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  • 51.
    Magnusson, Dick
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palm, Jenny
    The International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Come Together: The Development of Swedish Energy Communities2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 1056Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community energy (CE) and grassroots innovations have been widely studied in recentyears, especially in the UK, Germany, and the Netherlands, but very little focus has been placedon Sweden. This paper describes and analyses the development and present state of several typesof community energy initiatives in Sweden. The methodology uses interviews, document studies,analysis of previous studies, and website analysis. The results show that fewer initiatives have beentaken in Sweden than in other countries, but that even with a rather ‘hostile’ institutional setting CEhas emerged as a phenomenon. Wind cooperatives are the most common form of initiative, with solarphotovoltaics cooperatives and eco-villages also prominent. The various types of initiatives differconsiderably, from well-organized wind cooperatives that have grown into professional organizationsto small-scale hydroelectric power plants owned by a rural community. The initiatives may havemodest impact on the energy transition in quantitative terms, but they are crucial in knowledgesharing and as inspirations for future initiatives.

  • 52.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wihlborg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Risk- och krishantering i lokala tekniska system kring IT och energi: En forskningsöversikt kring krishantering relaterat till systemberoende, aktörer och samordning2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

         Denna forskningsöversikt utgör det inledande arbetet i forskningsprojektet ”Krisberedskap för teknisk infrastruktur – regionala och kommunala strategier för samverkan och implementering” som finansieras av Krisberedskapsmyndigheten (KBM) 2006-2008. Denna översikt utgör en introduktion och syftar till att orientera deltagande forskare i det internationella forskningsläget kring lokal och regional krishantering beträdande IT och energi.

    Denna forskningsöversikt har genomförts av projektledare FD Elin Wihlborg vid avdelningen för Statsvetenskap, Ekonomiska institutionen och FD Jenny Palm tema Teknik och Social förändring och pol.mag. Mikael Ottosson som nu är doktorand inom Program Energisystem. Alla är verksamma vid Linköpings universitet.

  • 53.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att bli bihandlare: en process med förväntningar, hinder och stöd2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag ska i detta bidrag diskutera och reflektera över den huvudsakliga individuellamen även kollektiva process som påbörjas när man blir tillfrågad omatt bli bihandledare åt en doktorand. I mitt fall inträffade detta relativt snartefter min disputation, eftersom avdelningen har många doktorander, menont om disputerade forskare som kan handleda dessa i avhandlingsskrivandet.Syftet är att problematiseras dels de utgångspunkter och förväntningarsom man själv har inför handledaruppdraget och dels vilka stödjande ochhindrande strukturer som finns på institutionen i denna process och hurdessa strukturer skulle kunna utvecklas för att ge ett bättre stöd i handledarrolleni framtiden.

  • 54.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Att gå från att ta till att ge handledning - om processen att bli bihandledare2006In: Pedagogiska utmaningar i tiden, 10:e Universitetspedagogiska konferensen vid Linköpings universitet,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

        

  • 55.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Att skapa synvändor i sammanvävningar: Vad tidsgeografin kan tillföra policyforskningen2011In: Sammanvävt: Det goda livet i vardagsforskningen / [ed] Elin Wihlborg och Jenny Palm, Liköpings universitet , 2011, 1, p. 98-107Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 56.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Bryt trenden i kommunägda bolag2006In: Östgöta Correspondenten, ISSN 1104-0394, no 5 oktoberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 57.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Development of sustainable energy systems in Swedish municipalities: A matter of path dependency and power relations2006In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 445-457Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Case studies of two Swedish municipalities indicate that the general energy area was divided into three independent policy areas: One dealing with supply, one with conservation and one with environmental questions related to the Agenda 21 vision of an ecologically sustainable energy system. However, the dominant energy policy area in the municipalities was supply policy. This article discusses why supply policy is dominant and the consequences of this for energy system development. Analysis of this pattern reveals that powerful actors, such as local energy companies, were able to mobilize support for supply policies, not least because they owned the energy plants and distribution networks. These actors were also represented in many different decision arenas, in contrast, actors representing the other energy policy areas often lacked power and resources, and were represented in only a few decision arenas.

  • 58.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    District heating as a secure heat supply - A question of regulation2007In: Energy and Environment, ISSN 0958-305X, E-ISSN 2048-4070, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 747-760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend in the district heating industry is toward increased privatization and openness to competition, which bring with them other phenomena associated with civil law, such as bankruptcies. Vingåker was one of six Swedish municipalities whose district heating companies went bankrupt in 2004. The bankruptcy caused major disruptions in Vingåker, not least as a result of the unregulated legal framework that has long prevailed in the area of district heating, where there is essentially no consumer protection. A distinguishing feature of Vingåker, and one that may be assumed to apply to other smafler municipalities as well, is the fact that the municipality was the totally dominant customer in the district heating system. In its negotiations, the municipality was able to exploit this position of strength by refusing to pay the district heating pnce set by the trustee in bankruptcy while still continuing to have district heat delivered. At the same time, the case of Vingåker also shows that, in their procurement processes, municipalities need to conduct a thorough analysis of the ownership structures of the bidding companies, and determine the extent to which each company is established in the industry. Yet another lesson to be taken from this case is that changes in external factors such as fuel costs and taxes, which are difficult for local actors to influence, create a need to draw up short-term contracts that allow for adjustments in the district heating rates.

  • 59.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Electricity security and contingency planning in hierarchy and network - examples from Sweden2009In: Energy Policy: Economic Effects, Security Aspects and Environmental Issues, New York: Nova Science Publisher , 2009, p. 225-238Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the emergency management strategies of municipal authorities for securing the electricity supply, according to a networked, or “governance”, control and direction structure, and how this influences the relationship between electricity companies and Swedish municipalities. The article also discusses the role how the households during outages, how they perceive their responsibility during an outage, but also how municipalities and grid companies understand the households’ responsibility. Since electricity market deregulation, the responsibility for electricity supply security has become unclear; field studies of Swedish municipalities indicate that all actors still seem to be seeking to find their proper roles in the deregulated market. Municipalities still expect to exercise influence over private energy company decisions regarding prioritization of emergency power deliveries. Energy companies vacillate between emphasizing their need to regard economic factors and their sense of responsibility for providing a secure electricity supply to vital municipal functions (even though municipalities may lack contracts specifying this). The households’ responsibility for being prepared for an outage was fuzzy for the actors. Both municipalities and grid companies expected the customers to have some preparedness. The household meant that they lacked any responsibility to be prepared for an outage even if they need to be prepared to survive.

