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  • 51.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. 3Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Cognitive spare capacity in older adults with hearing loss2014In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 6, no 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) are associated with speech recognition in adverse conditions, reflecting the need to maintain and process speech fragments until lexical access can be achieved. When working memory resources are engaged in unlocking the lexicon, there is less Cognitive Spare Capacity (CSC) available for higher level processing of speech. CSC is essential for interpreting the linguistic content of speech input and preparing an appropriate response, that is, engaging in conversation. Previously, we showed, using a Cognitive Spare Capacity Test (CSCT) that in young adults with normal hearing, CSC was not generally related to WMC and that when CSC decreased in noise it could be restored by visual cues. In the present study, we investigated CSC in 24 older adults with age-related hearing loss, by administering the CSCT and a battery of cognitive tests. We found generally reduced CSC in older adults with hearing loss compared to the younger group in our previous study, probably because they had poorer cognitive skills and deployed them differently. Importantly, CSC was not reduced in the older group when listening conditions were optimal. Visual cues improved CSC more for this group than for the younger group in our previous study. CSC of older adults with hearing loss was not generally related to WMC but it was consistently related to episodic long term memory, suggesting that the efficiency of this processing bottleneck is important for executive processing of speech in this group.

  • 52.
    Neely, Stephen
    et al.
    Boys Town National Research Hospital, Omaha, Nebraska, USA.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Schairer, Kim
    Quillen Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Mountain Home, Tennessee, USA.
    Alternative ear-canal measures related to absorbance2013In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 34, no Supplement 1, p. 72s-77sArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several alternative ear-canal measures are similar to absorbance in their requirement for prior determination of a Thévenin-equivalent sound source. Examples are (1) sound intensity level, (2) forward pressure level, (3) time-domain ear-canal reflectance, and (4) cochlear reflectance. These four related measures are similar to absorbance in their utilization of wideband stimuli and their focus on recording ear-canal sound pressure. The related measures differ from absorbance in how the ear-canal pressure is analyzed and in the type of information that is extracted from the recorded response. Sound intensity level and forward pressure level have both been shown to be better as measures of sound level in the ear canal compared with sound pressure level because they reduced calibration errors due to standing waves in studies of behavioral thresholds and otoacoustic emissions. Time-domain ear-canal reflectance may be used to estimate ear-canal geometry and may have the potential to assess middle ear pathology. Cochlear reflectance reveals information about the inner ear that is similar to what is provided by other types of otoacoustic emissions, and may have theoretical advantages that strengthen its interpretation.

  • 53.
    Niklas, Rönnberg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Testing effort for speech comprehension using the individuals’ cognitive spare capacity – the Auditory Inference Span Test2010In: Adult Hearing Screening 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Nuttall, Alfred L.
    et al.
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    Ricci, Anthony J.
    Stanford Univ, CA 94025 USA; Stanford Univ, CA 94025 USA.
    Burwood, George
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    Harte, James M.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Speech language pathology, Audiology and Otorhinolaryngology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Caye-Thomasen, Per
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Ren, Tianying
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    Ramamoorthy, Sripriya
    Indian Inst Technol, India.
    Zhang, Yuan
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    Wilson, Teresa
    Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Moore, Brian C. J.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Fridberger, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Oregon Hlth and Sci Univ, OR 97239 USA.
    A mechanoelectrical mechanism for detection of sound envelopes in the hearing organ2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 4175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand speech, the slowly varying outline, or envelope, of the acoustic stimulus is used to distinguish words. A small amount of information about the envelope is sufficient for speech recognition, but the mechanism used by the auditory system to extract the envelope is not known. Several different theories have been proposed, including envelope detection by auditory nerve dendrites as well as various mechanisms involving the sensory hair cells. We used recordings from human and animal inner ears to show that the dominant mechanism for envelope detection is distortion introduced by mechanoelectrical transduction channels. This electrical distortion, which is not apparent in the sound-evoked vibrations of the basilar membrane, tracks the envelope, excites the auditory nerve, and transmits information about the shape of the envelope to the brain.

  • 55.
    Parazzi, Todi
    et al.
    Cyprus Audiology Center.
    Kramer, Sophia
    VU University Amsterdam.
    Davis, Adrian
    Manchester University.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Janssen, Tomas
    Technische Univärsität Munchen.
    Adult Hearing Screening: The Cyprus pilot Program2010In: Adult Hearing Screening 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Petersen, Eline B
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark, .
    Wöstmann, Malte
    International Max Planck Research School on Neuroscience of Communication, Leipzig, Germany, Max Planck Research Group “Auditory Cognition”, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.
    Obleser, Jonas
    Max Planck Research Group “Auditory Cognition”, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig, Germany.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Hearing loss impacts neural alpha oscillations under adverse listening conditions2015In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 6, no 177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Degradations in external, acoustic stimulation have long been suspected to increase the load on working memory (WM). One neural signature of WM load is enhanced power of alpha oscillations (6–12 Hz). However, it is unknown to what extent common internal, auditory degradation, that is, hearing impairment, affects the neural mechanisms of WM when audibility has been ensured via amplification. Using an adapted auditory Sternberg paradigm, we varied the orthogonal factors memory load and background noise level, while the electroencephalogram was recorded. In each trial, participants were presented with 2, 4, or 6 spoken digits embedded in one of three different levels of background noise. After a stimulus-free delay interval, participants indicated whether a probe digit had appeared in the sequence of digits. Participants were healthy older adults (62–86 years), with normal to moderately impaired hearing. Importantly, the background noise levels were individually adjusted and participants were wearing hearing aids to equalize audibility across participants. Irrespective of hearing loss (HL), behavioral performance improved with lower memory load and also with lower levels of background noise. Interestingly, the alpha power in the stimulus-free delay interval was dependent on the interplay between task demands (memory load and noise level) and HL; while alpha power increased with HL during low and intermediate levels of memory load and background noise, it dropped for participants with the relatively most severe HL under the highest memory load and background noise level. These findings suggest that adaptive neural mechanisms for coping with adverse listening conditions break down for higher degrees of HL, even when adequate hearing aid amplification is in place.

