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  • 51.
    Fahlman, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Guan, H
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Li, S
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Smallfield, JAO
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Wei, Y
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Epstein, AJ
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA USA.
    Polyaniline-metal interfaces: Implications on corrosion protection of steel and aluminum alloys.2000In: Abstract of Papers of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0065-7727, Vol. 220, p. 52-POLY-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Fahlman, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Smallfield, JAO
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Lazzaroni, R
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Bredas, JL
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Li, S
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Wei, Y
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Epstein, AJ
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Sci & Technol, SE-60174 Norrkoping, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA Univ Mons, Serv Chim Mat Nouveaux, B-7000 Mons, Belgium Drexel Univ, Dept Chem, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Iron-polyaniline interfaces: Implications for corrosion protection2003In: American Chemical Society Symposium Series (ACS), ISSN 0097-6156, E-ISSN 1947-5918, Vol. 843, p. 76-89Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The early stages of interface formation between iron and a three-ring model molecule (trimer) of emeraldine base form of polyaniline (EB) were investigated using theoretical (DFT) and experimental (XPS) methods: Iron atoms were sputter-deposited in ultra high vacuum onto thin oligomer films, with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level spectra taken after each deposition. Similar studies were carried out for Fe sputter-deposited on EB polymer films as well. Based on the chemical shifts of the core level peaks and the theoretical results, iron was determined to donate charge (e(-)) into the trimer and EB films. The reverse case where thin films of trimer and EB were deposited on iron also was studied. The C(1s) core level shake up spectra show that the pi-electronic structure is modified for trimer and EB coatings on iron as compared to coatings on gold. (C) 2003 American Chemical Society.

  • 53.
    Fahlman, Mats
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel T
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics.
    Interfaces in organic electronics2019In: Nature Reviews Materials, E-ISSN 2058-8437, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 627-650Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Undoped, conjugated, organic molecules and polymers possess properties of semiconductors, including the electronic structure and charge transport, which can be readily tuned by chemical design. Moreover, organic semiconductors (OSs) can be n-doped or p-doped to become organic conductors and can exhibit mixed electronic and ionic conductivity. Compared with inorganic semiconductors and metals, organic (semi)conductors possess a unique feature: no insulating oxide forms on their surface when exposed to air. Thus, OSs form clean interfaces with many materials, including metals and other OSs. OS–metal and OS–OS interfaces have been intensely investigated over the past 30 years, from which a consistent theoretical description has emerged. Since the 2000s, increased attention has been paid to interfaces in organic electronics that involve dielectrics, electrolytes, ferroelectrics and even biological organisms. In this Review, we consider the central role of these interfaces in the function of organic electronic devices and discuss how the physico-chemical properties of the interfaces govern the interfacial transport of light, excitons, electrons and ions, as well as the transduction of electrons into the molecular language of cells.

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  • 54.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    de Jong, Michel P
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Simpson, CD
    Watson, MD
    von Kieseritzky, F
    Samori, P
    Jonsson, SKM
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Jackel, F
    Rabe, JP
    Hellberg, J
    Mullen, K
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Surface-induced vertical alignment of self-assembled supramolecular columns of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and porphyrins2004In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 147, no 01-Mar, p. 79-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ordered films of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and porphyrins with functional (e.g. thiophene) side-groups are good candidates for (opto-)electronic applications where fast charge separation and transport are required. Such highly ordered thin films of PAHs, including discotic hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene (HBC) and C-132-C-16,C-4, as well as brominated functionalized porphyrin molecules have been grown from solutions on semi-metallic molybdenum disulfide substrates and characterized by angle-resolved valence band photoelectron spectroscopy. A vertical growth of self-assembled supramolecular columns perpendicular to the basal plane of the substrate along with their lateral ordering on the surface has been achieved. Annealing made it possible to increase the structural order in the HBC columns, with molecules positioned at a regular offset from the columnar axis. This permitted the formation of extended pi-electronic states with a bandwidth of at least 0.1-0.2 eV at room temperature. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 55.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Pickholz, M.
    Keil, M.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics .
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    High intercalation levels in lithium perylene stoichiometric compounds2002In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 354, no 5-6, p. 389-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Both amorphous and polycrystalline films of the aromatic hydrocarbon perylene are found to accept as high as one lithium per 3.3±0.1 carbon atoms. Phases composed of stoichiometric compounds with two, four and six lithium atoms per molecule are observed. The intercalation involves a substantial charge transfer from the lithium atoms to the molecules. Moreover, a high binding energy of the dopant-induced valence band electronic states is observed by photoelectron spectroscopy. Those observations suggest a high energy storage capacity for small- and medium-size aromatic hydrocarbons and their potential use in batteries. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 56.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Molecular parameters controlling the energy storage capability of lithium polyaromatic hydrocarbon intercalation compounds2004In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 129, no 1, p. 29-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One route for improving the performance of Li-based batteries is to optimize the carbon-based electrode. In order to find the best carbon-based materials, the specific roles of the molecular and solid-state contributions have to be understood. Here, the molecular contributions are analyzed. A semi-quantitative method is proposed to compare the charge storage capability of polyaromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs). For planar PAHs, the ability to store electrical energy is found to be to a large extend determined by a single parameter, that is the electronic hardness (half the electronic gap) Multiplied the number of carbon atom in the molecule. A compilation of results for oligophenyls, oligoacenes and medium-size planar systems suggests trends in the dependence of the energy storage capability on the size and shape of the molecules. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 57.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simpson, C. D.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    Watson, M. D.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    Jackel, F.
    Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marciniak, S.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    de Jong, Michel P
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Samori, P.
    Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Jönsson, Stina
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry.
    Müllen, K.
    Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Germany.
    Rabe, J. P.
    Department of Physics, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electronic structure of highly ordered films of self-assembled graphitic nanocolumns2003In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 68, no 19, p. 195414-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly ordered, several nanometers thick films of alkylated large planar, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules have been grown on semi-metallic molybdenum disulfide substrates. The films are characterized by a two-dimensional lateral arrangement of columns standing at the surface on a macroscopic scale. The self-assembly of such insulated columns of face-to-face disks with surface-induced vertical alignment has been achieved directly from solution processing. Angle-resolved photoelectron spectra revealed a highly anisotropic quasi-one-dimensional electronic structure with an extended π-electronic wave function. An intermolecular dispersion of the highest occupied band of at least 0.15 eV along the stacking direction has been measured. A partial breakdown of the concept of quasimomentum due to the finite size of the nano-objects perpendicular to the stacks is observed.