  • 60.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emergency Management in the Swedish Electricity Grid from a Household Perspective2009In: Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, ISSN 0966-0879, E-ISSN 1468-5973, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 55-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on households' action space and perceived responsibilities during power outages, and on how municipalities and grid companies understand their own and the households' responsibilities and action space. Results from a case study in the county of Östergötland showed that household responsibilities in terms of preparedness for outages were unclear to the actors. Both municipalities and grid companies expected households to be somewhat prepared. Households, however, believed that they were not responsible for being prepared for power outages, even though they need to be prepared to survive. Often the preparedness concerns material factors, such as investment in auxiliary generating capacity for use in case of outages. How the households perceive outages is important for their capacity to handle and feel comfortable in such situations.

  • 61.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Emergency management in the Swedish electricity market: the need to challenge the responsibility gap2008In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 843-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A secure energy supply is a basic need of society. Along with electricity market deregulation, a responsibility gap has arisen, where private energy companies lack economic incentives to invest in an electricity distribution grid that is secured to the level desired by society. This article discusses the emergency management strategies of municipal authorities for securing the electricity supply, according to a networked, or “governance”, control and direction structure, and how this influences the relationship between electricity companies and Swedish municipalities. The Swedish electricity system has traditionally developed in a monopoly context. Since electricity market deregulation, the responsibility for electricity supply security has become unclear; field studies of Swedish municipalities indicate that all actors still seem to be seeking to find their proper roles in the deregulated market. Municipalities still expect to exercise influence over private energy company decisions regarding prioritization of emergency power deliveries. Energy companies vacillate between emphasizing their need to regard economic factors and their sense of responsibility for providing a secure electricity supply to vital municipal functions (even though municipalities may lack contracts specifying this).

  • 62.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Energy Efficiency2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important for keeping a well-founded discussion on the subject.

  • 63.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Energy Efficiency in Households: Policy, Implementation and Everyday Activities2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy to promote energy efficiency in the household sector must relate to and rely on individuals’ daily choices and household routines—what they do in their everyday lives. Hence, individuals’ values and knowledge of how their everyday activities influence energy use are important to the development of an efficient and ecologically sustainable energy system. People’s understanding of their responsibilities and their willingness to shoulder them are seen as key factors in creating a sustainable society.

    In this book, energy consumption in the household sector is examined. Barriers to and enablers of energy efficiency in households in relation to governmental policy formulation, the implementation and appropriation of technology is discussed. This represents a shift away from the conventional focus on energy supply toward a focus on energy use in everyday life. This shift is urgently needed, however, since households, policy makers, housing companies, and researchers need deeper knowledge of how energy facilitates necessary functions in people’s daily lives. We must develop new paths to smart and climate-friendly energy use that continue to facilitate those lives. This book discusses the existing opportunities to improve energy efficiency, by starting to implement existing knowledge as well as energy efficient technology and solutions.

    The book deals with the problems encountered in disseminating general information and household requests for more “custom-tailored” information. Another emphasis is on the implementation of energy efficiency goals and for example why cost-effective energy efficiency solutions are not incorporated in the building process or in people’s homes.

    To understand how and why changes occur in everyday life and how policy means can enhance energy efficiency is urgent. As shown in this book many measures could quite easily be implemented to improve energy efficiency at home, but due to embedded hindrance in our everyday activities these are not incorporated. But in the book we also learn from people actually changing their behavior and become more energy efficient, without doing remarkable changes in lifestyle.

     

  • 64.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Energy efficiency in tenant-owners’ residences – the process of going from objective to implementation2013In: Housing Studies, ISSN 0267-3037, E-ISSN 1466-1810, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 57-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on how Sweden’s largest tenant–owners’ organization, HSB, dealswith energy efficiency. The aim is to examine HSB’s energy goals, how they are determined and howthey should be implemented at four levels: the national association, the regional office, the localhousing co-operatives and the tenant–owners. Representatives of all four levels were interviewed.Achieving energy goals calls for common strategies involving all levels of HSB. The analysisindicates that ambitious energy goals have not been followed up with similarly ambitiousimplementation plans by the organization. Champions in HSB mobilize support for energy efficiencyat the regional and co-operative levels, but have no effect on household engagement. The lack ofinterest in energy efficiency on the part of households was not only due to the collective metering ofenergy, but also because energy constitutes only a small part of household life.

  • 65.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Finding Local Opportunities for energy efficiency in households2009In: First European Conference Energy Effeciency and Behaviour / [ed] Senter Novem, Haag: Senter Novem , 2009, p. 1-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Household interest in the environment increased in the 1990s, and environmental protection has been cited as a reason for becoming more energy efficient. However, people’s attitudes concerning sustainable development and their stated willingness to behave in environmentally sustainable ways do not always have affect their actual behavior. Good intentions are not always translated into actual everyday practices. How can this be explained? More importantly, how can this be changed so that good intentions are also implemented in people’s routines?

    The public policy literature has established the “window of opportunity” concept to discuss how and why ideas must be put into practice at particular times (Kingdon 1984). In relation to planning, Svane (2008) has discussed “situations of opportunity” when sustainable choices can be made. Similarly, I will discuss household energy efficiency in relation to “local opportunities” to act in energy-efficient ways. In what situations do these opportunities occur in households? When is it possible to reach households and help them change their routines and behavior, making them more energy efficient? How can one develop household-directed policy measures that exploit local opportunities for reducing energy use and increasing the implementation of energy-efficiency measures. These general matters will be discussed drawing on material from in-depth interviews with energy consultants and householders in Sweden.

