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  • 51.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Ease of Language Understanding Model2022In: The Cambridge Handbook of Working Memory and Language, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022, p. 197-218Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To conceptualize the communicative role of working memory (WM), the Ease-of-Language Understanding (ELU) model was proposed (e.g., Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008, 2013, 2019, 2020). The model states that ease of language understanding is determined by the speed and accuracy with which the signal is matched to existing multimodal language representations. When matching is fast and complete, language understanding is effortless; this process may be facilitated by predictions based on the contents of WM. However, when the contents of the language signal mismatches with existing representations, WM is triggered to access knowledge in semantic long-term memory (SLTM) and personal experience from episodic long-term memory (ELTM) – promoting inference-making and postdictions in WM. The interplay between WM and LTM is fundamental to language understanding; its efficiency becomes apparent in adverse conditions and its breakdown may explain cognitive decline and dementia. Empirical support, limitations, and future studies will be discussed.

  • 52.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sharma, Anu
    Univ Colorado, CO 80309 USA.
    Signoret, Carine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Campbell, Tom A.
    Tampere Univ, Finland.
    Sorqvist, Patrik
    Univ Gavle, Sweden.
    Editorial: Cognitive hearing science: Investigating the relationship between selective attention and brain activity2022In: Frontiers in Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-4548, E-ISSN 1662-453X, Vol. 16, article id 1098340Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 53.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Signoret, Carine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Andin, Josefine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The cognitive hearing science perspective on perceiving, understanding, and remembering language: The ELU model2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 967260Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The review gives an introductory description of the successive development of data patterns based on comparisons between hearing-impaired and normal hearing participants speech understanding skills, later prompting the formulation of the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. The model builds on the interaction between an input buffer (RAMBPHO, Rapid Automatic Multimodal Binding of PHOnology) and three memory systems: working memory (WM), semantic long-term memory (SLTM), and episodic long-term memory (ELTM). RAMBPHO input may either match or mismatch multimodal SLTM representations. Given a match, lexical access is accomplished rapidly and implicitly within approximately 100-400 ms. Given a mismatch, the prediction is that WM is engaged explicitly to repair the meaning of the input - in interaction with SLTM and ELTM - taking seconds rather than milliseconds. The multimodal and multilevel nature of representations held in WM and LTM are at the center of the review, being integral parts of the prediction and postdiction components of language understanding. Finally, some hypotheses based on a selective use-disuse of memory systems mechanism are described in relation to mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Alternative speech perception and WM models are evaluated, and recent developments and generalisations, ELU model tests, and boundaries are discussed.

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  • 54.
    Samuelsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Speech and Language Pathology Unit, Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Dart—Centre for AAC and Assistive Technology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Region Västra Götaland, Habilitation & Health, Habilitation Children and youth, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division.
    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob
    Speech and Language Pathology Unit, Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Child Neuropsychiatric Clinic, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Gillberg Neuropsychiatry Centre, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    Department of Education and Special Education, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Gunilla
    Speech and Language Pathology Unit, Department of Health and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Dart—Centre for AAC and Assistive Technology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    My point of view: Students with intellectual and communicative disabilities express their views on speech and reading using Talking Mats2023In: British Journal of Learning Disabilities, ISSN 1354-4187, E-ISSN 1468-3156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background It can be challenging for people with intellectual disabilities to convey their thoughts and opinions because of cognitive, speech and language impairments. Consequently, facilitating their ability to communicate using augmentative and alternative communication methods is essential. The picture-based framework Talking Mats has been applied in many studies and has been shown to be successful in facilitating communication and soliciting views from individuals with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties. The aim of this study was to describe the views of students with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties on speech and reading activities and to examine whether valence scores (from negative to positive) on these views were associated with performance on tests of their corresponding abilities. Methods This is a cross-sectional quantitative survey study. A group of 111 students with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties aged 7–21 were interviewed about their speech and reading activities using the visual framework Talking Mats. Their answers were scored on a three-grade like-dislike continuum and were correlated with their results on adapted tests of the corresponding abilities. Findings The students expressed their views on speech and reading activities. The scored views on speech were positively associated with speech production, and the scored views on reading activities were positively related to reading ability. This suggests that their opinions as expressed through Talking Mats were consistent and reliable. Conclusions Most students with intellectual disabilities and communicative difficulties can reliably express their own opinions of their abilities when they are provided with a clear visual structure and pictorial support, such as Talking Mats. In this study, this was seen for students with a mild intellectual disability from age seven and onwards and for students with a more severe intellectual disability from 12 years of age and onwards.

