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  • 51.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Freshmen's and Seniors' thougts about education, professional identity and work2003In: Educational Research, Risks and Dilemmas NZARE/AARE,2003, Auckland: Auckland College of Education , 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 52.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Carlsson, Ylva
    Vuxnas kommunikationsfärdigheter - En undersökning av hur väl vuxna förstår myndighets- och massmediaspråk samt vardagsmatematik1982Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 53.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Carlsson, Ylva
    Kuyumcu, Eija
    Larsson, Gunnar
    Grundutbildning för vuxna - En undersökning av utbildningen i fem kommuner1979Report (Other academic)
  • 54.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Carlsson, Ylva
    Lindgren, Runa
    Östlund, Rune
    Vuxenutbildning i Tanzania1980Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 55.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Freshmen's and Seniors' thoughts about Education, Professional identity and Work2004In: Educational Research, Risks, and Dilemmas, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Dyrdal Solbrekke, T.
    Lababidi, T.
    Meczkowska, A.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Senior students on Higher Education and Work Life2003Report (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Eklund, Lars
    Modeller för gemensam studie- och yrkesorientering inom vuxenutbildningen. Diskussionsrapport1976Report (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Eklund, Lars
    Syo för vuxna: behov, möjligheter, genomförande1979Report (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Handal, G.
    Lababidi, T.
    Cackowska, M.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Understanding the transition from Higher education to Work life2004Report (Other academic)
  • 60.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Johansson, F.
    Hartman, K.
    Val till högskolan - En studie av de överväganden som studerande med examen från gymnasieskolans natur eller tekniska program gjorde inför valet till högskolan1998Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 61.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Karlsson, Bernt
    Gymnasieskola i utveckling - länsrapport läsåret 1987/881988Report (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Karlsson, Bernt
    Reformarbetet i gymnasieskolan i Östergötlands län läsåret 1986/87 - utvärderingsrapport1987Report (Other academic)
  • 63.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Karlsson, Bo
    Larsson, Gunnar
    Möjegård, Kjell
    MASKA: matematik - svenska - skalning: en modell för undervisning och läromedelskonstruktion : mål och exempel avser grundutbildning för vuxna : delrapport 4 i ett samarbetsprojekt med Kriminalvårdsstyrelsens utbildningsenhet1978Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 64.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Mäkitalo, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olsson, Lars-Erik
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Paldanius, Sam
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Thång, Per Olof
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Drop-out från kommunal vuxenutbildning och dess orsaker.1996In: NFPFs kongress i Lillehammer, mars, 1996,1996, 1996Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Om de som avbröt föregångaren till kunskapslyftet

  • 65.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Mäkitalo, Åsa
    Institutionen för pedagogik Göteborgs universitet.
    Olsson, Lars-Erik
    Institutionen för pedagogik Göteborgs universitet.
    Paldanius, Sam
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Thång, Per-Olof
    Inst. för pedagogik Göteborgs universitet.
    Varför avstår arbetslösa från studieplats i kommunal vuxenutbildning?1997Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Hult, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lindblad Fridh, Marianne
    Högskolan Jönköping.
    Lindh Falk, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Thörne, Karin
    The County Council of Jönköping.
    Pedagogical processes in health care: an exploratory study of pedagogic work with patients and next of kin2009In: Education for Health, ISSN 1357-6283, E-ISSN 1469-5804, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Care and education have much in common, and work in the healthcare sector is closely associated with learning and teaching. It is felt that many in the healthcare and medical services are not aware of their pedagogic skills and how they can be developed. FRAME OF REFERENCE: Belonging to a community of practice means that you share perspectives, methods and language. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to describe the pedagogical discourse by identifying pedagogical processes and studying the staffs awareness of such processes or situations in which a pedagogical approach would be useful in their work with patients and next of kin. METHOD: A qualitative study based on individual and group interviews. The analysis is directed by grounded theory. RESULTS: The pedagogical processes varied in length and quality. Most were unplanned and were usually embedded in treatment. The pedagogical process is linear (planning, goal setting, teaching and evaluating) in an educational setting but we found that the beginning and end can be unclear and the goals can be vague or non-existent. The pedagogical process is best described using the concepts Read, Guide and Provide learning support. DISCUSSION: The pedagogical discourse in healthcare is almost silent. Data indicate that at the collective level there is very little support for professional development of pedagogical ability. Tacit knowledge may therefore remain silent even though it may be possible to formulate and describe it. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong need to focus on the pedagogical parts of the work and to encourage and support the development of professional pedagogical knowledge.

