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  • 51.
    Florentin, M.
    et al.
    IMB CNM CSIC C Tillers, Spain.
    Cabello, M.
    IMB CNM CSIC C Tillers, Spain.
    Rebollo, J.
    IMB CNM CSIC C Tillers, Spain.
    Montserrat, J.
    IMB CNM CSIC C Tillers, Spain.
    Brosselard, P.
    CALY Technology, France.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Godignon, P.
    IMB CNM CSIC C Tillers, Spain.
    Al-implanted on-axis 4H-SiC MOSFETs2017In: Semiconductor Science and Technology, ISSN 0268-1242, E-ISSN 1361-6641, Vol. 32, no 3, article id 035006Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the impact of temperature and time stress on gate oxide stability of several multi-implanted and epitaxied 4H-SiC nMOSFET is presented. The oxide layer was processed under a rapid thermal process (RTP) furnace. The variation of the main electrical parameters is shown. We report the high quality and stability of such implanted MOSFETs, and point out the very low roughness effect of the on-axis-cut sample. Particularly, in the best case, effective channel mobility (mu(fe)) overcomes 20 cm(2). V-1. s(-1) at 300 degrees C for a channel length of 12 mu m, which is very encouraging for implantation technology. Starting from 200 degrees C, the apparent increase of the mu(fe) peak of the MOSFET ceases and tends to saturate with further temperature increase. This is an indication of the potential of MOSFETs built on on-axis substrates. Thus, starting from the real case of an implanted MOSFET, the global purpose is to show that the electrical performance of such an on-axis-built device can tend to reach that of the ideal case, i.e. epitaxied MOSFET, and even overcome its electrical limitation, e.g. in terms of threshold voltage stability at high temperature.

  • 52.
    Florentin, M.
    et al.
    CNM-CSIC, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Montserrat, J.
    CNM-CSIC, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Brosselard, P.
    Laboratoire AMPERE, INSA Lyon, Villeurbanne, France.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Godignon, P.
    CNM-CSIC, Campus UAB, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Rapid thermal oxidation of Si-Face N and P-type on-axis 4H-SiC2014In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2013, PTS 1 AND 2, Trans Tech Publications , 2014, Vol. 778-780, p. 591-594Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the comparison of several MOS structures with different rapid thermal oxidation processes (RTO) carried out on Off and On-axis SiC material. A first set contains MOS capacitance structures on n-epitaxial layers, while a second set of MOS capacitance are built on p-implanted layers. Both sets include On and Off-Axis angle cuts. Furthermore, n-MOSFETs have been fabricated on On-axis p-type Al-implanted layers with the best oxidation process selected from the MOS capacitance study. The final objective is to show the performances of these On-axis p-implanted n-MOSFETs and to evidence the associated lower surface roughness at the SiO2/SiC interface.

  • 53.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Solid State Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nitrogen doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide2002In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 236, no 1-3, p. 101-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping with nitrogen of 4H- and 6H-SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The nitrogen doping dependence on the temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate and nitrogen flow has been investigated. The nitrogen incorporation for C-face material showed to be C/Si ratio independent, whereas the doping decreased with increasing C/Si ratio for the Si-face material in accordance with the “site-competition” model. The nitrogen incorporation was constant in a temperature “window” of 75°C on Si-face material indicating a mass transport limited incorporation. Increasing the growth rate resulted in a decrease of nitrogen incorporation on Si-face but an increase on C-face material. Finally, a comparison between previously published results on cold-wall CVD-grown material and the present hot-wall-grown material is presented.

  • 54.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Solid State Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-164 40, Kista, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aluminum doping of epitaxial Silicon Carbide2003In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 253, no 1-4, p. 340-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping of aluminum in 4H and 6H SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The dependence of aluminum incorporation on temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate, and TMA flow has been investigated. The aluminum incorporation showed to be polarity dependent. The high aluminum incorporation on the Si-face is closely related to the carbon coverage on the SiC surface. Changes in process parameters changes the effective C/Si ratio close to the SiC surface. Increased growth rate and C/Si ratio increases the aluminum incorporation on the Si-face. Diffusion limited incorporation occurs at high growth rate. Reduced pressure increases the effective C/Si ratio, and at low growth rate, the aluminum incorporation increases initially, levels off at a critical pressure, and continues to decrease below the critical pressure. The aluminum incorporation showed to be constant in a temperature range of 50°C. The highest atomic concentration of aluminum observed in this study was 3×1017 and 8×1018 cm−3 in Si and C-face, respectively.