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  • 55.
    Samuelsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden; Habilitat & Hlth, Sweden.
    Johnels, Jakob Asberg
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lundalv, Mats
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Gunilla
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    'To have a plan': teachers' perceptions of working with a literacy instruction combining phonics and comprehension applications for students with intellectual disability and communication difficulties2024In: Disability and Rehabilitation: Assistive Technology, ISSN 1748-3107, E-ISSN 1748-3115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeStudents with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically have difficulties with literacy learning, often not acquiring basic literacy skills. Research and practical experience indicate that when these students are provided with evidence-based instruction, including comprehension as well as phonemic strategies, literacy may develop.MethodsIn this study, four pairs of teachers were interviewed regarding their perceptions of a 12-week digital literacy intervention that focused on both phonics and comprehension strategies. The intervention aimed to enhance literacy and communication development in students aged 7-21, who had mild to severe ID.Results and conclusionFour themes were identified in the analysis. It was seen that the teachers found it valuable to have access to two apps accessing and facilitating the use of different literacy strategies in meeting the needs of individual students. This digital format was also perceived as positive, contributing to creating a supportive and systematic learning environment that enhanced and increased literacy learning. The teachers recurringly also talked about the positive influence of participating in research, lifting the strong focus, and positive attention as very important for both teachers and students.

  • 56.
    Samuelsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden; Habilitat Children & youth, Sweden.
    Åsberg Johnels, Jakob
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Thunberg, Gunilla
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heimann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The relationship between early literacy skills and speech-sound production in students with intellectual disability and communication difficulties: a cross-sectional study2023In: International Journal of Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 2047-3869, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier research and reports from educational practice seem to suggest that teaching early literacy skills may facilitate speech-sound production in students with intellectual disabilities, but further research is needed to confirm a potential connection. This study investigated (1) the relationship between speech-sound production, phonological awareness, and letter-sound knowledge in students with intellectual disabilities and communication difficulties, and (2) to what degree phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge explain the variance in speech-sound production over and above IQ and chronological age. A group of 116 students, aged 7–21, enrolled in Swedish compulsory schools for students with intellectual disabilities participated in this study. All had limited reading skills. The test results for phonological awareness, letter-sound knowledge, and speech-sound production had a wide range. The results showed that early literacy skills were moderately and significantly correlated with speech-sound production. After controlling for IQ and age in a regression model, the addition of phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge explained 29% of the variance in speech-sound production. The results suggest that phonological awareness and letter-sound knowledge is associated with speech-sound production and that these associations are not explained by age or IQ. Further research on this group of students should aim to determine causal relationships, for instance, by investigating early reading intervention and the potential effect on speech-sound production.

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  • 57.
    Schöld, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Östergren, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Levén, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hassler-Hallstedt, Martin
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    App-based mathematical intervention for youth with intellectual disabilities: a randomised controlled trial2023In: Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, ISSN 0031-3831, E-ISSN 1470-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether students with intellectual disabilities (ID) can improve their arithmetic skills by participating in an arithmetic intervention programme, theoretically founded on explicit instruction (EI) and administered via an application developed for tablet computers. The intervention study used a randomised controlled trial design (RCT) (n = 30, aged 10-16, 13 females) and lasted for up to 12 weeks. The results show that the intervention group significantly improved in arithmetic fact fluency compared to the controls and the effects remained six months after the intervention. The effects were larger for subtraction than for addition, and this difference remained six months later. These results suggest that mathematics applications based on explicit instruction can be an effective way of teaching arithmetic facts to youth with mild ID.