  • 67.
    Hult, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att fuska och plagiera: Ett sätt att leva eller ett sätt att överleva?2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I bakgrundsbeskrivningen visas att en majoritet av amerikanska stu-denter själva uppger att de har fuskat någon gång, men att det inte  finns säkra belägg för att säga att fusk procentuellt sett har ökat.  Ar-tiklar antyder att fusk i form av plagiat troligen har blivit vanligare. Fusket verkar ha tagit sig delvis nya former och därför finns det an-ledning att försöka kartlägga och beskriva detta och att se vad som görs för att förhindra eller minimera fusk i allmänhet och plagiering i synnerhet. Det sägs ju att tillfället gör tjuven och därför finns det all anledning att se på vilka sätt den högre utbildningen genom exempel-vis pedagogiska former och examinationsformer ställer tillfällen ”till förfogande”. En rapport om fusk och plagiat inom den högre utbild-ningen kan lätt bli normativ och full med pekpinnar. Meningen är inte den utan snarare

    • att förstå vad som sker
    • att försöka besvara frågan om fusk och plagiat har ökat
    • att studera om fusk och plagiat har tagit sig nya former
    • att se om vi i utbildningen behöver tänka och agera på annat sätt.
    Download full text (pdf)
    Att fuska och plagiera : Ett sätt att leva eller ett sätt att överleva?
  • 68.
    Johannesson, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Medical Pedagogics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Medical Pedagogics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Medical Pedagogics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Simulating the real - manual clinical skills training: Conditions and practices of learning through simulation2013In: Realising exemplary practice-based education / [ed] Joy Higgs, Rotterdam, Nederländerna: Sense Publishers, 2013, p. 187-194Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For educators, scholars, practitioners and researchers this book offers an opportunity to explore and engage with practice-based education theories and concepts in real life teaching spaces. It is a place to see theory embodied and situated within PBE practices. It is also an opportunity to see how educators and scholars from other disciplines are applying theory to understand teaching and learning in their particular area. This volume provides an opportunity for readers to deepen their understanding of practice-based education and broaden and critically appraise their strategies for engaging

  • 69.
    Johannesson, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Silén, Charlotte
    Centre for Medical Education, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Students’ experiences of learning manual clinical skills through simulation2013In: Advances in Health Sciences Education, ISSN 1382-4996, E-ISSN 1573-1677, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 99-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning manual skills is a fundamental part of health care education, and motor, sensory and cognitive learning processes are essential aspects of professional development. Simulator training has been shown to enhance factors that facilitate motor and cognitive learning. The present study aimed to investigate the students’ experiences and thoughts about their learning through simulation skills training. The study was designed for an educational setting at a clinical skills centre. Ten thirdyear undergraduate nursing students performed urethral catheterisation, using the virtual reality simulator UrecathVision™, which has haptic properties. The students practised in pairs. Each session was videotaped and the video was used to stimulate recall in subsequent interviews. The interviews were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The analysis from interviews resulted in threethemes: what the students learn, how the students learn, and the simulator’s contribution to the students’ learning. Students learned manual skills, how to perform the procedure, and professional behaviour. They learned by preparing, watching, practising and reflecting. The simulator contributed by providing opportunities for students to prepare for the skills training, to see anatomical structures, to feel resistance, and to become aware of their own performance ability. The findings show that the students related the task to previous experiences, used sensory information, tested themselves and practised techniques in a hands-on fashion, and reflected in and on action. The simulator was seen as a facilitator to learning the manual skills. The study design, with students working in pairs combined with video recording, was found to enhance opportunities for reflection.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 70. Johansson, K.
    et al.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    The Janus Face of Political Science Studies. Junior and senior students' thoughts about their education and their coming profession2005Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 71.
    Johansson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hård af Segerstad, Helene
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The two Faces of Political Science Studies: Junior and Senior students' thoughts about their education and their future profession2008In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 623-636Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article reports on an empirical small scaled interview study among junior and senior students in the political science programme in a Swedish University. The aim is to describe how students at various stages of their studies conceive of their education as well as their future professional life. Questions about their identity as students have also been posed. The results indicate that a programme with a major emphasis on political science appears to have two different faces as experienced by the students. The first half of the programme is experienced as traditional liberal arts studies, i.e., the students enrol in a ‘personal bildung project’ and conceive of political scientists as a kind of watchdog for democracy. Students in the latter part of their studies report an emerging identity as investigators and civil servants and an appreciation of the parts of the studies that enhance their generic skills.

