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  • 51.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Manifesto for Management in Future Industrial Ecosystems for Complex Intelligent Systems2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    THE CHALLENGE: Extensive research efforts are ongoing to ensure long-term competitiveness for Swedish system building industry, such as WASP[1] (Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program), where technology development, including software development, for future intelligent systems is addressed. This development has potentially major consequences for organizations that develop, provide, and utilize future complex and intelligent systems. Maintaining some of these systems’ functions will be crucial to many functions in society, such as various infrastructure like transport systems, communications systems, and healthcare. The development is disruptive in character and changes the conditions for the actors in the system-building industry (see WASP’s Technology Foresight 2018). Closely related to this technology development, a number of management challenges are emerging, such as:

    The emergence of ecosystems for dynamic and intelligent platform-based systems. This overthrows traditional principles of organizational design that are often based on direct mirroring of the system architecture (also referred to as "mirroring hypothesis" / Conway's law), where a typical situation is that there is a responsible organizational unit for each subsystem in the system. In the face current developments, new perspectives on the links between the system architecture and the organization need to be developed as a result of the emergence of ecosystems, new types of layered system architectures, the intelligent evolution of systems, the creation of training data, and the emergence of new types of actors such as data factories.

    Complexity beyond human cognitive understanding creates a need to re-evaluate existing insights into bounded rationality (Simon, 1972) into a new understanding of rationality that recognizes that human cognition and the intelligence of systems are strongly interwoven. Such rationality may be understood as generative and open and potentially culminates in a paradigm shift in management knowledge. Based on this, new management approaches need to be developed, e.g. how emerging complexity can be embraced (Garud et al., 2013).

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    A Manifesto for Management in Future Industrial Ecosystems for Complex Intelligent Systems
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  • 52.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Digital Innovation in Complex Systems: Managing Critical Applications and Generativity2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Saab AB, S-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    The quest for combined generativity and criticality in digital-physical complex systems2022In: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 65, article id 101701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transformation from physical systems into digital-physical systems puts new engineering and technology management challenges at the foreground. This paper explores how industrial firms engaged in such systems simultaneously can address the seemingly disjunct properties of criticality and generativity in platform-based systems including the connected (inter)-organizational processes and related strategic choices. The in-depth embedded single case study of avionics, the electronics on aircraft, underline the importance of (1) considering organizational and technology aspects together, (2) the long-term gradual transition towards digitalization, and (3) openness in innovation including temporality and cross-industry aspects. Digital innovation appears as a double-edged sword as it enables mastering an increasingly complex system, facilitating its safe operation and maintenance, but at the same time requires new approaches to manage increased complexity during the development and evolution of systems.

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  • 54.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Trust, Control, and Risk in Multilateral R&D Alliances: A Dynamic and Dialectic Perspective2018In: Managing Trust in Strategic Alliances / [ed] T.K. Das, Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, 2018, p. 39-73Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 55.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pettersson, Anders
    SAAB Aeronaut, S-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Digital Transformation in Complex Systems2021In: IEEE transactions on engineering management, ISSN 0018-9391, E-ISSN 1558-0040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Complex systems increasingly include embedded digital technologies that interact with and are constrained by physical components and systems. Although these systems play a central role in our society, they have only been scarcely addressed in contemporary research on digital transformation and the organization of innovation. This article explores the digital transformation in complex products and systems and its consequences for organizational design. A longitudinal study of avionics development since the 1950s uncovers the application of digital technologies, first as a sequence of initial experiments, followed by the use as add-on functionality, then as an integral part of achieving critical functionality in systems, and currently combining add-on and critical functionalities enabling generativity. The findings emphasize the evolution of the intricate relationships between the systems architecture and organizational approaches when digital technology enables and enforces increased complexity, expanded functionality, increased systems integration, and continuous development. These nested dependencies are accentuated by the complexity that has emerged beyond human cognition, where increasingly sophisticated boundary objects based on modeling, simulation, and data play an important role in the organizations ability. Boundary objects relate and decouple the multifacetted dynamic relation between organization and architecture. The results also extend existing perspectives on platform strategies by outlining the importance of generativity in combination with criticality control, rather than market control. Criticality control in combination with generativity has become imperative not least as generative digital technologies have become central in achieving critical properties such as safety. Several avenues for further research are outlined.

