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  • 51.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Concepts and definitions for product recovery: analysis and clarification of the terminology used in academia and industry2006In: Innovation in Life Cycle Engineering and Sustainable Development / [ed] Daniel Brissaud, Serge Tichkiewitch, Peggy Zwolinski, Dordrect, The Netherlands: Springer Verlag , 2006, p. 123-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this book is the consideration of environmental issues in engineering process and product design. It presents a selection of 30 papers ensuing from the 12th CIRP International seminar on Life Cycle Engineering. This book is of interest to academics, students and practitioners, specializing in environmental issues in mechanical engineering, design and manufacturing. This volume is recommended as a reference textbook for all researchers in the field.

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  • 52.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Concepts and definitions for product recovery: analysis and clarification of the terminology used in academia and industry2006In: Innovation in Life Cycle Engineering and Sustainable Development / [ed] Daniel Brissaud, Serge Tichkiewitch, Peggy Zwolinski, Springer Netherlands, 2006, p. 123-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and clarifies the academic and industrial terminology used in the area of product recovery. It is concluded that there exist many different concepts and definitions in academia and industry, several of which are unclearly defined. Given this, a new way to define product recovery is presented through the use of a model. This model is based on actual industrial product recovery cases, existing academic product recovery concepts and definitions and product design theory. The presentation contains a holistic model that can be used for describing and analyzing different product recovery scenarios. In addition, several industry cases are presented as a verification of the model.

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  • 53.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial cleaning with Qlean Water: a case study of printed circuit boards2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 47, p. 19-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturing companies are looking for ways to substitute environmentally problematic cleaning methods for surface treatments with more environmentally friendly ones. In this paper, one potential solution is described. The Qlean method, based on cleaning with highly pure water (in this paper defined as Qlean Water), is a novel cleaning method. This method, now utilized at one plant at a leading major international electronic company, has substituted previous chemical-based methods for cleaning printed circuit boards prior to lacquering. This paper presents, based on that company's primary data, a comparative study using environmental analysis and economic life cycle cost review between cleaning with Qlean Water and conventional cleaning. The focus is on the environmental and economic performance of the two alternatives. The conclusion is that Qlean Water offers both a significant economic and environmental cost reduction and a better product. This is the case even though all identified economic benefits derived from using Qlean Water, e.g. that the quality and technical lifetime have been extended for the printed circuit boards with the Qlean Water cleaning method, are not considered in the economic analysis.

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  • 54.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    Department of Machine Design, School of Industrial Technology and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Learning networks: a method for Integrated Product and Service Engineering - experience from the IPSE project2008In: Manufacturing Systems and Technologies for the New Frontier: The 41st CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems May 26–28, 2008, Tokyo, Japan / [ed] Mamoru Mitsuishi, Kanji Ueda, Fumihiko Kimura., London: Springer , 2008, p. 495-500Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the Integrated Product and Service Engineering (IPSE) project is to develop a methodology for companies that want to make the journey of moving from selling products to also sell Integrated Product and Service Offerings. In order to achieve that major changes are needed in the companies. In this paper the learning network approach is described as well as the content of the workshop series that the companies participated in. The findings show that a learning network approach is beneficial methodology for achieving changes in the companies, since the participants learn from each other and from the researchers.

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  • 55.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Trender inom återtillverkning & återvinning i Japan2006Report (Other academic)
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  • 56.
    Lindkvist Haziri, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Supporting design for remanufacturing: A framework for implementing information feedback from remanufacturing to product design2019In: Journal of Remanufacturing, ISSN 2210-464X, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an industrial process turning used products into a condition of like new or better. Remanufacturing is also one strategy that salvages the value put into products during manufacturing and thus reduces the environmental impact of products over the life-cycle. However, not many products are designed for remanufacturing, and there is rarely any feedback from remanufacturing to design. Since design for remanufacturing is not applied at most manufacturing companies, there is a need to support companies, for example, by information feedback methods. By implementing feedback transfer from remanufacturing to design and employing design for remanufacturing, the remanufacturing process is more likely to be effective and efficient. The aim of this paper is to present a framework that supports design for remanufacturing by the implementation of structured feedback from remanufacturing to design. The framework aims at strategically outlining and practically implementing information feedback from remanufacturing to design. A case company where the framework has been initialised is also presented.

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  • 57.
    Lindkvist Haziri, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Feedback from Remanufacturing: Its Unexploited Potential to Improve Future Product Design2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 1article id 4037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Company interest and research in the circular economy and remanufacturing have increased as a means of reducing negative environmental impacts. Remanufacturing is an industrial process whereby used products are returned to a state of like-new. However, few products are designed for remanufacturing, and further research and industrial efforts are needed to facilitate more widespread use of design for remanufacturing. One crucial factor facilitating design for remanufacturing is the integration of feedback in the product design process. Thus, the objective of this paper is to analyse feedback flows from remanufacturing to product design. Hence, a literature study and multiple case studies were conducted at three companies that design, manufacture and remanufacture different kinds of products. The cross-case analysis revealed the five barriers of the lack of internal awareness, lack of knowledge, lack of incentives, lack of feedback channels and non-supportive organisational structures, and the five enablers of business opportunities, integrated design processes, customers’ demand, laws, regulations and standards, and new technologies. To establish improved feedback from remanufacturing to product design, the barriers need to be addressed and the enablers explored. Thus, improved feedback from remanufacturing to product design will improve the design of future products suited for a more circular economy.