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  • 58.
    Shiell, Martha M.
    et al.
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Hoy-Christensen, Jeppe
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Skoglund, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Keidser, Gitte
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Zaar, Johannes
    Oticon AS, Denmark; Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Rotger-Griful, Sergi
    Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Multilevel Modeling of Gaze From Listeners With Hearing Loss Following a Realistic Conversation2023In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 66, no 11, p. 4575-4589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There is a need for tools to study real-world communication abilities in people with hearing loss. We outline a potential method for this that analyzes gaze and use it to answer the question of when and how much listeners with hearing loss look toward a new talker in a conversation.Method: Twenty-two older adults with hearing loss followed a prerecorded two person audiovisual conversation in the presence of babble noise. We compared their eye-gaze direction to the conversation in two multilevel logistic regression (MLR) analyses. First, we split the conversation into events classified by the number of active talkers within a turn or a transition, and we tested if these predicted the listener's gaze. Second, we mapped the odds that a listener gazed toward a new talker over time during a conversation transition.Results: We found no evidence that our conversation events predicted changes in the listener's gaze, but the listener's gaze toward the new talker during a silence-transition was predicted by time: The odds of looking at the new talker increased in an s-shaped curve from at least 0.4 s before to 1 s after the onset of the new talker's speech. A comparison of models with different random effects indicated that more variance was explained by differences between individual conversation events than by differences between individual listeners.Conclusions: MLR modeling of eye-gaze during talker transitions is a promising approach to study a listener's perception of realistic conversation. Our experience provides insight to guide future research with this method.

