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  • 51.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden .
    What is invariant and what is optional in the realization of a FOCUSED word?: A cross-dialectal study of Swedish sentences with moving focus1996In: Proceedings ICSLP 96: Fourth International Conference on Spoken Language Processing / [ed] H. Timothy Bunnell and William Idsardi, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 1996, p. 97-100Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    State-of-the-art speech recognition systems handle continuous speech and are speaker-independent. However, the linguistic information conveyed in the intonational contour is neglected. To be able to fully recognize speech, this information must be interpreted. To this end, explicit knowledge of dialectal and individual variation is required. Some acoustic correlates of wh-focus in three Swedish dialects are described. Variation within and between dialects is accounted for, as well as individual differences and optional phenomena.

  • 52.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Xenophone2019In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Human Communication Sciences and Disorders / [ed] Jack S. Damico & Martin J. Ball, Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications, 2019, p. 2127-2129Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    International Computer Science Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Bates, Rebecca
    Computer & Information Sciences, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN, USA.
    Kuyper, Chad
    Computer & Information Sciences, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN, USA.
    Willingham, Elizabeth
    Computer & Information Sciences, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN, USA.
    Shriberg, Elizabeth
    International Computer Science Institute, University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    The Annotation and Analysis of Importance in Meetings2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meetings typically contain important regions that are likely to be the focus of summarization and recall requests. We present a new approach for labeling speech corpora with categories of importance at the level of utterance groups; these labels may help to identify focus regions for browsing, summarization, or question-answering. We ask whether importance can be consistently labeled by humans with the idea that these regionsmight be used to improve speech understanding and automatic summarization of speechand text. We present information about related annotation schemes for high-level speech labeling, including the relationship between this labeling scheme and pre-existing labels at the levels of utterances and groups of utterances. We provide a summary of the annotation system and labeling procedure, as well as preliminary inter-annotator reliability statistics on the ICSI Meeting Recorder Corpus.

  • 54.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Fransson, Peter
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Neural correlates of the processing of unfilled and filled pauses2015In: The 7th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (DiSS 2015), Edinburgh, Scotland (2015) / [ed] Robin Lickley, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spontaneously produced Unfilled Pauses (UPs) andFilled Pauses (FPs) were played to subjects in an fMRI experiment. While both stimuli resulted in increased activity in the Primary Auditory Cortex, FPs, unlike UPs, also elicited modulation in the Supplementary Motor Area, Brodmann Area 6. This observation provides neurocognitive confirmation of the oft-reported difference between FPs and other kinds of speech disfluency and also could provide a partial explanation for the previously reported beneficial effect of FPs on reaction times in speech perception. The results are discussed in the light of the suggested role of FPs as floor-holding devices in human polylogs.

  • 55.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / Osher Center for Integrative Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Supplementary Motor Area Activation in Disfluency Perception: An fMRI Study of Listener Neural Responses to Spontaneously Produced Unfilled and Filled Pauses2016In: Interspeech 2016 8-12 Sep 2016, San Francisco / [ed] Nelson Morgan, ISCA-INT SPEECH COMMUNICATION ASSOC , 2016, p. 1378-1381Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spontaneously produced Unfilled Pauses (UPs) and Filled Pauses (FPs) were played to subjects in an fMRI experiment. For both stimuli increased activity was observed in the Primary Auditory Cortex (PAC). However, FPs, but not UPs, elicited modulation in the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA), Brodmann Area 6. Our results provide neurocognitive confirmation of the alleged difference between FPs and other kinds of speech disfluency and could also provide a partial explanation for the previously reported beneficial effect of FPs on reaction times in speech perception. Our results also have potential implications for two of the suggested functions of FPs: the “floor-holding” and the “help-me-out” hypotheses.

  • 56.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Voice Provider Sweden.
    Kognition och kommunikationsteknologi: en introduktion2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap / [ed] Jens Allwood & Mikael Jensen, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 563-571Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitionsvetenskap är den första boken på svenska som beskriver kärnan i kognitionsvetenskap - att förstå hur människor tänker. Den spänner därmed över ett brett tvärvetenskapligt fält som inrymmer filosofi, lingvistik, psykologi, antropologi, datavetenskap och neuro­vetenskap. Författarna beskriver hur ämnet har vuxit fram och hur man kan studera kognition utifrån filosofiska, psykologiska och neurovetenskapliga aspekter. Även språkvetenskapliga och sociala aspekter på tänkande presenteras. Författarna tar dessutom upp relationen mellan mänskligt tänkande och djurs tänkande, samt utvecklingen av kognition från barndom till vuxen ålder. Avslutningsvis berörs flera aspekter av tänkande i förhållande till teknologi, både som stöd för tänkande och som simulering av tänkande.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter som läser introduktionskurs eller grundkurs i kognitionsvetenskap, men är även lämplig för beteendevetenskapliga eller språkinriktade utbildningar. Den kan även vara av intresse för alla som vill förstå mer om mänskligt tänkande