  • 55.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Linnarsson, MK
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Swedish Royal Institute of Technolology, Kista, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Aluminum doping of epitaxial silicon carbide grown by hot-wall CVD, Effect of process parameters2002In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials, Tsukuba, 2001 / [ed] S. Yoshida, S. Nishino, H. Harima and T. Kimoto, 2002, Vol. 389-3, p. 203-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intentional doping of aluminum in 4H and 6H SiC has been performed using a hot-wall CVD reactor. The dependence of aluminum incorporation on temperature, pressure, C/Si ratio, growth rate, and TMA flow has been investigated. The aluminum incorporation showed to be polarity dependent. The high aluminum incorporation on the Si-face is closely related to the carbon coverage on the SiC surface. Changes in process parameters changes the effective C/Si ratio close to the SiC surface. Increased growth rate and C/Si ratio increases the aluminum incorporation on the Si-face. Diffusion limited incorporation occurs at high growth rate. Reduced pressure increases the effective C/Si ratio, and at low growth rate, the aluminum incorporation increases initially, levels off at a critical pressure, and continues to decrease below the critical pressure. The aluminum incorporation showed to be constant in a temperature range of 50°C. The highest atomic concentration of aluminum observed in this study was 3·1017 and 8·1018 cm-3 in Si and C-face, respectively.

  • 56.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M.K.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of growth parameters on the nitrogen incorporation in 4H- and 6H-SiC epilayers grown by hot-wall chemical vapour deposition2001In: Proc. of the MRS Spring Meeting 2001, 680E, 2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 57.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Linnarsson, MK
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Photoluminescence study of CVD layers highly doped with nitrogen2000In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 338-342, 2000, Vol. 338-342, p. 619-622Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From a systematic study of highly doped n-type 4H-SiC epilayers we observe a photoluminescence spectrum, which was previously associated with the recombination of a bound exciton at the neutral boron acceptor. Electrical measurements performed on these layers show clearly n-type conductivity. It was feasible to dope and measure reproducibly the layers from low 10(17) to mid 10(18) cm(-3). It was not possible to determine the doping from Capacitance Voltage measurements for the samples grown with the highest doping (>6.10(18) cm(-3)). However Secondary Ion Mass spectrometry did not reveal any boron impurities in the layers and shows good agreement with electrical measurements regarding the nitrogen concentration.

  • 58.
    Forsberg, Urban
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rorsman, N.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Eriksson, J.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Solid State Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and characterisation 4H-SiC MESFET structures grown by Hot-Wall CVD2001In: Proc. of the MRS 2000 Fall Meeting, 2001, p. H2.3.2-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal semiconductor field effect transistor structures have been grown in a hot-wall CVD reactor. Using trimethylaluminium and nitrogen, p- and n-type epitaxial layers were grown on semi insulating substrates. A comprehensive characterization study of thickness and doping of these multi structures has been performed by using scanning electron microscopy , secondary ion mass spectrometry, capacitance-voltage and low temperature photoluminescence. Optimisation of growth parameters has resulted in very abrupt doping profiles. The grown metal semiconductor field effect transistor structures have been processed and parts of the transistor properties are presented.

  • 59.
    Gueorguiev Ivanov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gällström, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tien Son, Nguyen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivády, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gali, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical properties of the niobium centre in 4H, 6H, and 15R SiC2013In: SILICON CARBIDE AND RELATED MATERIALS 2012, Trans Tech Publications , 2013, Vol. 740-742, p. 405-408Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of lines in the photoluminescence spectra of 4H-, 6H-, and 15R-SiC in the near-infrared are attributed to Nb-related defects on the ground of doping experiments conducted with 4H-SiC. A model based on a an exciton bound at the Nb-centre in an asymmetric split vacancy configuration at a hexagonal site is proposed, which explains the structure of the luminescence spectrum and the observed Zeeman splitting of the lines.

  • 60.
    Gällström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Norstel AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gali, Adam
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics and Hungarian Academy of Science, Budapest, Hungary .
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan G.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic Configuration of Tungsten in 4H-, 6H-, and 15R-SiC2012In: Materials Science Forum Vols 717 - 720, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012, Vol. 717-720, p. 211-216Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A commonly observed unidentified photoluminescence center in SiC is UD-1. In this report, the UD-1 center is identified to be tungsten related. The identification is based on (i) a W-doping study, the confirmation of W in the samples was made using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), (ii) the optical activation energy of the absorption of UD-1 in weakly n-type samples corresponds to the activation energy of the deep tungsten center observed using DLTS. The tungsten-related optical centers are reported in 4H-, 6H-, and 15R-SiC. Further, a crystal field model for a tungsten atom occupying a Si-site is suggested. This crystal field model is in agreement with the experimental data available: polarization, temperature dependence and magnetic field splitting.