  • 59.
    Smart, Sophie E.
    et al.
    MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK; Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Agbedjro, Deborah
    Department of Biostatistics & Health Informatics, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Pardiñas, Antonio F.
    MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Ajnakina, Olesya
    Department of Biostatistics & Health Informatics, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Department of Behavioural Science and Health, Institute of Epidemiology and Health Care, University College London, London, UK.
    Alameda, Luis
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; Centro de Investigacion en Red Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Sevilla, Spain; Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, IBiS, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain; TIPP (Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program), Service of General Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Barnes, Thomas R.E.
    Division of Psychiatry, Imperial College London, UK.
    Berardi, Domenico
    Department of Biomedical and Neuro-motor Sciences, Psychiatry Unit, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Camporesi, Sara
    TIPP (Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program), Service of General Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland; Unit for Research in Schizophrenia, Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Cleusix, Martine
    Unit for Research in Schizophrenia, Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Conus, Philippe
    TIPP (Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program), Service of General Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto
    Centro de Investigacion en Red Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Sevilla, Spain; Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocio, IBiS, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.
    D'Andrea, Giuseppe
    Department of Biomedical and Neuro-motor Sciences, Psychiatry Unit, Alma Mater Studiorum Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Demjaha, Arsime
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Di Forti, Marta
    Social Genetics and Developmental Psychiatry, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience; , King's College London, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Do, Kim
    Unit for Research in Schizophrenia, Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Doody, Gillian
    Department of Medical Education, University of Nottingham Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nottingham, UK.
    Eap, Chin B.
    Unit of Pharmacogenetics and Clinical Psychopharmacology, Centre for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital, University of Lausanne, Prilly, Switzerland; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne, Geneva, Switzerland; Center for Research and Innovation in Clinical Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Lausanne, Switzerland; Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Western, Switzerland, University of Geneva, University of Lausanne.
    Ferchiou, Aziz
    Univ Paris Est Creteil, INSERM, IMRB, Translational Neuropsychiatry, Fondation FondaMental, Creteil, France; AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires H. Mondor, DMU IMPACT, FHU ADAPT, Creteil, France.
    Guidi, Lorenzo
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna Transcultural Psychosomatic Team (BoTPT), Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Homman, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jenni, Raoul
    Unit for Research in Schizophrenia, Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Joyce, Eileen
    Department of Clinical and Movement Neuroscience, UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology, University College London, London, UK.
    Kassoumeri, Laura
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Lastrina, Ornella
    Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Bologna Transcultural Psychosomatic Team (BoTPT), Alma Mater Studiorum – University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
    Melle, Ingrid
    Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.
    Morgan, Craig
    Health Service and Population Research, King's College London, London, UK; Centre for Society and Mental Health, King's College London, London, UK.
    O'Neill, Francis A.
    Centre for Public Health, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Queens University Belfast, Belfast, UK.
    Pignon, Baptiste
    Univ Paris Est Creteil, INSERM, IMRB, Translational Neuropsychiatry, Fondation FondaMental, Creteil, France; AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires H. Mondor, DMU IMPACT, FHU ADAPT, Creteil, France.
    Restellini, Romeo
    TIPP (Treatment and Early Intervention in Psychosis Program), Service of General Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland; Unit for Research in Schizophrenia, Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience, Department of Psychiatry, Lausanne University Hospital (CHUV), Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Richard, Jean-Romain
    Univ Paris Est Creteil, INSERM, IMRB, Translational Neuropsychiatry, Fondation FondaMental, Creteil, France.
    Simonsen, Carmen
    Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; Early Intervention in Psychosis Advisory Unit for South East Norway (TIPS Sør-Øst), Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital, Norway.
    Španiel, Filip
    Department of Applied Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, National Institute of Mental Health, Klecany, Czechia; Department of Psychiatry and Medical Psychology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czechia.
    Szöke, Andrei
    Univ Paris Est Creteil, INSERM, IMRB, Translational Neuropsychiatry, Fondation FondaMental, Creteil, France; AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires H. Mondor, DMU IMPACT, FHU ADAPT, Creteil, France.
    Tarricone, Ilaria
    Health Service and Population Research, King's College London, London, UK.
    Tortelli, Andrea
    Univ Paris Est Creteil, INSERM, IMRB, Translational Neuropsychiatry, Fondation FondaMental, Creteil, France; Groupe Hospitalier Universitaire Psychiatrie Neurosciences Paris, Pôle Psychiatrie Précarité, Paris, France.
    Üçok, Alp
    Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Vázquez-Bourgon, Javier
    Centro de Investigacion en Red Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Sevilla, Spain; Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital Marques de Valdecilla - Instituto de Investigación Marques de Valdecilla (IDIVAL), Santander, Spain; Department of Medicine and Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Cantabria, Santander, Spain.
    Murray, Robin M.
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    Walters, James T.R.
    MRC Centre for Neuropsychiatric Genetics and Genomics, Division of Psychological Medicine and Clinical Neurosciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK.
    Stahl, Daniel
    Department of Biostatistics & Health Informatics, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.
    MacCabe, James H.
    Department of Psychosis Studies, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK; South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
    Clinical predictors of antipsychotic treatment resistance: Development and internal validation of a prognostic prediction model by the STRATA-G consortium2022In: Schizophrenia Research, ISSN 0920-9964, E-ISSN 1573-2509, Vol. 250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Our aim was to, firstly, identify characteristics at first-episode of psychosis that are associated with later antipsychotic treatment resistance (TR) and, secondly, to develop a parsimonious prediction model for TR.

    Methods

    We combined data from ten prospective, first-episode psychosis cohorts from across Europe and categorised patients as TR or non-treatment resistant (NTR) after a mean follow up of 4.18 years (s.d. = 3.20) for secondary data analysis. We identified a list of potential predictors from clinical and demographic data recorded at first-episode. These potential predictors were entered in two models: a multivariable logistic regression to identify which were independently associated with TR and a penalised logistic regression, which performed variable selection, to produce a parsimonious prediction model. This model was internally validated using a 5-fold, 50-repeat cross-validation optimism-correction.

    Results

    Our sample consisted of N = 2216 participants of which 385 (17 %) developed TR. Younger age of psychosis onset and fewer years in education were independently associated with increased odds of developing TR. The prediction model selected 7 out of 17 variables that, when combined, could quantify the risk of being TR better than chance. These included age of onset, years in education, gender, BMI, relationship status, alcohol use, and positive symptoms. The optimism-corrected area under the curve was 0.59 (accuracy = 64 %, sensitivity = 48 %, and specificity = 76 %).