  • 57.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kaja, Jaan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Neumeyer, Leonardo
    Palo Alto, CA, USA.
    Weng, Fuliang
    Intel China Research Center.
    Digalakis, Vassilis
    Department of Electronic and Computer engineering of the Technical University of Crete.
    Porting a Recognizer to a New Language2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, Dave Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 265-273Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 58.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Kåselöv, Helen
    Stockholm University.
    Några observationer rörande akustiskt korrelat till restriktiv bisats1992Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is a well-known fact that intonation proper can change the meaning of a phrase. In this paper we have examined whether syntax on a more general level is signalled or marked intonationally, or, to be more specific, whether restrictive sub-ordinate clauses are somehow marked by the F0-contour. Two groups of phrases were created, one group containing pure statement phrases, and the other containing phrases with embedded sub-ordinate clauses. The phrases of the two groups had the same metrical structure, and as far as was possible similar segmental structure. Each phrase was given four different stresses: stress on the final word, stress on the penultimate word, stress on the first word and "neutral" stress. Each phrase was also given two different initial and final words, one being an accent 1 (acute) word, the other being an accent 2 (grave) word. Each phrase (32 in all) was recorded and analysed with two subjects - one male and one female, both with Stockholm accents. F0-contours were compared to plottings of points of maxima and minima in the three words alternatively given focus, and compared to earlier models of intonation. It was found that almost no distinguishable differences were made between the statement phrases and the phrases containing embedded subordinate clauses in the experiment. The male subject exhibited a slight tendency towards continuation tone in the phrases containing subordinate clauses, but it can be questioned whether this difference is of a perceptable degree. All post-focal maxima/minina were entirely suppressed, and the post-focal F0-contour fell asymptotically relative to the base-line. In summary, nothing palpable was found indicating that syntactic structure is signalled by F0-contour, for whose realization the metrical structure apparently is the major factor.

  • 59.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    fovox AB, Text-to-Speech Division, Stockholm.
    Lindberg, Janne
    fovox AB, Text-to-Speech Division, Stockholm.
    An Algorithm for End-of-Sentence Detection in Text1993Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Automatisk detektering av meningsslut i text är ett desideratum inom ett flertal lingvistiska tillämpningar. Dels kan det sägas vara en förutsättning for automatisk parsning av text, dels är det behjälpligt inom text-till-tal-tillämpningar. Även om text är en mycket "hanterligare" källa än en talström när det gäller att hitta satsgränser är uppgiften långt ifrån problemfri. Även om interpunktion visserligen utgör ett reglerat system är bruket av interpunktionstecken inte helt konsistent eftersom samma tecken kan användas på flera olika sätt avhängigt kontexten.

    I denna uppsats presenteras an algoritm för automatisk detektering av meningsslut i text. Dessutom beskrivs en av Liberman & Church (1989) tidigare anvisad metod som legat till grund för den alternativa metod som vi presenterar i denna uppsats. En jämförelse mellan metoderna tillhandahålls.

  • 60.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Telia Research AB, farsta, Sweden.
    Lindstrom, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xenophones: An investigation of phone set expansion in Swedish and implications for speech recognition and speech synthesis2001In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 35, no 1-2, p. 81-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, both automatic speech recognition (ASR) and text-to-speech (TTS) conversion systems have attained quality levels that allow inclusion in everyday applications. One remaining problem to be solved in both these types of applications is that alleged phone inventories of specific languages are commonly expanded with phones from other languages, a problem that becomes more acute in an increasingly internationalized world where multilingual automatic speech-based services are a desideratum. This paper investigates the nature of phone set expansion in Swedish. The status of these phones is discussed, and since such added phones do not have a phonemic (or allophonic) function, the term 'xenophones' is suggested. The analysis is based on a production study involving 491 subjects, and the observed xenophonic expansion is described in terms of three categories along the "awareness" and the "fidelity" dimensions. The results show that very few subjects resort to full rephonematization and that xenophonic expansion is the rule, although there is an uneven distribution depending on particular phones, spanning from phones produced by most subjects, to phones produced by almost no subjects. Of the possible explanatory factors analyzed - regional background, gender, age and educational level - the latter is by far the most important. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 61.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Lindström, Anders
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    How To Handle “Foreign” Sounds in Swedish Text-to-Speech Conversion: Approaching the ‘Xenophone’ Problem1998In: 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 30th November - 4th December, 1998 Sydney, Australia ICSLP'98 Proceedings / [ed] Robert H. Mannell and Jordi Robert-Ribes, 1998, Vol. 7, p. 2831-2834, article id 514Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the problem of handling “foreign” speech sounds in Swedish speech technology systems, in particular speech synthesis. A production study is made, where it is shown that Swedish speakers add foreign speech sounds, here termed ‘xenophones’, to their phone repertoire when reading Swedish sentences with embedded English names and words. As a result of the observations, the phone set of a Swedish concatenative synthesizer is extended, and it is shown (by example) that this produces more natural-sounding synthetic speech.

  • 62.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, Sweden.
    Lindström, Anders
    Telia Research AB, Haninge, Sweden.
    Pronunciation in an internationalized society: a multi-dimensional problem considered1996In: FONETIK 96, 1996, p. 123-126Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the treatment of foreign words and proper names in Swedish. Preliminary results from a production study are presented, and guidelines are suggested for broad, phonematic transcription, covering alternative pronunciations. Such a transcription scheme is a prerequisite for applications such as speech synthesis and multi-dialectal speaker-independent speech recognition.