  • 72.
    Larsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Boozon, Stellan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Laginder, Ann-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Vuxnas lärande - en profil vid Linköpings universitet1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En rapport som utgör ett underlag för filosofisk fakultets beslut om startegi för området vuxnas lärande, t. exstart av forskarskola, interkontinental master och andra synergier mellan olika grupper, som verkar på området.

  • 73.
    Lindh Falk, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Hopwood, Nick
    University of Technology Sydney, Australia .
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    One site fits all? A student ward as a learning practice for interprofessional development2013In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 476-481Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interprofessional training wards (IPTWs), aiming to enhance interprofessional collaboration, have been implemented in medical education and evaluated over the last decade. The Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University has, in collaboration with the local health provider, arranged such training wards since 1996, involving students from the medical, nursing, physiotherapy, and occupational therapy programs. Working together across professional boundaries is seen as a necessity in the future to achieve sustainable and safe healthcare. Therefore, educators need to arrange learning contexts which enhance students interprofessional learning. This article shows aspects of how the arrangement of an IPTW can influence the students collaboration and learning. Data from open-ended questions from a questionnaire survey, during autumn term 2010 and spring term 2011 at an IPTW, was analyzed qualitatively using a theoretical framework of practice theory. The theoretical lens gave a picture of how architectures of the IPTW create a clash between the "expected" professional responsibilities and the "unexpected" responsibilities of caring work. Also revealed was how the proximity between students opens up contexts for negotiations and boundary work. The value of using a theoretical framework of professional learning in practice within the frames of healthcare education is discussed.

  • 74.
    Mäkitalo, Åsa
    et al.
    Inst. för pedagogik Göteborgs universitet.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Olsson, Lars-Erik
    Institutionen för pedagogik Göteborgs universitet.
    Paldanius, Sam
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Thång, Per-Olof
    Institutionen för pedagogik Göteborgs universitet.
    Arbetslöshet eller utbildning. Om rekrytering av arbetslösa till komvux1997Report (Other academic)
  • 75.
    Nyström, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Håkan, Hult
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    From 'there' to 'here' to 'elsewhere: Enacting debriefing in interprofessional medical education simulation2014In: Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, ISSN 1559-2332, E-ISSN 1559-713X, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 422-422, article id Board #144Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis:

    Simulation is gaining international interest as a way to arrange a safe environment for practicing clinical, communicative and interprofessional competence in professional education within health care. However, simulation was originally developed to support and train professionals. The application of medical simulation in interprofessional education for students is still underresearched and undertheorised (1). Recent research and theory argue that professional learning in simulation is embodied, relational, and situated in social-material relations (2,3). Research on how instructional design of simulation as an integrated part of professional curricula support student learning is needed (4), as well as research focusing on what the relevant characteristics of debriefing that lead to effective learning are (1). The aim of this study is to explore the enactment of debriefing as a support for learning in interprofessional medical education simulation.