    Implications

    Our findings show that treatment resistance can be predicted, at first-episode of psychosis. Pending a model update and external validation, we demonstrate the potential value of prediction models for TR.

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  • 60.
    Socher, Michaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Fraunhofer Inst Bldg Phys, Germany.
    Ingo, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Spoken Sentence Complexity and Grammar Use in Children with CIs2023In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, E-ISSN 1465-7325, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 280-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated if the language profiles of prelingually deaf children with bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) and children with typical hearing (TH) matched on their quantitative score on clinical spoken expressive language tasks differed in terms of sentence complexity, sentence length, and severity of grammatical errors. No significant differences were found between the groups in terms of (1) proportion of simple, conjoined, and complex sentences; (2) mean length of utterance based on words and syllables; and (3) proportion of local and global grammatical errors. The results indicate that the quantitative scores on the clinical spoken expressive language tasks are related to similar spoken language profiles in children with CIs and children with TH. These findings suggest that these tests can be used for meaningful comparisons of expressive spoken language skills. However, more studies are needed on the real-life expressive language skills of children with CIs, as clinical tests often rely on one specific modality (in this study: spoken language) and might therefore not accurately represent the language skills of the children.

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  • 61.
    Socher, Michaela
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Fraunhofer Inst Bldg Phys IBP, Germany.
    Lofkvist, Ulrika
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Wass, Malin
    Lulea Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Comparing the semantic networks of children with cochlear implants and children with typical hearing: Effects of length of language access2022In: Journal of Communication Disorders, ISSN 0021-9924, E-ISSN 1873-7994, Vol. 99, article id 106247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Kenett et al. (2013) report that the sematic networks, measured by using an oral semantic fluency task, of children with cochlear implants (CI) are less structured compared to the sematic networks of children with typical hearing (TH). This study aims to evaluate if such differences are only evident if children with CI are compared to children with TH matched on chronological age, or also if they are compared to children with TH matched on hearing age. Method: The performance of a group of children with CI on a verbal fluency task was compared to the performance of a group of chronological-age matched children with TH. Subsequently, computational network analysis was used to compare the semantic network structure of the groups. The same procedure was applied to compare a group of children with CI to a group of hearing-age matched children with TH. Results: The children with CI perform on the same level on an oral semantic verbal fluency task as the children with TH matched on hearing age. There are significant differences in terms of the structure of the semantic network between the groups. The magnitude of these differences is very small and they are non-significant for a proportion of nodes included in the bootstrap analysis. This indicates that there is no true difference between the networks. Hearing age, but not age at implantation was found to be significantly positively correlated with semantic verbal fluency performance for the children with CI. Conclusions: The results from the current study indicate that length of exposure to the tested language is an important factor for the structure of the semantic network and the performance on a semantic verbal fluency task for children with CI. Further studies are needed to explore the role of the accessibility of the language input for the development of semantic networks of children with CI.

  • 62.
    Stacey, Jemaine E
    et al.
    Psychology, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Heinrich, Antje
    Manchester Centre for Audiology and Deafness (ManCAD), Division of Psychology, Communication and Human Neuroscience, The University of Manchester, Manchester, UK..
    Batinović, Lucija
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ingo, Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Henshaw, Helen
    Hearing Sciences, Mental Health and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Nottingham School of Medicine, Nottingham, UK.; National Institute for Health & Care Research (NIHR), NIHR Nottingham Biomedical Research Centre, Nottingham, UK..
    Relationship between self-reported listening and communication difficulties and executive function: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis2023In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e071225Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Listening and communication difficulties can limit people’s participation in activity and adversely affect their quality of life. Hearing, as well as listening and communication difficulties, can be measured either by using behavioural tests or self-report measures, and the outcomes are not always closely linked. The association between behaviourally measured and self-reported hearing is strong, whereas the association between behavioural and self-reported measures of listening and communication difficulties is much weaker, suggesting they assess different aspects of listening. While behavioural measures of listening and communication difficulties have been associated with poorer cognitive performance including executive functions, the same association has not always been shown for self-report measures. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to understand the relationship between executive function and self-reported listening and communication difficulties in adults with hearing loss, and where possible, potential covariates of age and pure-tone audiometric thresholds.