  • 57.
    Petersen, Eline Borch
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Snekkersten, Eriksholm Research Centre, Denmark.
    Wöstmann, Malte
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Obleser, Jonas
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Influence of hearing impairment on alpha power during retention of auditory stimuli2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Petersen, Eline Borch
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Snekkersten, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Wöstmann, Malte
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Obleser, Jonas
    University of Lübeck, Auditory Cognition.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Tuning in on the target: The influence of hearing impairment on the neural encoding of speech2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Prieve, Beth
    et al.
    Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, USA.
    Feeney, Patrick
    Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Shahnaz, Navid
    University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada.
    Prediction of conductive hearing loss using wideband acoustic immittance2013In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 34, no Supplement 1, p. 54s-59sArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article was to review the effectiveness of wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) and tympanometry in detecting conductive hearing loss (CHL). Eight studies were included that measured CHL through air-and bone-conducted thresholds in at least a portion of their participants. One study included infants, three studies included children, one study included older children and adults, and three studies included adults. WAI identified CHL well in all populations. In infants and children, WAI in several single-frequency bands identified CHL with equal accuracy to measures of middle ear admittance using clinical tympanometry with a single probe tone (1000 Hz for infants; 226 Hz for children and adults). When WAI was combined across frequency bands, it identified CHL superior to traditional, single-frequency tympanometry. Only two studies used WAI tympanometry, which assesses the outer/middle ear across both frequency and introduced air pressure, and differing results were reported as to whether introducing pressure into the ear canal provides better identification of CHL. In general, WAI appears to be a promising clinical tool, and further investigation is warranted.

  • 60.
    Priwin, C
    et al.
    Göteborg University.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology .
    Granström, G
    Göteborg University.
    Tjellström, A
    Göteborg University.
    Håkansson, B
    Chalmers.
    Bilateral bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs): An audiometric evaluation2004In: The Laryngoscope, ISSN 0023-852X, E-ISSN 1531-4995, Vol. 114, no 1, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Since the technique to implant bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) with the use of osseointegrated implants was developed in 1977, more than 15,000 patients have been fitted with BAHAs worldwide. Although the majority have bilateral hearing loss, they are primarily fitted unilaterally. The main objective of this study was to reveal benefits and drawbacks of bilateral fitting of BAHAs in patients with symmetric or slight asymmetric bone-conduction thresholds. The possible effects were divided into three categories: hearing thresholds, directional hearing, and binaural hearing. Study Design: Prospective study of 12 patients with bilateral BAHAs. Methods: Baseline audiometry, directional hearing, speech reception thresholds in quiet and in noise, and binaural masking level difference were tested when BAHAs were fitted unilaterally and bilaterally. Results: Eleven of the 12 patients used bilateral BAHAs on a daily basis. Tests performed in the study show a significant improvement in sound localization with bilateral BAHAs; the results with unilateral fitting were close to the chance level. Furthermore, with bilateral application, the improvement of the speech reception threshold in quiet was 5.4 dB. An improvement with bilateral fitting was also found for speech reception in noise. Conclusions: Overall, the results with bilateral fitted BAHAs were better than with unilaterally fitted BA-HA; the benefit is not only caused simply by bilateral stimulation but also, to some extent, by binaural hearing. Bilateral BAHAs should be considered for patients with bilateral hearing loss otherwise suitable for BAHAs.

  • 61.
    Priwin, Claudia
    et al.
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Edensvärd, Ann
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Granström, Gösta
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Tjellström, Anders
    Göteborg Universitet.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Unilateral versus bilateral bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs)2005In: Cochlear Implants International, ISSN 1556-9152, Vol. 6, no S1, p. 79-81Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 62.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Ostli, Per
    Chalmers.
    Hakansson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hearing ones own voice during phoneme vocalization-Transmission by air and bone conduction2010In: JOURNAL OF THE ACOUSTICAL SOCIETY OF AMERICA, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 128, no 2, p. 751-762Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between the bone conduction (BC) part and the air conduction (AC) part of ones own voice has previously not been well determined. This relation is important for hearing impaired subjects as a hearing aid affects these two parts differently and thereby changes the perception of ones own voice. A large ear-muff that minimized the occlusion effect while still attenuating AC sound was designed. During vocalization and wearing the ear muff the ear-canal sound pressure could be related to the BC component of a persons own voice while the AC component was derived from the sound pressure at the entrance of an open ear-canal. The BC relative to AC sensitivity of ones own voice was defined as the ratio between these two components related to the ear-canal sound pressure at hearing thresholds for BC and AC stimulation. The results of ten phonemes showed that the BC part of ones own voice dominated at frequencies between 1 and 2 kHz for most of the phonemes. The different phonemes gave slightly different results caused by differences during vocalization. However, similarities were seen for phonemes with comparable vocalization.