    Methods:

    This paper draw on findings from a large research project conducted by research environments at Linköping University (LiU), Karolinska Institute (KI) and University of Gothenburg (GU), Sweden. The data have been collected by standardised video recordings of all phases in the simulation (briefing, simulation and debriefing phases). Totally 30 simulation sessions were video recorded, 10
 sessions by each research team. Out of these recordings, 13 simulation sessions were professional teams and 17 sessions were nursing and medical students simulating as a compulsory part of their education in the last semester before graduation. The student sessions are around 18 hours of recordings and altogether 106 students, 71 females and 35 males, participated in the simulation either as active participants in the simulation or as observers. 66 were nursing students and 40 were medical students. The research project has been ethically approved by Linköping University, Sweden (Dnr 2012/439-31).

    Results:

    A framework for the analysis of the video recordings was developed on the basis of socio-material theory, with a particular focus on interprofessional collaboration. Sayings, doings and relatings in the debriefing with regard to specific activities or events during the sequence of the scenario were noted through ethnographic field notes and selected segments were transcribed (5). A purposeful constant comparative qualitative analysis (6) was made in three steps comparing sequences of the scenario 1) within a single video recording 2) between different video recordings of the same scenario 3) between video recordings of different scenarios. The findings suggest that interprofessional learning in medical education simulation can become jeopardised in the debriefing. Three interrelated aspects of lacking support for learning were identified, a) debriefing as algorithm or as laisséz-faire, b) neglect of team performance as a topic for reflection, and c) time constraints.

    Conclusion:

    The results raise questions whether debriefing in medical simulation as modelled on training of qualified health professionals provides a useful framework applied in undergraduate education with students learning to become health professionals. The experiences of the simulation ‘there’ are intended to become re-contextualised in the debriefing ‘here’. Our findings indicate that the socio-material arrangements of the debriefing instead risk taking the students ‘elsewhere’.  Structure or lack of structure of the debriefing seem both to jeopardise the support of interprofessional learning or even overlook interprofessional collaboration as a topic for reflection. The time constraints of the complex logistics of arranging interprofessional simulation-based education as a regular curricular activity for large classes can potentially turn debriefing into a superficial exercise with little or no connection to the intended learning outcomes.

    REFERENCES

    1) Issenberg B. Ringsted C. Østergaard D. Dieckmann P. Setting a Research Agenda for Simulation-Based Healthcare Education. A Synthesis of the Outcome From an Utstein Style Meeting. Sim Healthcare 2011; 6:155–167.

    2) Nyström S. Dahlberg J. Hult H. Crossing locations of enacting and observing simulations: Ways of constructing interprofessional learning. Paper to be presented at the Second International ProPEL conference 'Professional Matters: Materialities and Virtualities of Professional Learning', University of Stirling, UK; 2014, 25-27 June.

    3) Schatzki T. The site of the social: A philosophical account of the constitution of social life and change. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press; 2002.

    4) Motola I, Sullivan J, Issenberg S, Devine L, Chung H. Simulation in healthcare education: A best evidence practical guide. AMEE Guide No. 82. Medical Teacher [serial online]. October 1, 2013;35(10):e1511-e1530.

    5) Heath C. Hindmarsh J. Luff P. Video in qualitative research: analysing social interaction in everyday life. Los Angeles: SAGE; 2010.

    6) Boeije H. A Purposeful Approach to the Constant Comparative Method in the Analysis of Qualitative Interviews. Quality & Quantity 2002; 36:391–409.

  • 76.
    Nyström, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Continuing professional development: pedagogical practices of interprofessional simulation in health care2017In: Studies in Continuing Education, ISSN 0158-037X, E-ISSN 1470-126X, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 303-319Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing complexity of health care practice makes continuing professional development (CPD) essential for health care professionals. Simulation-based training is a CPD activity that is often applied to improve interprofessional collaboration and the quality of care. The aim of this study is to explore simulation as a pedagogical practice for the CPD of health care professionals. Specifically, the study focuses on how a professional development activity, the simulation, is enacted to support interprofessional collaboration and learning. A practice theory perspective is used as the theoretical framework. In this, the professional practice is conceptualised as being embodied, relational and situated in sociomaterial arrangements. Ten introduction and reflection sessions following interprofessional full-scale manikin-based simulations with professionals were video-recorded. The recordings were analysed following a stepwise qualitative collaborative approach developed for the purpose. The key findings suggest that the professional competence activity is enacted and interconnected with and governed by historical traditions of institutional teaching practices as well as simulation practices. Despite the intentions of team and interprofessional training, the institutional teaching and simulation practices constrain and hinder the intended outcomes of professional development in interprofessional collaboration.