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  • 56.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmberg, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pettersson, Per A.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Communications Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    On digital innovation and critical applications: Bazaars, Cathedrals and What Else2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technology is increasingly integrated in industrial applications and alters existing system architectures and innovation processes. This paper explores platform and application strategies based on an empirical case study of avionics at the Swedish firm Saab Aeronautics. The paper complements perspectives on digital innovation in relation to open source software development and systems such as mobile operating systems with applications, and points at limitations of organizational metaphors as bazaars and cathedrals. The results recognize that there is more to a city than a bazaar and a cathedral and show that the development toward digitalization necessitate industrial firms to consider safety-critical and security aspects while allowing for generativity based on recombination through system partitioning enabling different control and generativity priorities for different parts of the system.  

  • 57.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Johansson, Glenn
    Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    A model for managing interfaces between technology development, product development and production2007In: RD Management Conference,2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 58.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Johansson, Glenn
    Tekniska högskolan i Jönköping.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Tekniska Högskolan i Jönköping.
    Interfaces between technology development, product development and production: Critical factors and a conceptual model2007In: International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning, ISSN 1740-2832, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 317-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfaces between technology development, product development, and production must be managed in order to avoid misfits between technology and product concepts and ensure the fit of the product design and the production process. In this paper, critical challenges related to these interfaces are studied based on in-depth case studies of ten product development projects at five manufacturing firms, two workshops and a questionnaire. Our findings indicate that factors related to synchronisation and transfer management are most critical. A tentative model is formulated as an instrument to reduce risk and uncertainty related to the interfaces.

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  • 59.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lopez-Vega, Henry
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The cogs and wheels of open innovation: The implementation of open innovation in emerging markets2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lovén, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Detterfelt, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Creativity in Accelerated Product Development - A trade-off or balancing act?2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lovén, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Detterfelt, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Understanding Creativity Motors and Obstacles in Product Development2010In: International Journal of Product Development, ISSN 1477-9056, E-ISSN 1741-8178, Vol. 11, no 3/4, p. 272-288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although many factors have been found to facilitate creativity in product development, the evidence of these studies lacks explanations of the mechanisms enhancing or impeding creativity. Building upon the model of Van de Ven and Poole (1995), a framework is formulated for understanding the motors of creativity in product development. Four motors for driving creativity are proposed: creativity as an evolutionary process, life cycle process, confrontation between different groups or individuals or within the context of a purposeful individual or team. A multiple-case study of three Swedish manufacturers explores the motors further and complements the framework with drivers of and counterforces to the four motors, for example, the existence of challenging managers and the perceived inappropriateness of certain formal processes for creative work. Although creativity is the result of the four motors operating simultaneously, each of the four motors provide different conditions for radical and incremental innovation.

  • 62.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Lovén, Eva
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Detterfelt, Jonas
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Understanding creativity motors and obstacles in product development2008In: RD Management Workshop: Integrating Knowledge: A challenge for RD Management,2008, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Industriell produktion.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Industriell produktion.
    Assessing interface challenges in product development projects2013In: Research technology management, ISSN 0895-6308, E-ISSN 1930-0166, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 40-48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product development projects are exposed to a number of challenges, and the significance of different challenges differs among projects. To prepare for these challenges, project managers may benefit from assessing them at an early stage of the project. This paper presents a method that can be used to assess product development challenges in terms of technological and market uncertainty, product and production complexity, and geographical and organizational dispersion. Project managers can use the results from such assessments to justify preventive action, negotiate resources and specifications, and devise processes that fit the specific characteristics of individual development projects.

  • 64.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosell, David T.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Getting innovation out of suppliers? A conceptual model for characterizing supplier inputs to new product development2011In: Proceedings of the 20th Annual IPSERA Conference. Vision 20/20 - preparing today for tomorrows challenges / [ed] Frank Rozemeijer, Martin Wetzels and Lieven Quintens, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 2011, p. 1054-1068Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many studies on supplier collaborations in NPD. However, there is not much written about what suppliers actually contribute to innovation. Based on a literature review focusing on 80 articles we develop a conceptual framework categorizing different supplier inputs to innovation. This model is formulated by characterizing supplier inputs related to the component level and architectural level, and inputs that are incremental or radical in nature. On a component level, supplier inputs can include the definition of the solution or refinement of existing components. On an architectural level it is less likely that suppliers contribute with radical inputs, but suppliers may assist NPD by refining architectural concepts.

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  • 65.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    From Product Development to Production: On the Complexity of Geographical adn Organizational Dispersion2012In: Journal of Applied Economics and Business Research, E-ISSN 1927-033X, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 125-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of low cost production facilities in emerging economies in Asia and Eastern-Europe has resulted in an increased organizational and geographical separation of product development and production processes. This paper elaborates on the complexity of the product development to production interface in dispersed environments and describes two different logics underlying the coordination of the product development to production transition in relation to interface complexity. The paper is based on two case studies of in total three different projects. It is argued that product/process related factors as well as organizational/geographical related factors are important in determining interface complexity. Further, a high degree of interface complexity calls for a predominant knowledge integration logic complemented with some measures of standardization in the product development to production interface. A low degree of interface complexity may be managed by a predominant task partitioning logic complemented with some integration measures.