  • 63.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Good, Tobias
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Examination of bone-conducted transmission from sound field excitation measured by thresholds, ear-canal sound pressure, and skull vibrations2007In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 121, no 3, p. 1576-1587Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone conduction (BC) relative to air conduction (AC) sound field sensitivity is here defined as the perceived difference between a sound field transmitted to the ear by BC and by AC. Previous investigations of BC-AC sound field sensitivity have used different estimation methods and report estimates that vary by up to 20 dB at some frequencies. In this study, the BC-AC sound field sensitivity was investigated by hearing threshold shifts, ear canal sound pressure measurements, and skull bone vibrations measured with an accelerometer. The vibration measurement produced valid estimates at 400 Hz and below, the threshold shifts produced valid estimates at 500 Hz and above, while the ear canal sound pressure measurements were found erroneous for estimating the BC-AC sound field sensitivity. The BC-AC sound field sensitivity is proposed, by combining the present result with others, as frequency independent at 50 to 60 dB at frequencies up to 900 Hz. At higher frequencies, it is frequency dependent with minima of 40 to 50 dB at 2 and 8 kHz, and a maximum of 50 to 60 dB at 4 kHz. The BC-AC sound field sensitivity is the theoretical limit of maximum attenuation achievable with ordinary hearing protection devices. © 2007 Acoustical Society of America.

  • 64.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Goode, Tobias
    Chalmers.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Bone conduction sensitivity to sound field stimulation: Measurements of REAT, MIRE, and vibrations of the skull bone2006In: 31st Annual Hearing Conservation Conference, Tampa, Florida, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Håkannson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Transcranial attenuation of bone conducted sound, acoustically and psycho acoustically measured2006In: 4th International Symposium on Middle Ear Mechanics in Research and Otology, Zurich, Switzerland, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 66.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Håkannson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Transcranial transmission of bone conducted sound measured acoustically and psychoacoustically2007In: Middle Ear Mechanics in Research and Otology: Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium / [ed] Alexander Huber and Albrecht Eiber, Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. , 2007, p. 276-281Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book includes representative, peer-reviewed articles of the lectures and papers presented during the symposium, and thereby gives an overview of the ongoing research and current knowledge in the function and mechanics of the normal, diseased and reconstructed middle ear. It covers basic research, engineering and clinical aspects of evaluation, diagnosis and surgery of the middle ear as well as implantable hearing devices in a very broad and interdisciplinary way. Following the tradition of the organizers of the previous conferences to collect the contributions of the symposium, this volume further initialized and promotes many fruitful discussions on middle ear mechanics with different points of view.

  • 67.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Håkannson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Transmission of bone conducted sound measured acoustically and psycho-acoustically2007In: 4th joint meeting of the Acoustical Societies of America and Japan, Honolulu, Hawaii, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Estimation of bone conduction skull transmission by hearing thresholds and ear-canal sound pressure2013In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 299, p. 19-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone conduction sound transmission in the human skull and the occlusion effect were estimated from hearing thresholds and ear-canal sound pressure (ECSP) measured by a probe tube microphone when stimulation was at three positions on the skull (ipsilateral mastoid, contralateral mastoid, and forehead). The measurements were done with the ear-canal open as well as occluded by an ear-plug. Depending on the estimation method, transcranial transmission at frequencies below 1 kHz was between −8 and 5 dB, around 0 dB at 1 kHz that decreased with frequency to between −17 and −7 dB at 8 kHz. The forehead transmission was, except at frequencies between 1 and 2 kHz, similar to that proposed in the standard ISO:389-3 (1994) when the threshold measurements were conducted with open ear-canals. Compared with the same measurements using hearing thresholds, the ECSP gave similar transmission results at most frequencies, but differed at 0.5, 0.75, 2 and 3 kHz. One probable reason for the differences between thresholds and ECSP might be a significant perception improvement (lower thresholds) when the stimulation was at the ipsilateral mastoid that was not found at the other positions. This improvement, which also was present in the occlusion effect data, was hypothesized to originate in greater sensitivity of the cochlea for vibration in line with the ipsilateral stimulation direction than from other directions.