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  • 77.
    Nyström, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Edelbring, Samuel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Debriefing practices in interprofessional simulation with students: A sociomaterial perspective2016In: BMC Medical Education, ISSN 1472-6920, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 16, no 148, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The debriefing phase is an important feature of simulation activities for learning. This study applies a sociomaterial perspective on debriefing in interprofessional simulation with medical and nursing students. Sociomaterial perspectives are increasingly being used in order to understand professional practice and learning in new ways, conceptualising professional practice as being embodied, relational and situated in sociomaterial relations. The aim of the study is to explore how debriefing is carried out as a practice supporting students’ interprofessional learning.

    Methods: Eighteen debriefing sessions following interprofessional full-scale manikin-based simulation with nursing and medical students from two different universities were video-recorded and analysed collaboratively by a team of researchers, applying a structured scheme for constant comparative analysis.

    Results: The findings show how debriefing is intertwined with, and shaped by social and material relationships. Two patterns of enacting debriefing emerged. Debriefing as algorithm was enacted as a protocol-based, closed inquiry approach. Debriefing as laissez-faire was enacted as a loosely structured collegial conversation with an open inquiry approach.

    Conclusion: The findings indicate that neither an imposed structure of the debriefing, nor the lack of structure assured interprofessional collaboration to emerge as a salient topic for reflection, even though that was an explicit learning objective for the simulation. 

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  • 78.
    Nyström, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Enacting simulation: A sociomaterial perspective on students’ interprofessional collaboration2016In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 441-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-scale simulation exercises are becoming more common as an educational feature of the under- graduate training of health professionals. This study explores how interprofessional collaboration is enacted by the participating students. Practice theory is used as the theoretical framework for a field study of two naturalistic educational settings, when medical and nursing students come together to practice in a simulated emergency situation, where a manikin is replacing the patient. Eighteen sessions of simulations were observed, and data were collected through standardised video recordings that were analysed collaboratively. To ensure transparency and scientific rigour, a stepwise constant comparative analysis was conducted, in which individual observations within and across single video recordings were compared, negotiated and eventually merged. The findings show that the student teams relate to the manikin as a technical, medical, and human body, and that interprofessional knowings and enactments emerge as a fluid movement between bodily positioning in synchrony and bodily positioning out of synchrony in relation to the sociomaterial arrangements. The findings are related to contemporary theorisations of practice comprising an integrated view of body and mind, and it is discussed how the findings can be used in simulation exercises to support participants’ learning in new ways. 

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  • 79.
    Nyström, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Observing of interprofessional collaboration in simulation: A socio-material approach2016In: Journal of Interprofessional Care, ISSN 1356-1820, E-ISSN 1469-9567, Vol. 30, no 6, p. 710-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation exercises are becoming more common as an educational feature of the undergraduate training of health professionals. Not all students participate in these activities, but are assigned as observers of the actual simulation. This article presents a study that explored how social-material arrangements for observation of interprofessional collaboration in a simulated situation are enacted and how these observations are thematised and made relevant for learning. The empirical data consisted of 18 standardised video recordings of medical and nursing students observing their peer students simulate. Practice theory is used to show how observation is embodied, relational, and situated in social-material relations. The findings show two emerging ways of enacting observation—proximate observation and distant observation. The enactments are characterised by different socio-material arrangements concerning the location where the simulation took place and its material set-up as well as embodied “doings” and “relatings” between the observing students and instructors. The observing students are participating in a passive, normative position as an audience and as judges of what is correct professional behaviour.

