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  • 51.
    Muthumanickam, Prithiviraj
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology.
    Vitoria, Aida
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Meyer, Lothar
    LFV.
    Boonsong, Supathida
    LFV.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Analysis of Long Duration Eye-Tracking Experiments in a Remote Tower Environment2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye-Tracking experiments have proven to be of great assistance in understanding human computer interaction across many fields. Most eye-tracking experiments are non-intrusive and so do not affect the behaviour of the subject. Such experiments usually last for just a few minutes and so the spatio- temporal data generated by the eye-tracker is quite easy to analyze using simple visualization techniques such as heat maps and animation. Eye tracking experiments in air traffic control, or maritime or driving simulators can, however, last for several hours and the analysis of such long duration data becomes much more complex. We have developed an analysis pipeline, where we identify visual spatial areas of attention over a user interface using clustering and hierarchical cluster merging techniques. We have tested this technique on eye tracking datasets generated by air traffic controllers working with Swedish air navigation services, where each eye tracking experiment lasted for ∼90 minutes. We found that our method is interactive and effective in identification of interesting patterns of visual attention that would have been very difficult to locate using manual analysis.

  • 52.
    Muthumanickam, Prithiviraj
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vitoria, Aida
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Identification of Temporally Varying Areas of Interest in Long-Duration Eye-Tracking Data Sets2018In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye-tracking has become an invaluable tool for the analysis of working practices in many technological fields of activity. Typically studies focus on short tasks and use static expected areas of interest (AoI) in the display to explore subjects’ behaviour, making the analyst’s task quite straightforward. In long-duration studies, where the observations may last several hours over a complete work session, the AoIs may change over time in response to altering workload, emergencies or other variables making the analysis more difficult. This work puts forward a novel method to automatically identify spatial AoIs changing over time through a combination of clustering and cluster merging in the temporal domain. A visual analysis system based on the proposed methods is also presented. Finally, we illustrate our approach within the domain of air traffic control, a complex task sensitive to prevailing conditions over long durations, though it is applicable to other domains such as monitoring of complex systems. 

  • 53.
    Olofsson, Ida
    et al.
    ReachIn Technologies, Sweden.
    Lundin, Karljohan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kjäll, Per
    Elekta AB, Sweden.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A haptic interface for dose planning in stereo-tactic radio-surgery2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 54.
    Peterson, Stephen D.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Axholt, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellis, Stephen R.
    Human Systems Integration Division, NASA Ames Research Center, USA.
    Detection Thresholds for Label Motion in Visually Cluttered Displays2010In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference (VR), 2010, Piscataway, NJ, USA: IEEE , 2010, p. 203-206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While label placement algorithms are generally successful in managing visual clutter by preventing label overlap, they can also cause significant label movement in dynamic displays. This study investigates motion detection thresholds for various types of label movement in realistic and complex virtual environments, which can be helpful for designing less salient and disturbing algorithms. Our results show that label movement in stereoscopic depth is shown to be less noticeable than similar lateral monoscopic movement, inherent to 2D label placement algorithms. Furthermore, label movement can be introduced more readily into the visual periphery (over 15° eccentricity) because of reduced sensitivity in this region. Moreover, under the realistic viewing conditions that we used, motion of isolated labels is more easily detected than that of overlapping labels. This perhaps counterintuitive finding may be explained by visual masking due to the visual clutter arising from the label overlap. The quantitative description of the findings presented in this paper should be useful not only for label placement applications, but also for any cluttered AR or VR application in which designers wish to control the users’ visual attention, either making text labels more or less noticeable as needed.