  • 66.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tell, FredrikLinköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öppen innovation: i teori och praktik2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad betyder öppen innovation egentligen? Vilka utmaningar och möjligheter finns och vilka konsekvenser kan öppen innovation få för olika verksamheter? Öppen innovation har blivit ett omskrivet begrepp inom akademisk forskning det senaste decenniet. Även företagsledare och chefer på olika nivåer har börjat använda begreppet, som handlar om hur organisationer kan dra nytta av resurser och kunskap som härstammar från externa källor – och samtidigt låta den egna interna kunskapen gå utanför företagets gränser så att andra kan använda den. Den här boken samlar en betydande del av den svenska forskningen kring öppen innovation och belyser olika perspektiv. Hur öppen vågar man vara?

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  • 67.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öppen innovation i teori och praktik: en kort introduktion2016In: Öppen innovation: i teori och praktik / [ed] Nicolette Lakemond, Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 21-36Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 68.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Öppen innovation på vid gavel?2016In: Öppen innovation: i teori och praktik / [ed] Nicolette Lakemond, Fredrik Tell, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 287-299Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    van Echtelt, F
    Wynstra, F
    A Configuration Typology for Involving Purchasing Specialists in Product Development2001In: ICFAI Journal of supply chain management, ISSN 0972-9267, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 11-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 70.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Weele, A
    Jin, Y
    Chen, L.
    Development and Revelation of Foreign E-Procurement2008In: Journal of Zhejiang Gongshang University, ISSN 1009-1505, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 81-86Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Windahl, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Digitalization Pilots: Creating Organizational Platforms for Complex Collaborative Digital Innovation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Lopez Vega, Henry
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Open innovation in emerging markets: The connection of strategy and capabilities2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Lopez-Vega, Henry
    et al.
    Univ Surrey, England.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tapping into emerging markets: EMNEs strategies for innovation capability building2022In: Global Strategy Journal, ISSN 2042-5791, E-ISSN 2042-5805, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 394-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research Summary This article explores EMNEs innovation capability building in emerging markets. The paper provides a longitudinal account of how the Brazilian cosmetics firm Natura transitioned from scant to ample innovation resources and processes. Building on the institution-based view and the resource-based view, we explain how EMNEs innovation capability building is anchored in open innovation and collaborative nonmarket strategies. The paper reveals a unique pattern of innovation capability building based on a combination of local and global open innovation processes and harnessing the country characteristics over time. It is shown how combining open innovation and collaborative nonmarket strategies can help mitigate weak formal and informal institutions in emerging markets. The study offers an integrated framework explaining innovation capability building and the effects on the institutional setting. Managerial Summary The increase of well-known EMNEs has raised interest in understanding how these firms build sustainable innovation capabilities. Based on a longitudinal study of the Brazilian-based cosmetics firm Natura, this paper shows how an open innovation strategy can be used to tap into home-market natural resources and connect to the global setting. This innovation capability process involves traditional market-based strategies like inter-organizational collaborations but also nonmarket strategies, such as developing local relationships, supporting socio-biodiversity, and contributing to local society. The findings point at the importance of developing an overall innovation strategy, directing attention to innovation processes, engaging in recursive practice in innovation projects, responding to the market and nonmarket environments, and linking the emerging market institutional setting and the global market context.

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  • 74.
    Lovén, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Detterfelt, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Arbetssätt för kreativitet och innovation i produktutveckling2012In: Innovationsledning och kreativitet i svenska företag / [ed] Richtnér Anders och Frishammar Johan, VINNOVA , 2012, p. 56-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bokens syfte är att ge kunskap och inspiration åt chefer, ledare och medarbetare med intresse för kreativitet och innovation. Den baseras på forskning och tar upp exempel hämtade från många av Sveriges ledande företag. Avsikten är att belysa hur organisatoriska förhållanden påverkar förutsättningarna för kreativitet och innovation samt att ge uppslag till hur företags innovationsförmåga kan utvecklas.