  • 63.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindström, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Integration of Foreign Items. A Corpus-based Study of Cross-lingual Influence with Examples from Swedish2009In: Corpus Linguistics: an international handbook / 2 / [ed] Anke Lüdeling & Merja Kytö, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2009, 1, p. 1024-1043Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This handbook provides an up-to-date survey of corpus linguistics. Spoken, written, or multimodal corpora serve as the basis for quantitative and qualitative research on many questions of linguistic interest. The volume comprises 61 articles by internationally renowned experts. They sketch the history of corpus linguistics and its relationship with neighboring disciplines, show its potential, discuss its problems, and describe various methods of collecting, annotating, and searching corpora, as well as processing corpus data. Key features: up-to-date and complete handbook includes both an overview and detailed discussions gathers together a great number of experts

  • 64.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, System Res. Spoken Language Processing.
    Lyberg, Bertil
    Telia Research AB, System Res. Spoken Language Processing.
    Inclusion of a prosodic module in spoken language translation1995In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 98, no 5, p. 2894-2895, article id 2aSC27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current speech recognition systems mainly work on statistical bases and make no use of information signalled by prosody, i.e. the segment duration and fundamental frequency contour of the speech signal. In more advanced applications for speech recognition, such as speech-to-speech translation systems, it is necessary to include the linguistic information conveyed by prosody. Earlier research has shown that prosody conveys information at syntactic, semantic and pragmatic levels. The degree of linguistic information conveyed by prosody varies between languages, from languages such as English, with a relatively low degree of prosodic disambiguation, via tone-accent languages such as Swedish, to pure tone languages. The inclusion of a prosodic module in speech translation systems is not only vital in order to link the source language to the target language, but could also be used to enhance speech recognition proper.  Besides syntactic and semantic information, properties such as dialect, sociolect, sex and attitude etc is signalled by prosody. Speech-to-speech recognition systems that will not transfer this type of information will be of limited value for person-to-person communication. A tentative architecture for the inclusion of a prosodic module in a speech-to-speech translation system is presented.

  • 65.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Division of Speech and Language Pathology, CL INTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    An acoustic analysis of ‘kulning’ (cattle calls) recorded in an outdoor setting on location in Dalarna (Sweden)2015In: Proceedings of ICPhS 2015, Glasgow, Scotland, UK: International Phonetic Association , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish cattle call singing style ‘kulning’ issurprisingly understudied, despite its almostmythical status in Swedish folklore. While somephysiological-productive aspects of kulning havebeen treated in previous work, acoustic propertiesare still much lacking description. This paper addsto and extends the results presented in a previousstudy [7], where kulning and head voice (“falsetto”)was acoustically analysed in two indoor settings:a normal room and an anechoic chamber. In thepresent study, the same singer, singing the samekulning in the same two modes (kulning and headvoice), was recorded in an outdoor setting (close tothe singer’s home), thus allowing for a comparisonbetween “clinical” and more ecologically valid data.

  • 66.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlström, Anita
    Swedish Museum of Performing Arts, Stockholm, Sweden.
    An acoustic analysis of Swedish cattle calls,‘kulning’, performed outdoors at three distances2019In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2019 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Kulning is a Swedish cattle call singing style with an almost mythical status inSwedish folklore. In previous studiestwo of the authors (RE, AM) studied kulning produced by a kulning singer (FP) in both indoor and outdoor settings. In this paper we report kulning as produced by a second singer (the third author, KD), recorded outdoors in a forest setting, with simultaneous recordings at 1, 11 and 22 meters. The results of amplitude, FFT and LPC analyses reported, and compared to theearlier studies reported in Eklund, McAllister and Pehrson (2013) and McAllister and Eklund (2015).

  • 67.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Fanny, Pehrson
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience.
    An acoustic comparison of voice characteristics in ‘kulning’, head and modal registers.2013In: Robert Eklund (ed.), Proceedings of Fonetik 2013, the XXVIth Swedish Phonetics Conference, Studies in Language and Culture, no. 21, ISBN 978-91-7519-582-7, eISBN 978-91-7519-579-7, ISSN 1403-2570, pp. 21–24. / [ed] Robert Eklund, 2013, p. 21-24Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish folk singing style ‘kulning’ issurprisingly understudied, despite its almostmythical status in Swedish folklore. While somephysiological–productive aspects of kulninghave been treated in previous work, acousticproperties are still much lacking description.This paper compares kulning, head (‘falsetto’)and modal voice from an acoustic perspective.

  • 68.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    A comparative acoustic analysis of purring in juvenile, subadult and adult cheetahs2013In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2013 The XXVIth Annual Phonetics Meeting, 12-13 June 2013, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Robert Eklund, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 25-28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies of cheetah purring havedescribed purring in adult cheetahs. This paperextends the cheetah purring research to includejuvenile and subadult cheetahs and analyzespurring data from cheetahs in ages rangingfrom 7 months to 7 years, and with weightsranging from 18 kilos to over 70 kilos. Resultsshow that while there is considerable variationacross most parameters analysed (amplitude,phase duration, cycles per phase andfundamental frequency), mainly attributable todegree of relaxation/agitation, previouslyreported observations that ingressive phasestend to be lower in frequency are largelyconfirmed, with one notable exception.

  • 69.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Voice Provider, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsinstitut Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Ananthakrishnan, Gopal
    Centre for Speech Technology, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mabiza, Evans
    Antelope Park, Gweru, Zimbabwe.
    An acoustic analysis of lion roars. I: Data collection and spectrogramand waveform analyses2011In: Quarterly Progress and Status Report TMH-QPSR, Volume 51, 2011. Proceedings from Fonetik 2011. Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 8–10 June 2011, pp. 1–4., Stockholm: Universitetsservice , 2011, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the collection of lion roar data at two different locations, anoutdoor setting at Antelope Park in Zimbabwe and an indoor setting at Parken Zooin Sweden. Preliminary analyses of spectrographic and waveform data are provided.