  • 61.
    Gällström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gali, Adam
    Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary.
    Son Tien, Nguyen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optical identification and electronic configuration of tungsten in 4H-and 6H-SiC2012In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 407, no 10, p. 1462-1466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several optically observed deep level defects in SiC are still unidentified and little is published on their behavior. One of the commonly observed deep level defects in semi-insulating SiC is UD-1. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThis report suggests that UD-1 is Tungsten related, based on a doping study and previously reported deep level transient spectroscopy data, as well as photo-induced absorption measurements. The electronic levels involved in the optical transitions of UD-1 are also deduced. The transitions observed in the photoluminescence of UD-1 are from a Gamma(C3v)(4), to two different final states, which transform according to Gamma(C3v)(5)circle plus Gamma(C3v)(6) and Gamma(C3v)(4), respectively.

  • 62.
    Gällström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of Cooling Rate after High Temperature Annealing on Deep Levels in High-Purity Semi-Insulating 4H-SiC2007In: Materials Science Forum, vol. 556-557, Trans Tech Publications , 2007, p. 371-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of different cooling rates on deep levels in 4H-SiC after high temperature annealing has been investigated. The samples were heated from room temperature to 2300°C, followed by a 20 minutes anneal at this temperature. Different subsequent cooling sequences down to 1100°C were used. The samples have been investigated using photoluminescence (PL) and IV characteristics. The PL intensities of the silicon vacancy (VSi) and UD-2, were found to increase with a faster cooling rate.

  • 63.
    Gällström, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thuaire, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Electronic Structure of the UD-4 defect in 4H, 6H and 15R SiC2009In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 600-603, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 397-400Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The photoluminescence (PL) of the UD-4 defect is observed in semi-insulating bulk 4H, 6H and 15R SiC. In 4H and 6H SiC the UD-4 defect consists of two families of no-phonon (NP) lines, Ua and Ub, and in 15R SiC it consists of three families, Ua, Ub and U15R. The Ua family in 4H, 6H and 15R all show similar temperature behavior with higher energy NP lines becomming observable at higher temperatures. In the case of the Ub and U15R families, a luminescence line with lower energy than the prominent luminescence line appears at higher temperatures. The polarization and Zeeman measurements suggest that the defect has C3v symmetry.

  • 64. Hahn, S.
    et al.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Gällström, Andreas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Carlsson, Patrick
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Niklas, J.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Contact-Less Electrical Defect Characterization of Semi-Insulating 6H-SiC Bulk Material2009In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 600-603, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 405-408Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The novel technique microwave detected photo induced current transient spectroscopy (MD-PICTS) was applied to semi-insulating 6H-SiC in order to investigate the properties of inherent defect levels. Defect spectra can be obtained in the similar way to conventional PICTS and DLTS. However, there is no need for contacting the samples, which allows for non-destructive and spatially resolved electrical characterization. This work is focused on the investigation of semi-insulating 6H-SiC grown under different C/Si-ratios. In the corresponding MD-PICTS spectra several shallow defect levels appear in the low temperature range. However the peak assignment needs further investigation. Additionally different trap reemission dynamics are obtained for higher temperatures, which are supposed to be due to different compensation effects.

  • 65.
    Hatayama, Tomoaki
    et al.
    Nara Institute Science and Technology, Japan.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yano, Hiroshi
    Nara Institute Science and Technology, Japan; University of Tsukuba, Japan.
    Fuyuki, Takashi
    Nara Institute Science and Technology, Japan.
    Low-temperature photoluminescence of 8H-SiC homoepitaxial layer2016In: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-4922, E-ISSN 1347-4065, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 020303-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-temperature photoluminescence of a nitrogen-doped 8H-SiC epilayer homoepitaxially grown by a chemical vapor deposition method is reported. The polytype and stacking sequence of the epilayers were confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analyses. The identification of emission lines is discussed in terms of the temperature dependence of the luminescence spectra. Luminescence related to the free excitons and the nitrogen-bound excitons is observed, which allows the determination of the excitonic bandgap of the 8H-SiC polytype. In addition, the low binding energies found for the nitrogen-bound excitons imply shallow levels for the nitrogen donors. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics

  • 66.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Titanium Related Luminescence in SiC2009In: ICSCRM2007,2007, Materials Science Forum, Vols. 600-603: Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 461-464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the luminescence spectra related to Ti impurity in both 4H- and 6H-SiC polytypes. The spectrum depends strongly on the polarization. They are two families of lines in 4H and three in 6H. The main no-phonon line of each family is shown as a triplet and its phonon structure contains both sharp and broad replicas. The higher energy family has also extra lines at high energy appearing when the temperature increases. The spectra can be detected with excitation energy below the excitonic bandgap and even with excitation energy below the spectrum itself. Time-resolved photoluminescence reveals 0.1 ms long lifetime at low temperature.