  • 75.
    Lovén, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Industrial Ergonomics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Detterfelt, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Creativity in efficient product development: A typology for identifying creative initiatives, LIU-IEI-R--08/0047--SE2008In: 15th International Product Development Management Conference / [ed] Hans Koller; Cornelius Herstatt; Thorsten Andreas Teichert; European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management.; et al, Hamburg: EIASM , 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

      The aim with this study is to get a better understanding of creativity initiatives in efficient product development. The empirical base consists of a field study at a mechanical company in Sweden influenced by -lean product development thinking-. Ten interviews (all men) with engineers, project leaders and product development managers were conducted as a first step with a focus on how creativity was initiated and in what situations. As a second step, to explore the various sources of creativity more in-depth, five established and rather successful innovations were selected and studied. The answers were analysed and categorized by using a model inspired by Van de Ven and Poole-s four-field model. The paper shows that creative ideas may origin from a variety of sources. For companies it is necessary to be aware of this variety in order to be able to adjust working methods in product development accordingly in order to encourage innovation in the right way. 

  • 76.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Ingenjörshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Lakemond Ebbers, Nicolette
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Bridging the boundaries between technology development, product development and production2006In: International Product Development Management Conference,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 77.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evolving schemes of interpretation: Investigating the dual role of architectures in new product development2017In: R&D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 36-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Should product architectures be considered inputs to – or outputs from – new product development (NPD)? Whereas the mirroring hypothesis suggests the former, NPD stage-models suggests the latter. Elaborating on these conflicting propositions, this paper analyses the relationships between product architectures and development processes in NPD projects. The analysis demonstrates how project managers use product architectures to interpret their tasks and devise appropriate responses to perceived challenges. Thus, architectures provide useful linkages between knowledge development and organizational change in R&D organizations.

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  • 78.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knowledge Integration Processes in New Product Development: On the Dynamics of Deadlines and Architectures2011In: Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical Challenges Facing International Technology-based Firms / [ed] Berggren, C., Bergek, A., M.Bengtsson, Hobday, L and J.Söderlund, Oxford University Press , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology-based firms continue to compete primarily on innovation, and are continuously required to present new solutions to an exacting market. As technological complexity and specialization intensifies, firms increasingly need to integrate and co-ordinate knowledge by means of project groups, diversified organizations, inter-organizational partnerships, and strategic alliances. Innovation processes have progressively become interdisciplinary, collaborative, inter-organizational, and international, and a firm's ability to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, organizations, and geographical locations has a major influence on its viability and success.

  • 79.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Managing technologically uncertain development projects: on the Importance of Time Constraints and System Coupling2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 80.
    Melander, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Governance of supplier collaboration in technologically uncertain NPD projects2015In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, Vol. 49, p. 116-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms that are searching for new technologies from suppliers through collaborative new product development (NPD) need to devise effective approaches for governing the supplier relationship. Based on in-depth case studies of four collaborative NPD projects, this paper shows that in projects with a high degree of uncertainty (1) firms achieve governance by simultaneously limiting supplier involvement and allowing for high levels of collaboration, (2) transactional and relational governance have distinct roles in achieving limited supplier involvement and establishing high levels of collaboration, and (3) transactional and relational governance are organizationally separated. These findings have implications for the complementary use of relational and transactional governance, as well as for the role of purchasing and R&D in technologically uncertain NPD projects.

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  • 81.
    Melander, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Organizational separation of technologically uncertain NPD projects involving suppliers2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasingly, firms are searching for new technologies from suppliers outside firm boundaries through collaborative new product development (NPD). In these situations, it is not clear how firms rely on and achieve complementarity of relational and transactional governance mechanisms. Based on study of technologically uncertain NPD projects, it is determined that organizational separation is used as a way to achieve this complementarity. The findings stress that although transactional and relational governance are considered as complementary mechanisms, they are implemented in separate, but parallel processes in order to avoid potential counteracting effects of simultaneous use. The findings show that under circumstances of technological uncertainty, R&D engineers fulfil an important role in relational governance, while purchasing fulfils transactional governance tasks and is placed outside the NPD project.

  • 82.
    Melander, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sourcing technology from suppliers in new product development – Purchasing’s role as a trouble shooter2012In: IPSERA 2012. Confenrence Proceedings. Purchasing & Supply Management in a Changing World, 1-4 Aril 2012 Nales Italy / [ed] Emilio Esposito, Pietro Evangelista, Giovanni Pastore, Mario Raffa, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the benefits of involving suppliers in new product development (NPD) under technological uncertainty are not unambiguously affirmed, many firms need to involve suppliers under these circumstances anyway as not all technological knowledge resides within the firm. Previous research argues that purchasing fulfils an important role in involving the suppliers in NPD. However, purchasing’s role under technological uncertainty has not been investigated in detail. The purpose of this paper is to explore purchasing’s role in technology selection, supplier selection and level of participation in NPD projects involving technology suppliers. Three NPD projects at one large high-tech firm are studied. It is shown that purchasing had limited influence in the technology selection process. Furthermore, the results show that purchasing fulfils an important role in the supplier selection. More importantly, this paper identifies that purchasing has a role as a trouble-shooter throughout the collaborative NPD projects. Purchasing does not necessarily need to be a member of the project team, and be involved in solving daily, routine problems, but serves as a trouble-shooter to solve major problems related to the supplier’s strategy, the relationship with the supplier and commitment issues.