  • 80.
    Paldanius, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Mäkitalo, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olsson, Lars-Erik
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Thång, Per Olof
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olika betydelser av kommunal vuxenutbildning för arbetslösa1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Intervjuer av 303 arbetslösa som utbildats om deras erfarenheter av utbildningen och dess konsekvenser.

  • 81.
    Sjolin, Helena
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Soder Sjukhuset, Sweden.
    Lindstrom, Veronica
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Academic EMS, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Ringsted, Charlotte
    University of Toronto, Canada; University of Toronto, Canada; University of Health Network, Canada.
    Kurland, Lisa
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Soder Sjukhuset, Sweden.
    What an ambulance nurse needs to know: A content analysis of curricula in the specialist nursing programme in prehospital emergency care2015In: International Emergency Nursing, ISSN 1755-599X, E-ISSN 1878-013X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 127-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, ambulances must be staffed by at least one registered nurse. Twelve universities offer education in ambulance nursing. There is no national curriculum for detailed course content and there is a lack of knowledge about the educational content that deals with the ambulance nurse practical professional work. The aim of this study was to describe the content in course curricula for ambulance nurses. A descriptive qualitative research design with summative content analysis was used. Data were generated from 49 courses in nursing and medical science. The result shows that the course content can be described as medical, nursing and contextual knowledge with a certain imbalance with largest focus on medical knowledge. There is least focus on nursing, the registered nurses main profession. This study clarifies how the content in the education for ambulance nurses in Sweden looks today but there are reasons to discuss the content distribution.

  • 82.
    Stenfors-Hayes, T
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Three ways of understanding development as a teacher2012In: European journal of dental education, ISSN 1396-5883, E-ISSN 1600-0579, Vol. 16, no 1, p. e151-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on faculty in terms of teaching are increasing, but until recently there has been little discussion of how faculty perceive that development as a teacher can be achieved or what approaches they use or suggest themselves. The aim of this study is to explore how teachers in dentistry and medicine understand development as teachers. For this study, 20 teachers were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Three different ways of understanding development were identified: 1) Development as a dental or medical clinician/expert as the teacher role is seen as a tacit part of the role of the clinician. 2) Experience and professional and personal maturation, related to personal and professional development and confidence in ones clinical role. 3) Knowledge in education and systematic teacher training as in this category, being a teacher is seen as a separate role from that of being a clinician. The differences in these three ways of understanding development as a teacher are shown in their different aims of development, what kind of knowledge that may be used and what methods they suggested. The way teachers understand what it means to develop as a teacher will affect their motivation for engaging in development activities, which activities they choose and their own aims of development. This means that awareness of teachers understanding of development is central when developing support or faculty development activities for teachers.

  • 83.
    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A phenomenographic approach to research in medical education2013In: Medical Education, ISSN 0308-0110, E-ISSN 1365-2923, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 261-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context  Phenomenography is a qualitative approach to research which has revolutionised the way that researchers and teachers think about the processes and outcomes of learning in higher education. Phenomenography has also been used successfully in medical and health care research for the last 20 years. Phenomenography provides a lens through which to view certain types of research question. It also provides direction for how to empirically carry out the research.

    Methods  This paper introduces phenomenography as a viable qualitative approach for use in medical education research.

    Results  A phenomenographic study maps the qualitatively different ways in which people experience a phenomenon. This type of study can have an important impact on, for example, patient communication, clinical practice and health care education.

    Conclusion  We suggest that a phenomenographic approach can be used to explore many medical education research issues, and can facilitate more solid links between research and educational development and change.