  • 58.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Suess, C.
    Pickholz, M.
    Center for Molecular Modeling, Department of Chemistry, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    The role of intermolecular polarization for the stability of lithium intercalation compounds of a- and ß-perylene2004In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 121, no 5, p. 2239-2245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The charge transfer in Li-intercalation compounds of the polyaromatic hydrocarbon perylene was examined. It was found that the valence and core-level photoelectron spectroscopies characterized the bonding configuration of the alkali metal atoms. The effect of intermolecular polarization on the ionization potential of Li atoms was compensated by a screening of the Madelung energy. The data collected illustrated that the large charge transfer in the a-perylene was due to the lower ionization potential of lithium atoms.

  • 59.
    Friedlein, Rainer
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Sorensen, S.L.
    Sörensen, S.L., Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, Lund University, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Rosenqvist, L.
    Department of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Institute of Physics, Lund University, S-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
    Crispin, Annica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    de Jong, Michel P
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Murphy, C.
    CDT Ltd., Cambridge CB3 0KJ, United Kingdom.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry .
    Electronic structure of conjugated polymers and interfaces in polymer-based electronics2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure of conjugated polymers and interfaces in polymer-based electronics were analyzed. Fine structure were observed in the region of the first resonance with pi-final state symmetry, between 284.1 eV and 285.8 eV. The electronic transitions from the non-dispersed C(1s) level to specific parts of the unoccupied band structure were generated. It was found that for a dispersing valence band, in the presence of a core-hole, a given photon energy corresponded to an excitation into a state with a distinct wave vectors.

  • 60.
    Gadisa, Abay
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tvingstedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Admassie, Shimelis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindell, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Department of Organic Chemistry and Polymer Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Salaneck, William R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Transparent polymer cathode for organic photovoltaic devices2006In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 156, no 16-17, p. 1102-1107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate a prototype solar cell with a transparent polymer cathode, and indium-tin-oxide (ITO)/poly (3, 4-ethylene dioxythiophene)-poly (styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) anode. As an active layer, thin film of a bulk heterojunction of polyfluorene copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctyl-fluorene)-alt-5,5-(4′,7′-di-2thienyl-2′,1′3′-benzothiadiazole)] (APFO-3) and an electron acceptor molecule [6] and [6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) (1:4 wt.) was sandwiched between the two transparent polymer electrodes. The cathode is another form of PEDOT formed by vapor phase polymerised PEDOT (VPP PEDOT) of conductivity 102–103 S/cm. The cathode is supported on an elastomeric substrate, and forms a conformal contact to the APFO-3/PCBM blend. Transparent solar cells are useful for building multilayer and tandem solar cells.

  • 61.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marcilla, Rebeca
    CIDETEC, Spain.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fiber-Embedded Electrolyte-Gated Field-Effect Transistors for e-Textiles2009In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 573-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolyte-gate organic field-effect transistors embedded at the junction of textile microfibers are demonstrated. The fiber transistor operates below I V and delivers large current densities. The transience of the organic thin-film transistors current and the impedance spectroscopy measurements reveal that the channel is formed in two steps.

  • 62.
    Han, Shaobo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alvi, Naveed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granlof, Lars
    RISE Bioecon, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE Bioecon, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Multiparameter Pressure-Temperature-Humidity Sensor Based on Mixed Ionic-Electronic Cellulose Aerogels2019In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 8, article id 1802128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressure (P), temperature (T), and humidity (H) are physical key parameters of great relevance for various applications such as in distributed diagnostics, robotics, electronic skins, functional clothing, and many other Internet-of-Things (IoT) solutions. Previous studies on monitoring and recording these three parameters have focused on the integration of three individual single-parameter sensors into an electronic circuit, also comprising dedicated sense amplifiers, signal processing, and communication interfaces. To limit complexity in, e.g., multifunctional IoT systems, and thus reducing the manufacturing costs of such sensing/communication outposts, it is desirable to achieve one single-sensor device that simultaneously or consecutively measures P-T-H without cross-talks in the sensing functionality. Herein, a novel organic mixed ion-electron conducting aerogel is reported, which can sense P-T-H with minimal cross-talk between the measured parameters. The exclusive read-out of the three individual parameters is performed electronically in one single device configuration and is enabled by the use of a novel strategy that combines electronic and ionic Seebeck effect along with mixed ion-electron conduction in an elastic aerogel. The findings promise for multipurpose IoT technology with reduced complexity and production costs, features that are highly anticipated in distributed diagnostics, monitoring, safety, and security applications.

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  • 63.
    Han, Shaobo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jiao, Fei
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Polymer Aerogels for Pressure-Temperature Sensing Applications2017In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 27, no 44, article id 1703549Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evolution of the society is characterized by an increasing flow of information from things to the internet. Sensors have become the cornerstone of the internet-of-everything as they track various parameters in the society and send them to the cloud for analysis, forecast, or learning. With the many parameters to sense, sensors are becoming complex and difficult to manufacture. To reduce the complexity of manufacturing, one can instead create advanced functional materials that react to multiple stimuli. To this end, conducting polymer aerogels are promising materials as they combine elasticity and sensitivity to pressure and temperature. However, the challenge is to read independently pressure and temperature output signals without cross-talk. Here, a strategy to fully decouple temperature and pressure reading in a dual-parameter sensor based on thermoelectric polymer aerogels is demonstrated. It is found that aerogels made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) can display properties of semiconductors lying at the transition between insulator and semimetal upon exposure to high boiling point polar solvents, such as dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Importantly, because of the temperature-independent charge transport observed for DMSO-treated PEDOT-based aerogel, a decoupled pressure and temperature sensing can be achieved without cross-talk in the dual-parameter sensor devices.

