all areas (p < 0.001) compared to healthcare personnel, and scored significantly higher regarding positive effects on adherence of information about pathophysiology (p < 0.05), self-care (p < 0.001) and troubleshooting (p < 0.01). A total of I I out of 15 surveyed side-effects were perceived to be more frequent by healthcare personnel (p < 0.01 - p < 0.001). They also scored all side-effects to cause greater problems and decrease the CPAP use to a greater extent (p < 0.001).

    Conclusion: Knowledge about these differences between patients and healthcare personnel regarding educational needs, side-effects and their effects on adherence can be important when designing educational programmes to increase CPAP adherence.

    Practice implications: Measurement of these parameters before, during and after educational programs are suggested.

  • 86.
    Broström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Neurophysiology.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Nursing Science. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Ulander, Martin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology.
    Mårtensson, J
    Svanborg, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Clinical Neurophysiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurophysiology UHL.
    Association of type D personality to perceived side effects and adherence in CPAP-treated patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome2007In: World Sleep 07,2007, 2007, p. 142-142Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 87.
    Caceres, R.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Richter, J.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of Neurosurgery UHL.
    Säfström, Kåge
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist in Motala.
    Editorial: Application of a vagal nerve stimulator in an epilepsy patient with cardiac pacemaker after post-ictal cardiac arrest2009In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 120, no 2, p. 139-142Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this case report we present a patient with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) showing partial complex seizures and secondary generalization, and treated with several antiepileptic drugs. After two consecutive seizures she had an episode of cardiac arrest followed by AV-block III which led to the implantation of a cardiac pacemaker. She subsequently received a vagal nerve stimulator because of poor response to epilepsy treatment. Combined treatment with two different electromagnetic stimulators raises the question of safety during surgery which is discussed.

  • 88.
    Caceres, R
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Richter, J
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Säfström, Kåge
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Landtblom, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Neurology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in the West of Östergötland, Department of Medical Specialist.
    Letter: Increased need for combinated nervus vagus-stimulators and electronic cardiac devices: aspects on methods and safety2010In: Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6314, E-ISSN 1600-0404, Vol. 121, no 4, p. 287-288Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 89. Carlsson, J
    et al.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Mueller, I
    Lagerqvist, B
    Coronary angiography and intervention in the very elderly: temporal trends, indications, and survival in 13,889 patients >=80 years of age2007In: ESC 2007,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 90.
    Carlsson, Jorg
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital.
    James, Stefan K
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Lindback, Johan
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Schersten, Fredrik
    Helsingborg Hospital.
    Nilsson, Tage
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Stenestrand, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Lagerqvist, Bo
    Uppsala University Hospital.
    Outcome of Drug-Eluting Versus Bare-Metal Stenting Used According to On- and Off-Label Criteria2009In: JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, ISSN 0735-1097, Vol. 53, no 16, p. 1389-1398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the outcome of bare-metal stents (BMS) versus drug-eluting stents (DES) after on-label as well as off-label use.

    Background DES lower restenosis rates while not influencing the risk for death and myocardial infarction when used in Federal Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved indications. It is debated whether the clinical results of this so-called on-label use might be extrapolated to off-label situations.

    Methods The SCAAR (Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry) was used to investigate the outcomes in 17,198 patients who underwent stenting with an on-label indication (10,431 BMS and 6,767 DES patients) and 16,355 patients in the context of an off-label indication (9,907 BMS and 6,448 DES patients). The patients were included from 2003 to 2005 with a minimum follow-up of 1 year and a maximum of 4 years. The analysis was adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics.

    Results There were not significant differences between on-label DES and BMS (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.02; 95% confidence interval: 0.92 to 1.13) or between off-label DES and BMS (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.87 to 1.04) use with regard to the incidence of myocardial infarction and death. Off-label use of DES did not lead to significant differences in the combined risk of death and myocardial infarction compared with BMS throughout the whole spectrum of clinical indications.

    Conclusions In contemporary Swedish practice, neither on-nor off-label use of DES is associated with worse outcome than use of BMS.