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  • 58.
    Lindkvist, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A STEPWISE METHOD TOWARDS PRODUCTS ADAPTED FOR REMANUFACTURING2016In: DS 84: PROCEEDINGS OF THE DESIGN 2016 14TH INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-4 / [ed] Marjanovic Dorian, Storga Mario, Pavkovic Neven, Bojcetic Nenad, Skec Stanko, DESIGN SOC , 2016, Vol. 1-4, p. 321-330Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, products are often not designed for remanufacturing. Further, there is a lack of feedback from remanufacturing to product design. Thus, information from remanufacturing and design for remanufacturing needs to be integrated in a better way into the product development processes.

    In this paper a stepwise method towards products adapted for remanufacturing is described. The method is directed at OEMs that remanufacture, and specifically supports integration of information from remanufacturing into the design process in order to better adapt products for remanufacturing.

  • 59.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alonso Movilla, Natalia
    University of Grenoble, Saint-Martin-d'Hères, France.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zwolinski, Peggy
    University of Grenoble, Saint-Martin-d'Hères, France.
    Investigating types of information from WEEE take-back systems in order to promote Design for Recovery2016In: Sustainability through innovation in product life cycle design / [ed] Matsumoto, M., Masui, K., Fukushige, S., Kondoh, S, Springer, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) recovery facilities have been set up for the last decade to promote a circular economy. Their activities focus on the reuse, remanufacturing and/or recycling of products. Currently, little information reaches designers regarding the requirements that these facilities have on product design. Therefore, most products are not designed to be properly recovered. The aim of this paper is to explore the nature of product life-cycle information from recovery organisations that could be shared in order to improve resource efficiency. The focus is on how information exchange can benefit the end-of-life phase of forthcoming designed products. Two levels of information have been identified, macroscopic and microscopic. Our study is illustrated with a detailed analysis of the French WEEE compliance scheme and an in-depth analysis of an IT remanufacturing facility in Sweden.  Based on the cases studies we have identified current and potential information flows between different stakeholders that could benefit design for recovery.

  • 60.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A stepwise method towards products adapted for remanufacturing2016In: DS 84: Proceedings of the DESIGN 2016 14th International Design Conference / [ed] Marjanovic Dorian, Storga Mario, Pavkovic Neven, Bojcetic Nenad, Skec Stanko, The Design Society, 2016, p. 321-330Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an important component of a resource-efficient manufacturing industry [see e.g. Rose and Ishii 1999; Steinhilper 1998; Sundin and Lee 2011]. By keeping components and their embodied material in use for a longer period of time, significant energy use and emissions to air and water (e.g. CO2 and SO2) can be avoided. According to Sundin and Lee [2011], environmental comparisons of remanufacturing versus new manufacturing and/or material recycling show environmental benefits for remanufacturing. This is due to alleviation of depletion of resources, reduction of global warming potential, and better chances to close the loop for safer handling of toxic materials [Sundin and Lee 2011]. In addition to its environmental benefits, remanufacturing provides opportunities for the creation of highly skilled jobs and economic growth.

     

    In order to make remanufacturing businesses more beneficial, product information should be accessible for the remanufacturing personnel and the products should be adapted for the remanufacturing process [Sundin and Bras 2005]. Although previous research identified information that could be fed back to the design phase from remanufacturing [e.g. Lindkvist and Sundin 2012] (see Table 1), such information is not often available in the design phase [Lindkvist and Sundin 2015]. Design for remanufacturing (DfRem) aims at facilitating the remanufacturing process so that e.g. disassembly, cleaning, reprocessing and reassembly are facilitated [Sundin and Bras 2005]. However, products are often not designed for remanufacture [Sundin and Bras 2005; Hatcher et al. 2011], although there do exist guidelines for design for remanufacturing [see e.g. Charter and Gray 2008, Sundin and Bras 2005].

     

    Successful integration of DfRem requires support on a strategic as well a tactical level, i.e. both what to do and how to do it [Yang et al. 2014]. Further, Hatcher et al. [2014] point out a gap in research regarding the operational factors influencing DfRem integration into the design process. In their findings, external factors such as customer demand and internal factors such as the OEM-remanufacturer relationship were identified. This paper addresses the combination of the strategic and tactical approaches, targeting the internal factors affecting DfRem integration into the design process. The proposed method is directed at companies that include both design and remanufacturing in their operations, and specifically supports integration of information from remanufacturing into the design process in order to better adapt products for remanufacturing. 