  • 66.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Heta energifrågor. Konflikter kring ett kommunalt fjärrvärmesystem på 1990-talet2002In: Spänningsfält. Tekniken Politiken framtiden / [ed] Lennart Sturesson, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag , 2002, 1, p. 145-161Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kan teknikens utveckling lösa framtidens problem? Många tror det, men det finns också andra som antar en mer ifrågasättande hållning till teknikens möjligheter. Inom den samhällsvetenskapliga forskningen pågår studier av teknikens roll i vårt moderna samhälle. I Spänningsfält har Lennart Sturesson samlat forskare som skriver om olika samband, relationer och spänningar mellan teknik, politik och framtid. Meverkande skribenter är forskare och tänkare inom ekonomi, politik, statsvetenskap, samhällsplanering, folkbildning, teknikhistoria, tidsgeografi, genusforskning, forskning om äldre samt forskning om energi och forskningspolitik.

  • 67.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hållbarhet i vardagens system - forskning kring IT och energi2005Report (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Kommunal energipolitik och kommunägda energibolag - att styra eller styras2007In: Statsvetenskapliga förbundets årsmöte,2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Krishantering i elsystemet - elnätbolags, kommuners och hushålls uppfattningar om roller och ansvarsfördelning vid elavbrott2008Report (Other academic)
  • 70.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Krishantering i elsystemet - elnätbolags, kommuners och hushålls uppfattningar om roller och ansvarsfördelning vid elavbrott2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

     I denna rapport diskuteras kommuners, elnätsbolags och elanvändares relationer och ansvarsfördelning utifrån erfarenheter och upplevelser som aktörerna haft i samband med och efter stormarna Per och Gudrun. Särskild vikt läggs vid hushållens handlingsutrymme, dvs möjligheter och restriktioner, att upprätthålla en fungerande vardag vid elavbrott. Materialet har samlats in i Östergötland genom enkäter, intervju och deltagande observationer. Analysen av aktörernas krisberedskap vid elavbrott är gjord utifrån Karl Poppers resonemang om att vår tillvaro kan betraktas utifrån tre världar: Värld 1 som är den fysiska/materiella världen; Värld 2 idévärlden och Värld 3 som är den kulturella och sociala världen.

  • 71.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kunskapsläget hos Sveriges Riksdagsledamöter om kärnavfall och dess slutförvar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kärnavfall är radioaktivt avfall som är en restprodukt från våra kärnkraftverk. Det högaktiva avfallet utgörs av använt kärnbränsle. I Sverige mellanlagras det använda kärnbränslet i centrallagret för använt bränsle i Simpevarp i Oskarshamns kommun (Clab) i väntan på ett slutligt slutförvar. Använt kärnbränsle är problematiskt att hantera eftersom avfallet avger joniserande stålning som utan tillräckligt strålningsskydd kan ge allvarliga skador på människors hälsa och miljön. Det tar hundratusentals år för strålningen att återgå till en nivå som motsvarar berggrundens. Just nu pågår en prövning enligt miljöbalken (1998:808) och lagen (1984:3) om kärnteknisk verksamhet (kärntekniklagen) som rör hur kärnavfallet ska slutförvaras.

    Det är kärnkraftsindustrin som har ansvaret för att hitta en plats och en metod som medför ett säkert slutförvar. För att göra detta har kärnkraftsindustrin bildat bolaget Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB (SKB). Under 2011 ansökte SKB om tillstånd enligt miljöbalken och kärntekniklagen om att få uppföra en slutförvarsanläggning i Forsmark i Östhammars kommun. Till ansökan bifogades miljökonsekvensbeskrivning, samrådsredogörelse och säkerhetsanalys. Ansökan skickades till Strålsäkerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) som granskar om kärnsäkerheten och strålskyddet i beskrivna anläggningar uppfyller kraven enligt kärntekniklagen. Därefter prövar regeringen frågan om tillstånd enligt den lagen.

    Vid samma tillfälle ansökte SKB också om tillstånd för mellanlagret, inkapslings-anläggningen och slutförvaret i enlighet med miljöbalken. Ansökan skickades till Mark- och miljödomstolen vid Nacka tingsrätt som prövar ansökningen enligt miljöbalken. Det krävs alltså två skilda tillstånd för att få uppföra slutförvaret för använt kärnbränsle.

    SSM och domstolen skickar ut respektive ansökningar på remiss till olika instanser däribland Östhammars och Oskarshamns kommuner, myndigheter, universitet och miljöorganisationer. Expertyttranden ges och både SSM och domstolen kan begära komplettering av SKB. SSM och domstolen lämnar sedan ett yttrande till regeringen som slutligt avgör om SKB uppfyller kraven för ett slutförvar.

    Med tanke på den pågående prövningen önskade Kärnavfallsrådet veta mer om vilken information Riksdagens ledamöter har i frågan och på vilka områden det finns kunskapsluckor som behöver mötas genom ökade informationsinsatser. Kärnavfallsrådet initierade därför en enkätundersökning riktad till Riksdagens ledamöter som redovisas nedan efter en historisk genomgång av kärnavfallet som riksdagspolitisk fråga.

  • 72.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    L´ administration communale du système de l´ énergie en Suède - une perspective historique et les développements actuels2007In: Annuaire 2007 des Collectivites Locales / [ed] Gérard Marcou, Paris: CNRS Éditions , 2007, p. 145-160Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 73.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Living in a passive house – how comfortable is that? A comparison of tenants living in passive houses and tenants living in district heated houses2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will present a case study of semi-detached apartment houses in Linköping, Sweden. Nine apartments have been constructed according to the Swedish passive house standard. Another 30 standard apartments have also been built in the area. The passive and the standard houses are of the same size and design. This paper focuses on the experience from the householders living in these apartments. We have interviewed households in the passive houses and in the conventional houses two-three times. The first interviews were done in February 2009 and the last in Mars 2010. The aim with this paper is to analyze the tenants’ experiences of living in the passive houses compared with living in the regular houses and what problems and opportunities they experienced during a year.