  • 67.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Grenoble INP, France.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Early stages of growth and crystal structure evolution of boron nitride thin films2016In: Japanese Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-4922, E-ISSN 1347-4065, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 05FD06-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of the nucleation and crystal structure evolution at the early stages of the growth of sp(2)-BN thin films on 6H-SiC and alpha-Al2O3 substrates is presented. The growth is performed at low pressure and high temperature in a hot wall CVD reactor, using ammonia and triethylboron as precursors, and H-2 as carrier gas. From high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray thin film diffraction measurements we observe that polytype pure rhombohedral BN (r-BN) is obtained on 6H-SiC substrates. On alpha-Al2O3 an AlN buffer obtained by nitridation is needed to promote the growth of hexagonal BN (h-BN) to a thickness of around 4 nm followed by a transition to r-BN growth. In addition, when r-BN is obtained, triangular features show up in plan-view scanning electron microscopy which are not seen on thin h-BN layers. The formation of BN after already one minute of growth is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics

  • 68.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Egilsson, T
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Metastability of a hydrogen-related defect in 6H-SiC2000In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 338-342, Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland: Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2000, Vol. 338-3, p. 651-654Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the metastability behavior of a hydrogen related defect in 6H-SiC. This defect gives rise to a low temperature photoluminescence spectrum and several excited states have been observed using photoluminescence excitation. A quenching of the luminescence intensity is observed when using prolonged optical excitation either with energy higher than the threshold for phonon assisted free-exciton formation or when the excitation energy is resonant with an excited state of the hydrogen related bound exciton. Depending on the initial conditions different types of behavior can be observed.

  • 69.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Ellison, A
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Okmet AB, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Characterization of bulk and epitaxial SiC material using photoluminescence spectroscopy2002In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 389-393, 2002, Vol. 389-3, p. 593-596Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We are using low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) to evaluate the quality of SiC wafers and are able to characterize up to 2 inch diameter wafers (with or without epilayers) at low temperature (2K). Polytype maps for bulk material can be drawn, as well as nitrogen concentration maps for both bulk and epilayer wafers in the very large doping range available today (from low 10(14) cm(-3) to 10(19) cm(-3)).

  • 70.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Forsberg, U.
    Okmetic AB, Hans Meijers väg 2, SE-583 30 Link¨ping, Sweden.
    Janson, M.S.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Solid State Electronics, P.O. Box E229, SE-164 40 Kista-Stockholm, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    The 3838 Å photoluminescence line in 4H-SiC2003In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 94, no 5, p. 2901-2906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a study of the origins of the peak near 3838 Å observed in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of 4H-SiC was reported. A band was observed for 6H material, displaced in energy position by the band-gap difference between the two polytypes. The recombination leading to the PL line was associated with an isoelectronic complex defect.

  • 71.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Linnarsson, M. K.
    Solid State Electronics, Royal Institute of Technology, SE-164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Determination of nitrogen doping concentration in doped 4H-SiC epilayers by low temperature photoluminescence2005In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. 72, no 2-3, p. 254-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A complete calibration of nitrogen concentration in doped 4H-SiC material is presented. This is done in the very large range of doping available today, i.e. from low 1014 to 1019 cm-3. The samples are 4H-SiC films fabricated by hot-wall chemical vapour deposition. Low temperature photoluminescence is used as the experimental tool. For doping concentrations less than 8 × 1017 cm-3 comparison between the intensity of various luminescence lines is used, whereas for doping higher than 3 × 1018 cm-3 the energy position of an observed broad band allows the determination of the doping level.

  • 72.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gueorguiev Ivanov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hatayama, Tomoaki
    Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan.
    Yano, Hiroshi
    Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan.
    Fuyuki, Takashi
    Nara Institute of Science and Technology, Japan.
    Photoluminescence of 8H-SiC2013In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2012 / [ed] Alexander A. Lebedev, Sergey Yu. Davydov, Pavel A. Ivanov and Mikhail E. Levinshtein, Trans Tech Publications , 2013, Vol. 740-742, p. 347-350Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    8H-SiC epilayers grown on small 8H-SiC Lely platelets are investigated optically using photoluminescence spectroscopy. At low temperature the near band gap emission detected in the 2.78 to 2.67 eV range contains sharp lines associated to nitrogen-bound-exciton recombination. Three different no-phonon lines are detected accompanied by their phonon replicas. Free-exciton replicas are also observed which allows the determination of the excitonic band gap. The binding energy of the bound excitons can thus be determined and the ionization energies of the three nitrogen levels in 8H-SiC are estimated and found to be rather shallow compared to the values for other hexagonal polytypes. Additional bound-exciton lines are observed when the experimental photoluminescence temperature is increased.