    Methods and analysis

    Studies will be eligible for inclusion if they report data from both a self-report measure of listening difficulties and a behavioural measure of executive function. Eight databases are to be searched: MEDLINE (via Ovid SP), EMBASE (via Ovid SP), PsycINFO (via Ovid SP), ASSIA (via ProQuest), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature or CINAHL (via EBSCO Host), Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science (Science and Social Science Citation Index). The JBI critical appraisal tool will be used to assess risk of bias for included studies. Results will be synthesised primarily using a meta-analysis, and where sufficient quantitative data are not available, a narrative synthesis will be carried out to describe key results.

    Ethics and dissemination

    No ethical issues are foreseen. Data will be disseminated via academic publication and conference presentations. Findings may also be published in scientific newsletters and magazines.

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  • 63.
    Stenbäck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marsja, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Sensory Organs and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Sensory Organs and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology.
    Informational masking and listening effort in speech recognition innoise: the role of working memory capacity and inhibitory control in older adults with and without hearing impairmen2022In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 65, no 11, p. 4417-4428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The study aimed to assess the relationship between 1) speech-recognition-in-noise, mask type, working memory capacity (WMC), inhibitory control, and 2) self-rated listening effort, speech material, and mask type, in older adults with and without hearing-impairment. It was of special interest to assess the relationship between WMC, inhibitory control, and speech-recognition-in-noise when informational maskers masked target speech.

    Method: A mixed design was used. A group (N= 24) of older (mean age = 69.7 years) HI individuals, and a group of age-normal hearing adults (mean age = 59.3 years, SD = 6.5) participated in the study. The participants were presented with auditory tests in a sound attenuated room and the cognitive tests in a quiet office. The participants were asked to rate listening effort after being presented with energetic and informational background maskers in two different speech materials used in this study (i.e., Hearing in Noise Test and the Hagerman Test). Linear-Mixed Effects models were set up to assess the effect of the two different speech materials, energetic and informational maskers, hearing ability, WMC, inhibitory control, and self-rated listening effort.

    Results: Results showed that WMC and inhibitory control was of importance for speech-recognition-in-noise, even when controlling for PTA4 (pure tone average 4) hearing thresholds and age, when the maskers were informational. Concerning listening effort, on the other hand,  the results suggest that hearing ability, but not cognitive abilities, is important for self-rated listening effort in speech-recognition-in-noise.

    Conclusion: Speech-in-noise recognition is more dependent on WMC for older adults in informational maskers than in energetic maskers. Hearing ability is a stronger predictor than cognition for self-rated listening effort.

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    fulltext
  • 64.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marsja, Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division.
    Anund, Anna
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Will It Yield: Expectations on Automated Shuttle Bus Interactions With Pedestrians and Bicyclists2023In: HRI '23: Companion of the 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 292-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles that operate on public roads need to be predictable to others, including vulnerable road users. In this study, we asked participants to take the perspective of videotaped pedestrians and cyclists crossing paths with an automated shuttle bus, and to (1) judge whether the bus would stop safely in front of them and (2) report whether the bus's actual stopping behavior accorded with their expectations. The results show that participants expected the bus to brake safely in approximately two thirds of the human-vehicle interactions, more so to pedestrians than cyclists, and that they tended to underestimate rather than overestimate the bus's capability to yield in ways that they considered as safe. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of automated shuttle bus services.

  • 65.
    Witte, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Holmer, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Effects of lexical neighbourhood density and phonotactic probability studied with a new database of matched pairs of real signs and modelled pseudosigns in the Swedish Sign Language2023In: Proceedings of The 16th International Cognitive Linguistics Conference, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
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