  • 91. Cherfan, P
    et al.
    Olsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Internal Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Endocrinology and Gastroenterology UHL.
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Effects of simvastatin on human t-cells in vivo2005In: European Atherosclerosis Society Congress,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 92. Cherfan, P
    et al.
    Tompa, A
    Wikby, A
    Löfgren, S
    Jonasson, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Effects of simvastatin on human T cells in vivo2007In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 193, no 1, p. 186-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The use of statins has shown several anti-inflammatory actions, including modulatory effects on T cells in vitro. Since the effects on human T cells in vivo are less clarified, our aim was to investigate the effects of simvastatin on human T cells in vivo and ex vivo. Methods and results: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study design was applied. Eighty volunteers with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia received either simvastatin 40 mg or placebo for 6 weeks. The serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly reduced by simvastatin. The proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets expressing early (CD25) or late (HLA-DR) activation markers, as assessed by flow cytometry, were not changed by simvastatin. However, simvastatin tended to increase the density of HLA-DR and L-selectin per CD8+ T cell. The T helper(h)1/Th2 response was evaluated by stimulatory assays followed by intra-cellular staining of interferon-γ and interleukin-4. Simvastatin treatment did not affect the Th1 response but the results indicated a potential to suppress Th2. Conclusion: Simvastatin treatment resulted in a few discrete changes as regards peripheral T cells. However, the findings do not provide evidence that simvastatin-induced anti-inflammatory actions are related to any significant modulatory effects on human T cells in clinically healthy men with hypercholesterolemia. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 93.
    Chéramy, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Skoglund, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Ingela
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Ludvigsson, Johnny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Paediatrics in Linköping.
    Hampe, Christiane S
    University of Washington.
    Casas, Rosaura
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Pediatrics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    GAD-alum treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes and the subsequent effect on GADA IgG subclass distribution, GAD(65) enzyme activity and humoral response2010In: Clinical Immunology, ISSN 1521-6616, E-ISSN 1521-7035, Vol. 137, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have previously shown that two injections of 20 mu g GAD-alum to recent onset type 1 diabetic children induced GADA levels in parallel to preservation of insulin secretion. Here we investigated if boosted GADA induced changes in IgG1, 2, 3 and 4 subclass distributions or affected GAD(65) enzyme activity. We further studied the specific effect of GAD-alum through analyses of IA-2A, tetanus toxoid and total IgE antibodies. Serum from children receiving GAD alum or placebo was collected pre-treatment and after 3, 9, 15 and 21 months. At 3 months a reduced percentage of IgG1 and increased IgG3/IgG4 were detected in GAD-alum treated. Further, IA-2A, IgE and tetanus toxoid antibodies, as well as GAD(65) enzyme activity, were unaffected confirming the specific effect of treatment. In the GAD-alum group, higher pretreatment GADA were associated to more pronounced C-peptide preservation. The induced IgG3/IgG4 and reduced IgG1 suggest a Th2 deviation of the immune response.

  • 94. Cizinsky, Stella
    et al.
    Löfmark, Rurik
    Janzon, Magnus
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Etik och hälsoekonomi, när bot inte längre är möjligt2008In: Fortbildningsdagar i Kardiologi,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 95. Cowie, MR
    et al.
    Jourdain, P
    Maisel, A
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Follath, F
    Isnard, R
    Luchner, A
    McDonagh, T
    Mair, J
    Nieminen, M
    Francis, G
    Clinical applications of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) testing2003In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 24, no 19, p. 1710-1718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many claims have been made in recent years regarding the utility of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration measurements in the diagnosis, risk stratification and monitoring of patients with heart failure. This paper summarizes the current evidence and provides guidance for practising clinicians. Overall, plasma BNP testing appears to be of most value in the diagnostic arena, where it is likely to improve the performance of non-specialist physicians in diagnosing heart failure. In clinical practice, BNP testing is best used as a 'rule out' test for suspected cases of new heart failure in breathless patients presenting to either the outpatient or emergency care settings, it is not a replacement for echocardiography and full cardiological assessment, which will be required for patients with an elevated BNP concentration. Although work is ongoing in establishing the 'normal' values of BNP, heart failure appears to be highly unlikely below a plasma concentration of 100 pg/ml. However, as BNP levels rise with age and are affected by gender, comorbidity and drug therapy, the plasma BNP measurement should not be used in isolation from the clinical context.

  • 96. Crijns, Harry J.
    et al.
    Van Gelder, Isabelle C.
    Walfridsson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Cardiology . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Kulakowski, Piotr
    Rónaszéki, Aladár
    Dedek, Vratislav
    Malm, Anders
    Almgren, Olle
    Safe and effective conversion of persistent atrial fibrillation to sinus rhythm by intravenous AZD7009.2006In: Heart Rhythm, ISSN 1547-5271, Vol. 3, no 11, p. 1321-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Acute drug conversion of persistent atrial fibrillation usually fails.

    Objectives

    The purpose of this study was to test the proarrhythmic potential, safety, and efficacy of the novel antiarrhythmic agent AZD7009 in patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter (mean duration 43 days) scheduled for direct current (DC) cardioversion.

    Methods

    Patients were randomized to AZD7009 (3-hour intravenous infusion; n = 86) or placebo (n = 36). AZD7009 was given in doses intended to produce target pseudo–steady-state plasma levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5 μmol/L after 30 minutes of infusion. DC cardioversion was performed if conversion to sinus rhythm (SR) did not occur within 2 hours of infusion.