  • 73.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janson, M.S.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Solid State Electronics, Kista-Stockholm, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Boron-related luminescence in SiC2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a photoluminescence (PL) study for both 4H and 6H-SiC epilayers on boron-related recombination. The PL is not observed from as-grown epilayers, but after secondary ion mass spectrometry. In 4H the no-phonon (NP) line spectrum is near 3838Å, whereas it is located close to 4182 Å in the 6H. The two spectra have almost the same phonon structure with localized modes. The luminescence is predominantly polarized perpendicular to the c-axis. The temperature dependence shows that the NP lines have at least three excited states higher in energy with energy separation depending on the polytype. The luminescence is quenched at T > 70K with a thermalization energy of about 40meV. The absence of splitting or shift of the lines originating from excited states under applied magnetic field shows that the excited states have singlet character, whereas splitting is observed for the low-temperature NP lines. The luminescence of the NP lines in these samples is shown to increase with excitation time. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 74.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janson, M.S.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Properties of the bound excitons associated to the 3838Å line in 4H-SiC and the 4182Å line in 6H-SiC2004In: Mater. Sci. Forum, Vol. 457-460, Trans Tech Publications Inc. , 2004, p. 549-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 75.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epitaxial growth and characterisation of 4H-SiC layers2013In: Journal of the Japanese Association for Crystal Growth, ISSN 0385-6275, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 42-48Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of thick 4H-SiC epilayers needed for high power applications is described using horizontal hot-wall chemical vapor deposition with both the standard and the chloride based chemistry. The use of various kinds of substrates (various off-axis and nominally on-axis substrates) is compared and advantages and drawbacks are discussed for each case. Low angle off-cut substrates are proposed for further development of the SiC activities. Using the chloride based approach the Cl/Si ratio is a new important parameter and chlorinated precursor as methyl-trichlorosilane is shown more efficient than the simple addition of chlorine to the gas mixture

  • 76.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Epitaxial Growth and Characterisation of Phosphorus Doped SiC Using TBP as Precursor.2005In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 483-485, 2005, Vol. 483-485, p. 101-104Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Growth and characterisation of SiC epilayers2012In: JSPS Si Symp, 2012, p. 337-340Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 78.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Phosphorus-related luminescence in SiC2006In: Physica Scripta, Vol. T126, 2006, Vol. T126, p. 45-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a photoluminescence (PL) study from n-type phosphorus-doped SiC epilayers, which reveals a PL spectrum constituted by a set of sharp lines and interpreted as excitons bound to the P donor. Depending on the polytype, the PL spectrum consists of one or several zero-phonon lines, which have photon energies very close to the nitrogen-bound excitons and they are followed by their phonon assisted replicas. The intensity of the PL spectrum depends on the P concentration introduced during the growth of the epilayers but can be reduced by the presence of the nitrogen donor.

  • 79.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Photoluminescence of Phosphorus doped SiC2006In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 527-529, 2006, p. 589-592Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Titanium related luminescence in SiC2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on the luminescence spectra related to Ti impurity in 6H-SiC. The spectra depend strongly on the polarization. There are three families of PL lines. Phonon structure is observed containing both broad and sharp replicas. When the temperature increases extra lines appear at high energy. Time-resolved PL reveals a 0.1 ms long lifetime at 2 K.

  • 81.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Mastropaolo, E.
    Cheung, R.
    Single Crystal and Polycrystalline 3C-SiC for MEMS Applications2009In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 615-617, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 625-628Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cantilever resonators have been fabricated from two types of materials, single crystal and polycrystalline 3C-SiC films. The films have been grown in a hot-wall chemical vapor deposition reactor on 100 mm diameter p-type boron-doped (100) Si wafer without rotation of the wafer. The crystal structure of the films have been accessed with X-ray diffraction. The cantilever devices have been fabricated using a one-step etch and release process; the beam length has been varied between 50 and 200 µm. Resonant frequencies in the range 110 KHz – 1.5 MHz and 50 – 750 KHz have been obtained for single crystal and polycrystalline SiC devices, respectively. Furthermore, the experimental resonance frequencies have been used to calculate the Young’s Modulus E for the two different types of SiC. The single crystal SiC, possessing a very high Young’s Modulus (446 GPa), should be an optimal material for RF-MEMS applications.