  • 69.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Transkranial dämpning av benledningsljud mätt akustiskt och psykoakustiskt2006In: TeMA Hörsel 2006, Göteborg, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Östli, Per
    Chalmers.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Taghavi, Hamidreza
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hearing one’s own voice2011In: 3rd International Symposium on Bone Conduction Hearing – Craniofacial Osseointegration, Sarasota, Florida, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 71.
    Reinfeldt, Sabine
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Östli, Per
    Chalmers.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Håkansson, Bo
    Chalmers.
    Differences in bone and air conduction transmission of one’s own voice during phoneme vocalization2009In: 2nd Int Symposium on Bone Conduction Hearing – Craniofacial Osseointegration, Göteborg, Sweden, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Roosli, Christof
    et al.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Dobrev, Ivo
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Hoon Sim, Jae
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Gerig, Rahel
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Pfiffner, Flurin
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Huber, Alexander M.
    University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Intracranial Pressure and Promontory Vibration With Soft Tissue Stimulation in Cadaveric Human Whole Heads2016In: Otology and Neurotology, ISSN 1531-7129, E-ISSN 1537-4505, Vol. 37, no 9, p. E384-E390Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis:Intracranial pressure and skull vibrations are correlated and depend on the stimulation position and frequency.Background:A hearing sensation can be elicited by vibratory stimulation on the skin covered skull, or by stimulation on soft tissue such as the neck. It is not fully understood whether different stimulation sites induce the skull vibrations responsible for the perception or whether other transmission pathways are dominant. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between intracranial pressure and skull vibration measured on the promontory for stimulation to different sites on the head.Methods:Measurements were performed on four human cadaver heads. A bone conduction hearing aid was held in place with a 5-Newton steel headband at four locations (mastoid, forehead, eye, and neck). While stimulating in the frequency range of 0.3 to 10kHz, acceleration of the cochlear promontory was measured with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, and intracranial pressure at the center of the head with a hydrophone.Results:Promontory acceleration and intracranial pressure was measurable for all stimulation sites. The ratios were comparable between all stimulation sites for frequencies below 2kHz.Conclusion:These findings indicate that both promontory acceleration and intracranial pressure are involved for stimulation on the sites investigated. The transmission pathway of sound energy is comparable for the four stimulation sites.

  • 73.
    Rosowski, John
    et al.
    Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lilly, David
    Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland, Oregon, USA.
    An overview of wideband immittance measurements techniques and terminology: you say absorbance, I say reflectance2013In: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 34, no Supplement 1, p. 9s-16sArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the relationships among different acoustic measurements of the mobility of the tympanic membrane, including impedance, admittance, reflectance, and absorbance, which the authors group under the rubric of immittance measures. Each of these quantities is defined and related to the others. The relationship is most easily grasped in terms of a straight rigid ear canal of uniform area terminated by a uniform middle ear immittance placed perpendicular to the long axis of the ear canal. Complications due to variations from this geometry are discussed. Different methods for measuring these quantities are described, and the assumptions inherent within each method are made explicit. The benefits of wideband measurements of these quantities are described, as are the benefits and limitations of different components of immittance and reflectance/absorbance. While power reflectance (the square of the magnitude of pressure reflectance) is relatively invariant along the length of the ear canal, it has the disadvantage that it ignores phase information that may be useful in assessing the presence of acoustic leaks in ear-canal measurements and identifying other potential error sources. A combination of reflectance and impedance magnitude and angle give a more complete description of the middle ear from measurements in the ear canal.

  • 74.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Mishra, Sachin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Working memory capacity and executive ability can compensate for lower cognitive spare capacity in older adults with hearing loss compared to young adults with normal hearing2013In: Again and speech communication 5th International and Interdisciplinary Research Conference  Indiana University, Bloomington  October 6-9, 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Age-related individual differences in working memory capacity and executive ability influence cognitive spare capacity2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linnaeus Centre HEAD.
    Seeing the talker’s face improves free recall of speech for young adults with normal hearing but not older adults with hearing loss2016In: Journal of Speech, Language and Hearing Research, ISSN 1092-4388, E-ISSN 1558-9102, Vol. 59, p. 590-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Seeing the talker's face improves speech understanding in noise, possibly releasing resources for cognitive processing. We investigated whether it improves free recall of spoken two-digit numbers.

    Method Twenty younger adults with normal hearing and 24 older adults with hearing loss listened to and subsequently recalled lists of 13 two-digit numbers, with alternating male and female talkers. Lists were presented in quiet as well as in stationary and speech-like noise at a signal-to-noise ratio giving approximately 90% intelligibility. Amplification compensated for loss of audibility.

    Results Seeing the talker's face improved free recall performance for the younger but not the older group. Poorer performance in background noise was contingent on individual differences in working memory capacity. The effect of seeing the talker's face did not differ in quiet and noise.

    Conclusions We have argued that the absence of an effect of seeing the talker's face for older adults with hearing loss may be due to modulation of audiovisual integration mechanisms caused by an interaction between task demands and participant characteristics. In particular, we suggest that executive task demands and interindividual executive skills may play a key role in determining the benefit of seeing the talker's face during a speech-based cognitive task

  • 77.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Ng, EH
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Cognitive spare capacity as a measure of listening effort2011In: Journal of Hearing Science, ISSN 2083-389X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. EA47-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a recent interest in listening effort as a factor to be taken into account in the audiological clinic. However, the term “listening effort” is poorly determined and needs to be defined before it can be used as a clinical or research tool. One way of understanding listening effort is in terms of the cognitive resources expended during listening. Cognitive capacity is finite and thus if cognitive capacity is used up during the act of listening to speech there will be fewer cognitive resources left to process the content of the message conveyed. We have introduced the term Cognitive Spare Capacity (CSC) to refer to residual cognitive capacity once successful listening has taken place. This extended abstract described the work we have carried out to date on measures of CSC for research and clinical use. In the course of this work we have developed tests to assess the role of memory load, executive function and audiovisual integration in CSC under challenging conditions. When these tests are fully developed, our aim is that they should allow objective individual assessment of listening effort in cognitive terms. Results to date indicate that under challenging conditions, CSC is an arena for executive processing of temporarily stored information; it is related to individual working memory capacity and can be enhanced by hearing aid signal processing.