    Results

    AZD7009 in a concentration-dependent manner increased the rate of conversion of AF to SR and shortened the time to conversion. At the three highest target concentrations of AZD7009, 45%, 64%, and 70% of AF patients converted after a mean time of 62, 55, and 26 minutes, respectively, whereas no placebo-treated patients converted. SR was maintained for 24 hours in 21 of 22 patients with drug-associated conversion. AZD7009 treatment was associated with QT-interval prolongation; the increase in QT corrected according to Fridericia typically ranged from 40 to 80 ms at targeted pseudo–steady-state plasma concentrations ≥0.75 μmol/L, but a number of outliers with QT corrected according to Fridericia >550 ms were seen in the higher concentration groups, particularly after conversion to SR and prolonged infusion. None of the patients exhibited torsades de pointes according to predefined criteria; however, one patient exhibited a nonsustained, polymorphic ventricular tachycardia of eight beats with torsades de pointes–like features after AZD7009 infusion (asymptomatic and discovered only upon retrospective Holter tape analysis). Clinical adverse events (primarily dizziness, bradycardia, hypotension, and nausea) were significantly more common in the highest target concentration AZD7009 group vs placebo (P <.001).

    Conclusion

    AZD7009 exhibited dose-dependent effects in converting AF to SR in AF patients and appeared to be associated with a low risk of proarrhythmia despite continued administration during a period of heightened vulnerability.

  • 97.
    Dahlin, Lars-Göran
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Eveling-Barbier, C.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Nylander, Eva
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Clinical Physiology.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre.
    Svedjeholm, Rolf
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Vectorcardiography is Superior to Conventional ECG for Detection of Myocardial Injury after Coronary Surgery2001In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 125-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective - The reliability of conventional scalar ECG for diagnosis of perioperative myocardial infarction (PMI) in cardiac surgery has been questioned. For the diagnosis of myocardial infarction in general vectorcardiography (VCG) is superior to ECG. Therefore, the usefulness of conventional VCG and computerized analysis of spatial VCG changes for diagnosis of PMI were studied.

    Design - VCG registrations were obtained from 218 patients undergoing coronary surgery. The spatial QRS vector loop area of each VCG registration was calculated and the loop area before surgery compared with the loop area after surgery. Conventional VCG criteria for myocardial infarction and set values for loop area reduction were related to sustained elevation of plasma troponin-T and clinical course.

    Results - Both conventional VCG criteria and spatial changes translated better than Q-waves on scalar ECG into elevation of biochemical markers of myocardial injury and impaired clinical course.

    Conclusion - VCG appears superior to conventional ECG as regards detection of myocardial injury in coronary surgery. Computerized programs have facilitated the registration and the interpretation of VCG and this methodology deserves further evaluation in cardiac surgery.

  • 98.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Can natriuretic peptides be used for the diagnosis of diastolic heart failure?2004In: European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN 1388-9842, E-ISSN 1879-0844, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 281-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many patients with heart failure have stiff hearts with an increased wall thickness and small volumes leading to diastolic dysfunction. Different definitions for diastolic heart failure have been proposed but today there is no generally accepted definition and there are few large controlled studies telling us how it should be managed. Natriuretic peptides (BNP or NT-proBNP) might be used to detect patients with diastolic dysfunction especially in those patients having a restrictive filling pattern or pseudo-normalised mitral flow pattern and in those, who are symptomatic. However, patients with relaxation abnormalities and mild symptoms or asymptomatic may have normal levels of the natriuretic peptides indicating no or only slight elevation of the left ventricular filling pressures. Thus low levels cannot be used as a rule out diagnosis of diastolic dysfunction.

  • 99.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    CIBIS II-studien Beta-blockad vid hjärtsvikt, förbättrar prognosen.1999In: Incitament, ISSN 1103-503X, Vol. 4, p. 40-44Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 100.
    Dahlström, Ulf
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Cardiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart Centre, Department of Cardiology.
    Frequent non-cardiac comorbidities in patients with chronic heart failure2005In: European Journal of Heart Failure, ISSN 1388-9842, E-ISSN 1879-0844, Vol. 7, no 3 SPEC. ISS., p. 309-316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heart failure (HF) in elderly patients is associated with more diffuse symptoms and signs due to the presence of other noncardiac comorbidities. This can cause difficulties in assessing the correct diagnosis and initiating appropriate therapy. The four most frequently occurring noncardiac comorbidities and therapies used to treat them are discussed in the present paper. Hypertension is an important precursor of HF, and is still the most common risk factor for HF in the general population. About 50% of patients with untreated hypertension will develop HF. Pressure overload leads to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction. Diabetes, which occurs in about 20-30% of patients with HF, is an important comorbidity resulting in morphological and metabolic disturbances affecting myocardial blood flow and hormonal regulation leading to a poor outcome and necessitating aggressive conventional treatment. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), occurs in approximately 20-30% of heart failure patients, and may complicate HF treatment, it is therefore important to recognize and treat it effectively. Finally, the early detection of anemia, which occurs in 20-30% of HF patients, is important since it is associated with functional impairment and increased mortality and morbidity. Combined treatment with erythropoietin and intravenous iron has shown beneficial effects on clinical symptoms and morbidity. In conclusion early detection of concomitant diseases in patients with HF is important and should be considered carefully when initiating therapy. © 2005 European Society of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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