  • 82.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska C.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chloride based CVD of 3C-SiC on (0001) α-SiC substrates2011In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 679-680 (2011) pp 75-78, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011, p. 75-78Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A chloride-based chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) process has been successfully used to grow very high quality 3C-SiC epitaxial layers on on-axis α-SiC substrates. An accurate process parameters study was performed testing the effect of temperature, surface preparation, precursor ratios, nitrogen addition, and substrate polytype and polarity. The 3C layers deposited showed to be largely single-domain material of very high purity and of excellent electrical characteristics. A growth rate of up to 10 μm/h and a low background doping enable deposition of epitaxial layers suitable for MOSFET devices.

  • 83.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD2012In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 407, no 10, p. 1467-1471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is investigated with the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. High growth rates exceeding 100 mu m/h can be obtained, however to obtain device quality epilayers adjustments of the process parameters should be carried out appropriately for the chemistry used. Two different chemistry approaches are compared: addition of hydrogen chloride to the standard precursors or using methyltrichlorosilane, a molecule that contains silicon, carbon and chlorine. Optical and electrical techniques are used to characterize the layers.

  • 84.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, J. Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Epitaxial growth on on-axis substrates2012In: Silicon Carbide Epitaxy / [ed] Francesco La Via, Kerala, India: Research Signpost, 2012, p. 97-119Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SiC epitaxial growth using the Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) technique on nominally on-axis substrate is presented. Both standard and chloride-based chemistry have been used with the aim to obtain high quality layers suitable for device fabrication. Both homoepitaxy (4H on 4H) and heteroepitaxy (3C on hexag onal substrate) are addressed.

  • 85.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Growth of 4H-SiC Epitaxial Layers on 4° Off-axis Si-face substrates2009In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 615-617, Trans Tech Publications , 2009, p. 81-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    CVD growth of epitaxial layers with a mirror like surface grown on 75 mm diameter 4° off-axis 4H SiC substrates is demonstrated. The effect of the C/Si ratio, temperature and temperature ramp up conditions is studied in detail. A low C/Si ratio of 0.4 and a temperature of 1530 °C is the best combination to avoid step bunching and triangular defects on the epitaxial layers. Using a low growth rate (about 3 µm/h) 6 μm thick, n-type doped epilayers were grown on 75 mm diameter wafers resulting in an RMS value of 0.7 nm and good reproducibility. 20 μm thick epitaxial layers with a background doping in the low 1014 cm-3 were grown with a mirror-like, defect-free surface. Preliminary results when using higher Si/H2 ratio (up to 0.4 %) and HCl addition are also presented: growth rate of 28 μm/h is achieved while keeping a smooth morphology.

  • 86.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Steffano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, S.
    n/a.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Concentrated chloride-based epitaxial growth of 4H-SiC2010In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 645-648, Transtec Publications; 1999 , 2010, Vol. 645-648, p. 95-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A chloride-based CVD process has been studied in concentrated growth conditions. A systematic study of different carrier flows and pressures has been done in order to get good quality epilayers on 8 degrees off and on-axis substrates while using very low carrier flows. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) was added to the standard gas mixture to keep a high growth rate and to get homo-polytypic growth on on-axis substrates. The carrier flow was reduced down to one order of magnitude less than under typical growth condition. By lowering the process pressure it was possible to reduce precursor depletion along the susceptor which improved the thickness uniformity to below 2% variation (sigma/mean) over a 2 diameter wafer.

  • 87.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Xun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Boulle, Alexandre
    CNRS UMR 7315, Centre Européen de la Céramique, Limoges Cedex, France.
    Chaussende, Didier
    LMGP, CNRS UMR 5628, Grenoble, France.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3C-SiC Heteroepitaxy on Hexagonal SiC Substrates2013In: Silicon Carbide and Related Materials 2012 / [ed] Alexander A. Lebedev, Sergey Yu. Davydov, Pavel A. Ivanov and Mikhail E. Levinshtein, Trans Tech Publications , 2013, Vol. 740-742, p. 257-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The growth of 3C-SiC on hexagonal polytype is addressed and a brief review is given for various growth techniques. The Chemical Vapor Deposition is shown as a suitable technique to grow single domain 3C epilayers on 4H-SiC substrate and a 12.5 µm thick layer is demonstrated; even thicker layers have been obtained. Various characterization techniques including optical microscopy, X-ray techniques and photoluminescence are compared for the evaluation of the crystal quality and purity of the layers.