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  • 64.
    Han, Shaobo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Wuyi Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gladisch, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Erlandsson, Johan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Wagberg, Lars
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cellulose-Conducting Polymer Aerogels for Efficient Solar Steam Generation2020In: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486, article id 2000004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seawater desalination and wastewater purification technologies are the main strategies against the global fresh water shortage. Among these technologies, solar-driven evaporation is effective in extracting fresh water by efficiently exploiting solar energy. However, building a sustainable and low-cost solar steam generator with high conversion efficiency is still a challenge. Here, pure organic aerogels comprising a cellulose scaffold decorated with an organic conducting polymer absorbing in the infrared are employed to establish a high performance solar steam generator. The low density of the aerogel ensures minimal material requirements, while simultaneously satisfying efficient water transport. To localize the absorbed solar energy and make the system floatable, a porous floating and thermal-insulating foam is placed between the water and the aerogel. Thanks to the high absorbance of the aerogel and the thermal-localization performance of the foam, the system exhibits a high water evaporation rate of 1.61 kg m(-2) h(-1) at 1 kW m(-2) under 1 sun irradiation, which is higher than most reported solar steam generation devices.

  • 65.
    Hansson (f.d. Wadeasa), Amal
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    ZnO-Polymer hybrid electron only rectifiersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of organic semiconductors and ZnO nanorods provides new hybrid devices for large area optoelectronics targeting solar energy harvesting and light emission applications. The electronic transport across organic-ZnO heterojunction is not well understood. Here, we investigate systematically the creation of the ZnOpolymer interface and pinpoint potential issues in hybrid devices based on chemically grown ZnO nanorods. For the sake of simplicity, we focus on a ZnO-polymer hybrid device transporting only electrons. The semiconducting polymer used is poly {[N,N0-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4,5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,50-(2,20-dithiophene)}. The device shows easy electron injection from Au/ZnO contacts and a good rectification partially governed by the morphology of the heterojunction.

  • 66.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Robinson, Nathaniel D
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandberg, M.
    Thin Film Electronics AB.
    Hagel, O.-J.
    Thin Film Electronics AB.
    Gustafsson, G.
    Acreo AB.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low-Voltage Polymer Field-Effect Transistors Gated via a Proton Conductor2007In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 97-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low operating voltages for p-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) can be achieved by using an electrolyte as the gate insulator. However, mobile anions in the electrolyte can lead to undesired electrochemistry in the channel. In order to avoid this, a polyanionic electrolyte is used as the gate insulator. The resulting OFET has operating voltages of less than 1 V (see figure) and shows fast switching (less than 0.3 ms) in ambient atmosphere.

  • 67.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tierney, Steve
    Merck Chemicals Ltd..
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Complementary Circuits Operating at Low Power and Voltage2011In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 23, no 40, p. 4684-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, polyanionic and polycationic electrolytes are used as gate insulators in p- and n-channel thin-film transistors, respectively. These material combinations are motivated by that the mobile ions in the electrolytes will be attracted to the oppositely charged gate electrodes when the transistors are operated in the accumulation mode. The electronic charges in the semiconductor channels will thus be balanced by the polyions, which are effectively immobile and cannot penetrate into the semiconductor bulk and cause electrochemical doping.

  • 68.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cölle, Michael
    Merck Chemicals Ltd Chilworth Science Park Southampton, SO16 7QD, UK.
    Tierney, Steven
    Merck Chemicals Ltd Chilworth Science Park Southampton, SO16 7QD,l UK.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Low-Voltage Ring Oscillators Based on Polyelectrolyte-Gated Polymer Thin-Film Transistors2010In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 72-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polyanionic electrolyte is used as gate insulator in top-gate p-channel polymer thin-film transistors. The high capacitance of the polyelectrolyte film allows the transistors and integrated circuits to operate below 1.5 V. Seven-stage ring oscillators that operate at supply voltages down to 0.9 V and exhibit signal propagation delays as low as 300 µs per stage are reported.

  • 69.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Noh, Yong-Young
    Cavendish Laboratory University of Cambridge, UK.
    Zhao, Ni
    Cavendish Laboratory University of Cambridge, UK.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sirringhaus, Henning
    Cavendish Laboratory University of Cambridge, UK.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Downscaling of Organic Field-Effect Transistors with a Polyelectrolyte Gate Insulator2008In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 20, no 24, p. 4708-4713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A polyelectrolyte is used as gate insulator material in organic field-effect transistors with self-aligned inkjet printed sub–micrometer channels. The small separation of the charges in the electric double layer at the electrolyte-semiconductor interface, which builds up in tens of microseconds, provides a very high transverse electric field in the channel that effectively suppresses short-channel effects at low applied gate voltages.

  • 70.
    Håkansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Han, Shaobo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effect of (3-Glycidyloxypropyl)Trimethoxysilane (GOPS) on the Electrical Properties of PEDOT:PSS Films2017In: Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics, ISSN 0887-6266, E-ISSN 1099-0488, Vol. 55, no 10, p. 814-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) has been reported as a successful functional material in a broad variety of applications. One of the most important advantages of PEDOT:PSS is its water-solubility, which enables simple and environmental friendly manufacturing processes. Unfortunately, this also implies that pristine PEDOT:PSS films are unsuitable for applications in aqueous environments. To reach stability in polar solvents, (3-glycidyloxypropyl)trimethoxysilane (GOPS) is typically used to cross-link PEDOT:PSS. Although this strategy is widely used, its mechanism and effect on PEDOT:PSS performance have not been articulated yet. Here, we present a broad study that provides a better understanding of the effect of GOPS on the electrical and electronic properties of PEDOT:PSS. We show that the GOPS reacts with the sulfonic acid group of the excess PSS, causing a change in the PEDOT:PSS film morphology, while the oxidation level of PEDOT remains unaffected. This is at the origin of the observed conductivity changes. (c) 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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  • 71.
    Håkansson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shahi, Maryam
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Brill, Joseph W.
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting-Polymer Bolometers for Low-Cost IR-Detection Systems2019In: ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 5, no 6, article id 1800975Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconducting polymers are promising materials for manufacturing optoelectronic devices, such as large-area solar cells or small light-emitting diodes, through the use of printing technologies. In their oxidized form, pi-conjugated polymers become good electrical conductors and their optical absorption shifts to the infrared region. It is demonstrated that conducting polymers can be integrated in bolometers for IR detection. A bolometer is a thermally isolated thin device that absorbs IR radiation and translates a temperature change into a change in electrical resistance. While commercial bolometers are usually made of complex architectures comprising several materials (that is, an IR absorbing layer, a conducting layer, and a thermally insulating layer), the first polymer bolometer is demonstrated with a freestanding layer of poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene) having high IR absorption, low thermal conductivity, and good thermistor action in one single layer. The solution processability of conducting polymers, their compatibility with high-resolution printing technologies, and their unique combination of optoelectronic properties can lead to a breakthrough for low-cost uncooled IR cameras, which are in high demand for security and safety applications.