  • 84.
    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    What does it mean to be a good teacher and clinical supervisor in medical education?2011In: ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION, ISSN 1382-4996, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 197-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe the different ways medical teachers understand what constitutes a good teacher and a good clinical supervisor and what similarities and differences they report between them. Data was gathered through interviews with 39 undergraduate teachers at a medical university. The transcripts were analysed using a phenomenographic approach. Three categories regarding what it means to be a good teacher and clinical supervisor respectively were identified. Similarities between the two hierarchies were seen with the most inclusive categories of understanding what it means to be a good teacher or supervisor focuses on students learning or growth. In the third category a good teacher and supervisor is seen as someone who conveys knowledge or shows how things are done. However, the role of being a clinical supervisor was perceived as containing a clearer focus on professional development and role modelling than the teacher role did. This is shown in the middle category where a good clinical supervisor is understood as a role model and someone who shares what it is like to be a doctor. The middle category of understanding what it means to be a good teacher instead focussing on the teacher as someone who responds to students content requests in a partially student-centred perspective. In comparing the ways individual respondents understood the two roles, this study also implies that teachers appear to compartmentalise their roles as teachers and clinical supervisors respectively.

  • 85.
    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    What does it mean to be a mentor in medical education?2011In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 33, no 8, p. E423-E428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ackground: Mentor programmes are becoming increasingly common in undergraduate education. However, the meaning attached to being a mentor varies significantly. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanAim: The aim of this study is to explore how teachers in medical and dental education understand their role as mentors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethod: Twenty mentors in two different mentor programmes for undergraduate medical and dental students were interviewed. The transcripts were analysed using a phenomenographic approach. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: The findings comprise three qualitatively different ways of understanding what it means to be a mentor, which are described as: (1) a mentor is someone who can answer questions and give advice, (2) a mentor is someone who shares what it means to be a doctor/dentist, and (3) a mentor is someone who listens and stimulates reflection. The way the mentors understood their role also affected what they did as mentors, their relationships with their mentees and their perceived benefits as mentors. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions: Being a mentor can be perceived in qualitatively different ways also within the same mentor programme. This understanding affects the mentors actions, their relationships with their mentees and their perceived benefits of being a mentor. Awareness of ones own understanding is important in improving practices and the findings of this study can be used by mentors, teachers and educational developers to facilitate improved effectiveness in mentor programmes, both for mentors and mentees.

  • 86.
    Stenfors-Hayes, Terese
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Kalen, Susanne
    Söder Sjukhuset.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hindbeck, Hans
    Karolinska Institute.
    Ponzer, Sari
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Being a mentor for undergraduate medical students enhances personal and professional development2010In: MEDICAL TEACHER, ISSN 0142-159X, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 148-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: This study aims to evaluate an undergraduate mentor programme from the mentors perspective, focusing particularly on the effect of mentorship, the relationships between mentoring and teaching and the mentors perceived professional and personal development. Methods: Data was gathered through a questionnaire to all 83 mentors (response rate 75%) and semi-structured interviews with a representative sample of 10 mentors. Results: Findings show, for example, that a majority of respondents developed their teaching as a result of their mentorship and improved their relations with students. Most respondents also claimed that being a mentor led to an increased interest in teaching and increased reflections regarding their own values and work practices. Conclusion: Being a mentor was perceived as rewarding and may lead to both personal and professional development.

  • 87.
    Thång, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Andersson, Per
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Larsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Mäkitalo, Åsa
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Olsson, Lars-Erik
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Paldanius, Sam
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education.
    Wass, Karin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Erfarenheter av utbildning för arbetslösa i kommunal vuxenutbildning1997In: Nordiska vuxenutbildningskonferensen Forskning i Norden,1997, 1997Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 88.
    Thörne, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Andersson Gäre, Boel
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The Dynamics of Physicians’ Learning and Support of Others’ Learning2014In: Professions & Professionalism, ISSN 1893-1049, E-ISSN 1893-1049, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning has been defined as a condition for improving the quality of healthcare practice. The focus of this paper is on physicians’ learning and their support of others’ learning in the context of Swedish healthcare. Data were generated through individual and focus group interviews and analyzed from a socio-material practice theory perspective. During their workday, physicians dynamically alternated between their own learning and their support of others’ learning in individual patient processes. Learning and learning support were interconnected with the versatile mobility of physicians across different contexts and their participation in multiple communities of collaboration and through tensions between responsibilities in healthcare. The findings illustrate how learning enactments are framed by the existing “practice architectures.” We argue that productive reflection on dimensions of learning enactments in practice can enhance physicians’ professional learning and improve professional practice.