  • 88.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Li, Xun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Leone, Stefano
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kordina, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    CVD growth of 3C-SiC on 4H-SiC substrate2012In: Materials Science Forum Vol 711, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012, Vol. 711, p. 16-21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hetero epitaxial growth of 3C-SiC on nominally on-axis 4H-SiC is reported. A horizontal hot-wall CVD reactor working at low pressure is used to perform the growth experiments in a temperature range of 1200-1500 °C with the standard chemistry using silane and propane as precursors carried by a mix of hydrogen and argon. The optimal temperature for single-domain growth is found to be about 1350 °C. The ramp up-conditions and the gas-ambient atmosphere when the temperature increases are key factors for the quality of the obtained 3C layers. The best pre-growth ambient found is carbon rich environment; however time of this pre-treatment is crucial. A too high C/Si ratio during growth led to polycrystalline material whereas for too low C/Si ratios Si cluster formation is observed on the surface. The addition of nitrogen gas is also explored.

  • 89.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundskog, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Large area mapping of the alloy composition of AlxGa1-xN using infrared reflectivity2009In: PHYSICA STATUS SOLIDI-RAPID RESEARCH LETTERS, ISSN 1862-6254, Vol. 3, no 5, p. 145-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy position of a dip observed in the IR-reflectance spectra recorded from wurtzite c-plane AlxGa1-xN epitaxial films grown on SiC substrate reflects the composition of the alloy. A calibration procedure is presented with the possibility of mapping for large area wafer. The technique is non-destructive, scalable and fast. The limitations are discussed and comparisons with other techniques are made.

  • 90.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundskog, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivanov, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    AlGaN Multiple Quantum Wells and AlN Grown in a Hot-wall MOCVD for Deep UV Applications2009In: ECS Transactions, Vol. 25, Iss. 8, ECS , 2009, p. 837-844Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AlxGa1-xN multiple quantum wells (MQW) were grown on AlN epilayer grown on 4H-SiC substrate. The growth was performed without interruption in a horizontal hot-wall MOCVD reactor using a mixture of hydrogen and nitrogen as carrier gases. The precursors were ammonia, trimethylaluminum and trimethylgallium. Results obtained from X-ray diffraction and infra-red reflectance were used to obtain the composition of the films when growing simple AlxGa1 xN layer. Visible reflectance was used to evaluate the thickness of the films. Finally the MQW parameters as thicknesses and composition variation were obtained by scanning transmission electron microscopy and demonstrated an agreement with the growth parameters used

  • 91.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Magnusson, Björn
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Linnarsson, MK
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, Solid State Elect, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden Okmet AB, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ellison, A
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ABB Corp Res, SE-72178 Vasteras, Sweden Royal Inst Technol, Solid State Elect, SE-16440 Kista, Sweden Okmet AB, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Presence of hydrogen in SiC2001In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 353-356, 2001, Vol. 353-3, p. 373-376Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An unexpected presence of hydrogen in 4H-SiC was revealed by the observation of hydrogen related lines in the low-temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) spectrum after secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. The lines were not observed before SIMS. The high-energy ions during SIMS are proposed to break the boron-hydrogen bonds. This phenomenon is observable only for a certain impurity concentration in the material due to the competition of various recombination channels during the LTPL experiment.

  • 92.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Storasta, Liutauras
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Nitrogen delta doping in 4H-SiC epilayers2003In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 433-436, 2003, Vol. 433-4, p. 153-156Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Buried nitrogen delta-doped SiC 4H epitaxial layers have been grown in a horizontal hotwall chemical vapor deposition reactor. The history of the growth parameters was recorded. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Capacitance-Voltage (CV) were carried out to investigate the nitrogen doping distribution. Evaluation of the growth rate as a function of the time is determined with emphasis on the beginning of the growth when a transient of the growth rate is observed.

  • 93.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Hallin, Christer
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Thick Silicon Carbide Homoepitaxial Layers Grown by CVD Techniques2006In: Chemical Vapor Deposition, ISSN 0948-1907, E-ISSN 1521-3862, Vol. 12, no 8-9, p. 475-482Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 94.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ul-Hassan, Jawad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Beyer, Franziska
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Godignon, P.
    Thick epilayers for power devices2007In: Materials Science Forum, vol. 556-557, Trans Tech Publications , 2007, p. 47-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high power devices is presented for horizontal hot-wall CVD (HWCVD) reactors. We demonstrate thickness of epilayer of 100 μm and more with good morphology, low-doping with no doping variation through the whole thick layer and reasonable carrier lifetime which mainly depends on the substrate quality. Typical epidefects are described and their density can dramatically be reduced when choosing correctly the growth conditions as well as the polishing of the surface prior to the growth. The control of the doping and thickness uniformities as well as the run-to-run reproducibility is also presented. Various characterization techniques such as optical microscopy, AFM, reflectance, CV, PL and minority carrier lifetime have been used. Results of high-voltage SiC Schottky power devices are presented.