  • 61.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analysing the service information transfer in the service development process at two automotive companies2016In: 23RD CIRP CONFERENCE ON LIFE CYCLE ENGINEERING, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 48, p. 51-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As service renders an increasing share of companies revenues and affects a products environmental performance, the effectiveness of the services carried out is important. The aim of this paper is to analyse the service information transfer in the service development process at two automotive companies in order to explore its inefficiencies, and to promote steps to make it more efficient in the future. The work process during service development was mapped, focusing on the information transfer, including databases utilized and types of instructions produced. The studies show that some information provided to the service designers is insufficiently detailed and some databases are incompatible, causing rework in the service development process. Further, the information provided to service technicians comes in multiple formats, causing inefficiency in the service process, and feedback to the service designers is too time consuming. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 62.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessing barriers for available life-cycle information feedback transfer to product design2015In: ICoR- 2nd International Conference on Remanufacturing, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of products greatly influences the performance of the product in the rest of the product’s life-cycle phases, e.g. manufacturing, use/maintenance and end-of-life processes. In order to design more sustainable products, information from all life-cycle phases should be implemented in structured ways via e.g. eco-design tools in the design process. Remanufacturing is one viable end-of-life strategy that is environmentally beneficial as it will preserve most of the material and energy put into the initial product and/or its components. Although the product design determines a large portion of the remanufacturability of a product, few companies apply design for remanufacturing on their products.The aim of this paper is to show what type of feedback is available at remanufacturers, and to explore the barriers that prevent that feedback from reaching product development. Using the case study methodology, data have been collected through semi-structured interviews with four remanufacturing companies focusing on the information exchange between the departments of remanufacturing and product development.The case study results show that there is feedback from the remanufacturers concerning a wide variety of design aspects. Furthermore, the remanufacturers have feedback about information they lack from design and the use phase including service. At present, however, there is no feedback provided from remanufacturing to design in the cases studied. Thus, the barriers for providing available life-cycle information feedback are assessed. There are both internal and external barriers. Between design and remanufacturing the barriers include e.g. lack of knowledge and organisational aspects. Further influencing the lack of feedback are managerial aspects such as the business case and specifications lacking remanufacturing aspects and thus not supporting design for remanufacturing. However, design changes such as different joining methods, a higher degree of standardization and different material selections could be very beneficial for remanufacturing and thus the environment.

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  • 63.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Life-Cycle Information Feedback to Product Design2012In: Proceedings of the 5th Swedish Production symposium (SPS'12), The Swedish Production Academy , 2012, p. 99-105Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A key to sustainable product development is to consider the entire product life-cycle, as well as the requirements on product design in the different life-cycle phases. Improvements in product design can be based on information feedback from the product life-cycle. The aim of this paper is to identify sources of information from the product life-cycle for product design, as well as what benefits the retrieval of such information feedback can have for the product development process. The method udes for this paper was a literature review, utilizing the Scopus and Science Direct databases. Feedback information on the design phase can stream from the product life-cycle phases of manufacturing, use, service and edn-of-life. The feedback includes objective and subjective data from customers, users, service technicians and company staff involved in the product life-cycle. The feedback from the product life-cycle needs to be managed well, and relevant information should be available to the product development team in the design phase. Sucg information flows are valuable in supporting the design of products to facilitate the entire product life-cycle.

  • 64.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of Product-Service Systems regarding information feedback transfer in the product life-cycle including remanufacturing2016In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 47, p. 311-316Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a Product-Service System (PSS), the producer often has control of its products during multiple life-cycles, and thus there are more incentives for design for service and remanufacturing in comparison to traditional sales. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of PSS regarding information feedback transfer in the product life-cycle including remanufacturing. The paper explores two industrial cases where PSS does not yet act as a facilitator for transferring information feedback from remanufacturing to product designers. However, the full potential of PSS is not yet utilized at the companies, and their products are neither designed for PSS nor remanufacturing. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

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  • 65.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Use of Product Life-Cycle Information in a Value Chain including Remanufacturing2013In: Re-engineering Manufacturing for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 20th CIRP International Conference on Life Cycle Engineering, Singapore 17-19 April, 2013 / [ed] Andrew Y.C. Nee, Bin Song, and Soh-Khim Ong, Singapore: Springer, 2013, p. 621-626Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product life-cycle information is used to improve a product’s performance over its life-cycle. The objective of this paper is to describe how information from the product life-cycle phases of design, manufacturing, use, service and end-of-life are used and handled in a value chain comprised of an international original equipment manufacturer with its suppliers and contracted remanufacturers. A case study of a value chain was conducted. The paper concludes that the information flows within the value chain studied are well-functioning; however the organizational structure seems to be a hindrance for full information exchange within the value chain.

  • 66.
    Lindkvist, Louise
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring the Use of Product Life-Cycle Information in Two Value Chains Including Remanufacturing2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Not many products are designed for remanufacturing. One of the reasons may be that the information flows to and from remanufacturers are not in level with the other information flows in the product life-cycle. In this paper, the information flows within two value chains including remanufacturing and PSS are investigated. The case studies show that the remanufacturing part of the value chain is not strongly included in the information flows in the product life-cycle. This means that valuable feedback about the product design and condition at end-of-life is neglected. Further, information feed forward, which could potentially make the remanufacturing process more efficient, is not satisfactorily implemented.