  • 72.
    Ihnatsenka, Siarhei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Understanding hopping transport and thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers2015In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 92, no 3, p. 035201-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculate the conductivity sigma and the Seebeck coefficient S for the phonon-assisted hopping transport in conducting polymers poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or PEDOT, experimentally studied by Bubnova et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 16456 (2012)]. We use the Monte Carlo technique as well as the semianalytical approach based on the transport energy concept. We demonstrate that both approaches show a good qualitative agreement for the concentration dependence of sigma and S. At the same time, we find that the semianalytical approach is not in a position to describe the temperature dependence of the conductivity. We find that both Gaussian and exponential density of states (DOS) reproduce rather well the experimental data for the concentration dependence of sigma and S giving similar fitting parameters of the theory. The obtained parameters correspond to a hopping model of localized quasiparticles extending over 2-3 monomer units with typical jumps over a distance of 3-4 units. The energetic disorder (broadening of the DOS) is estimated to be 0.1 eV. Using the Monte Carlo calculation we reproduce the activation behavior of the conductivity with the calculated activation energy close to the experimentally observed one. We find that for a low carrier concentration a number of free carriers contributing to the transport deviates strongly from the measured oxidation level. Possible reasons for this behavior are discussed. We also study the effect of the dimensionality on the charge transport by calculating the Seebeck coefficient and the conductivity for the cases of three-, two-, and one-dimensional motion.

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  • 73.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik L. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Filamentary switching of Rose Bengal devicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Switch devices with a structure of metal / orgamc layer / metal were fabricated, with the organic layer being Rose Bengal sodium salt, Rose Bengal bis(tricthylammonium) salt, Rose Bengal lactone and Fluorescein. All devices showed reversible switch behavior, ruling out electro reduction or conformational switching. Furthermore, only devices with ITO as substrate and Al or Ag as top electrode showed reversible switch behavior. Electrical characterization of the ITO substrate indicated that the switching is due to the reversible formation of conducting filaments, initiated from the ITO.

  • 74.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik L. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Prediction of the current versus voltage behavior of devices based on organic semiconductor host-guest systems2009In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 95-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic semiconductor blends are commonly used in organic based (opto-)electronic devices. They are composed of two types of (macro-) molecules, referredto as the guest and host. To achieve optimum device operation, the chemicalnature, electronic structure, molecular order and the relative concentration of theguests and host are crucial. Here, we present simulation results of the currentdensity versus the voltage (J-V) behavior of a two-terminal device based on avariable-range hopping model in which the electronic states of the guest and hostare represented by two Gaussian distributions. The J-V behavior is investigatedfor various energetic mismatches between guest and host states, widths of thedistribution as well as the guest concentration. Finally, a simple tool enablingeasy prediction of the J-V behavior of organic host-guest diodes is derived.

  • 75.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik L. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindell, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kanciurzewska, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salaneck, William R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Towards all-plastic flexible light emitting diodes2006In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 433, no 1-3, p. 110-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    All-plastic light emitting diodes require the design and fabrication of low work function plastic electrodes. Here, we show that the work function of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT-PSS) can be decreased from 4.8 eV to 3.9 eV by surface reaction with the strong electron-donor tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene (TDAE). The surface modification was characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy. The low work function plastic electrode was used in a first prototype for all-plastic light emitting diodes.

  • 76.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik L. E.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marsal, Philippe
    Laboratory for Chemistry of Novel Materials, University of Mons-Hainaut, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cornil, Jérôme
    Laboratory for Chemistry of Novel Materials, University of Mons-Hainaut, Place du Parc 20, B-7000 Mons, Belgium.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tuning the energy levels of photochromic diarylethene compounds for optoelectronic switch devicesManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Photochromic diarylethene molecules (PC) is investigated for use in opticalwrite/electrical read memory applications. The frontier energy levels and dipolemoment is calculated using density functional theory. Good agreement is foundbetween calculated electronic structure and measured ultraviolet photoelectronspectra. The changes in frontier energy levels and dipole moment are scrutinizedupon two different approaches for chemical modification: (i) adding substituentsto the ethylene bridge; or (ii) changing the chemical nature of the aryl rings.Through the chemical modification the frontier energy levels can be tuned bymore than 2 eV. The calculated molecular properties are used in charge transportmodels to predict the behavior of devices based on these molecules. By using thePC in combination with an organic semiconductor (in bilayer or blend) goodswitching behavior can be achieved in a device. The switch effect is predicted tobe mainly due to switch in frontier energy levels rather than switch of dipolemoment. This is concluded since the dipole moment is either too small (< 5 D) orthe switch effect to small (less than a factor of two).

  • 77.
    Jakobsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Marsal, Philippe
    University Mons Hainaut.
    Braun, Slawomir
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cornil, Jerome
    University Mons Hainaut.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tuning the Energy Levels of Photochromic Diarylethene Compounds for Opto-electronic Switch Devices2009In: JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY C, ISSN 1932-7447, Vol. 113, no 42, p. 18396-18405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diarylethene molecules are photochromics (PCs) currently investigated for use in optical write/electrical read memory applications. The impact of the photoisomerization of PCs on the device behavior is analyzed with charge transport models. These results indicate that good electrical current switching can be achieved in a device when the PCs are combined with an organic semiconductor (in multilayered structures or blends). The frontier energy levels and dipole moment of a series of diarylethene compounds have been calculated using density functional theory. A good agreement is found between the calculated electronic structure and the measured ultraviolet photoelectron spectra. Shirts in the frontier energy levels and dipole moment are generated through two different approaches for chemical modification: (i) by changing the chemical nature of the aryl rings or (ii) by adding substituents on the ethylene, bridge. The frontier energy levels can be tuned by more than 2 eV via such chemical modifications. We find that, for this family of photochromic compounds, the photoinduced current switch effect in diodes is mainly due to the modulation in the frontier energy levels rather than the changes in the amplitude of the dipole moment.