  • 55.
    Peterson, Stephen D.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Axholt, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellis, Stephen R.
    NASA, Ames Research Center, USA.
    Evaluation of Alternative Label Placement Techniques in Dynamic Virtual Environments2009In: International Symposium on Smart Graphics, Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer , 2009, p. 43-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an experiment comparing label placement techniques in a dynamic virtual environment rendered on a stereoscopic display. The labeled objects are in motion, and thus labels need to continuously maintain separation for legibility. The results from our user study show that traditional label placement algorithms, which always strive for full label separation in the 2D view plane, produce motion that disturbs the user in a visual search task. Alternative algorithms maintaining separation in only one spatial dimension are rated less disturbing, even though several modifications are made to traditional algorithms for reducing the amount and salience of label motion. Maintaining depth separation of labels through stereoscopic disparity adjustments is judged theleast disturbing, while such separation yields similar user performance to traditional algorithms. These results are important in the design offuture 3D user interfaces, where disturbing or distracting motion due to object labeling should be avoided.

  • 56.
    Peterson, Stephen D.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Axholt, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellis, Stephen R.
    NASA Ames Research Center, USA.
    Visual Clutter Management in Augmented Reality: Effects of Three Label Separation Methods on Spatial Judgments2009In: IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces (3DUI), Lafayette (LA), USA: IEEE , 2009, p. 111-118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports an experiment comparing three label separation methods for reducing visual clutter in Augmented Reality (AR) displays. We contrasted two common methods of avoiding visual overlap by moving labels in the 2D view plane with a third that distributes overlapping labels in stereoscopic depth. The experiment measured user identification performance during spatial judgment tasks in static scenes. The threemethods were compared with a control condition in which no label separation method was employed. The results showed significant performance improvements, generally 15-30%, for all three methods over the control; however, these methods were statistically indistinguishable from each other. In-depth analysis showed significant performance degradation when the 2D view plane methods produced potentially confusing spatial correlations between labels and the markers they designate. Stereoscopically separated labels were subjectively judged harder to read than view-plane separated labels. Since measured performance was affected both by label legibility and spatial correlation of labels and their designated objects, it is likely that the improved spatial correlation of stereoscopically separated labels and their designated objects has compensated for poorer stereoscopic text legibility. Future testing with dynamic scenes is expected to more clearly distinguish the three label separation techniques.

  • 57.
    Tavanti, Monica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Looking for the 3D Picture: The Spatio-temporal Realm of Student Controllers2009In: Human Centered Design: First International Conference, HCD 2009, Held as Part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009 Proceedings (Book part VII) / [ed] Masaaki Kurosu, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2009, Vol. 5619, p. 1070-1079Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Employing three-dimensional displays in Air Traffic Control (ATC) has been the object of study and debates for numerous years. Although empirical studies have often led to mixed results, some preliminary evidence suggests that training could be a suitable domain of application for 3D interfaces. Little evidence, however, is available to fully support this claim. We attempted to fill this gap with a project that aims at studying and evaluating 3D displays for ATC training purposes. This paper describes the first steps of this project, by reporting and discussing the results of a study aiming at understanding whether ATC trainees form a three-dimensional image of air traffic and at comprehending what the nature of this 3D picture is.

  • 58.
    Thong Dang, Nguyen
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tavanti, Monica
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rankin, Ivan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A comparison of different input devices for a 3D environment2009In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ERGONOMICS, ISSN 0169-8141, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 554-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a usability study comparing wand, voice, and two tablet-PC based interfaces across a task requiring three-dimensional surface exploration, information gathering and recall of information. The aim of this study was to identify a suitable interaction interface, among the ones implemented in a three-dimensional environment for Air Traffic Control, for interactive exploration of and gathering information about three-dimensional weather structures. Data concerning time, error rate, number of control actions as well as participants feedback on ease of learning, ease of use, frustration and perceived difficulty of the performed task were collected. The results indicate that the wand interface supported better performance when compared with the other interaction interfaces. Among the four interaction interfaces, the voice interface seems to present several limitations, mostly related to time lag in the voice recognition, which was judged by the subjects as a source of frustration.