  • 67.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organizational changes in connection with IPSO2010In: Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²): Proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Tobias Larsson, Mattias Lindahl, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, p. 461-466Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated product service offerings (IPSO) have the potential of obtaining better margins, profitability andless environmental impact. Becoming a service provider implies significant changes in the way companiesdo business, considerable changes within the organization and changes with the relationships to externalactors. This paper aims to contribute to the research concerning these changes when companies start toprovide IPSOs.Changes within the organizations have been necessary for all the companies studied and especially thesales staff since trust, transparency and long-term relationships with the customer is crucial. Support fromthe top management is also of importance as well as working in cross-functional teams. Changes are alsoneeded in the service organization and amongst the retailers. Apart from the change in the providercustomerrelationships little has been done in including other external actors, but the companies seepotential in doing so in the future to expand and develop their IPSOs.

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  • 68.
    Lundmark, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial Challenges within the Remanufacturing System2009In: Proceedings of the 3rd Swedish Production Symposium, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009, p. 132-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a literature review of challenges within the remanufacturing system. Thechallenges in the remanufacturing system has been categorised in a collection phase, aremanufacturing process phase and a redistribution phase which the challenges havebeen presented according to. The causes and effects of each challenge have beenexplored and are presented in this paper. The final result is a compilation figure with thechallenges for the whole remanufacturing system. In general uncertainties and complexitycan be seen as the main characteristics for the challenges within the remanufacturingsystem.

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  • 69.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    SAAB Aerostructures, Linköping.
    Jensen, Jonas
    Volvo Construction Equipment.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    11 Rules of Design for Manufacturing CFRP Components2018In: So You Want to Design Aircraft: Manufacturing with Composites / [ed] Jean Broge, SAE International , 2018, First, p. 29-42Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) is one of the most commonly used materials in the aerospace industry today. CFRP in pre-impregnated form is an anisotropic material whose properties can be controlled to a high level by the designer. Sometimes, these properties make the material hard to predict with regards to how the geometry affects manufacturing aspects. This chapter describes 11 design rules that describe geometrical design choices and deals with manufacturability problems that are connected to them, why they are connected, and how they can be minimized or avoided. Examples of design choices dealt with in the rules include double curvature shapes, assembly of uncured CFRP components, and access for nondestructive testing.

  • 70.
    Nilsson, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integrated product service offerings: Challenges in setting requirements2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 201, p. 879-887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to explore what challenges exist when setting requirements for an Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO). An IPSO, sometimes called Product Service System, is a concept with increased interest from manufacturing companies. It consists of a combination of products and services that, based on a life cycle perspective, have been integrated to fit targeted customer needs. In order to achieve a successful IPSO, it is important to collect aspects from many actors, something which sometimes is challenging for companies moving towards providing IPSOs.

    The four challenges found when setting requirements in IPSO development are; identification and inclusion of relevant aspects from relevant actors throughout the IPSO’s life cycle, understanding of the underlying aspects for all requirements for all elements of the offering, prioritization of requirements, and the difficulty to track how requirements affect each other between different elements in the IPSO.

    The methodology used to find these challenges was a combination of a structured literature review and an interview study at three manufacturing companies moving towards providing IPSOs.

  • 71.
    Paulson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges and trends within eco-design2015In: EcoDesign 2015 International Symposium, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite years of research and other activities in society the anthropogenic impact on nature still increase. Eco-design has a potential to reduce this impact, but yet a minority of companies practice it. The aim of this paper is to identify current challenges and trends within eco-design. In addition, the paper further aims to disclose important eco-design related research gaps. Eco-design challenges and trends have been studied in 22 selected papers, out of 52, found in ScienceDirect during April 2015. In addition, four snowballed papers from the same database and one standard were included. Challenges and trends are revealed and structured into four categories; 1) system and success level; 2) strategy level; 3) action level; and 4) tools level. Most challenges and least trends are found within the first category: systems and success level. An implication from the result is that research and other activities should more than today be supported by a system and success level. Future research should focus on understanding the industry’s perspective, help set requirements in product specifications, create low economic risk implementation roadmaps, understanding how to map knowledge and information to aid eco-design implementation. It is also preferable to facilitate an efficient inclusion of social and economic aspects when practicing eco-design.

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  • 72.
    Paulson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Challenges when including sustainability aspects in product development at two large manufacturing companies in Sweden2019In: Technologies and Eco-innovation towards Sustainability I: Eco Design of Products and Services / [ed] Allen H. Hu, Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Tsai Chi Kuo, Shana Smith, Singapore: Springer, 2019, Vol. I, p. 229-243Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When including sustainability aspects in product development challenges may arise. The aim of this paperis to expand current knowledge about challenges faced by manufacturing companies when includingsustainability aspects in product development. To fulfil the aim, a multiple case study at two largemanufacturing companies was conducted. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews,complemented with data from the companies’ sustainability reports. The novelty of this research is an expansion of the existing knowledge about these types ofchallenges. Additionally, drivers for the companies’ inclusion of sustainability aspects in productdevelopment and meaning of sustainability for the companies, are described. The results show that thechallenges differ to a large extent between the two companies. Despite the differences, challenges causedby a lack of recourses, lack of knowledge and need to fulfil economic goals are the most commonly described challenges at the companies.

  • 73.
    Paulson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inclusion of sustainability aspects in product development – two industrial cases from Sweden2018In: Proceedings of NordDesign - Design in the era of digitalization, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on how to include sustainability aspects in product development has increased during the last 25 years. Research has contributed with literature reviews, case studies, and the development of supporting methods, frameworks and guidelines.