  • 70.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute / Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / Voice Provider Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden / Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Duthie, Elizabeth D.
    Dell Cheetah Centre, Parys, South Africa.
    An acoustic analysis of purring in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and in the domestic cat (Felis catus)2010In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2010, Lund, Sweden: Mediatryck , 2010, p. 17-22Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses purring in a cheetah and a domestic cat from an acoustic point of view.

    The results are discussed in the light of previously published studies.

  • 71.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Weise, Florian
    N/a’an ku sê Foundation, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Munro, Florian
    N/a’an ku sê Foundation, Windhoek, Namibia.
    An acoustic analysis of agonistic sounds in wild cheetahs2012In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2012 / [ed] Åsa Abelin and Anders Eriksson, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg , 2012, p. 37-40Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cheetah ranks among the more vocal felids,and is above all a prominent purrer. However,the cheetah also produces a wide variety ofother sounds, and this paper takes a closer lookat a category of sounds produced by wildcheetahs, agonistic vocalizations, that can bedivided into moaning, growling, hissing andspitting sounds.

  • 72.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Peters, Gustav
    Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig, Bonn, Germany.
    Weise, Florian
    N/a’an ku sê Foundation, Windhoek, Namibia.
    Munro, Stuart
    N/a’an ku sê Foundation, Windhoek, Namibia.
    A comparative acoustic analysis of purring in four cheetahs2012In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2012 / [ed] Åsa Abelin and Anders Eriksson, Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg , 2012, p. 41-44Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results from a comparativeanalysis of purring in four tame cheetahs. Theresults exhibited individual variation forrelative phase duration and number of cyclesper phase, while egressive phases were louderand had higher fundamental frequency in allfour cheetahs.

  • 73.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Rayner, Manny
    SRI International, USA.
    Carter, David
    SRI International, USA.
    Bretan, Ivan
    SRI International, USA.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Kirchmeier-Andersen, Sabine
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Denmark.
    Philp, Christina
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Denmark.
    Rational Re-Use of Linguistic Data2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, David Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 212-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

  • 74.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rose, RalphWaseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Proceedings of DiSS 2017, the 8th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech2017Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the successes of the previously organized Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (DiSS) workshops held in Berkeley (1999), Edinburgh (2001), Göteborg (2003), Aix-en-Provence (2005), Tokyo (2010), Stockholm (2013) and Edinburgh (2015), the organizers are proud to present DiSS 2017, held at the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden, in August 2017. As was the case with the previous workshops, a wide variety of papers addressing disfluency from an equally varied array of disciplines are included.

    The organizers would like to extend their thanks to everyone who helped organize this event, including the Scientific Committee members and, of course, all the contributors.

    Thanks to ISCA for administrative and financial support. Special thanks to Anders Eriksson, Olof Engwall, Gerard Bailly and Martin Cooke.

    Stockholm, August 2017

    Robert Eklund

    Robin Lickley

    Jens Edlund

    Joakim Gustafson

  • 75.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Telia Research, Farsta, Sweden.
    Shriberg, Elizabeth
    SRI International, Menlo Park, California, USA.
    Crosslinguistic Disfluency Modelling: A Comparative Analysis of Swedish and American English Human–Human and Human–Machine Dialogues1998In: 5th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing 30th November - 4th December, 1998 Sydney, Australia ICSLP'98 Proceedings / [ed] Robert H. Mannell and Jordi Robert-Ribes, 1998, Vol. 6, p. 2627-2630, article id 805Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report results from a cross-language study of disfluencies (DFs) in Swedish and American English human--machine and human--human dialogs. The focus is on comparisons not directly affected by differences in overall rates since these could be associates with task details. Rather, we focus on differences of how speakers utilize DFs in the different languages, including: relative rates of the use of hesitation forms, the location of hesitations, and surface characteristics of DFs. Results suggest that although the languages differ in some respects (such as the ability to insert filled pauses within 'words'), in many analyses the languages show similar behavior. Such results provide suggestions for cross-linguistic DF modeling in both theoretical and applied fields.

  • 76. Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Thiel, Mathias
    The Instructions of Johann Christian Beyer1988In: The Lute - Journal of the Lute Society, ISSN 0952-0759, Vol. XXVIII, p. 34-46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute / Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden / Voice Provider Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden / Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Effects of open and directed prompts on filled pauses and utterance production2010In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2010, Lund, June 2–4, 2010 / [ed] Susanne Schötz and Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Lund: Mediatryck , 2010, p. 23-28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes an experiment where open and directed prompts werealternated when collecting speech data for the deployment of a call-routingapplication. The experiment tested whether open and directed prompts resulted inany differences with respect to the filled pauses exhibited by the callers, which isinteresting in the light of the “many-options” hypothesis of filled pause production.The experiment also investigated the effects of the prompts on utterance form andmeaning of the callers.