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  • 83.
    Melander, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sourcing technology from suppliers in New Product Development: Purchasing’s role as a trouble-shooterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the benefits of involving suppliers in new product development (NPD) under technological uncertainty are not unambiguously affirmed, many firms need to involve suppliers under these circumstances anyway as not all technological knowledge resides within the firm. Previous research argues that purchasing fulfils an important role in involving the suppliers in NPD. However, purchasing’s role under technological uncertainty has not been investigated in detail. The purpose of this paper is to explore purchasing’s role in technology selection, supplier selection and regular participation in NPD projects involving technology suppliers. Three NPD projects at one large high-tech firm are studied. It is shown that purchasing had limited influence in the technology selection process. Furthermore, the results show that purchasing fulfills an important role in the supplier selection. More importantly, this paper identifies that purchasing has a role as a trouble-shooter throughout the collaborative NPD projects. Purchasing does not necessarily need to be a member of the project team, and be involved in solving daily, routine problems, but serves as a trouble-shooter to solve major problems related to the supplier’s strategy, the relationship with the supplier and commitment issues.

  • 84.
    Melander, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Variation of purchasing's involvement: case studies of supplier collaborations in new product development2014In: International Journal of procurement management, ISSN 1753-8432, E-ISSN 1753-8440, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 103-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Firms are increasingly involving suppliers in new product development (NPD) and one reason for this is to access technological knowledge. Previous research argues that purchasing fulfils an important role in involving the suppliers in NPD. However, purchasing's role under technological uncertainty has not been investigated in detail. The purpose of this paper is to explore purchasing's role in technology selection, supplier selection and level of participation in NPD projects involving suppliers. Three NPD projects at one large high-tech firm are studied. The results show that purchasing has limited influence in the technology selection process, but fulfils an important role in the selection of the supplier and has a role as a trouble-shooter throughout the collaborative NPD projects. Purchasing does not necessarily need to be involved in solving daily, routine problems, but serves as a trouble-shooter to solve problems related to the supplier's strategy, the relationship with the supplier, and commitment issues.

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  • 85.
    Melander, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rosell, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    ALIGNING GOALS AND MONITORING SUPPLIERS IN NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT2012Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 86.
    Melander, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosell, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    In pursuit of control: involving suppliers of critical technologies in new product development2014In: Supply chain management, ISSN 1359-8546, E-ISSN 1758-6852, Vol. 19, no 5-6, p. 722-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore the dynamics of management and control in collaborations with suppliers of critical technology.

    Design/methodology/approach – Three collaborative product development projects at a system integrator in the Telecom industry were studied. The data was collected through 22 semi-structured interviews and a workshop at the studied company and its suppliers.

    Findings – The paper shows that in situations of high dependence on suppliers of critical technologies, control may be pursued by complementing black box development with appropriate checks and balances in the collaboration, i.e. by using combinations of control mechanisms, disconnected development and joint problem solving, contracts and trust, and alignment efforts on project and strategic levels. Further, the paper demonstrates that this involves several trade-offs related to the advantages of increased monitoring and disadvantages of decreased levels of freedom for the supplier and consequently decreased prerequisites for supplier creativity.

    Research limitations/implications – The qualitative approach of the research limits generalizability. Our study is limited to three projects at one firm.

    Practical implications – Technological roadmaps can be used as an important tool to facilitate alignment with suppliers of critical technologies. Limited influence on project level can be supported by influencing the supplier on a strategic level. By collaborating on a strategic level, firms can gain alignment for future projects and diminish the need for direct project control within the projects. Long-term collaborations facilitate control in projects with powerful suppliers of critical technologies.

    Originality/value – While many studies suggest simplified responses to complex situations of supplier involvement in product development, this study provides insight into the complex responses to control suppliers of critical technologies.

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  • 87.
    Mileros, Martin Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Towards a Taxonomy of E-commerce: Characterizing Content Creator-Based Business Models2019In: Technology Innovation Management Review, E-ISSN 1927-0321, Vol. 9, no 10, p. 62-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, new business models can be observed in content creator-based e-commerce. The research on e-commerce has grown rapidly and new concepts have emerged such as social commerce, platforms, and user-generated content. However, no overarching perspective has yet been formulated for distinguishing new content creator-based business models within e-commerce. The aim of this paper is therefore to characterize content creator-based business models by formulating a taxonomy of e-commerce based on a structured literature review of the concepts mentioned above. The results of our study point toward eight types of content creator-based business models. Our paper outlines theoretical and practical implications for the emerging phenomenon of content creator-based business, which we refer to as intellectual commerce. In addition, we describe 19 concepts related to Web 1.0, Web 2.0, and e-commerce.