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  • 89.
    Wilhelmsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Lars Owe
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wirell, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Radiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Ledin, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Oto-Rhiono-Laryngology and Head & Neck Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Josephson, Anna
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Phenomenographic study of basic science understanding-senior medical students' conceptions of fatigue2013In: Education for Health, ISSN 1357-6283, E-ISSN 1469-5804, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 156-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Helping students learn to apply their newly learned basic science knowledge to clinical situations is a long-standing challenge for medical educators. This study aims to describe how medical students' knowledge of the basic sciences is construed toward the end of their medical curriculum, focusing on how senior medical students explain the physiology of a given scenario. Methods A group of final-year medical students from two universities was investigated. Interviews were performed and phenomenographic analysis was used to interpret students' understanding of the physiology underlying the onset of fatigue in an individual on an exercise bicycle.

    RESULTS: Three categories of description depict the qualitatively different ways the students conceptualized fatigue. A first category depicts well integrated physiological and bio-chemical knowledge characterized by equilibrium and causality. The second category contains conceptions of finite amount of substrate and juxtaposition of physiological concepts that are not fully integrated. The third category exhibits a fragmented understanding of disparate sections of knowledge without integration of basic science and clinical knowledge.

    DISCUSSION: Distinctive conceptions of fatigue based with varying completeness of students' understanding characterized the three identified categories. The students' conceptions of fatigue were based on varying understanding of how organ systems relate and of the thresholds that determine physiological processes. Medical instruction should focus on making governing steps in biological processes clear and providing opportunity for causal explanations of clinical scenarios containing bio-chemical as well as clinical knowledge. This augments earlier findings by adding descriptions in terms of the subject matter studied about how basic science is applied by students in clinical settings.

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  • 90.
    Wilhelmsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Josephson, Anna
    Karolinska Institute.
    On the anatomy of understanding2011In: STUDIES IN HIGHER EDUCATION, ISSN 0307-5079, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 153-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In search for the nature of understanding of basic science in a clinical context, eight medical students were interviewed, with a focus on their view of the discipline of anatomy, in their fourth year of study. Interviews were semi-structured and took place just after the students had finished their surgery rotations. Phenomenographic analysis was used to explore how the students took on learning the subject matter. An understanding of anatomy comprising purely anatomical knowledge was found hard to discern in the interviews. The ways of understanding anatomy evolved into four categories: contextualisation, visualisation, selection and anatomical language. The informants developed two qualitatively different forms of understanding, conceptual and perceptual, when approaching the subject from a clinical point of view. Aspects of understanding in relation to the nature of anatomical knowledge are discussed.

  • 91.
    Wilhelmsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute.
    Dahlgren, Lars-Ove
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hult, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Scheja, Max
    Stockholm University.
    Lonka, Kirsti
    Karolinska Institute.
    Josephson, Anna
    Karolinska Institute.
    The anatomy of learning anatomy2010In: ADVANCES IN HEALTH SCIENCES EDUCATION, ISSN 1382-4996, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 153-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy. Second-year medical students were interviewed with a focus on their approach to learning and their way of organizing their studies in anatomy. Phenomenographic analysis of the interviews was performed in 2007 to explore the complex field of learning anatomy. Subjects were found to hold conceptions of a dual notion of the field of anatomy and the interplay between details and wholes permeated their ways of studying with an obvious endeavor of understanding anatomy in terms of connectedness and meaning. The students ways of approaching the learning task was characterized by three categories of description; the subjects experienced their anatomy studies as memorizing, contextualizing or experiencing. The study reveals aspects of learning anatomy indicating a deficit in meaningfulness. Variation in approach to learning and contextualization of anatomy are suggested as key-elements in how the students arrive at understanding. This should be acknowledged through careful variation of the integration of anatomy in future design of medical curricula.

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