    From the households experiences of the summer we can notice that the passive houses and the conventional houses shared similar experiences. Tenants from both groups complained over the hot summer which led to high indoor temperature. Then, the winter became unusual cold and both groups had experienced remarkable many problems with the ventilation and heating systems. All households had to learn how the indoor temperature varied between different rooms, from where there was draught and how to decrease or increase the indoor temperature. The cold winter was a bigger problem for the households in the passive houses because it was more difficult for them to quickly warm up the apartment. The passive houses are however connected to the district heating system for additional heating cold winter days and the one household that thought they had had a pleasant indoor temperature had used the district heating system constantly. To live in passive houses requires the householders to learn and be familiar with the special feature of the house. But as seen here, the same holds for all kind of houses and the focus on all the special skills that households in passive houses need to have might only lead to that the diffusion of the concept is delayed.

  • 74.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Local Energy and Environmental Policy - a case study on the policy process of shaping a local district heating system2002In: EASST 2002, Responsibility under uncerainty,2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Local Energy and Environmental Policy - Integration, Conflict, Control?1999In: Fourth European Summer School in Local Government Studies,1999, 1999Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 76.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Lägre kostnad skäl att satsa på egenproducerad el2008In: Husbyggaren : bygg, el, VVS, anldggning / SBR - Svenska byggingenjvrers riksförbund, ISSN 0018-7968, no 5, p. 16-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 77.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Makten över energin2004In: Miljöforskning : Formas tidning för ett uthålligt samhälle, ISSN 1650-4925, no 5-6, p. 13-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 78.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Makten över energin: policyprocesser i två kommuner 1977–20012004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Municipalities have traditionally played key roles in the Swedish energy system as suppliers of gas, electricity and district heating to the public sector and end-use consumers. Sweden has a tradition of strong local self-government, and the municipalities are expected to play important roles in implementing national energy strategies and formulating municipal ones.

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how power was exercised in the policy processes of two municipal energy systems between 1977 to 2001. The specific research questions were as follows: How did actors exercise power in the policy process? What sort of power resources did policy coalitions have access to? How did policy coalitions act to enforce their demands? What obstacles did actors encounter when attempting to influence energy policy? To answer these questions I integrate theories about large technical systems with theories about power and public policy.

    The case studies are based on multiple sources of data from two municipalities, Linköping and Norrköping. It is drawn from written primary sources (such as minutes, notes and documents) and from interviews. I have focused on four categories of actors, namely elected politicians who are members of the municipal council; representatives of the local energy companies; officials of the municipal housing companies; and municipal officials, such as those at the town planning office and environment office.

    In the case studies I analyse circumstances during the 1980s and 1990s that affected the energy systems. These circumstances were: 1) new energy investments and fuel choices; 2) work on local energy plans; 3) local Agenda 21 plans; 4) measurements taken for efficient energy use and a greater level of energy conservation: and 5) power relations between politicians and representatives of the local energy company.

    In the municipalities studied, the energy system was divided into three independent policy areas, one dealing with supply, one with conservation and one environmental questions related to the Agenda 21 vision of an ecologically sustainable energy system. These three policy areas were handled separately because they were separated organisationally, based on different knowledge foundations and had different objectives and time perspectives, different system limits, and different visions of how to build an ecological energy system.

  • 79.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Municipal energy system developed in parallel processes - power, actors, policies2005In: 7th NESS ¿ Nordic Environmental Social Science,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Målmedvetna rebeller: saken är klar, svenskarna och solelen hör ihop2014In: Solrevolution / [ed] Liv Lewitschnik, Stockholm: Naturskyddsföreningen , 2014, 1, p. 169-169Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 81.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Placing barriers to industrial energy efficiency in a social context: a discussion of lifestyle categorisation2009In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 263-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares how analyses of energy use and efficiency have developed in households and industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). I focus on earlier studies that use lifestyle categories in examining household energy use, comparing them with studies of mainly Swedish industrial SMEs using the barrier concept in understanding energy efficiency. The main question is how the use of lifestyle categories in household research can be adapted to industrial SMEs. The rationale for using doing this is to find a new way to approach industrial energy use that can give new insight or raise new questions. Lifestyle categories capture the energy culture of a company, including how energy is perceived and what habits and routines are like. Lifestyle categorisation complements barrier analysis, deepening our understanding of how and why companies improve energy efficiency. Using lifestyle categories in an analysis can help policy makers, who can then direct specific policies to particular segments of companies.

  • 82.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Processutvärdering av förstudien: ”Östra valla – demoområde och testbädd”2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Östra Valla är en stadsdel i Linköpings centrala delar som i dagsläget är ett industriområde och inhyser Wahlbecks Företagspark. Området är i en omstöpningsprocess och ska i framtiden innefatta verksamheter, handel och bostäder. Forskare vid Linköpings universitet har följt planeringsprocessen och en samverkansgrupps arbete med en förstudie i syfte att belysa hur deltagarna inom samverkansgruppen arbetat, hur kunskapsutbyte skett och vilka lärdomar man kan dra från förstudien.

    Av utvärderingen framgår att förstudien har bidragit till att många aktiviteter har blivit genomförda. Deltagarna hade många positiva erfarenheter från projektet såsom de regelbundna projektmötena, samarbetet i samverkansgruppen och att alla har kunnat bidra utifrån sin erfarenhet och kunskap. De inledande workshoparna som arrangerades för att få in idéer från många olika aktörer uppfattades också som en styrka för förstudien och hela planeringsprocessen. Arbetsuppgifter och aktiviteter som ingått i förstudien har uppfattats som givande och relevanta.