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  • 88.
    Mohammad, Eslami
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Internal integration in complex collaborative product development projects2016In: International Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1363-9196, E-ISSN 1757-5877, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-28, article id 1650008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While the importance of internal integration for effective inter-firm collaboration with suppliers is widely acknowledged, it is presently unclear how it is achieved in complex collaborative product development projects. This paper aims to address this gap in extant knowledge by investigating the internal integration approaches and exploring related project management challenges. Specifically, three internal integration approaches are found, namely integration based on multidirectional, frequent interaction; integration based on delimited, problem-solving; and based on unidirectional, information-oriented interaction. The study findings suggest that internal integration approaches are related to the degree of uncertainty in the subsystems of the suppliers, rather than the overall product system. Consequently, in complex product development projects involving many internal functions and several different suppliers, the specific supplier tasks, rather than the overall project structure and aims, determine the mode of internal integration required. This complexity creates important challenges for organisation, and requires flexibility in internal integration approaches.

  • 89.
    Olausson, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Preserving the link between RandD and manufacturing: Exploring challenges related to vertical integration and product/process newness2009In: Journal of Purchasing and Supply Management, ISSN 1478-4092, E-ISSN 1873-6505, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 79-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adopting a contingency framework, this paper explores consequences of manufacturing outsourcing and product/process newness for RandD-manufacturing coordination. Based on case-study findings, the following coordination challenges are outlined: accessing manufacturing competence and understanding suppliers processes (outsourcing of manufacturing and high newness); receiving feedback from suppliers and motivating suppliers (outsourcing and low-medium newness); exploiting manufacturing competence and establishing close working relations (internalization of manufacturing and high newness); early involvement of manufacturing and suppliers, and reducing variability in supplier performance (internalization and low-medium newness). The paper further elaborates on how the role of purchasing may change in order to address these challenges.

  • 90.
    Rosell, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Melander, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integrating External Knowledge in New Product Development: The Influence of SupplierKnowledgeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When firms become increasingly dependent on external knowledge to be innovative and competitive, new product development (NPD) transforms into an activity focused on integrating external and internal knowledge bases. Consequently, firms need to open up their firm boundaries while at the same time manage the dilemma of risk of undesirable knowledge leakages. Little is known on how firms tackle the need for openness and risk of losing proprietary knowledge in different types of NPD processes. In fact, the knowledge based view of the firm and organizational economics give diverging answers to this dilemma. By conducting a multiple-case study of buyer-supplier collaborations in new product development (NPD), two main approaches to manage supplier knowledge in innovation emerge; knowledge absorption and joint knowledge accumulation. Knowledge absorption emphasizes technical interfaces and limited interaction for accessing knowledge of suppliers and was found in conjunction with exploitative activities. Joint knowledge accumulation represents joint and interactive learning between the buyer and the supplier and took place in more demanding explorative innovation. The findings indicate that managers make deliberate choices between increasing openness and minimizing the risk of losing proprietary knowledge based on the specific demands of the NPD task and the knowledge of the suppliers. By using different knowledge integration mechanisms, managers balance trust and control, a collaborative relation and a more restricted. Interestingly, the dilemma between openness and the risk of knowledge leakage is more or less managed within the knowledge integration mechanisms themselves, not primary by relying on external transactional governance mechanisms.

  • 91.
    Rosell, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melander, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    STRATEGIES FOR INTEGRATING SUPPLIER KNOWLEDGE IN INNOVATION – INTERNAL KNOWLEDGE ABSORPTION AND JOINT KNOWLEDGE ACCUMULATION2012Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 92.
    Rosell, David T
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Collaborative innovation with suppliers – A conceptual model for characterizing supplier contributions to NPD2012In: International Journal of Technology Intelligence and Planning (IJTIP), ISSN 1740-2832, E-ISSN 1740-2840, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 197-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that suppliers contribute positively to innovation in New Product Development (NPD). However, it remains rather unclear what suppliers actually contribute to innovation. Based on a literature review focusing on 80 articles and a focus group meeting with strategic purchasing managers, a conceptual framework is developed categorising different supplier inputs to innovation. This model is formulated by characterising supplier inputs on a component level and an architectural level, related to knowledge extension and knowledge reconfiguration, respectively. Further, supplier inputs can be incremental or radical in nature, resulting in either a dependence on the supplier’s process knowledge or the supplier’s technology knowledge. These situations imply different conditions for knowledge integration.