  • 78.
    James, David Ian
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Wang, Suhao
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ma, Wei
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Hedstrom, Svante
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Meng, Xiangyi
    Xi An Jiao Tong University, Peoples R China.
    Persson, Petter
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Andersson, Mats R.
    Chalmers, Sweden; University of S Australia, Australia.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Ergang
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    High-Performance Hole Transport and Quasi-Balanced Ambipolar OFETs Based on D-A-A Thieno-benzo-isoindigo Polymers2016In: ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 1500313-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two new conjugated polymers are synthesized based on a novel donor-acceptor-acceptor (D-A-A) design strategy with the intention of attaining lower lowest unoccupied molecular obital levels compared to the normally used D-A strategy. By coupling two thieno-benzo-isoindigo units together via the phenyl position to give a new symmetric benzene-coupled di-thieno-benzo-isoindigo (BdiTBI) monomer as an A-A acceptor and thiophene (T) or bithiophene (2T) as a donor, two new polymers PT-BdiTBI and P2T-BdiTBI are synthesized via Stille coupling. The two polymers are tested in top gate and top contact field effect transistors, which exhibit balanced ambipolar charge transport properties with poly(methyl methacrylate) as dielectric and a high hole mobility up to 1.1 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) with poly(trifluoroethylene) as dielectric. The polymer films are investigated using atomic force microscopy, which shows fibrous features due to their high crystallinity as indicated by grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering. The theoretical calculations agree well with the experimental data on the energy levels. It is demonstrated that the D-A-A strategy is very effective for designing low band gap polymers for organic electronic applications.

  • 79.
    Jiao, Fei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Puzinas, Skomantas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mäkie, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Naderi, Ali
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Lindstrom, Tom
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nanofibrillated Cellulose-Based Electrolyte and Electrode for Paper-Based Supercapacitors2018In: ADVANCED SUSTAINABLE SYSTEMS, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 2, no 1, article id UNSP 1700121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar photovoltaic technologies could fully deploy and impact the energy conversion systems in our society if mass-produced energy-storage solutions exist. A supercapacitor can regulate the fluctuations on the electrical grid on short time scales. Their mass-implementation requires the use of abundant materials, biological and organic synthetic materials are attractive because of atomic element abundancy and low-temperature synthetic processes. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) coming from the forest industry is exploited as a three-dimensional template to control the transport of ions in an electrolyte-separator, with nanochannels filled of aqueous electrolyte. The nanochannels are defined by voids in the nanocomposite made of NFC and the proton transporting polymer polystyrene sulfonic acid PSSH. The ionic conductivity of NFC-PSSH composites (0.2 S cm(-1) at 100% relative humidity) exceeds sea water in a material that is solid, feel dry to the finger, but filled of nanodomains of water. A paper-based supercapacitor made of NFC-PSSH electrolyte-separator sandwiched between two paper-based electrodes is demonstrated. Although modest specific capacitance (81.3 F g(-1)), power density (2040 W kg(-1)) and energy density (1016 Wh kg(-1)), this is the first conceptual demonstration of a supercapacitor based on cellulose in each part of the device; which motivates the search for using paper manufacturing as mass-production of energy-storage devices.

  • 80.
    Jiao, Fei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Naderi, Ali
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schlueter, Joshua
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Shahi, Maryam
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Sundstrom, Jonas
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brill, Joseph
    University of Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Lindstrom, Tom
    Innventia AB, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Correction: Ionic thermoelectric paper (vol 5, pg 16883, 2017)2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 37, p. 20053-20053Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

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  • 81.
    Jiao, Fei
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Naderi, Ali
    Billerudkorsnäs AB, SE-71830 Frövi, Sweden.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schlueter, Joshua
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY40506-0055, USA.
    Shahi, Maryam
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY40506-0055, USA.
    Sundström, Jonas
    Innventia AB Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brill, Joseph W.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY40506-0055, USA.
    Lindström, Tom
    Innventia AB Box 5604, SE-11486 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ionic Thermoelectric Paper2017In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 5, no 32, p. 16883-16888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic thermoelectric materials, such as polyelectrolyte like polystyrene sulfonate sodium (PSSNa), constitute a new class ofmaterial attracting interest due to their large Seebeck coefficient and the possibility to be used in ionic thermoelectricsupercapacitors (ITESCs) and field effect transistors. However pure polyelectrolyte membranes are not robust neitherflexible. In this article, we demonstrate the preparation of ionic thermoelectric paper by a simple, scalable and cost-effectivemethod. After composite with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC), the resulting NFC-PSSNa paper is flexible and mechanicallyrobust; which is desirable of using roll-to-roll processes. The robust thermoelectric paper NFC-PSSNa combines high ionicconductivity (9 mS/cm), high ionic Seebeck coefficient (8.4 mV/K) and low thermal conductivity (0.75 Wm-1K-1) at 100 RH%,resulting in overall figure-of-merit of 0.025 at room temperature slightly better than the PSSNa. Enabling flexibility androbustness by compositing with cellulose constitutes an advance for scaling up the manufacturing of ionic thermoelectricsupercapacitors; but also enables new applications for conformable thermoelectric devices and flexible electronics

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  • 82.
    Jo, Young Jin
    et al.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ SKKU, South Korea.
    Kwon, Ki Yoon
    Sungkyunkwan Univ SKKU, South Korea.
    Ullah Khan, Zia
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kim, Tae-il
    Sungkyunkwan Univ SKKU, South Korea.
    Gelatin Hydrogel-Based Organic Electrochemical Transistors and Their Integrated Logic Circuits2018In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 45, p. 39083-39090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We suggest gelatin hydrogel as an electrolyte and demonstrate organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) based on a sheet of gelatin. We also modulate electrical characteristics of the OECT with respect to pH condition of the gelatin hydrogel from acid to base and analyze its characteristics based on the electrochemical theory. Moreover, we extend the gelatin-based OECT to electrochemical logic circuits, for example, NOT, NOR, and NAND gates.