  • 59.
    Tibell, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Bivall Persson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Bengt-Harald
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Biotechnology .
    Experience the Aperceptual through Virtual Reality! Tactile and Visual VR Representations as Cognitive Tools in Molecular Life Science2007In: ESERA 2007, 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bergqvist, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    PODD: A Portable Diary Data Collection System2014In: AVI '14 Proceedings of the 2014 International Working Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces, New York: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 381-382Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity diaries are a powerful data source for studying the time use of individuals and for creating awareness of individuals' daily activity patterns. The presented project is concerned with the development of an easily accessible method for collecting and analyzing diary data which will be applicable across a wide range of industrial, governmental, social science and medical domains. The PODD (POrtable Diary Data collection) is composed of a smartphone application for data registration, a web interface for user registration and an administration system for configuring the application according to the focus of the data collection.

  • 61.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Interactive Visual Exploration of Time-Use Data2006In: 10th IEEE International Conference on Information Visualisation, Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society , 2006, p. 93-94Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Everyday Life Discoveries: Mining and Visualizing Activity Patterns in Social Science Diary Data2007In: IEEE International Conference on Information Visualisation,2007: ISSN 1550-6037 / [ed] Ebad Banissi, Remo Aslak Burkhard, Georges Grinstein, Urska Cvek, Marjan Trutschl, Liz Stuart, Theodor G Wyeld, Gennady Andrienko, Jason Dykes, Mikael Jern, Dennis Groth and Anna Ursyn, Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE , 2007, p. 130-138Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to identify and examine patterns of activities is a key tool for social and behavioural science. In the past this has been done by statistical or purely visual methods but automated sequential pattern analysis through sophisticated data mining and visualization tools for pattern location and evaluation can open up new possibilities for interactive exploration of the data. This paper describes the addition of a sequential pattern identification method to the visual activity-analysis tool, VISUAL-TimePAcTS, and its effectiveness in the process of pattern analysis in social science diary data. The results have shown that the method correctly identifies patterns and conveys them effectively to the social scientist in a manner that allows them quick and easy understanding of the significance of the patterns.

  • 63.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring time diaries using semi-automated activity pattern extraction2009In: electronic International Journal of Time Use Research (eIJTUR), Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying patterns of activities in time diaries in order to understand the variety of daily life in terms of combinationsof activities performed by individuals in different groups is of interest in time use research. So far, activitypatterns have mostly been identified by visually inspecting representations of activity data or by using sequencecomparison methods, such as sequence alignment, in order to cluster similar data and then extract representativepatterns from these clusters. Both these methods are sensitive to data size, pure visual methods becometoo cluttered and sequence comparison methods become too time consuming. Furthermore, the patterns identifiedby both methods represent mostly general trends of activity in a population, while detail and unexpectedfeatures hidden in the data are often never revealed. We have implemented an algorithm that searches the timediaries and automatically extracts all activity patterns meeting user-defined criteria of what constitutes a validpattern of interest for the user’s research question. Amongst the many criteria which can be applied are a timewindow containing the pattern, minimum and maximum occurrences of the pattern, and number of people thatperform it. The extracted activity patterns can then be interactively filtered, visualized and analyzed to revealinteresting insights. Exploration of the results of each pattern search may result in new hypotheses which can besubsequently explored by altering the search criteria. To demonstrate the value of the presented approach weconsider and discuss sequential activity patterns at a population level, from a single day perspective.

  • 64.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ellegård, Kajsa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change.
    Cooper, Matthew D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Exploring Time Diaries Using Semi-Automated Activity Pattern Extraction2007In: IATUR - XXIX Annual Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 65.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    2D and 3D Representations for Feature Recognition in Time Geographical Diary Data2010In: Information Visualization, ISSN 1473-8716, E-ISSN 1473-8724, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 263-276Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time geographical representations are becoming a common approach to analysing spatio-temporal data. Such representations appear intuitive in the process of identifying patterns and features as paths of populations form tracks through the 3D space, which can be seen converging and diverging over time. In this article, we compare 2D and 3D representations within a time geographical visual analysis tool for activity diary data. We identify a representative task and evaluate task performance between the two representations. The results show that the 3D representation has benefits over the 2D representation for feature identification but also indicate that these benefits can be lost if the 3D representation is not carefully constructed to help the user to see them.