    Despite the large amount of knowledge generated on how to include sustainability aspects in product development, there are few studies that focus on describing how manufacturing companies, in real life, include sustainability aspects in their product development.

    The aim of this paper is to describe how two manufacturing companies include sustainability aspects in their product development, make a comparison between them, and relate findings with prior studies. To fulfil the aim, a multiple case study at two large Swedish manufacturing companies was conducted. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and by analyzing sustainability reports.This paper provides two novel context-dependent descriptions of how large manufacturing companies include sustainability aspects in their product development. There are several similarities identified between the two companies in this study and descriptions inprior studies of how manufacturing companies include sustainability aspects in their product development. For example, there are manufacturing companies that systematically include sustainability aspects in product development; however, what is systemized differs between thecompanies.This research suggests that the easier an aspect can be related to the design of the product the more likely the aspect will be considered by actors in the product development function, such as design engineers. Additionally, this research indicates that the product owner is animportant internal actor who affects the inclusion of sustainability aspects in product development, and especially the inclusion of sustainability aspects in product requirements. Further studies are suggested on how product owners elicit and prioritize sustainability aspects, how these aspects are formulated in product requirements, as well as how, and how commonly, marketing and sales elicit sustainability aspects from customers.

  • 74.
    Paulson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inclusion of sustainability aspects in product development – two industrial cases from Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge on how to include sustainability aspects in product development has increased during the last 25 years. Research has contributed with literature reviews, case studies, and the development of supporting methods, frameworks and guidelines. Despite the large amount of knowledge generated on how to include sustainability aspects in product development, there are few studies that focus on describing how manufacturing companies, in real life, include sustainability aspects in their product development. The aim of this paper is to describe how two manufacturing companies include sustainability aspects in their product development, make a comparison between them, and relate findings with prior studies. To fulfil the aim, a multiple case study at two large Swedish manufacturing companies was conducted. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and by analyzing sustainability reports. This paper provides two novel context-dependent descriptions of how large manufacturing companies include sustainability aspects in their product development. There are several similarities identified between the two companies in this study and descriptions inprior studies of how manufacturing companies include sustainability aspects in their product development. For example, there are manufacturing companies that systematically include sustainability aspects in product development; however, what is systemized differs between the companies.This research suggests that the easier an aspect can be related to the design of the product the more likely the aspect will be considered by actors in the product development function, such as design engineers. Additionally, this research indicates that the product owner is an important internal actor who affects the inclusion of sustainability aspects in product development, and especially the inclusion of sustainability aspects in product requirements. Further studies are suggested on how product owners elicit and prioritize sustainability aspects, how these aspects are formulated in product requirements, as well as how, and how commonly, marketing and sales elicit sustainability aspects from customers.

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    Inclusion of sustainability aspects in product development – two industrial cases from Sweden
  • 75.
    Regnell, Björn
    et al.
    Lunds Universitet.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    Integrerad Produktutveckling KTH.
    Höst, Martin
    Lunds Universitet.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Lunds Universitet.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Mätning av innovationsförmåga i team2008In: Innovationsförmåga / [ed] Annika Olsson, Malmö: Holmbergs , 2008, p. 78-105Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 76. Sakao, T
    et al.
    Shimomura, Y
    Comstock, Mica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    A Method of Value Customization2006In: Intl Design Conference - Design 2006,2006, 2006, p. 339-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olhager, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sandin, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Witell, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Research on Services in the Manufacturing Industry based on a Holistic Viewpoint and Interdisciplinary Approach2011In: Functional thinking for value creation : proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems / [ed] Jürgen Hesselbach and Christoph Herrmann, Springer, 2011, p. 27-32Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins by consolidating industrial challenges and research issues concerning Product/Service Systems obtained through various activities by the authors. Based on this, it points out the importance of the holistic view in further research in this area so that PSS providers do not fall into local optimization. The intent of this contribution to our research community includes shedding light on interesting issues that thus far have been relatively invisible and with narrower scope.

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  • 78.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tang, Ou
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Addressing Uncertainty as a Key for Successful Integrated Product and Service Offerings: Literature Review and Company Interview2008In: Swedish Production Symposium,2008, 2008, p. 253-260Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     Services are getting increasingly important in the manufacturing industries today. As a result, it has become common for companies to provide a combination of services and products as an integrated offering. This paper focuses on such business models and development processes. It explores the current status and needs of industries on those issues. Through reviewing 12 journal articles tackling these issues and complementary academic contributions, it was found that uncertainty is a critical concept to be addressed properly. Based on this result, nine Swedish companies interested in such business were interviewed on this issue. The matured providers raised convincing customers as their major challenges while others consider understanding the internal meaning of IPSO business is their current challenge. In addition, there is a wish to have a quantitative tool for companies to utilize upon developing such offerings.