  • 83.
    Johansson, N.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Osada, T.
    Sumitomo Chem Co Ltd, Japan.
    Stafström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Computational Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Salaneck, William R.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Parente, V.
    Mons University, Belgium.
    dos Santos, D. A.
    Mons University, Belgium.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Mons University, Belgium.
    Bredas, J. L.
    Mons University, Belgium.
    Electronic structure of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum thin films in the pristine and reduced states1999In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 111, no 5, p. 2157-2163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure of tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq(3)) has been studied in the pristine molecular solid state as well as upon interaction (doping) with potassium and lithium. We discuss the results of a joint theoretical and experimental investigation, based on a combination of x-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopies with quantum-chemical calculations at the density functional theory level. Upon doping, each electron transferred from an alkali metal atom is stored on one of the three ligands of the Alq(3) molecule, resulting in a new spectral feature (peak) in the valence band that evolves uniformly when going from a doping level of one to three metal atoms per Alq(3) molecule. (C) 1999 American Institute of Physics. [S0021-9606(99)50628-4].

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  • 84.
    Jönsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birgerson, J.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Denier van der Gon, A.W.
    Denier van der Gon, A.W., Faculty of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The effects of solvents on the morphology and sheet resistance in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT–PSS) films2003In: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 139, no 1, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT–PSS), prepared by coating the aqueous PEDOT–PSS dispersion and by coating a mixture of the PEDOT–PSS dispersion and different solvents, have been studied using four-point probe conductivity measurements, atomic force microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of thin films of the second type (further on called PEDOT–PSS–solvents) was increased by a factor of about 600 as compared to films of the first type (further on called PEDOT–PSS–pristine). Morphological and physical changes occur in the polymer film due to the presence of the solvent mixture, the most striking being that the ratio of PEDOT-to-PSS in the surface region of the films is increased by a factor of ∼2–3. This increase of PEDOT at the surface indicates that the thickness of the insulating PSS ‘shell’ that surrounds the conducting PEDOT–PSS grains is reduced. The (partial) reduction of the excess PSS layer that surrounds the conducting PEDOT–PSS grains is proposed to lead to an increased and improved connectivity between such grains in the film and hence a higher conductivity. When PEDOT–PSS–solvents receives a post-coating heat treatment, the increased PEDOT-to-PSS ratio at the surface is maintained or even slightly improved, as is the increase in electrical conductivity, even though spectroscopy show that the solvent molecules are removed. This suggests that screening or doping by the solvents throughout the film are not likely to be the key mechanisms for the improved conductivity and supports our proposed mechanism of improved conductivity through improved connectivity between the conducting grains.

  • 85.
    Karazazi, Y.
    et al.
    Université de Mons-Hainaut.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Kwon, O.
    Université de Mons-Hainaut.
    Bredas, J. L.
    Université de Mons-Hainaut.
    Cornil, J.
    Université de Mons-Hainaut.
    Influence of contact geometry and molecular derivatization on the interfacial interactions between gold and conjugated wires2004In: Chemical Physics Letters, ISSN 0009-2614, E-ISSN 1873-4448, Vol. 387, no 4-6, p. 502-508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-assembled monolayers made of thiolated conjugated wires attached on gold surfaces currently attract a considerable interest in the field of nanoelectronics. The interactions taking place at the metal/molecule interface govern the electronic structure of the complex, and hence the barriers for charge injection from the electrodes to the molecules. Considering benzenethiol as a prototype molecule, we investigate here the way the electronic structure is affected by the nature of the anchoring site of the sulfur atom on the gold surface and by the relative orientation of the molecule with respect to the surface. We also assess whether the changes in the molecular electronic properties upon substitution are similar for the isolated molecule and for the molecule attached on the gold surface. Our results provide strong evidences that, in order to introduce functionalities and/or improve charge injection in molecular devices, the electronic properties of conjugated molecular wires can be tailored by derivatization independently of the metal electrodes. copy,

  • 86.
    Kergoat, Loig
    et al.
    University of Paris, France.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Braga, Daniele
    University of Paris, France.
    Piro, Benoit
    University of Paris, France.
    Pham, Minh-Chau
    University of Paris, France.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Horowitz, Gilles
    University of Paris, France.
    A Water-Gate Organic Field-Effect Transistor2010In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 22, no 23, p. 2565-2569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-dielectric-constant insulators, organic monolayers, and electrolytes have been successfully used to generate organic field-effect transistors operating at low voltages. Here, we report on a device gated with pure water. By replacing the gate dielectric by a simple water droplet, we produce a transistor that entirely operates in the field-effect mode of operation at voltages lower than 1V. This result creates opportunities for sensor applications using water-gated devices as transducing medium.

  • 87.
    Kergoat, Loig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Thin Film Elect AB, Sweden .
    Piro, Benoit
    University of Paris Diderot Sorbonne Paris Cite, France .
    Chau Pham, Minh
    University of Paris Diderot Sorbonne Paris Cite, France .
    Horowitz, Gilles
    Ecole Polytech, France .
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tuning the threshold voltage in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors2012In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 22, p. 8394-8399Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-voltage organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) promise for low power consumption logic circuits. To enhance the efficiency of the logic circuits, the control of the threshold voltage of the transistors are based on is crucial. We report the systematic control of the threshold voltage of electrolyte-gated OFETs by using various gate metals. The influence of the work function of the metal is investigated in metal-electrolyte-organic semiconductor diodes and electrolyte-gated OFETs. A good correlation is found between the flat-band potential and the threshold voltage. The possibility to tune the threshold voltage over half the potential range applied and to obtain depletion-like (positive threshold voltage) and enhancement (negative threshold voltage) transistors is of great interest when integrating these transistors in logic circuits. The combination of a depletion-like and enhancement transistor leads to a clear improvement of the noise margins in depleted-load unipolar inverters.