  • 95. Isoya, J
    et al.
    Katagiri, M
    Umeda, T
    Koizumi, S
    Kanda, H
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Gali, Adam
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Pulsed EPR studies of phosphorus shallow donors in diamond and SiC2006In: Physica B, Vols. 376-377, 2006, Vol. 376, p. 358-361Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus shallow donors having the symmetry lower than T-d are studied by pulsed EPR. In diamond:P and 3C-SiC:P, the symmetry is lowered to D-2d and the density of the donor wave function on the phosphorus atom exhibits a predominant p-character. In 4H-SiC:P with the site symmetry of C-3v, the A(1) ground state of the phosphorus donors substituting at the quasi-cubic site of silicon shows an axial character of the distribution of the donor wave function in the vicinity of the phosphorus atom. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 96. Isoya, J.
    et al.
    Katagiri, M.
    Umeda, T.
    Nguyen, Son Tien
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Gali, A.
    Morishita, N.
    Ohshima, T.
    Itoh, H.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Shallow P donors in 3C-, 4H- and 6H-SiC2006In: Materials Science Forum, Vols. 527-529, 2006, p. 593-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 97.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Egilsson, T
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Resonant sharp hot free-exciton luminescence in 6H-and 4H-SiC due to inhibited exciton-phonon interaction2001In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 64, no 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experimentally observed sharp luminescence lines from hot free-exciton recombination in high-purity 6H- and 4H-SiC are presented. The phenomenon is explained in terms of inhibition of the exciton-phonon scattering, prohibited for excitons created resonantly near the bottom of the lowest exciton band at low temperatures. This gives rise to the hot, sharp luminescence. The model is in agreement with the observed quenching of the hot luminescence at higher temperatures (>5 K) and in more highly doped samples, as well as with the dispersion of the exciton band obtained from the measured electron and hole effective masses.

  • 98.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials.
    Donor-acceptor Pair Luminescence of Phosphorus-Aluminum and Nitrogen-Aluminum Pairs in 4H SiC2006In: Materials Science forum, Vols. 527-529, 2006, p. 601-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Materials Science .
    Ionization energies of phosphorus and nitrogen donors and aluminum acceptors in 4H silicon carbide from the donor-acceptor pair emission2005In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 71, no 24, p. 241201-241201-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with fitting the donor-acceptor pair luminescence due to P-Al pairs in 4H-SiC. It was possible to identify P at the Si cubic site as the shallower donor with ionization energy of 60.7meV, as well as to distinguish the contribution in the spectrum from pairs involving this donor and Al acceptors from both the cubic and hexagonal lattice sites, leading to justification of their ionization energies. The case of N-Al pair luminescence was revisited and the ionization energy of the deeper Nc donor at the cubic site was determined, 125.5meV. © 2005 The American Physical Society.

  • 100.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Yan, Fei
    University of Pittsburgh.
    Choyke, W J
    University of Pittsburgh.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ionization energy of the phosphorus donor in 3C-SiC from the donor-acceptor pair emission2010In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 108, no 6, p. 063532-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Donor-acceptor pair luminescence of P-Al and N-Al pairs in 3C-SiC is analyzed. The structures in the spectra corresponding to recombination of pairs at intermediate distances are fitted with theoretical spectra of type I (P-Al pairs) and type II (N-Al pairs). It is shown that in the regions chosen for fitting the line positions obey the equation (h) over bar omega(R)=E-G-E-D-E-A+e(2)/epsilon R, where (h) over bar omega(R) is the energy of the photon emitted by recombination of a pair at a distance R, e is the electron charge, epsilon is the static dielectric constant, and E-G, E-D, and E-A are the electronic band gap and the donor and acceptor ionization energies, respectively. The fits yield the values E-G-E-D-E-A for the N-Al (2094 meV) and P-Al (2100.1 meV) cases. Using the known value of the nitrogen ionization energy, 54.2 meV, phosphorus ionization energy of 48.1 meV is obtained. Identification of the sharp lines corresponding to recombination of close pairs in the P-Al spectrum is suggested.

12345 51 - 100 of 210
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