  • 79.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Napolitano, Nicola
    University of Rome La Sapienza.
    Tronci, Massimo
    University of Rome La Sapienza.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    How Are Product-Service Combined Offers Provided in Germany and Italy? - Analysis with Company Sizes and Countries -2008In: Journal of systems science and systems engineering, ISSN 1004-3756, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 367-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new business concept that offers products and services in a different way of traditional product-sales businesses is getting more attention especially in manufacturing industries. This paper investigates how this new business by means of integration of products and services is achieved in Germany and Italy. In addition, it analyzes the differences according to the company sizes. The results include that this type of business is in many cases motivated by their focus on customers and often consists of physical products and their maintenance. The Italian companies, as opposed to the German ones, often design their physical products specifically for this type of offers. From the analysis based on the size difference, small companies are found to achieve specific design for this type of offers while owning physical products. There do not seem to be any established methods or tools developed to support the development of such offers and within such methods/tools there would be room for more adaptation in form of physical product design.

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  • 80.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Napolitano, Nicola
    Tronci, Massimo
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Influences of Product/Service Combined Offers on Manufacturers2006In: International Conference on Service Systems Service Management 2006, Troyes, France, 2006, p. 715-719Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 81.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Shimomura, Y
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Applications of Service Engineering Methods and Tool to Industries2006In: Innovation in Life Cycle Engineering and Sustainable Development / [ed] Daniel Brissaud, Serge Tichkievitch and Peggy Zwolinski, Dordrect, The Netherlands: Springer Verlag , 2006, p. 65-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this book is the consideration of environmental issues in engineering process and product design. It presents a selection of 30 papers ensuing from the 12th CIRP International seminar on Life Cycle Engineering. This book is of interest to academics, students and practitioners, specializing in environmental issues in mechanical engineering, design and manufacturing. This volume is recommended as a reference textbook for all researchers in the field.

  • 82.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Tech Univ Darmstadt, Inst Prod Dev & Machine Elements Pmd, D-64289 Darmstadt, Germany.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan Univ, Dept Syst Design, Tokyo 1920397, Japan.
    Comstock, Mica
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    A Method of Value Customization2007In: Strojarstvo, ISSN 0562-1887, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents a method of value customization based on the modelling and design methods of Service Engineering. This aims at increasing satisfaction levels of customers. The method remarkably addresses what customized means depending on the customers desire, while many theories and practices on customization have dealt only with how. Some design operations of the method are explained using an actual redesign of an existing industrial service in a hotel industry. This will be effective for designing products or services whose value varies from one customer to another. Furthermore, the value is expected to be a more important concept to be designed according to recent development of products and services for market individualisation servicification in industries.

  • 83.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Mitsubishi Research Institute.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Comstock, Mica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Service Engineering for Value Customization2005In: Interdisciplinary World Congress on Mass Customization and Personalization,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 84.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Darmstadt universitet.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan university.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Applications of Service Engineering Methods and Tools to Industries2005In: 12th CIRP Life-Cycle Engineering Seminar - Innovation in Life Cycle Engineering and Sustainable Development,2005, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Institute for Product Development and Machine Elements, Darmstadt University of Technology, Darmstadt, Germany.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comstock, Mica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Modeling design objects in CAD system for Service/Product Engineering2009In: Computer-Aided Design, ISSN 0010-4485, E-ISSN 1879-2685, Vol. 41, no 3, p. 197-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new type of service CAD system utilized in Service/Product Engineering (SPE), a much-needed and novel engineering discipline within the background of servicification. In this research a design-object model was defined, and a prototype named Service Explorer was implemented. The model represents critical concepts such as value, costs, functions either of products or of service activities, and entities. Through its application to business cases such as selling washing machines, providing pay-per-wash service, and cleaning washing machines, the Service Explorer was proven to support designers as they describe and operate design objects. In the future we expect that the Service Explorer can help designers with generating new ideas.

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  • 86.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of Integrated Product and Service Offerings from Current Perspectives of Providers and Customers2009In: Proceedings of the 1st CIRP IPS2 Conference: Industrial Product/Service Systems (IPS2), Cranfield: Cranfield University Press , 2009, p. 193-199Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the current status of how companies address IPSO (Integrated Product and Service Offerings)-typed business. It will consist of perspectives both from providers and customers mainly fromSweden and Germany. Especially, it selects how providing firms address uncertainty as one focal issue. As a result of interviews, factors from customers are the major source of uncertainty for an experiencedcompany, while services are the major for little experienced companies. In addition, there was found to be areasonable wish of providers to obtain a formalized way leading to quantitative management of uncertainty. On the other hand, customer incentives are not always clear. While some customers find the IPSO preferable from economic reasons other customers have the opposite recognition.

  • 87.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Essence of remanufacturing derived from analysis of practices and theories2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing has gained attention from the manufacturing industry, but still lacks scientific insights in the literature for remanufacturers’ success. The paper proposes a set of key factors that are important for successful remanufacturing. To do so, it first analyses remanufacturing practices in industry through the authors’ own interviews with practitioners, and derives key factors for successful remanufacturing. They are: 1) product and component value; 2) customer-oriented operation; 3) collection of cores; 4) correct information; and 5) personnel competence. The first two factors show Product/Service System theory is highly relevant to remanufacturing. Then, having those factors in mind, it analyses remanufacturing processes theoretically. The distinctive nature of remanufacturing underlying in the processes is found to have high variability, high uncertainty and, thus, high complexity. The obtained insights are eventually represented with a Fishbone diagram. The value of the paper lies in its insights, grounded in both practice and scientific theory.