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  • 88.
    Khan, Zia Ullah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hamedi, Mahiar
    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA.
    Gabrielsson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    Innventia AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels functionalized with conducting polymers for thermoelectric and dual-sensing applications2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Large amount of heat is wasted in industries, power generation plants and ordinary household appliances. This waste heat, can be a useful input to a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that can convert it to electricity. Conducting polymers (CPs) have been proved as best suited thermoelectric (TE) materials for lower temperatures, being not toxic, abundant in nature and solution processible. So far, CPs have been characterized as thin films, but it needs the third dimension to realize vertical TEGs which is possible by coating it on low thermal conductivity 3D skeletons. In this work, porous bulk cellulose structures have been used as a supporting material and were coated with CPs in various ways. The blend of cellulose and polymer were also freeze-dried, resulting in conducting and soft composites. Those flexible aerogels were utilized as a dual parameter sensor to sense pressure and temperature, based on the concept of thermoelectricity. It opens another application area of sensing, utilizing the thermoelectric phenomenon beyond the prevailing power generation concept. The sensitivity of such materials can be enhanced to make them useful as electronic skin in healthcare and robotics.

  • 89.
    Khan, Ziyauddin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Can Hybrid Na-Air Batteries Outperform Nonaqueous Na-O-2 Batteries?2020In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, article id 1902866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been an upsurge in the study of novel and alternative energy storage devices beyond lithium-based systems due to the exponential increase in price of lithium. Sodium (Na) metal-based batteries can be a possible alternative to lithium-based batteries due to the similar electrochemical voltage of Na and Li together with the thousand times higher natural abundance of Na compared to Li. Though two different kinds of Na-O-2 batteries have been studied specifically based on electrolytes until now, very recently, a hybrid Na-air cell has shown distinctive advantage over nonaqueous cell systems. Hybrid Na-air batteries provide a fundamental advantage due to the formation of highly soluble discharge product (sodium hydroxide) which leads to low overpotentials for charge and discharge processes, high electrical energy efficiency, and good cyclic stability. Herein, the current status and challenges associated with hybrid Na-air batteries are reported. Also, a brief description of nonaqueous Na-O-2 batteries and its close competition with hybrid Na-air batteries are provided.

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  • 90.
    Kim, Nara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lienemann, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mengistie, Desalegn
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Calif Polytech State Univ San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 USA.
    Kee, Seyoung
    Univ Auckland, New Zealand.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biophysics and bioengineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gueskine, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Leclere, Philippe
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Lazzaroni, Roberto
    Univ Mons, Belgium.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tybrandt, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elastic conducting polymer composites in thermoelectric modules2020In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 11, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid growth of wearables has created a demand for lightweight, elastic and conformal energy harvesting and storage devices. The conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) has shown great promise for thermoelectric generators, however, the thick layers of pristine poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) required for effective energy harvesting are too hard and brittle for seamless integration into wearables. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-elastomer composites have been developed to improve its mechanical properties, although so far without simultaneously achieving softness, high electrical conductivity, and stretchability. Here we report an aqueously processed poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-polyurethane-ionic liquid composite, which combines high conductivity (&gt;140Scm(-1)) with superior stretchability (&gt;600%), elasticity, and low Youngs modulus (&lt;7MPa). The outstanding performance of this organic nanocomposite is the result of favorable percolation networks on the nano- and micro-scale and the plasticizing effect of the ionic liquid. The elastic thermoelectric material is implemented in the first reported intrinsically stretchable organic thermoelectric module. Though deformable thermoelectric materials are desirable for integrating thermoelectric devices into wearable electronics, typical thermoelectric materials are too brittle for practical application. Here, the authors report a high-performance elastic composite for stretchable thermoelectric modules.

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  • 91.
    Kim, Nara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Petsagkourakis, Ioannis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Shangzhi
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zozoulenko, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electric Transport Properties in PEDOT Thin Films2019In: Conjugated Polymers: Properties, Processing, and Applications / [ed] John R. Reynolds; Barry C. Thompson; Terje A. Skotheim, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019, p. 45-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter, the authors summarize their understanding of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), with respect to its chemical and physical fundamentals. They focus upon the structure of several PEDOT systems, from the angstrom level and up, and the impact on both electronic and ionic transport. The authors discuss the structural properties of PEDOT:X and PEDOT:poly(styrenesulfonate) based on experimental data probed at the scale ranging from angstrom to submicrometer. The morphology of PEDOT is influenced by the nature of counter-ions, especially at high oxidation levels. The doping anions intercalate between PEDOT chains to form a “sandwich” structure to screen the positive charges in PEDOT chains. The authors provide the main transport coefficients such as electrical conductivity s, Seebeck coefficient S, and Peltier coefficient σ, starting from a general thermodynamic consideration. The optical conductivity of PEDOT has also been examined based on the effective medium approximation, which is normally used to describe microscopic permittivity properties of composites made from several different constituents.

  • 92.
    Laiho, Ari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Controlling the dimensionality of charge transport in organic thin-film transistors2011In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 108, no 37, p. 15069-15073Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolyte-gated organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) can offer a feasible platform for future flexible, large-area and low-cost electronic applications. These transistors can be divided into two groups on the basis of their operation mechanism: (i) field-effect transistors that switch fast but carry much less current than (ii) the electrochemical transistors which, on the contrary, switch slowly. An attractive approach would be to combine the benefits of the field-effect and the electrochemical transistors into one transistor that would both switch fast and carry high current densities. Here we report the development of a polyelectrolyte-gated OTFT based on conjugated polyelectrolytes, and we demonstrate that the OTFTs can be controllably operated either in the field-effect or the electrochemical regime. Moreover, we show that the extent of electrochemical doping can be restricted to a few monolayers of the conjugated polyelectrolyte film, which allows both high current densities and fast switching speeds at the same time. We propose an operation mechanism based on self-doping of the conjugated polyelectrolyte backbone by its ionic side groups.