  • 78.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cognitive spare capacity as a measure of listening effort2011In: Journal of Hearing Science, ISSN 2083-389X, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 47-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a recent interest in listening effort as a factor to be taken into account in the audiological clinic. However, the term “listening effort” is poorly determined and needs to be defined before it can be used as a clinical or research tool. One way of understanding listening effort is in terms of the cognitive resources expended during listening. Cognitive capacity is finite and thus if cognitive capacity is used up during the act of listening to speech there will be fewer cognitive resources left to process the content of the message conveyed. We have introduced the term Cognitive Spare Capacity (CSC) to refer to residual cognitive capacity once successful listening has taken place. This extended abstract described the work we have carried out to date on measures of CSC for research and clinical use. In the course of this work we have developed tests to assess the role of memory load, executive function and audiovisual integration in CSC under challenging conditions. When these tests are fully developed, our aim is that they should allow objective individual assessment of listening effort in cognitive terms. Results to date indicate that under challenging conditions, CSC is an arena for executive processing of temporarily stored information; it is related to individual working memory capacity and can be enhanced by hearing aid signal processing.

  • 79.
    Rudner, Mary
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ng, Hoi Ning, Elaine
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Mishra, Sushmit
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Understanding auditory effort by measuring cognitive spare capacity2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 80.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Tomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Speech understanding in noise: the role of working memory capacity2012In: 41st International Congress and Exposition on Noise Control Engineering 2012 (INTER-NOISE 2012) / [ed] Burroughs, C., Institute of Noise Control Engineering , 2012, Vol. 10, p. 508-516Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon AS, Denmark.
    Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lidestam, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands; Vrije University of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Träff, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Yumba, Wycliffe
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Classon, Elisabet
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Acute Internal Medicine and Geriatrics.
    Hällgren, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Signoret, Carine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Toronto, Canada; University of Health Network, Canada; Baycrest Hospital, Canada.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hearing impairment, cognition and speech understanding: exploratory factor analyses of a comprehensive test battery for a group of hearing aid users, the n200 study2016In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 55, no 11, p. 623-642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aims of the current n200 study were to assess the structural relations between three classes of test variables (i.e. HEARING, COGNITION and aided speech-in-noise OUTCOMES) and to describe the theoretical implications of these relations for the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model. Study sample: Participants were 200 hard-of-hearing hearing-aid users, with a mean age of 60.8 years. Forty-three percent were females and the mean hearing threshold in the better ear was 37.4dB HL. Design: LEVEL1 factor analyses extracted one factor per test and/or cognitive function based on a priori conceptualizations. The more abstract LEVEL 2 factor analyses were performed separately for the three classes of test variables. Results: The HEARING test variables resulted in two LEVEL 2 factors, which we labelled SENSITIVITY and TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE; the COGNITIVE variables in one COGNITION factor only, and OUTCOMES in two factors, NO CONTEXT and CONTEXT. COGNITION predicted the NO CONTEXT factor to a stronger extent than the CONTEXT outcome factor. TEMPORAL FINE STRUCTURE and SENSITIVITY were associated with COGNITION and all three contributed significantly and independently to especially the NO CONTEXT outcome scores (R-2 = 0.40). Conclusions: All LEVEL 2 factors are important theoretically as well as for clinical assessment.

  • 82.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre, Denmark.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Signoret, Carine
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. 4Department of Psychology, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    On the development of a working memory model for Ease-of Language Understanding (ELU)2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory is important for online language processing in a dialogue. We use it to store relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us keep track of a dialogue while taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease-of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008) in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in sound and speech processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on working memory, albeit in different ways. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined.

  • 83.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Zekveld, Adriana
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Signoret, Carine
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Pichora-Fuller, Kathleen
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. University of Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model: theoretical, empirical, and clinical advances2013In: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5137, E-ISSN 1662-5137, Vol. 7, no 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Working memory is important for online language processing during conversation. We use it to maintain relevant information, to inhibit or ignore irrelevant information, and to attend to conversation selectively. Working memory helps us to keep track of and actively participate in conversation, including taking turns and following the gist. This paper examines the Ease of Language Understanding model (i.e., the ELU model, Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008) in light of new behavioral and neural findings concerning the role of working memory capacity (WMC) in uni-modal and bimodal language processing. The new ELU model is a meaning prediction system that depends on phonological and semantic interactions in rapid implicit and slower explicit processing mechanisms that both depend on WMC albeit in different ways. It is based on findings that address the relationship between WMC and (a) early attention processes in listening to speech, (b) signal processing in hearing aids and its effects on short-term memory, (c) inhibition of speech maskers and its effect on episodic long-term memory, (d) the effects of hearing impairment on episodic and semantic long-term memory, and finally, (e) listening effort. New predictions and clinical implications are outlined. Comparisons with other WMC and speech perception models are made.