    De huvudsakliga problemen som framkom rörde inledningsvis avsaknad av en tydlig vision och målbild för företagsparken. Även samverkansgruppen saknade tydligt mål för förstudien och en tydlig projektplanering. Ett problem har även rört kommunikationen både internt och externt till befintliga hyresgäster. Stort arbete lades ned på att förbättra kommunikationen, vilket under år två också gett avsedda positiva effekter.

    Lärdomar som lyfts fram är:

    • Utbyt erfarenheter med andra kommuner för att lära av varandra och dela med sig av vad som har gått bra och vad som har gått mindre bra.

    • Ta fram en tydlig projektplan och ha en tydlig projektledning

    • Det är viktigt att kommunicera en tydlig bild av projektet från början

    • Gå snabbt från vision till konkreta mål

    • Inledande workshopar med brett deltagande ger idéer och bidrar till att sprida information om planeringsprojektet

    • Ha dialog med intressenter tidigt

    • Involvera hyresgästerna så tidigt det bara går i processen. Lyssna och känn av deras intressen och önskningar för att få en bra grogrund för det fortsatta arbetet

    • Använde ett kommunikationsverktyg

    • Viktigt att planera för en lyckad samverkan genom att besvara ett antal frågor: vilken information ska utbytas och hur ska information utbytas, vad är informationsfrågor som inte är öppna för förhandling och vilka frågor är mer öppna för dialog där utomstående aktörer kan ha inflytande

    • Utforma transparanta processer så att man vet vad alla deltagare i planeringsprocessen gör

    • Ge arbetet tid – att arbeta i grupp tar tid, det tar tid att hitta sina roller och lära känna varandra

    • Ha en plan för hur kunskap som produceras ska föras vidare till de som inte deltar, både internt i organisationer och till externa intressenter

  • 83.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Public interest in the private sphere: how far into the home can local policy making reach?2009In: eceee 2009 Summer Study. Act! Innovate! Deliver!Reducing energy demand sustainably. Conference proceedings., Stockholm: eceee secretariat , 2009, p. 287-297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    Environmental problems in the energy system largely originate from everyday activities and choices. The home is a 'node' of daily life and is often seen as our private sphere. However, the privacy of the home can be contested in relation to local policies in general and energy and environmental policies in particular. This paper discusses the private/public divide in energy policies and how this divide appears to Swedish municipal energy consultants. By analyzing the actions of several energy consultants and their efforts to influence households as well as how households perceive this guidance, we can gauge how far policy instruments have penetrated the private sphere.

    Municipal energy consultants are careful in providing advice to the households: they preserve a rather large 'no-trespassing' area to avoid interfering in peoples' private sphere. Households can accept information, even individually tailored information, but will not accept requests to do certain things. Authorities can inform but not tell people how to act: the decision is still the householders'. Looking at exactly how both households and consultants reason about energy efficiency and the public/private divide, we can discern tendencies for what were earlier considered private concerns to be increasingly perceived as common or public concerns. Energy consultants are trying to find ways to influence family lifestyle while householders are requesting individual inspections and want the consultants to keep individual records of family energy use, not regarding this information as too private. Swedish regulations, however, are hampering this development and delaying the urgent need for changes in both technologies used and energy-related behaviours.

  • 84.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Regionala klimat- och energistrategier: aktörer, ansvar och roller2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På energiområdet har den administrativa regionala nivån länge varit ”tom” på aktörer. Detta har dock det senaste decenniet förändrats och nu finns Länsstyrelserna, Energikontor och Regionförbund med flera som ser som sin uppgift och sitt ansvar att utveckla energisystemet mot ökad hållbarhet. I det perspektivet ska här Länsstyrelsernas regeringsuppdrag att ta fram regionala klimat- och energistrategier analyseras och diskuteras. De aktörer som här kommer att fokuseras är kommunpolitiker, klimat- och energirådgivare, Energikontor och Regionförbund och hur de ser på roller, mandat och legitimitet. Hur ser rollfördelningen regionalt ut på energiområdet mellan Länsstyrelse, Regionförbund och Energikontor? Vilka energistrategiska frågor har och vill dessa aktörer ha ansvar för? Hur uppfattar kommunpolitiker, klimat- och energirådgivare, Energikontor och Regionförbund sin och övriga aktörers roll, mandat och legitimitet i det regionala energistrategiska arbetet?

     

    Djupintervjuer med representanter för Länsstyrelserna, kommunpolitiker, energirådgivare, Energikontor och Regionförbund i Dalarna och Östergötlands län har genomförts och utifrån dessa diskuteras den regionala nivåns möjlighet till energistrategiskt arbete.

     

    I dagsläget finns det ingen egentlig ”konkurrent” till Länsstyrelsen i varken Dalarna eller Östergötland för att driva ett regionalt energistrategiskt arbete. I framtiden är det framförallt Regionförbunden som framställs som potentiella konkurrenter och som gärna tar över det energistrategiska arbetet. Både Regionförbunden själva och ledande kommunalpolitiker pekar ut Regionförbunden som de som borde driva detta strategiska arbete. Skälen till det är att kommunalpolitiker och Regionförbunden ser en framtida utveckling i enlighet med Ansvarskommittén där Länsstyrelsens verksamhet ska renodlas mot tillsyn och Regionförbunden ska ansvara för den regionala utvecklingen. Att denna ansvarsuppdelning förläggs in i framtiden beror på att Regionförbunden idag anser sig sakna resurser för att driva detta strategiarbete. Denna aktuella resursbrist gör också att dessa lokalt förankrade politiker accepterar Länsstyrelsens arbete fram tills realistiska alternativ finns.

     

    Ser vi till rollfördelningen mellan dessa aktörer, och om även de regionala Energikontoren inkluderas, är rollerna otydliga. Det är svårt för samtliga intervjuade aktörer att redogöra för uppgifts- och ansvarsfördelning. De direkt involverade aktörerna menar att de löser ansvars- och uppgiftsfördelning genom kontinuerlig dialog med varandra. När en fråga kommer upp på dagordningen ringer man helt enkelt varandra och ser hur frågan bäst löses och av vem. Det här är ett pragmatiskt system som dock har problemet att det inte är särskilt transparant för de aktörer som står utanför denna informella dialog. Andra problem är att frågor kan falla mellan stolarna när ingen har ett uttalat ansvar för dessa.