  • 78.
    Eklund, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University.
    ”Njutandes av en Monte Christo no 5 och en iskall Mojito”. Observationer om användning av s-particip2006In: Svenskans beskrivning 28, Förhandlingar vid Tjugoåttonde sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning, 2006, p. 97-108Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 79.
    Geneid, Ahmed
    et al.
    Department of Otolaryngology and Phoniatrics – Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finlan.
    Laukkanen, Anne-Maria
    Speech and Voice Research Laboratory, School of Education, University of Tampere, Finland.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Kulning: A study of the physiological basis for long-distance sound propagation in Swedish cattle calls2018In: Proceedings of FONETIK 2016, KTH Royal Institute of TechnologyStockholm, Sweden8-10 June 2016 / [ed] Jens Edlund, Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology , 2018, p. 25-30Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish cattle call song, kulning, is an example of very marked and far-reaching sound propagation of vocal communication. While earlier studies have investigated the acoustic characteristics of kulning, the present study focuses on its physiological basis from the point of view of vocal fold functionand supralaryngeal posture by applying electroglottography and stroboscopy to two types singing: falsetto (head voice)and kulning. It is shown that kulning, ascompared to falsetto, exhibits a better contact of the vocal folds and a longer glottal closure in the phonation cycle. Nasofiberendoscopy also showedmedial and anteroposterior narrowing of the laryngeal inlet and approximation of the false vocal folds in kulning.

  • 80.
    Geneid, Ahmed
    et al.
    Department of Otolaryngology and Phoniatrics – Head and Neck Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Laukkanen, Anne-Maria
    Speech and Voice Research Laboratory, School of Education, University of Tampere, Finland.
    McAllister, Anita
    Division of Speech and Language pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kulning (Swedish Cattle Calls): Acoustic, EGG, Stroboscopic and High-Speed Video Analyses of an Unusual Singing Style2016In: Interspeech 2016, 8-12 Sep 2016, San Francisco / [ed] Nelson Morgan, International Speech Communication Association, 2016, p. 1132-1135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish cattle call singing style ‘kulning’ is surprisingly understudied, despite its mythical status in folklore. While some acoustic and physiological aspects have been addressed previously [1,2], a more detailed analysis is still lacking. Previous work [2] showed that sound pressurelevel (SPL) in kulning tapered off less than in head register as a function of distance, which warrants a study of underlying physiological mechanisms responsible for this. In the present paper, the same singer, singing the same song – in kulning and in head register (“falsetto”) mode – was recorded indoors.Electroglottographic (EGG), stroboscopic, high-speed endoscopic and audio registrations were made. Analyses examined differences between kulning and head register. Results show somewhat higher SPL in kulning than in head register confirming the previous findings. EGG showed longer relative glottal closed time and higher amplitude of the signalin kulning. This suggests better vocal fold contact in kulning. Flexible nasofiberoscopy and high-speed recordings during kulning showed medial and antero-posterior narrowing of the laryngeal inlet, a clear approximation of the false vocal folds and marked adduction of the vocal folds.

  • 81.
    Gósy, Mária
    et al.
    Department of Phonetics, Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language-Specific Patterns of Segment Prolongation in Hungarian2018In: the Phonetician, ISSN 0741-6164, Vol. 115, p. 36-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Segment prolongation has been shown to be one of the most common forms of non-pathological speech disfluency. The distribution in the word (initial– medial–final segment) seems to vary across languages based on morphological complexity, making it interesting to study segment prolongation in languages that exhibit different degrees of morphological complexity. In this paper we study segment prolongation in Hungarian, a language with very complex morphology. Our results indicated that distribution of prolongations according to their placements in words in Hungarian is comparable to English and Swedish, with a similar degree of morphological complexity, but not to Japanese or Mandarin Chinese, languages with a less complex morphology. Prolongations involve more vowels than consonants, more function words than content words, and word length does not influence the duration of the prolonged segment. Phonologically long vowels were produced shorter durations than phonologically short vowels. Finally, we suggest a ‘phonotactics matters hypothesis”, emphasizing the complexity of permissible syllable structures, which seems to be the main cause of the observed differences in how prolongation is realized in different languages.

  • 82.
    Gósy, Mária
    et al.
    Dept. of Phonetics, Research Institute for Linguistics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Segment prolongation in Hungarian2017In: Proceedings of DiSS 2017, The 8th Workshop on Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech / [ed] Robert Eklund & Ralph Rose, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2017, p. 29-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Segment prolongation (PR) has been shown to be one of the most common forms of non-pathological speech disfluencies (Eklund, 2001). The distribution of PRs in the word (initial–medial–final segment) seems to vary between languages of different syllable-structure complexity, making it interestingto study segment prolongation in languages that exhibit different syllable structure characteristics. Previous studies have studied languages with complex syllable structure, such as English and Swedish (Eklund & Shriberg, 1998; Eklund, 2001, 2004) where affixation creates complex consonant clusters, and languages with very simple syllable, such as Japanese (Den, 2003) or Tok Pisin (Eklund, 2001, 2004), as well as Mandarin Chinese (Lee et al., 2004). In this paper we study PRs in Hungarian. Our results indicate that PRs in Hungarian are more similar to English and Swedish than it is toJapanese, Tok Pisin or Mandarin Chinese, which lends support to the notion that underlying morphology plays a role in how PRs is realised.