    Keywords: working memory capacity, speech in noise, attention, long-term memory, hearing loss, brain imaging analysis, oscillations, language understanding

  • 84.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Speech in noise and ease of language understanding: When and how working memory capacity plays a role2012In: Acoustics 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 85.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid S
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Speech in noise and ease of language understanding: When and how working memory capacity plays a role2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A working memory based model for Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) has been developed (Rönnberg, 2003; Rönnberg et al., 2008; Rönnberg et al., 2011). It predicts that speech understanding in adverse, mismatching noise conditions is dependent on explicit processing resources such as working memory capacity (WMC). This presentation will examine the details of this prediction by addressing some recent data on (1) how brainstem responses are modulated by working memory load and WMC, (2) how cortical correlates of speech understanding in noise are modulated by WMC, and (3) how WMC determines episodic long-term memory for spoken discourse masked by speech.

  • 86.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Sörqvist, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Johnsrude, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada .
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Speech in Noise and Ease of Language Understanding: When and how working memory capacity plays a role2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is about the role of working memory capacity in speech understanding under challenging listening conditions. The theoretical model that has driven most of the research reported in this paper is called the Ease-of-Language understanding model (Ronnberg, 2003; Ronnberg et al., 2008). The Ease-of-Language understanding model is part of a larger scientific endeavor called cognitive hearing science.

  • 87.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Adverse listening conditions affect short-term memory storage and processing of speech for older adults with hearing impairmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Previous work has shown an effect of noise type on memory for intelligible speech. The aim ofthis study was to investigate the effect of background noise on memory performance of intelligible speech for older adults with hearing impairment using the Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST).

    Method: Twenty participants with ages between 67 and 80 years with symmetrical hearing loss (29 to 47dB HL) performed the AIST, which requires processing of five-word sentences at three memoryload levels (MLLs) in three listening conditions: Quiet, steady-state noise (SSN), and backgroundvoices (ISTS). Individualized SNRs targeted 90% speech intelligibility. AIST performance reflects the amount of cognitive capacity occupied in listening, and consequently indicates the amount of listening effort. Working memory capacity (WMC) was assessed using the reading span test, and updating ability (UA) was assessed using the letter memory test.

    Results: AIST performance decreased in background noise and with increasing MLL. It was related to UA and age but not to WMC. Response times on questions designed to probe sentence recognition increased with the addition of background noise.

    Conclusions: The results demonstrate that the addition of background noise requires more cognitive resourcesto maintain speech recognition performance, leading to higher demands on the cognitive capacity,higher listening effort as measured by poorer memory performance, and longer AIST responsetimes. However, the type of background noise, SSN or ISTS, affected memory performance similarly.

  • 88.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Assessing listening effort by measuring short-term memory storage and processing of speech in noise2014In: Speech, Language and Hearing, ISSN 2050-5728, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 123-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA) on listening effort measured using a new test, the Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST), as an objective measure of listening effort.

    Design

    The AIST is based on Swedish five-word sentences and taps into three memory load levels (MLLs). It was administered in stationary speech-shaped noise at −2, −4, and −6 dB signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). WMC was assessed using the reading span test, and UA was assessed using the letter memory test. We also collected data on speech-in-noise performance and subjectively rated listening effort at the three SNRs.

    Study sample

    Thirty-nine participants with normal hearing thresholds (≤20 dB HL for 250 to 4000 Hz) took part in the study.

    Results

    AIST performance decreased with increasing MLL and was related to WMC and UA. Participants with high WMC performed better than those with low WMC at more favorable SNRs. Participants with high UA performed better than participants with low UA at the intermediate MLL, which made particular demands on the UA. Neither speech recognition scores nor subjectively rated listening effort was associated with AIST performance or either of the cognitive variables.

    Conclusion

    AIST taps into cognitive functions necessary for understanding speech in noise. However, in its current form AIST may be too cognitively taxing to successfully measure graded listening effort in participants with lower cognitive capacity.

  • 89.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Oticon Research Centre Eriksholm, Denmark.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Memory performance on the Auditory Inference Span Test is independent of background noise type for young adults with normal hearing at high speech intelligibility2014In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 5, no 1490Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Listening in noise is often perceived to be effortful. This is partly because cognitive resources are engaged in separating the target signal from background noise, leaving fewer resources for storage and processing of the content of the message in working memory. The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is designed to assess listening effort by measuring the ability to maintain and process heard information. The aim of this study was to use AIST to investigate the effect of background noise types and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on listening effort, as a function of working memory capacity (WMC) and updating ability (UA). The AIST was administered in three types of background noise: steady-state speech-shaped noise, amplitude modulated speech-shaped noise, and unintelligible speech. Three SNRs targeting 90% speech intelligibility or better were used in each of the three noise types, giving nine different conditions. The reading span test assessed VVMC, while UA was assessed with the letter memory test. Twenty young adults with normal hearing participated in the study. Results showed that AIST performance was not influenced by noise type at the same intelligibility level, but became worse with worse SNR when background noise was speech-like. Performance on AIST also decreased with increasing memory load level. Correlations between AIST performance and the cognitive measurements suggested that WMC is of more importance for listening when SNRs are worse, while UA is of more importance for listening in easier SNRs. The results indicated that in young adults with normal hearing, the effort involved in listening in noise at high intelligibility levels is independent of the noise type. However, when noise is speech-like and intelligibility decreases, listening effort increases, probably due to extra demands on cognitive resources added by the informational masking created by the speech fragments and vocal sounds in the background noise.