     

    Andra frågor som reses är vad som händer nu när dessa klimatstrategier ska konkretiseras och mål implementeras. Vilken legitimitet har Länsstyrelsens strategiarbete i länen? Ett hinder för genomförande kan vara att Länsstyrelsernas strategier delvis saknar legitimitet. Länsstyrelsernas strategier accepteras idag i brist på alternativ, men kommunerna skulle gärna se att andra organ drev och arbetade fram regionala mål och visioner. Ett annat problem är att nå ut till berörda aktörer. Det var få i kommunerna som egentligen visste vad strategin innehöll, vilka områden som täcktes och åtgärder som föreslogs. Det klassiska problemet med att planer gärna blir ”hyllvärmare” riskerar att drabba även Länsstyrelsernas strategidokument.

     

    Det som dock talar för Länsstyrelsernas strategier är att många aktörer vinner på ett regionalt snarare än ett lokalt angreppssätt på energisystemet. Att låta Länsstyrelsen driva dessa samordningsdiskussioner har fördelen att de kan gå in som mer ”neutrala” aktörer som själva saknar egenintresse eller vill gynna visst geografiskt område. Då krävs det dock att övriga aktörer accepterar Länsstyrelsens samordningsroll, vilket inte är uppenbart idag.

     

    Länsstyrelsen har problemet att de inte själva har makt över de åtgärder de vill få implementerade, utan att det är i huvudsak andra aktörer som måste fatta erforderliga beslut och stå för genomförandet. Det blir därmed viktigt att lyfta upp frågor kring hur aktörerna ser på varandras roller och planarbete. Tänker sig Regionförbund och kommuner att de själva inom kort kommer ta fram egna strategiska mål och visioner att arbeta efter och att Länsstyrelsens arbete mer ses som en förstudie till detta? Eller vill man arbeta vidare med de mål och åtgärder som Länsstyrelsen nu tagit fram? Detta är frågor som aktörerna borde ta upp och lufta med varandra tidigt i processen.

  • 85.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ”Smarta resan” i Linköpings kommun – ett projekt för att förändra medborgarnas resvanor2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Stadsdelsresan genomfördes 2014 av Linköpings kommun. Syftet med Stadsdelsresan var att bidra till att utveckla hållbara resmönster i de tre utvalda områdena i Linköping och mer specifikt att få fler att arbetspendla med kollektivtrafiken eller cykel. Projektet var indelat i tre delmoment. Delmoment 1 bestod av att engagera testresenärer för elcykel alternativt kollektivtrafik, Delmoment 2 riktade sig till förskoleklasser i syfte att skapa hållbara transporter till och från skolan. Delmoment 3 riktade sig till idrottsklubbar i syfte att skapa hållbara transporter i samband med idrottsutövning.

    I samband med genomförandet av stadsdelsresan har forskare vid Linköpings universitet följt arbetet med projektet Stadsdelsresan för att se vilka lärdomar som kan dras av projektet samt potentiella förbättringar som kan göras inför framtida satsningar.

    Vad gäller arbetet mot förskoleklasser var en viktig lärdom att kommunen behöver vara ute i god tid när den ska arbeta med skolan. Genomförande av cykelsafarie och möjligheten att få tillgång till elcyklar för förskolorna var två åtgärder som var framgångsrika.

    Arbetet med idrottsklubbarna hade en trög start och det är för tidigt att dra någon slutsats från det arbetet.

    Delmoment 1 med testresenärer var det moment som var mest fokuserat och som det finns mest material kring. Det är flest kvinnor som har deltagit i projektet, flertalet är villaägare med hemmavarande barn. Åldersmässigt återfinns merparten i intervallet 35-54 år.

    Motiven för elcyklisterna att delta i projektet var att Få bättre hälsa följt av Skona Miljön. För kollektivresenärerna var motiven Skona miljön, följt av Slippa leta parkeringsplats och Spara Pengar. Ytterligare viktiga motiv för elcyklisterna har varit att det var spännande att få testa ny teknik som gör det enklare och bekvämare att arbetspendla med cykel.

    Det är svårt att bedöma hur många som ska ändra ett beteende för att ett projekt ska ses som lyckosamt, men i det här fallet har cirka hälften av de svaranden testresenärerna fortsatt cykla eller åkt kollektivt vilket måste ses som en stor framgång.

    Även om bekvämligheten att ta bil är svår att konkurrera med så är det tydligt att när andra transportmedel får testas så får resenärerna överge många fördomar de har. Det var t.ex.flera cyklister som kunde konstatera att det fungerade bra att arbetspendla med cykel och att cykeln dessutom i vissa fall medförde kortare restid.

    Att arbeta med utvalda stadsdelar är en framgångsväg som kan utnyttja många av de fördelar som tidigare studier pekar på med synliggörande och igenkänning. Förbättringspotential inför framtiden kan vara att utnyttja tävlingsmoment, direkt och personlig feedback och sociala medier vid liknande projekt.

  • 86.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The building process of single-family houses and the embeddedness (or disembeddedness) of energy2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 62, p. 762-767Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People building their own houses have, at least theoretically, substantial autonomy when choosing, for example, a heating system and windows. In this article, focus is on the process of building new single-family houses and how energy efficiency and energy-efficient technology are incorporated into the building process. The conclusions emphasize energy as only one factor in housing purchase decisions. It is a big challenge to make low-energy building important to consumers. Consumer preferences for new products are unlikely to fully develop unless individuals have the opportunity to interact with them. It is difficult for consumers to know what to ask for if they lack experience of energy-efficient technologies. In the studied cases, the building codes and established standards became extremely decisive for how energy issues were included in the process. There is a need to change the design of incentives so as to make the least energy-efficient choice the most expensive. The most energy-efficient solution should be standard, and if the buyer wants to depart from that standard and build using less energy-efficient construction, then that should cost more.

