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  • 51.
    Tsamis, Alkiviadis
    et al.
    Stanford University, USA.
    Bothe, Wolfgang
    Stanford University, USA.
    Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar
    Stanford University, USA.
    Swanson, Julia J.
    Stanford University, USA.
    Miller, D. Craig
    Stanford University, USA.
    Kuhl, Ellen
    Stanford University, USA.
    Active contraction of cardiac muscle: In vivo characterization of mechanical activation sequences in the beating heart2011In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 1167-1176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Progressive alterations in cardiac wall strains are a classic hallmark of chronic heart failure. Accordingly, the objectives of this study are to establish a baseline characterization of cardiac strains throughout the cardiac cycle, to quantify temporal, regional, and transmural variations of active fiber contraction, and to identify pathways of mechanical activation in the healthy beating heart. To this end, we insert two sets of twelve radiopaque beads into the heart muscle of nine sheep; one in the anterior-basal and one in the lateral-equatorial left ventricular wall. During three consecutive heartbeats, we record the bead coordinates via biplane videofluoroscopy. From the resulting four-dimensional data sets, we calculate the temporally and transmurally varying Green-Lagrange strains in the anterior and lateral wall. To quantify active contraction, we project the strains onto the local muscle fiber directions. We observe that mechanical activation is initiated at the endocardium slightly after end diastole and progresses transmurally outward, reaching the epicardium slightly before end systole. Accordingly, fibers near the outer wall are in contraction for approximately half of the cardiac cycle while fibers near the inner wall are in contraction almost throughout the entire cardiac cycle. In summary, cardiac wall strains display significant temporal, regional, and transmural variations. Quantifying wall strain profiles might be of particular clinical significance when characterizing stages of left ventricular remodeling, but also of engineering relevance when designing new biomaterials of similar structure and function.

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