  • 90.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    AIST - Ett test av lyssningsansträngning2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hörapparatsanpassning kan ses som en process för att minska en persons lyssningsansträngning, men det är oklart hur man bäst mäter lyssningsansträngning på ett objektivt sätt. Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) syftar därför till att utvecklas till ett kliniskt instrument att använda vid hörapparatsanpassning för att mäta en patients ansträngning att uppfatta tal.

    AIST är ett kombinerat hörsel-, minnes- och bearbetningstest. Testet bygger på idén att ju mer kognitiva resurser som går åt för att bearbeta och förstå tal, desto mindre kognitiva resurser finns kvar för att minnas och lagra talinformation. Testet använder Hagermans meningar i brus, och försökspersonen behöver minnas och bearbeta informationen i talmaterialet för att kunna besvara frågor om innehållet. Poäng på frågorna samt reaktionstid mäts som mått på lyssningsansträngning. Data från pilottester visar på att AIST kan bli ett väl anpassat test för kliniskt bruk för att mäta lyssningsansträngning.

     

  • 91.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Testing effort for speech comprehension using the individuals’ cognitive spare capacity - the Auditory Inference Span test2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern hearing aids use a multitude of parameters to give the user an optimal speech signal. Fitting of the hearing aid becomes a handiwork due to the limited data of the patients hearing status (primarily an audiogram). A hearing in noise test (SNR threshold) is often used to evaluate the fitting. However, testing the SNR threshold as done in clinical use today is not ecological valid. Another way to think about hearing aid fitting is to ease the listening effort.

    Therefore, we propose the Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) as a clinical tool during hearing aid fitting to assess the patient’s effort to understand speech. AIST is a combined auditory, memory, and processing test. It relies on the idea that the more cognitive resources that are required to process and understand speech, less cognitive resources are available for storage of the speech information. In AIST, sentences are presented in noise and afterwards the patient is required to recall and process the information from the sentences. Correctness and answering speed is measured and scores correlate to the effort required to understand the speech.

    Data from piloting tests indicate that the AIST is well suited as a clinical test for listening effort.

  • 92.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Testing listening effort for speech comprehension using the individuals’ cognitive spare capacity2011In: Audiology Research, ISSN 2039-4330, E-ISSN 2039-4349, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 82-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most hearing aid fittings today are almost solely based on the patient’s audiogram. Although the loss of gain in the cochlea is important, for a more optimal fitting, more individual parameters of the patient’s cochlear loss together with the patient's cognitive abilities to process the auditory signal are required (Stenfelt & Rönnberg, 2009; Edwards, 2007). Moreover, the evaluation of the fitting is often based on a speech in noise task and the aim is to improve the individual patient’s signal to noise ratio (SNR) thresholds. As a consequence, hearing aid fitting may be seen as a process aimed to improve the patient’s SNR threshold rather than to improve communication ability. However, subsequent to a hearing aid fitting, there can be great differences in SNR improvement between patients that have identical hearing impairment in terms of threshold data (the audiogram). The reasons are certainly complex but one contributing factor may be the individual differences in cognitive capacity and associated listening effort. Another way to think about amplified hearing is to ease a subject’s listening effort (Sarampalis, et al., 2009). When the speech signal is degraded by noise or by a hearing impairment, more high-order cognitive or top-down processes are required to perceive and understand the signal, and listening is therefore more effortful. It is assumed that a hearing aid would ease the listening effort for a hearing impaired person. However, it is not clear how to measure the listening effort. We here present a test that will tap into the different cognitive aspects of listening effort, the Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST). The AIST is a dual task hearing in noise test, that combines auditory and memory processing and is well suited as a clinical test for listening effort.

  • 93.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    The Auditory Inference Span Test – Developing a test for cognitive aspects of listening effort for speech comprehension2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most hearing aid fittings today are almost solely based on the patient’s audiogram. However, more individual parameters of the patient’s hearing thresholds together with the patient’s cognitive abilities to process the auditory signal are required. Hearing aid fitting may be seen as a process aimed to improve the patient’s hearing thresholds rather than to improve communication ability. Another way to think about hearing aid fitting is to ease the patient’s listening effort. However, it is not clear how to measure the listening effort.

    Therefore, we propose the Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) as a clinical tool during hearing aid fitting to assess the patient’s effort to understand speech. AIST is a combined auditory, memory, and processing test. It relies on the idea that the more cognitive resources that are required to process and understand speech, less cognitive resources are available for storage of the speech information. In AIST, sentences are presented in noise and afterwards the patient is required to recall and process the information from the sentences. Correctness and reaction time is recorded as measurements of perceived listening effort.

    Data from piloting tests indicate that the AIST is well suited as a clinical test for listening effort. In a future study to verify that the AIST is sensitive to cognitive capacity, the test will be evaluated with measurements of the subject's cognitive capacity as well as the subject's hearing thresholds. For a clinical test the requirement is that it is fast and easily facilitated. The AIST takes no more than fifteen minutes to complete, and the aim is to further shorten the time and adapt the test for clinical use. This ensures the AIST to be a useable instrument for testing listening effort using the individuals' cognitive spare capacity.

     

  • 94.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    An objective measure of listening effort: The Auditory Inference Span Test2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One aim of hearing aid fitting is to ease the patient’s effort in understanding speech, i.e. the listening effort needed to perceive speech in different sound environments. To obtain a good hearing aid fitting, knowledge about the patient’s auditory as well as cognitive abilities seems to be important. However, listening effort is usually not included as a fitting criterion, partly as it is not clear how to measure listening effort objectively.