  • 87.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The public-private divide in household behavior. How far into the home can energy guidance reach?2010In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 38, no 6, p. 2858-2864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental problems in the energy system often originate from everyday activities and choices. Everyday activities in the home are part of the private sphere that can be contested in relation to energy policies. This article discusses the public–private divide in energy policies and how Swedish municipal energy consultants understand the divide. By analyzing the actions of energy consultants and thei efforts to influence households, as well as how households perceive this guidance, I will discuss the public–private discourse in relation to energy policy and how this discourse can be a restriction for the energy consultants to reach their full potential.

    The consultants found it problematic to discuss behavioral issues because they did not know how to relate to people’s everyday life activities without intruding on private and personal matters. For the households tailored information and feedback was not perceived as the consultant trespassing in the private sphere. Instead, the householders highlight the possibilities of such mapping. Lessoned learned from Sweden is that state subsidies to local energy consultants is a good way to reach households, but that they need to develop their methods and use more tailored information.

  • 88.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Transboundary Risk Governance2011In: ACTA SOCIOLOGICA, ISSN 0001-6993, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 127-129Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 89.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Utveckla ekologiskt uthålliga energisystem genom kombinationer av nätverk och legala och informativa styrmedel2005In: Statsvetenskapliga förbundets årsmöte,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 90.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alm, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vertical and horizontal governance of crisis management – a study of two regional emergency management councils in Sweden2010In: Crisis Management / [ed] Alvintzi, Patrick & Eder, Hannes, New York: Nova Science Publisher , 2010, p. 263-288Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we discuss Swedish crisis management from the perspective that public administration has evolved from a government steering structure to a governance structure. The power to govern crisis policy has been partly transferred from “government” to autonomous policy networks, which may include both public and private actors.

    Geographic area responsibility is assigned to the Government at the national level, the county councils at the regional level and the municipalities at the local level. In addition to this distinctly hierarchical division of responsibility by coordination area and geographic area, the system strongly emphasises interaction between actors and coordination areas. Thus, the emergency management system includes elements of both government (or hierarchy) and governance (or networking).

    The paper focuses on the interaction that has evolved among county administrative boards and municipalities in the networks, or regional emergency management councils, that have been established in several regions as a way for county administrative boards to fulfil their coordination responsibility. We will focus on two problem areas related to interaction in the councils: Which issues and actors are included or excluded in these networks? To what extent are councils characterised by negotiations and agreements among network actors and to what extent are council actors and issues characterised by hierarchical structures?

    We have chosen to more closely examine two regional emergency management councils and have made use of printed materials and conducted in-depth interviews.

    We can conclude that the relationship between the county administrative boards and the municipalities has elements of both hierarchical and network governance. Who is included in the councils seems to depend on a combination of hierarchy, by reason of an actor’s formal role or position, which more or less mandates interaction with the county administrative board, and tradition, as it becomes clear that the emergencies that have affected the county in recent years, such as the severe winter storms Gudrun and Per, have resulted in the energy system being amply represented in both councils while other system representatives have been more poorly represented. 

    Small municipalities have greater need for the County Administrative Board’s support and resources than the larger ones, but are not considered able to contribute as much to the regional network and are excluded for that reason. The importance to municipalities of having their own network representatives is most clearly apparent in the statements of actors who lack representation. They lack knowledge and information about what is occurring in the councils.

  • 91.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Backman, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Policy network creation as a driver of energy-efficient industry2017In: International Journal of Energy Sector Management, ISSN 1750-6220, E-ISSN 1750-6239, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines a Swedish municipality that has started addressing energy efficiency in local businesses by creating a network involving 60 companies showing that the network has too broad a problem definition, which does not help unify the involved actors.

    Purpose

    This paper studies a Swedish municipality that wants to go beyond its own operations, involving the local industry in saving energy to improve the environment. The paper aims to analyse the experiences and practical implications of using policy networks for implementing energy-efficiency measures in private industrial companies.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The researchers closely followed a Swedish municipality and its work to engage the local industry in energy-efficiency activities. Participatory observations of meetings and workshops and semi-structured interviews with involved actors were conducted.

    Findings

    The study examines a Swedish municipality that has started addressing energy efficiency in local businesses by creating a network involving 60 companies. This network was tested in relation to four hypotheses on how policy networks develop. The study finds that the network has too broad a problem definition, which does not help unify the involved actors. The companies’ involvement is based on passive participation in which they are receivers of information. The network has been unable to use a social control mechanism because there have been few company-to-company meetings. In conclusion, for a network to be an efficient policy tool, its structure is as important as the ideas for action and clear goals.

    Research limitations/implications

    This case study of one Swedish municipality allows for analytical but not statistical generalization.

    Originality/value

    The paper uniquely calls for reflection on whether municipalities and local authorities have enough competence to drive industrial energy efficiency.

  • 92.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Darby, Sarah
    Oxford University, UK.
    The meanings of practices for energy consumption – a comparison of homes and workplaces2014In: Science and Technology Studies, ISSN 2243-4690, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 72-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine how building and appliance technologies relate to their use by occupants through practices at home and at work. The aim is to analyse how practices are influenced by buildings and other technologies, and by social requirements, and to add to ongoing research on how to contribute to a transition to more sustainable everyday practices. Interview, quantitative and observational material is used to compare experiences of occupying and using two different types of building, passive housing and large modern research buildings, by applying practice theory. The passive house case showed that the main project of a liveable, low-impact new building was on a fairly manageable scale, given a suitable design and occupants who were prepared to adapt to it. The research lab study showed however the configuration to unsustainable technologies and practices that can occur at the design stage, and how most actors then had very limited room for manoeuvre.