  • 88.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How to Improve Remanufacturing?-A Systematic Analysis of Practices and Theories2019In: Journal of manufacturing science and engineering, ISSN 1087-1357, E-ISSN 1528-8935, Vol. 141, no 2, article id 021004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing has gained attention from industry, but the literature lacks the scientific comprehension to realize efficient remanufacturing. This hinders a company from commencing or improving remanufacturing efficiently. To fill this gap, the paper proposes a set of practical success factors for remanufacturing. To do so, it analyzes remanufacturing practices in industry through interviews with staff from remanufacturing companies with long experience. The practical success factors are found to be (1) addressing product and component value, (2) having a customer-oriented operation, (3) having an efficient core acquisition, (4) obtaining the correct information, and (5) having the right staff competence. Next, the paper further analyzes remanufacturing processes theoretically with both cause and effect analysis and means-ends analysis. Since the factors show that, among other things, the product/service system (PSS) is highly relevant to remanufacturing in multiple ways, theories on the PSS are partly utilized. As a result, the distinctive nature of remanufacturing underlying in the processes is found to have high variability, high uncertainty and, thus, also complexity. The obtained insights from practice and theory are found to support each other. In addition, a lishbone diagram for remanufacturing is proposed based on the analysis, including seven ms, adding two new ms (marketing and maintenance) on top of the traditional five ms (measurement, material, human, method, and machine) in order to improve customer value. The major contribution of the paper lies in its insights, which are grounded in both theory and practice.

  • 89.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    A methodology for designing services: modeling method, design method, CAD tool, and their industrial applications2009In: Introduction to Service Engineering / [ed] Gavriel Salvendy and Waldemar Karwowski, USA: John Wiley , 2009, 1, p. 268-293Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Servicification is a key toward sustainable business in the secondary industry. It is needless to say that services are sources of core value in the tertiary industry. Thus, this chapter addresses a critical issue for both of those industries, designing services. This chapter demonstrates the effectiveness of our service-design methodology to support service design processes through applications to two service examples in industries- real operation. Before that, a theory for the methodology is explained.

  • 90. Shimomura, Y
    et al.
    Sakao, T
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management.
    Service Engineering: A Novel Engineering of Functional Sales Offers2006In: Intl Design Conference - Design 2006,2006, 2006, p. 999-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Mitsubishi Research Institute.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    A Design Process Model and A Computer tool for Service Design2007In: 2007 Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, 2007, p. 929-941Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers at present face new circumstances in terms of consumer services and serious environmental problems. An effective way to deal with these circumstances may be to pursue qualitative satisfaction rather than quantitative sufficiency. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of Service Engineering, including the service design process model, to increase customer satisfaction. The redesign of services offered by a global warehouse manufacturer is used as an example of the application. Four redesign options, such as rapid delivery of components and a robust electrical system, were generated. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated by the application.

  • 92.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    An Economical and Technical Analysis of a Household Appliance Remanufacturing Process2001In: Proceedings of EcoDesign-01, Tokyo, Japan, 12–15 December, IEEE , 2001, p. 536-541Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses technical and economical aspects of a specific remanufacturing process at Electrolux AB in Motala, Sweden. The organisation is examined and all remanufacturing steps are analysed in order to find out where to put the most effort to make the remanufacturing process more efficient. The technical analysis showed that the bottleneck in the remanufacturing process was the cleaning step. Suggestions on how to make the cleaning more efficient are described in the article. Economical calculation show which activities hold the largest cost shares. The method for doing these calculations was activity based costing (ABC). This method was chosen since it seemed more preferable in comparison to traditional methods. It was found that two remanufacturing activities stand for the most costs, which were the storing of products and administration of the entire process

  • 93.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Circular Economy and design for remanufacturing2018In: Designing for the Circular Economy / [ed] Martin Charter, Oxon: Routledge, 2018, First, p. 186-199Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular Economy (CE) means that resources should be kept in use when a product reaches its End-of-Use so they can be reused several times to create further value for the product’s next users. An important starting point with CE is the design of products and manufacturing processes. Products can be designed to be used longer, repaired, upgraded, remanufactured or eventually recycled, instead of being thrown away. With product remanufacturing, the geometrical form of the product is retained and its associated economic value is preserved. Having products designed for several use periods including remanufacturing extends the use-time of products.

  • 94.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Design for Integrated Product-Service Offerings - A case study of Soil Compactors2007In: Advances in Life Cycle Engineering for Sustainable Manufacturing Business, London: Springer , 2007, p. 149-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrated product-service offerings put new requirements on products in comparison to traditional selling. To reduce costs, products need to e.g. be easy to perform repairs on. The aim of this paper was to elucidate how Swepac International has worked with adapting their soil compactors for these offerings. In several cases Swepac has reduced the need of repair and remanufacturing efforts. Furthermore, the aim was also to evaluate the design of a specific soil compactor (FB-200H). Several design improvements were elucidated e.g. introduce snap-fits for a cover, standardise screws, and introduce a drainage hole on a hydraulic oil tank.