  • 83.
    Hedenqvist, Clara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Disfluency incidence in 6-year old Swedish boys and girls with typical language development2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the prevalence of disfluencies in agroup of 55 (25F/30M) Swedish children with typical speech development, and within the agerange 6;0 and 6;11. All children had Swedish as their mother tongue. Speech was elicited using an “event picture” which the children described in their own, spontaneously produced, words. The data were analysed with regard to sex differences and lexicalability, including size of vocabulary and wordretrieval, which was assessed using the two tests Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Ordracet. Results showed that girls produced significantly more unfilled pauses, prolongations and sound repetitions, while boys produced more word repetitions. However, no correlation with lexical development was found. The results are of interest tospeech pathologists who study early speech development in search for potential early predictorsof speech pathologies.

  • 84.
    Hedenqvist, Clara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Persson, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Disfluency incidence in 6-year old Swedish boys and girls with typical language development2015In: Proceedings of Disfluency in Spontaneous Speech (Diss) 2015. PENDING, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the prevalence of disfluencies in a group of 55 (25F/30M) Swedish children with typical speech development, and within the age range 6;0 and 6;11. All children had Swedish as their mother tongue. Speech was elicited using an“event picture” which the children described in their own, spontaneously produced, words. The data were analysed with regard to sex differences and lexicalability, including size of vocabulary and wordretrieval, which was assessed using the two testsPeabody Picture Vocabulary Test and Ordracet.Results showed that girls produced significantlymore unfilled pauses, prolongations and sound repetitions, while boys produced more word repetitions. However, no correlation with lexical development was found. The results are of interest to speech pathologists who study early speech development in search for potential early predictors of speech pathologies.

  • 85.
    Hefele, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    http://www.anna-maria-hefele.com.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    McAllister, Anita
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Polyphonic Overtone Singing: an acoustic and physiological (MRI) analysis and a first-person description of aunique mode of singing2019In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2019 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a unique singing mode, tentatively labeled “polyphonic overtone singing”. In overtone singingthe vocal harmonics of a stabile fundamental frequency are filtered by the singer in such a way that specific upper harmonics are amplified, and heard clearly, as a second musical voice. In the “throat singing” of Tuva (Mongolia) moving overtones usually occur over astable drone. In polyphonic overtone singing not only the pitch of the overtonesare changed and moving, but also the fundamental which results in two-voice singing.

  • 86.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Voice Provider Sweden AB.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gender differences in verbal behaviour in a call routing speech application2011In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2011, Quarterly Progress and Status Report TMH-QPSR, Volume 51, 2011, Stockholm: Universitetsservice , 2011, p. 81-84Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results on verbal behavior in a live natural language call routing speechapplication. Differences between male and female callers in terms of verbosity are investigated, andput in relation to three variations of the system prompts. Findings show that in this particularapplication female callers are more verbose than male callers for open style prompts, while there isno difference for a directed style prompt.

  • 87.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    et al.
    Voice Provider Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kognition och talbaserade människa–maskin-gränssnitt2012In: Kognitionsvetenskap: en introduktion / [ed] Jens Allwood & Mikael Jensen, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 583-594Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kognitionsvetenskap är den första boken på svenska som beskriver kärnan i kognitionsvetenskap - att förstå hur människor tänker. Den spänner därmed över ett brett tvärvetenskapligt fält som inrymmer filosofi, lingvistik, psykologi, antropologi, datavetenskap och neuro­vetenskap. Författarna beskriver hur ämnet har vuxit fram och hur man kan studera kognition utifrån filosofiska, psykologiska och neurovetenskapliga aspekter. Även språkvetenskapliga och sociala aspekter på tänkande presenteras. Författarna tar dessutom upp relationen mellan mänskligt tänkande och djurs tänkande, samt utvecklingen av kognition från barndom till vuxen ålder. Avslutningsvis berörs flera aspekter av tänkande i förhållande till teknologi, både som stöd för tänkande och som simulering av tänkande.

    Boken vänder sig till studenter som läser introduktionskurs eller grundkurs i kognitionsvetenskap, men är även lämplig för beteendevetenskapliga eller språkinriktade utbildningar. Den kan även vara av intresse för alla som vill förstå mer om mänskligt tänkande.

  • 88.
    Lee, Tzu-Lun
    et al.
    Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    He, Ya-Fang
    Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Huang, Yun-Ju
    Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Tseng, Shu-Chuan
    Institute of Linguistics, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. TeliaSonera Sweden AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Prolongation in Mandari2004In: Proceedings of Interspeech (ICSLP) 2004, 2004, Vol. III, p. 2181-2184Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a corpus-based study on prolongations inspontaneous Mandarin. Prolongations are mainly produced forhesitation, but also for emphasizing a discourse focus and signalling an explicit feedback. 786 prolongation occurrences are investigated in terms of the position, the part of speech andthe segment and tone types. Prolongations are often found in word-final, phrase-final and utterance-medial positions. It is more likely to prolong in function words than in content words.However, in the case of monosyllabic words prolongations are more frequently found in function words, but in the remaining cases prolongations are more likely to be found in content words. Prolongations in transitive verbs, adverbs, nouns andparticles show particularly high rates, while prolongations inintransitive verbs and aspectual adverbs are really rare. Especially, there is no prolonged adjective. Consonants arerarely prolonged in Mandarin and no particular effect is found for lexical tones.