  • 93.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Eidenskog, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Luthander, Rasmus
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sufficiency, change, and flexibility: Critically examining the energy consumption profiles of solar PV prosumers in Sweden2018In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 39, p. 12-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of consumers producing electricity at home, i.e., “prosumers”, is rapidly increasing in many European countries. This article analyses the electricity consumption and energy-saving behaviours of households that own photovoltaic (PV) systems in Sweden. Earlier studies of how home production of electricity affects consumption patterns are few and their results are mixed. We interviewed prosumers in Sweden and collected electricity-consumption data one year before and after they installed PVs. The differences between households were large and no general behavioural change could be detected. The interviews indicated that awareness of the energy system increased among all prosumers, but led to no substantial changes in how or when activities were performed. Most prosumers thought that the benefits of shifting their electricity load to other times were too small. The changes prosumers did make mostly concerned smaller adjustments. Households that increased their consumption justified this by their access to “free” electricity. Automation, i.e., using a timer, was relatively unknown or not used when known.

  • 94.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Avslutande diskussion2008In: Vardagsteknik: Energi och IT. Forskning om hållbar användning av samhällets IT- och energisystem, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag , 2008, p. 197-203Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 95.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Introduktion: vardagsteknik för hållbar utveckling2008In: Vardagsteknik: Energi och IT. Forskning om hållbar användning av samhällets IT- och energisystem / [ed] Jenny Palm och Kajsa Ellegård, Stockholm: CArlsson Bokförlag , 2008, p. -214Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 96.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ellegård, KajsaLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vardagsteknik: Energi och IT: Forskning om hållbar användning av samhällets IT-och energisystem2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok tar upp energi- och IT-användningen i dagens moderna samhälle. Jämförelser mellan järnvägsbyggandet boom och datasamhällets bubbla görs. Hur hanteras elektricitet och demokrati? Vad innebär inrednings- och göra om-program i i-världen för resursförbrukningen? Ett flertal forskare granskar dagens konkreta verklighet ur dessa perspektiv.

  • 97.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Visualizing energy consumption activities as a tool for developing effective policy2011In: International Journal of Consumer Studies, ISSN 1470-6423, E-ISSN 1470-6431, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 171-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyzing and understanding energy consumption from the household activity perspective is vital for developing policy that promotes sustainable everyday life. Doing so entails learning how to connect policy with household activities and everyday life.

    We use a time-geographic visualization to analyze several dimensions of everyday life as a totality. From household members’ time diaries, we can analyze and learn about when, where and what energy-related activities occur in the household, involving what household members are engaged and in what wider social context activities are performed. We discuss the importance of relating policy analysis to everyday household activities to make policy relevant to households. Time diaries reveal differences and interdependencies in activity patterns between household members and between individuals in a population classified by factors such as gender, age and household composition. The diaries provide data to visualize activity patterns and identify individual households’ use of electric appliances and need for light and heating. To capture electricity use as it occurs, we developed the VISUAL-TimePAcTS/energy use software to track the relationship between activities, appliance use and electricity consumption. This tool helps deepen discussions of the consequences of everyday household doings for energy consumption and climate change. Time diaries also help households reflect on daily life in relation to energy consumption, giving households feedback that is direct and relevant since it refers to self-reported activities. This is the starting point for discussions of how activities can change.

    Time geographic visualizations of diaries complement policy research by recognizing the diversity of everyday life of households. Instead of analyzing how habits, incremental decisions and non-decisions are made by grassroots bureaucrats, we suggest broadening the perspective to include how individuals’ everyday activities and restrictions influence policy formation.

  • 98.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Visualizing energy consumption activities as a tool för developing affective policy2015In: Socio-technical perspectives on sustainable energy systems / [ed] Jonas Anshelm, Kajsa Ellegård, Jenny Palm, Harald Rohracher, Linköping: Linköping University , 2015, p. 75-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hellgren, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A cluster analysis of energy-consuming activities in everyday life2018In: Building Research & Information, ISSN 0961-3218, E-ISSN 1466-4321, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 99-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible consumption in the household sector concerns individuals daily choices and the routines that develop in their households. Targeting household-level energy consumption therefore requires an understanding of energy consumption in relation to individual household members activity patterns. Individual time-diaries reveal when, for how long and where energy-related activities occur, permitting discussions of the temporal flexibility of these activities. Using multiple time-diaries (n=6477) from a population reveals differences in activity patterns in larger groups and permits recorded activities to be clustered. Few explorative studies perform cluster analyses of energy-consuming activities in order to examine when and for how long these activities occur. When clustering is done, it is usually based on socio-economic factors, and not on the activities performed in sequence. This paper reports a time-geographically inspired cluster analysis based on when and for how long some activities requiring electricity are performed in the home by individuals in a population. The presented cluster analysis based on activities gives a new perspective to the discussion of flexible users and provides a basis for deeper analyses, for example, of whether activities are moveable in time for individuals, complementing cluster analysis based on other variables.

  • 100.
    Palm, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fallde, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    What Characterizes a System Builder? The Role of Local Energy Companies in Energy System Transformation2016In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on the development of sustainable energy systems in the Swedish local context and, specifically, on the actors that have proved to be crucial for such transitions: municipally owned energy companies. With the theoretical lens inspired by LTSs (large technical systems), the concept of the system builder was analyzed for the purpose of further understanding what characterizes the system builder-a frequently used but seldom problematized concept. This paper originates from earlier studies based on interviews and official documents. In this article, the municipal energy company and its role throughout the processes is used to illustrate how system builders act and can influence the development of energy systems. Three examples are used to illustrate how system building has been enabled through controlling the objectives and visions of the local energy planning, through enrolling the city council, and finally through recognizing the opportunity to expand the market through the coordination of systems. In this case, the system builder was characterized by the ability to act as a collective, as one unit, despite the multitude of individuals representing the organization, by the use of skills and knowledge in different policy processes, and by the ability to recognize opportunities in combining different sociotechnical systems. The need for system builders to act on expanding as well as stagnating systems is also shown.

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