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  • 93.
    Rosell, David T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Collaborative innovation with suppliers: a conceptual model for characterising supplier contributions to NPD2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely acknowledged that suppliers contribute positively to innovation in New Product Development (NPD). However, it remains rather unclear what suppliers actually contribute to innovation. Based on a literature review focusing on 80 articles and a focus group meeting with strategic purchasing managers, a conceptual framework is developed categorising different supplier inputs to innovation. This model is formulated by characterising supplier inputs on a component level and an architectural level, related to knowledge extension and knowledge reconfi guration, respectively. Further, supplier inputs can be incremental or radical in nature, resulting in either a dependence on the supplier’s process knowledge or the supplier’s technology knowledge. These situations imply different conditions for knowledge integration.

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  • 94.
    Rosell, David T
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dabhilkar, Mandar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bengtsson, Lars
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Purchasing Capabilities for Supplier Innovation in New Product Development2011In: Proceedings of the 18th International Product Development Management Conference, Delft, 5-7 June, 2011, Delft, The Netherlands, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Getting innovation out of suppliers requires the internal absorption of supplier knowledge. Few studies have analyzed the role of the purchasing function for realizing this innovation potential. The purpose of the paper is to explore the effect of purchasing capabilities on supplier innovation in relation to different supplier product categories and taking into account innovation performance as a strategic priority moderating the relationship. The results of the paper are based on the international purchasing survey (IPS). The results confirm that purchasing capabilities are important for realizing supplier innovation. For strategic products, the effect of purchasing capabilities is leveraged when the firm focuses strategically on innovation. In contrast, for bottleneck and routine products, purchasing capabilities are leveraged when there is a low focus on innovation in the firm. Consequently, firms need to prepare purchasing with the right capabilities to ensure their contribution to the innovation process and the external integration with suppliers.

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  • 95.
    Rosell, David T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Melander, Lisa
    Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Integrating supplier knowledge in new product development projects: decoupled and coupled approaches2017In: Journal of Knowledge Management, ISSN 1367-3270, E-ISSN 1758-7484, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 1035-1052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore and characterize knowledge integration approaches for integrating external knowledge of suppliers into new product development projects. Design/methodology/approach - This paper is based on a multiple, in-depth case study of six product development projects at three knowledge-intensive manufacturing firms. Findings - Firms make purposeful choices to devise knowledge integration approaches when working in collaborative buyer - supplier projects. The knowledge characteristics of the supplier input guide the choice of either coupling knowledge sharing and combining across firms or decoupling knowledge sharing (across firms) and knowledge combining (within firms). Research limitations/implications - This study relies on a limited number of case studies and considers only one supplier relationship in each project. Further studies could examine the challenge of knowledge integration in buyer - supplier relationships in different contexts, i.e. in relation to innovation complexity and uncertainty. Practical implications - Managers need to make choices when designing knowledge integration approaches in collaborative product development projects. The use of coupled and decoupled approaches can help balance requirements in terms of joint problem-solving across firms, the efficiency of knowledge integration and the risks of knowledge leakage. Originality/value - The conceptualization of knowledge integration as knowledge sharing and knowledge combining extends existing perspectives on knowledge integration as either a transfer of knowledge or as revealing the presence of pertinent knowledge without entirely transmitting it. The findings point to the complexity of knowledge integration as a process influenced by knowledge characteristics, perspectives on knowledge, openness of firm boundaries and elements of knowledge sharing and combining.

  • 96.
    Rosell, David T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wasti, Nazli
    Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Capturing supplier knowledge in new product development: the effects of trust2012In: IPSERA 2012 Conference Proceedings, Purchasing & Supply Management in a Changing World / [ed] Emilio Esposito, Pietro Evangelista, Giovanni Pastore and Mario Raffa, Napoli, Italy: Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane (Napoli) , 2012, p. WP58 – 1-WP58 – 12Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trust has been found to be important for integrating suppliers´ knowledge in new product development (NPD). Different degrees of trust have different consequences for NPD. This paper investigates the effects of trust for capturing supplier knowledge in NPD in different situations. Two different NPD collaborations, identified as polar cases, are studied. The findings indicate differences in knowledge integration practices related to time scope and depth of the collaboration as a consequence of different types of trust. There are two main contributions from these findings. First, different types of trust are emphasized in different types of supplier collaborations. Second, the type of trust is associated with differences in knowledge integration practices expressed in time scope and depth of the collaboration. Relational trust creates conditions for joint knowledge integration in interactive and joint processes, whereas competence-based trust is associated with accessing and capturing knowledge.