  • 89.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    How foreign are “foreign” speech sounds? Implications for speech recognition and speech synthesis2000In: Multi-Lingual Interoperability in Speech Technology (MIST) September 13-14, 1999 Leusden, The Netherlands, 2000, Vol. 28, p. 15-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results from a production study whichshows in what ways the traditional Swedish phone set is expanded with phones similar to or approximating phones from other languages than Swedish in everyday speech. Theinclusion of such sounds – here called xenophones – has implications for both automatic speech recognition and speech synthesis systems, especially in polylingual environments, which are discussed in the paper.

  • 90.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    [jɑːmes] or [dʒɛɪmz] or Perhaps Something In-between? Recapping Three Years of Xenophone Studies1999In: Gothenburg Papers in Theoretical Linguistics, 81. Proceedings Fonetik 99, The Swedish Phonetics Conference / [ed] Robert Andersson, 1999, Vol. 81, p. 109-112Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarises work on ‘xenophones’ (foreign sounds) carried out at Telia Research. The inclusion of “foreign” sounds in Swedish is described, as well as their implications on speech recognition and speech synthesis. Results from two earlier studies are summarised and described: the nature of the expansion of what is normally regarded as the Swedish phone set, and the nature of some possible underlying factors.

  • 91.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Xenophenomena: studies of foreign language influence at several linguistic levels2002In: Proceedings of 24. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft fü Sprachwissenschaft: Mehrsprachigkeit Heute, AG 8: Integration Fremder Wörter, 2002, p. 132-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages have always been influenced by other languages in various ways, through cultural contacts, migration, trade and other channels. In an increasingly internationalized world, where contacts across national borders are commonplace, sometimes politically driven/pushed by bodies such as the EU, foreign language influences have become stronger than ever. Moreover, besides cultural influx through media such as TV and radio, multilingual automatic applications have become an important area of study for automatic speech recognition services, raising issues like how Germans pronounce French place names, and vice versa (Trancoso et al., 1999). Similarly, automatic speech synthesis also needs to cover pronunciation of foreign items, which has been observed by e. g. Eklund & Lindstr?m (1996; 1998; 2001) and M?bius et al. (1997). While speech recognition and speech synthesis mainly are affected by "foreignness" of speech sounds, languages are also influenced at other linguistic levels, such as vocabulary, idioms such as'catch-phrases'and'buzz-words', translated or original expressions and so on, as observed by e. g. Ljung (1988)

  • 92.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, NLPLAB - Natural Language Processing Laboratory. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Xenophenomena: studies of foreign language influence at several linguistic levels2002In: Proceedings of 24. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Sprachwissenschaft: Mehrsprachigkeit Heute, 2002, p. 132-134Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Languages have always been influenced by other languages in various ways, through cultural contacts, migration, trade and other channels. In an increasingly internationalized world, where contacts across national borders are commonplace, sometimes politically driven/pushed by bodies such as the EU, foreign language influences have become stronger than ever. Moreover, besides cultural influx through media such as TV and radio, multilingual automatic applications have become an important area of study for automatic speech recognition services, raising issues like how Germans pronounce French place names, and vice versa (Trancoso et al., 1999). Similarly, automatic speech synthesis also needs to cover pronunciation of foreign items, which has been observed by e.g. Eklund & Lindström (1996; 1998; 2001) and Möbius et al. (1997). While speech recognition and speech synthesis mainly are affected by “foreignness” of speech sounds, languages are also influenced at other linguistic levels, such as vocabulary, idioms such as ‘catch-phrases’ and ‘buzz-words’, translated or original expressions and so on, as observed by e.g. Ljung (1988).

  • 93.
    Lindström, Anders
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Farsta, Sweden.
    Xenophones Revisited: Linguistic and other underlying factors affecting the pronunciation of foreign items in Swedish1999In: ICPhS 99: Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, San Francisco, 1-7 August 1999 / [ed] John J. Ohala, Yoko Hasegawa, Manjari Ohala, Daniel Granville and Ashlee C. Bailey, 1999, Vol. 3, p. 2227-2230, article id 0708Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the distribution of Swedish subjects’ productions of foreign speech sounds, here termed xenophones, is studied, and tabulated across gender, age, and region. The results are grouped in three categories along the “awareness” and “fidelity”dimensions. Results indicate that age is by far the most decisive underlying factor, which can be explained in terms of cultural exposure.

  • 94.
    Lyberg, Bertil
    et al.
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    The Possible Use of Prosody in Spoken Language Translation Systems1995In: TELECOM 95, 1995, p. 9-13Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech recognition systems do not normally make use of information signalled by prosody, i.e. the segment duration and the fundamental frequency contour of the speech signal. Rather, in current statistical approaches to the speech recognition problem, the acoustic manifestations of prosody is more or less considered as disturbances. In more advanced applications for speech recognition, such as speech-to-speech translation systems, it is obvious that the information conveyed by prosody has to be detected in the source language, mapped onto the target language and then generated by the speech synthesizer of the target language. The linguistic information signalled by prosody is syntactic structure, semantic interpretation and sentence emphasis. Moreover, in languages such as Swedish, with tonal accents, there are word and phrase pairs that are only distinguishable by means of intonation contour. In pure tone languages, the inclusion of prosody is crucial for speech recognition systems. Besides syntactic and semantic information, prosody also mirrors para-linguistic properties such as sex and attitude etc. Speech-to-speech translation systems that will not transfer this type of information will be of limited value for person-to-person communication.