    The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is a dual-task hearing-in-noise test, that combines auditory and memory processing. The basis for the test is that when more cognitive resources are required for understanding speech, less cognitive resources are available for storage and processing of the speech information. In AIST, Hagerman sentences are presented in noise and the subject is required to recall and process the sentence information. Recall ability is tested with different cognitive loads. Button-press responses are recorded and used as an estimate of listening effort. In a pilot study, listeners showed decreasing accuracy with increasing cognitive load and longer reaction time at maximum cognitive load, suggesting that the test may be suited as a clinical test for listening effort.

    In an ongoing study, the AIST is being evaluated in relation to other auditory and cognitive measures: baseline audiometry (audiogram) and speech in noise test (Hagerman sentences) as well as text based dual processing and storage test (reading span) and updating (letter memory test), as well as subjective rating of listening effort. Data from this study will be presented.

  • 95.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research.
    Att mäta lyssningsansträngning2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 96.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Frequency discrimination and human communication2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The voice is the most common means of communication and tends to change, sliding up and down the pitch scale when forming phonemes and words, as different emotions and thoughts are expressed. Therefore the ability to discriminate frequencies is of importance for speech intelligibility in a communication situation. Furthermore, this ability is also of importance in speech recognition in noise, by separating the target and noise by spectral and temporal differences of the sources. The choice of rehabilitation is crucial for the frequency discrimination ability. Cochlear implants, for example, lack the ability to pass the temporal fine structure of acoustic waves to the auditory nerve, which in turn lead to reduced precision of phase locking, inferior frequency discrimination ability, and a relatively poor ability to understand speech when background sounds are present.The aim of the study is to investigate how frequency discrimination and temporal resolution abilities interact with performance in speech recognition in noise using a psychoacoustic, speech, and cognitive test battery. These tests will give insight to interactions between performance and hearing status, type of rehabilitation(hearing aid, cochlear implant, and electro-acoustic stimulation), cognitive capacity, and language ability. It is hypothesized that normal hearing participants have a better frequency discrimination ability than hearing impaired participants and by that, better understanding of speech. It is also hypothesized that type of rehabilitation effects performance on frequency discrimination, and that this performance correlates with speech recognition in noise. Finally, it is hypothesized that cognitive capacity and language ability can, to some extent, compensate for loss of frequency resolution in the peripheral auditory system. Preliminary results from the study will be presented and discussed.

  • 97.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Cognition, Development and Disability. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Testing listening effort for speech comprehension2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One aim of hearing aid fitting is to reduce the effort of understanding speech, especially in noisy environments. For a good hearing aid fitting, knowledge about the patient’s auditory abilities is necessary, but knowledge about cognitive abilities may also be important.

     

    The Auditory Inference Span Test (AIST) is a dual-task hearing-in-noise test, that combines auditory and memory processing. In AIST, Hagerman sentences are presented in steady state speech-shaped noise at -2dB, -4dB or -6dB SNR and the subject is required to recall and process the information from the sentences by giving button-press responses to multiple-choice questions thereby assessing what the subject could infer from what was heard.

     

    AIST will be administered to 40 normal hearing subjects (29 to date) and performance related to speech reception threshold, working memory capacity and updating ability, as well as subjective rating of listening effort. Preliminary results show a greater SNR-related improvement in AIST scores at low SNRs than can be explained by improved audibility alone, consistent with release of memory resources due to reduced listening effort. There is also a trend towards a positive relationship between AIST scores and individual working memory capacity and updating ability.

  • 98.
    Rönnberg, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rudner, Mary
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Testing listening effort for speech comprehension2012In: Speech Perception and Auditory Disorders, Danavox Jubilee Foundation , 2012, p. 73-80Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99.
    Röösli, Christof
    et al.
    University of Zurich.
    Sim, Jae-Hoon
    University of Zurich.
    Gehrig, R
    University of Zurich.
    Fausch, BC
    University of Zurich.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Huber, Alexander
    University of Zurich.
    Correlation between intracranial pressure and skull vibration in bone conduction of cadaveric human whole heads2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 100.
    Saremi, Amin G
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A physiological Signal Transmission Model to be used for Specific Diagnosis of Cochlear Impairments2011In: WHAT FIRE IS IN MINE EARS: PROGRESS IN AUDITORY BIOMECHANICS: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH INTERNATIONAL MECHANICS OF HEARING WORKSHOP / [ed] Shera, CA; Olson, ES, American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2011, Vol. 1403, p. 369-373Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many of the sophisticated characteristics of human auditory system are attributed to cochlea. Also, most of patients with a hearing loss suffer from impairments that originate from cochlea (sensorineural). Despite this, today's clinical diagnostic methods do not probe the specific origins of such cochlear lesions. The aim of this research is to introduce a physiological signal transmission model to be clinically used as a tool for diagnosis of cochlear losses. This model enables simulation of different bio‐mechano‐electrical processes which occur in the auditory organ of Corti inside the cochlea. What makes this model different from many available computational models is its loyalty to physiology since the ultimate goal is to model each single physiological phenomenon. This includes passive BM vibration, outer hair cells' performances such as nonlinear mechanoelectrical transduction (MET), active amplifications by somatic motor, as well as vibration to neural conversion at the inner hair cells.

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