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    Capturing supplier knowledge in new product development: the effects of trust
  • 97.
    Rosell, David T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wasti, S. Nazli
    Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Capturing Supplier Knowledge in New Product Development: The Role of TrustManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – When manufacturing firms source components and subsystems from suppliers, the R&D – manufacturing interface becomes not only a company internal matter, but crosses organizational borders. Consequently, suppliers fulfill and important role in the interface between R&D and manufacturing as their knowledge needs to be accessed and used. Trust has been found to be important for integrating suppliers´ knowledge in new product development (NPD). This paper specifically investigates the role of trust for capturing supplier knowledge in NPD in different situations.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on qualitative case studies of two polar NPD collaborations at one company, in order to study the role of trust in different situations. Findings - Different types of trust promote different types of knowledge integration, either capturing supplier knowledge by accessing it or accumulating new knowledge by joint knowledge integration.

    Practical implications - In order to manage the interface between suppliers and manufacturing firms, management has to consider the prerequisites provided by the type of trust and the requirements of the development project. When interfaces with suppliers need to be based on joint learning, a profound level of trust is necessary as the interface relies on interpersonal contacts between trustworthy individuals. In contrast, a basic level of trust is a prerequisite for an interface designed around a commercial deal. In this situation, technological interfaces might be adequate as supporting mechanisms.

    Originality/value - The paper contributes and adds new insights to previous literature that emphasizes the importance of trust in NPD collaborations by distinguishing between different levels of trust in different interfaces with suppliers. It also bridges the gap between innovation and operations management, and clearly shows that the interface between R&D and manufacturing crosses organizational borders. Accessing and integrating suppliers’ knowledge is emphasized as an important challenge.

  • 98.
    Rosell, David T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wasti, S. Nazli
    Department of Business Administration, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.
    Integrating knowledge with suppliers at the R&D-manufacturing interface2014In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 240-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Many manufacturing firms source components and subsystems from suppliers. Consequently, the suppliers' product and manufacturing knowledge is a central concern at the interface between R&D and manufacturing. This paper aims to specifically investigate how supplier knowledge is integrated and what role trust plays in knowledge integration with suppliers at the R&D-manufacturing interface.

    Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on qualitative case studies of two different collaborations with suppliers at one firm.

    Findings – Two distinct processes are identified. First, capturing represents knowledge integration through decoupling, for which a basic level of trust specifically with regard to the competence of the supplier is necessary. Capturing can take place through interactions that are limited in time and scope. Second, joint learning represents a coupled knowledge integration process and takes place during a more extended period of time preceding and following the R&D-manufacturing interface and builds on relational-based trust.

    Practical implications – The interface between R&D and manufacturing needs to be extended to include a focus on suppliers' contributions in terms of product and manufacturing knowledge. The choice for suitable knowledge integration processes needs to be guided by concerns about the level of trust and the character of the supplier contributions.

    Originality/value – The paper adds new insights to previous literature by distinguishing between different types of knowledge integration processes and levels of trust. It bridges the gap between innovation and operations management and clearly shows that the interface between R&D and manufacturing crosses organizational borders.

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    Integrating knowledge with suppliers at the R&D-manufacturing interface
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  • 99.
    Rosell, David T.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Melander, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strategies For Managing Supplier Knowledge In Collaborative InnovationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of open innovation emphasizes the importance of inflow and outflow of ideas and resources for the competiveness of the firm. In fact, firms are becoming more and more dependent on external knowledge and collaborations. Therefore, more insight is required into external knowledge integration strategies in innovation. In this paper we aim to identify, and conceptually characterize, different strategies for integrating supplier knowledge in open and collaborative innovation. Six buyer-supplier collaborations in new product development (NPD) are studied. These cases represent explorative and exploitive processes for integrating supplier knowledge in the mid- and high-tech manufacturing industry. The findings indicate that traditional sequential NPD strategies and practices are not sufficient for managing open and collaborative innovation processes. Different strategies and additional practices need to be considered. In this study, two main strategies to manage supplier knowledge in innovation are identified and characterized, namely knowledge absorption and joint knowledge accumulation. The first strategy emphasizes technical interfaces for the access of knowledge and the second strategy the joint learning between the buyer and the supplier.

  • 100.
    Säfsten, Kristina
    et al.
    Jönköping Tekniska Högskola.
    Johansson, Glenn
    Jönköping Tekniska Högskola.
    Lakemond, Nicolette
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effektiv produktframtagning: Analys och hantering av osäkerhet2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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