  • 95.
    McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. CLINTEC, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    An acoustic analysis of the cattle call “kulning”,performed outdoors at Säter, Dalarna, Sweden2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015. Working Papers 55/2015, 8–10 June 2015, Centre for Languages and Literature, General Linguistics/Phonetics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Lund, Sweden: Lund University , 2015, p. 81-84Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper summarizes recent research on ‘kulning’, a surprisingly understudiedSwedish cattle call singing style. In a previous study (Eklund, McAllister & Pehrson, 2013), we compared kulning and head voice (‘falsetto’) as recorded in a normal room and in an anechoic chamber. This paper reports from an analysisof the same “kulning” song recorded outdoors on location in Säter, Dalarna (Sweden), close to the singer’s home, which makes the data more ecologically validand allows comparisons between “clean” indoor recordings and more authentic outdoor recordings. Several recordings were made, but the present article analysesrecordings made simultaneously at 1 meter and 11 meters from the singer. Results indicate that for the vowels [a] and [u] partials in kulning, as compared to head voice, are visible at both higher frequencies and at a longer distance, which provides an acoustic rationale for the development of the singing style, intended to be heard at a long distance.

  • 96.
    Mårback, Sebastian
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Gustav
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute/Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uhm... What’s going on? An EEG study on perception of filled pauses in spontaneous Swedish speech2009In: Proceedings of FONETIK 2009, Stockholm University, 10–12 June 2009, 2009, p. 92-95Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Filled pauses have been shown to play a significant role in comprehension and long-term storage of speech. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies suggest that filled pauses can help mitigate semantic and/or syntactic incongruity in spoken language. The purpose of the present study was to explore how filled pauses affect the processing of spontaneous speech in the listener. Brain activation of eight subjects was measured by electroencephalography (EEG), while they listened to recordings of Wizard-of-Oz travel booking dialogues. The results show a P300 component in the Primary Motor Cortex, but not in the Broca or Wernicke areas. A possible interpretation could be that the listener is preparing to engage in speech. However, a larger sample is currently being collected.

  • 97.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Disfluency in child-directed speech2013In: Proceedings of Fonetik 2013 : the XXVIth annual phonetics meeting, 12-13 June 2013, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Robert Eklund, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, p. 57-60Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report results from a longitudinal study of the rate and location of disfluencies in child-directed speech, using data for children between 0;6 and 2;9 years. We compare these results to adult-directed speech by the same speakers.

  • 98.
    Rayner, Manny
    et al.
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Carter, David
    SRI International, Cambridge, UK.
    Bretan, Ivan
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Spoken Language Processing, Haninge, Sweden.
    Hansen, Steffen Leo
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Kirchmeier-Andersen, Sabine
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Philp, Christina
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Sørensen, Finn
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Erdman Thomsen, Hanne
    Handelshöjskolen i Köbenhavn, Institut for Datalingvistik, Fredriksberg, Denmark.
    Recycling Lingware in a Multilingual MT System1997In: Proceedings of ACL/EACL Workshop From Research to Commercial Applications, 1997, p. 65-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe two methods relevant to multilingual machine translation systems, which can be used to port linguistic data (grammars, lexicons and transfer rules) between systems used for processing related languages. The methods are fully implemented within the Spoken Language Translator system, and were used to create versions of the systems for two new language pairs using only a month of expert effort.

  • 99.
    Rayner, Manny
    et al.
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Gerlach, Johanna
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Starlander, Marianne
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Tsourakis, Nikos
    University of Geneva, Switzerland.
    Kruckenberg, Anita
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Chua, Cathy
    Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia.
    A web-deployed Swedish spoken CALL systembased on a large shared English/Swedish feature grammar2012In: Proceedings of the SLTC 2012 workshop on NLP for CALL / [ed] Lars Borin and Elena Volodina, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012, p. 37-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a Swedish version of CALL-SLT,a web-deployed CALL system that allows beginner/intermediate students to practise generativespoken language skills. Speech recognitionis grammar-based, with language modelsderived, using the Regulus platform, fromsubstantial domain-independent feature grammars.The paper focusses on the Swedishgrammar resources, which were developedby generalising the existing English featuregrammar into a shared grammar for Englishand Swedish. It turns out that this can be donevery economically: all but a handful of rulesand features are shared, and English grammaressentially ends up being treated as a reducedform of Swedish. We conclude by presentinga simple evaluation which compares theSwedish and French versions of CALL-SLT.

  • 100.
    Rayner, Manny
    et al.
    SRI International, USA.
    Wirén, Mats
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Telia Research AB, Sweden.
    Swedish Coverage2000In: The Spoken Language Translator / [ed] Manny Rayner, Dave Carter, Pierrette Bouillon, Vassilis Digalakis & Mats Wirén, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000, p. 131-144Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents a detailed description of Spoken Language Translator (SLT), one of the first major projects in the area of automatic speech translation. The SLT system can translate between English, French, and Swedish in the domain of air travel planning, using a vocabulary of about 1500 words, and with an accuracy of about 75%. The greater part of the book describes the language processing components, which are largely built on top of the SRI Core Language Engine, using a combination of general grammars and techniques that allow them to be rapidly customized to specific domains.  Speech recognition is based on Hidden Markov Mode technology, and uses versions of the SRI DECIPHER system. This account of the Spoken Language Translator should be an essential resource both for those who wish to know what is achievable in spoken-language translation today, and for those who wish to understand how to achieve it.

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