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  • 93.
    Laiho, Ari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tran Nguyen, Ha
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Sinno, Hiam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dubois, Philippe
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Coulembier, Olivier
    University of Mons, Belgium.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Amphiphilic Poly(3-hexylthiophene)-Based Semiconducting Copolymers for Printing of Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors2013In: Macromolecules, ISSN 0024-9297, E-ISSN 1520-5835, Vol. 46, no 11, p. 4548-4557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyelectrolytes are promising electronically insulating layers for low-voltage organic field effect transistors. However, the polyelectrolyte–semiconductor interface is difficult to manufacture due to challenges in wettability. We introduce an amphiphilic semiconducting copolymer which, when spread as a thin film, can change its surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic upon exposure to water. This peculiar wettability is exploited in the fabrication of polyelectrolyte-gated field-effect transistors operating below 0.5 V. The prepared amphiphilic semiconducting copolymer is based on a hydrophobic regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) covalently linked to a hydrophilic poly(sulfonated)-based random block. Such a copolymer is obtained in a three-step strategy combining Grignard metathesis (GRIM), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) processes, and a postmodification method. The structure of the diblock copolymer was characterized using FT-IR, 1H NMR spectroscopy, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC).

  • 94.
    Larsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laiho, Ari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Unifying electrochemical and field-effect mechanisms in electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistorsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of electrolytes and organic semiconductors has opened up new opportunities in photonics1, electronics2 and in energy storage3. In most of these devices, the key mechanisms involve the transport of charge carriers (electrons or ions) across the organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface. The formation of an electric double layer (EDL) at this polarized interface is fuzzier than at a metal-electrolyte interface since weak intermolecular interactions in the organic solid favour the penetration of ions4. An EDL established at the organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface, defined by a sheet of electronic charge carriers and a sheet of ions, has been proposed recently as the basic mechanism for electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (EGOFETs)5, 6. Here, organic thin film transistors are used as a probe to investigate the organic semiconductor-electrolyte interface. We demonstrate that the capacitance value of the gate counter electrode dictates the degree of advancement7 of the electrochemical halfreaction (the extent of the reaction) at this interface. This finding unifies the mechanisms proposed for EGOFETs and organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs); and sets the ground description for an electrochemical half-reaction induced entirely by capacitive coupling.

  • 95.
    Larsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laiho, Ari
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schmickler, Wolfgang
    University of Ulm.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Controlling the Dimensionality of Charge Transport in an Organic Electrochemical Transistor by Capacitive Coupling2011In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 23, no 41, p. 4764-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dimensionality of charge transport in an organic electrochemical transistor depends on the degree of advancement of the electrochemical half-reaction at the organic semiconductor/electrolyte interface. A carbon nanotube (CNT) nanoporous gate electrode leads to bulk transport in the semiconductor, while a flat Au gate electrode allows for localizing of the electrochemical oxidation of the semiconducting polymer at the organic semiconductor/electrolyte interface.

  • 96.
    Larsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Said, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Insulator Polarization Mechanisms in Polyelectrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors2009In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 19, no 20, p. 3334-3341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) hold promise for robust printed electronics operating at low voltages. The polarization mechanism of thin solid electrolyte films, the gate insulator in such OFETs, is still unclear and appears to limit the transient current characteristics of the transistors. Here, the polarization response of a thin proton membrane, a poly(styrenesulfonic acid) film, is controlled by varying the relative humidity. The formation of the conducting transistor channel follows the polarization of the polyelectrolyte, such that the drain transient current characteristics versus the time are rationalized by three different polarization mechanisms: the dipolar relaxation at high frequencies, the ionic relaxation (migration) at intermediate frequencies, and the electric double-layer formation at the polyelectrolyte interfaces at low frequencies. The electric double layers of polyelectrolyte capacitors are formed in 1 µs at humid conditions and an effective capacitance per area of 10 µF cm-2 is obtained at 1 MHz, thus suggesting that this class of OFETs might operate at up to 1 MHz at 1 V.

  • 97.
    Larsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Xiaodong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. null.
    Proton motion in a polyelectrolyte: A probe for wireless humidity sensors2010In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 143, no 2, p. 482-486Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost passive wireless electronic sensor labels glued onto packages are highly desirable since they enable monitoring of the status of the packages for instance along the logistic chain or while stored at a shelf. Such additional sensing feature would be of great value for many producers and vendors, active in e.g. the food or construction industries. Here, we explore a novel concept for wireless sensing and readout, in which the humidity sensitive ionic motion in a polyelectrolyte membrane is directly translated into a shift of the resonance frequency of a resonance circuit. Thanks to its simplicity, the wireless sensor device itself can be manufactured entirely using common printing techniques and can be integrated into a low-cost passive electronic sensor label.

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  • 98.
    Li, Zaifang
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yao, Yulong
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Xiao, Yiqun
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Shahi, Maryam
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Jin, Yingzhi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cruce, Alex
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jiang, Youyu
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Meng, Wei
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Qin, Fei
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lu, Xinhui
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brill, Joseph W.
    Univ Kentucky, KY 40506 USA.
    Zhou, Yinhua
    Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; South China Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Fengling
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Free-Standing High-Output Power Density Thermoelectric Device Based on Structure-Ordered PEDOT:PSS2018In: Advanced Electronic Materials, ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 1700496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A free-standing high-output power density polymeric thermoelectric (TE) device is realized based on a highly conductive (approximate to 2500 S cm(-1)) structure-ordered poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate film (denoted as FS-PEDOT:PSS) with a Seebeck coefficient of 20.6 mu V K-1, an in-plane thermal conductivity of 0.64 W m(-1) K-1, and a peak power factor of 107 mu W K-2 m(-1) at room temperature. Under a small temperature gradient of 29 K, the TE device demonstrates a maximum output power density of 99 +/- 18.7 mu W cm(-2), which is the highest value achieved in pristine PEDOT:PSS based TE devices. In addition, a fivefold output power is demonstrated by series connecting five devices into a flexible thermoelectric module. The simplicity of assembling the films into flexible thermoelectric modules, the low out-of-plane thermal conductivity of 0.27 W m(-1) K-1, and free-standing feature indicates the potential to integrate the FS-PEDOT:PSS TE modules with textiles to power wearable electronics by harvesting human bodys heat. In addition to the high power factor, the high thermal stability of the FS-PEDOT:PSS films up to 250 degrees C is confirmed by in situ temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction and grazing incident wide angle X-ray scattering, which makes the FS-PEDOT:PSS films promising candidates for thermoelectric applications.

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