  • 66.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ActiviTree: Interactive Visual Exploration of Sequences in Event-Based Data Using Graph Similarity2009In: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, ISSN 1077-2626, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 945-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of significant sequences in large and complex event-based temporal data is a challenging problem with applications in many areas of todays information intensive society. Pure visual representations can be used for the analysis, but are constrained to small data sets. Algorithmic search mechanisms used for larger data sets become expensive as the data size increases and typically focus on frequency of occurrence to reduce the computational complexity, often overlooking important infrequent sequences and outliers. In this paper we introduce an interactive visual data mining approach based on an adaptation of techniques developed for web searching, combined with an intuitive visual interface, to facilitate user-centred exploration of the data and identification of sequences significant to that user. The search algorithm used in the exploration executes in negligible time, even for large data, and so no pre-processing of the selected data is required, making this a completely interactive experience for the user. Our particular application area is social science diary data but the technique is applicable across many other disciplines.

  • 67.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Are we what we do? Exploring group behaviour through user-defined event-sequence similarity2014In: Information Visualization, ISSN 1473-8716, E-ISSN 1473-8724, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 232-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of human activity in space and time is an inherent part of human geography. In order to perform such studies, data on the time use of individuals, in terms of sequence and timing of performed activities, are collected and analysed. A common assumption when analysing individuals’ time use is that groups that exhibit similar background and demographic characteristics also display similarities in how they use their time to structure their daily lives. In this article, we set out to investigate the correctness of such assumptions. We propose a visual analytics process based on sequence similarity measures tailored to event-based data such as performed activity sequences. The process allows an analyst to retrieve similarly behaving records according to user-selected similarity preferences and interactively explore aspects of this similarity in a multiple linked-view environment.

  • 68.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Behaviour-driven clustering based on event-sequence similarity metrics2010Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When analysing event data two key objectives are to first identify interesting subsequences in the data records and then to retrieve groups of records that exhibit similar behaviour. This is especially true when the focus of the exploration is the human, for example when using activity diaries to reveal sub-populations with similar behaviour, medical records to identify groups with similar medical conditions, or web sessions to find groups with similar web-surfing habits. In this paper we propose a visual exploration approach, based on sequence similarity metrics and clustering techniques, that will allow an analyst to interactively explore the distribution of sequences along event data records as well as group the results according to user-selected similarity preferences. We have identified a set of similarity metrics that are specific to event-sequences which we use as input into a clustering algorithm. The user can choose which metrics to use and assign weighting factors to them, which results in groupings that exhibit similar behaviour according to their definition of similarity and interestingness. The resulting clusters can be interactively explored in a multiple linked-view environment showing the clusters, the cluster quality, the similarity metrics and meta (background) information describing the clustered individuals in order to make comparisons within and between groups. Using such an interactive approach that considers user preferences and takes advantage of background knowledge gives a basis for enhanced analytical reasoning by providing a more complete understanding of the retrieved groupings and can lead to a more thorough analysis and accurate assessments.

  • 69.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cooper, Matthew D.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Visual Information Technology and Applications (VITA). Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Seeing Beyond Statistics: Visual Exploration of Productivity on a Construction Site2008In: Vis 2008, Visualisation: Visualisation in Built and Rural Enviroments, Los Alamitos, CA, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2008, p. 37-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work on the construction site is known to be inefficient due to workers spending much time waiting for materials, transporting materials and from frequent interruptions of tasks. Studies on the construction site typically use statistical measures to analyse the sampled data about work and such measures, while very useful, can overlook important features of the data. In this paper we apply a previously developed approach, derived from Time Geographical methods, to visually represent the sampled construction productivity data and show that this method may enable the analyst to better understand the distribution of activities, and how they are interrelated and dependent upon each other. 

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