  • 95.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Design for remanufacturing from a remanufacturing process perspective2002Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a current need in today's society to strive towards a more sustainable development. In order to achieve a development that is more sustainable the present linear flow of material needs to be changed. A contribution to this change towards a sustainable development and more circular flows can be achieved by increasing product remanufacturing. By product remanufacturing costs and efforts are saved deriving from material extraction, transports and manufacturing of the products and their components.

    Service selling is an emerging business strategy, which in this thesis has a bearing to remanufacturing. The key idea of selling services is to focus on the customer's need rather than on the hardware/ product itself. The hardware that performs the service is owned by the ser vice provider and not by the customer. When the customer no longer wants the service, the physical hardware is taken back, preferably remanufactured and offered to new users on the market. An increase in products being sold through service selling will potentially generate a larger amount of remanufactured products on the market.

    Although, remanufacturing can be conducted without being considered during product design, it is economic and technical preferable to have products designed for remanufacturing when they are to be remanufactured. Therefore, this thesis focuses on design for remanufacturing. The aim of this thesis is to explore, from a remanufacturing process step perspective, in what manner products can be designed in order to facilitate remanufacturing. This has been conducted by analysing which steps that are to be included in a generic remanufacturing process. After finding these through literature and empirical studies, properties for the specific remanufacturing steps were explored.

    Empirical data were collected mostly from an Electrolux remanufacturing plant in Motala, Sweden. The remanufacturing process was an analysed both from an economic and technical perspective. Moreover, two household appliances, a refrigerator and a washing machine, were analysed from a remanufacturing perspective.

    The steps in a generic remanufacturing process were in alphabetical order; Cleaning, Disassembly, Inspection, Reassembly, Repair, Storage and Testing. These steps were all analysed and preferable properties were found to each of them. The relations between remanufacturing process steps and product properties are illustrated in the form of a matrix at the end of the thesis called RemPro. Several properties were found in many steps and the product properties that were found most frequently were;

    • easy to access
    • easy to handle
    • easy to separate and,
    • wear resistance.
  • 96.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Development of a Manual Pick-up Device Adapted for Recycling Centre Usage2006In: Nordic Ergonomics Society NES 38th Annual Congress - Promotion of Well-Being in Modern Society 24-27 September,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 97.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhanced Product Design Facilitating Remanufacturing of two Household Appliances: A case study2001In: Proceedings of International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED-01), Vol. “Design Methods for Performance and Sustainability”, Glasgow, Scotland, The United Kingdom, 21–23 August, 2001, p. 645-652Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    How Can Remanufacturing Processes Become Leaner?2006In: CIRP Intl Conference on Life Cycle Engineering,2006, 2006, p. 429-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Life-cycle Perspectives of Product/Service-Systems: In Design Theory2009In: Introduction to Product/Service-System Design / [ed] Sakao T. and Lindahl M., London: Springer , 2009, 1, p. 31-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers are moving more and more towards the business approach of Product/Service Systems in order to achieve greater revenue. Product/Service Systems have many benefits such as achieving closer customer connection and generating increased profit from manufactured products. However, in order to achieve a Product/Service System which is adapted for this business approach, the products and services used need to consider a life-cycle perspective.

    The business approach of Product/Service Systems allows for the provider to control the flows of physical products, both the forward flow to the user and the reverse flow of products back to the provider. This new logic of material/product flows allows for adaptations along the product life-cycle. For example, maintenance and end-of-life strategies such as remanufacturing can become more beneficial due to the new circumstances that product/service systems provide the manufacturer.

    The aim of this chapter is to elucidate how manufacturers can develop their product/service systems with a life-cycle perspective. It shows the many aspects that should be considered throughout the life-cycle of both physical products and services. In addition, several considerations and theories are presented for the different stages of the Product/Service System life-cycle. Finally, this chapter presents theory on product/service design with a life-cycle perspective, which serves as a base for the practical design considerations presented in chapter (ID21) of this book.

  • 100.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Life-cycle Perspectives of Product/Service-Systems: Practical Design Experiences2009In: Introduction to Product/Service-System Design / [ed] Sakao T. and Lindahl M., London: Springer , 2009, 1, p. 50-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturers are moving more and more towards the business approach of product/service-systems in order to achieve more revenues. The business approach of product/service-systems puts new requirements on products in comparison to traditional selling. In order to achieve a product/service-system adapted for this business approach, the products and services used need to consider a life-cycle perspective. Having a life-cycle perspective on products and services in the business strategy of product/service-systems is becoming increasingly important as the strategy emerges and more and more companies see the benefits of controlling a larger share of the product value chain. The objective of this chapter is to elucidate how manufacturers have worked with, or could adapt their products for, product/service-systems. Supporting this are results from several case studies, performed at companies that manufacture household appliances, soil compactors and forklift trucks. A key factor when developing products for product/service-systems is to design the product from a life-cycle perspective, considering all the product’s life-cycle phases, e.g. manufacturing, use, maintenance and end-of-life treatment. Several design improvements, all of which are fairly inexpensive and easy to implement, are described. Many of these improvements deal with the accessibility of parts and components during maintenance and remanufacturing operations, and several of the design improvements could reduce the need and cost for maintenance, repair and remanufacturing.

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