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  • 51.
    Santangelo, M. F.
    et al.
    CNR, Italy.
    Libertino, S.
    CNR, Italy.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integrating printed microfluidics with silicon photomultipliers for miniaturised and highly sensitive ATP bioluminescence detection2018In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 99, p. 464-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioluminescence has been widely used for important biosensing applications such as the measurement of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy unit in biological systems and an indicator of vital processes. The current technology for detection is mainly based on large equipment such as readers and imaging systems, which require intensive and time-consuming procedures. A miniaturised bioluminescence sensing system, which would allow sensitive and continuous monitoring of ATP, with an integrated and low-cost disposable microfluidic chamber for handling of biological samples, is highly desirable. Here, we report the design, fabrication and testing of 3D printed microfluidics chips coupled with silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) for high sensitive real-time ATP detection. The 3D microfluidic chip reduces reactant consumption and facilitates solution delivery close to the SiPM to increase the detection efficiency. Our system detects ATP with a limit of detection (LoD) of 8 nM and an analytical dynamic range between 15 nM and 1 mu M, showing a stability error of 3%, and a reproducibility error below of 20%. We demonstrate the dynamic monitoring of ATP in a continuous flow system exhibiting a fast response time, similar to 4 s, and a full recovery to the baseline level within 17 s. Moreover, the SiPM-based bioluminescence sensing system shows a similar analytical dynamic range for ATP detection to that of a full-size PerkinElmer laboratory luminescence reader.

  • 52.
    Schmitz-Hertzberg, Sebastian-Tim
    et al.
    Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Potsdam, Germany.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lai, Kwok Kei
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, China.
    Teller, Carsten
    Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Potsdam, Germany.
    Bier, Frank
    Fraunhofer Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Potsdam, Germany.
    Multifactorial design of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) capsules with various release properties for differently sized filling agents2013In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 130, no 6, p. 4219-4228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hydrolytic degradation and corresponding content release of capsules made of poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) strongly depends on the composition and material properties of the initially applied copolymer. Consecutive or simultaneous release from capsule batches of combinable material compositions, therefore, offers high control over the bioavailability of an encapsulated drug. The keynote of this study was the creation of a superordinated database that addressed the correlation between the release kinetics of filling agents with different molecular weights from PLGA capsules of alternating composition. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–dextran (with molecular weights of 4, 40, and 2000 kDa) was chosen as a model analyte, whereas the copolymers were taken from various 50:50 PLGA, 75:25 PLGA, and polylactide blends. With reference to recent publications, the capsule properties, such as the size, morphology, and encapsulation efficiency, were further modified during production. Hence, uniform microdisperse and polydisperse submicrometer nanocapsules were prepared by two different water-in-oil-in-water emulsification techniques, and additional effects on the size and morphology were achieved by capsule solidification in two different sodium salt buffers. The qualitative and quantitative examination of the physical capsule properties was performed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Coulter counting techniques to evaluate the capsule size distribution and the morphological appearance of the different batches. The corresponding agent release was quantified by fluorescence measurement of the FITC–dextran in the incubation media and by the direct measurement of the capsule brightness via fluorescence microscopy. In summary, the observed agent release showed a highly controllable flexibility depending on the PLGA blends, preparation methods, and molecular weight of the used filling substances

  • 53.
    Tran, Ngo Bich Nga Nathalie
    et al.
    Charite, Germany.
    Knorr, Fanny
    Charite, Germany.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kwan Yee, Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Richter, Heike
    Charite, Germany.
    Meinke, Martina
    Charite, Germany.
    Lademann, Juergen
    Charite, Germany.
    Patzelt, Alexa
    Charite, Germany.
    Gradient-dependent release of the model drug TRITC-dextran from FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers in the hair follicles of porcine ear skin2017In: European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics, ISSN 0939-6411, E-ISSN 1873-3441, Vol. 116, p. 12-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hair follicle research is currently focused on the development of drug-loaded nanocarriers for the targeting of follicular structures in the treatment of skin and hair follicle-related disorders. In the present study, a dual-label nanocarrier system was implemented in which FITC-labeled BSA hydrogel nanocarriers loaded with the model drug and dye TRITC-dextran were applied topically to porcine ear skin. Follicular penetration and the distribution of both dyes corresponding to the nanocarriers and the model drug in the follicular ducts subsequent to administration to the skin were investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The release of TRITC-dextran from the particles was induced by washing of the nanocarriers, which were kept in a buffer containing TRITC-labeled dextran to balance out the diffusion of the dextran during storage, thereby changing the concentration gradient. The results showed a slightly but statistically significantly deeper follicular penetration of fluorescent signals corresponding to TRITC-dextran as opposed to fluorescence corresponding to the FITC-labeled particles. The different localizations of the dyes in the cross-sections of the skin samples evidenced the release of the model drug from the labeled nanoparticles. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 54.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wannapob, Rodtichoti
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Prince Songkla University, Thailand.
    Liu, Yu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sichuan Agriculture University, Peoples R China.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Potential-modulated Electrocapacitive Properties of Soft Microstructured Polypyrrole2017In: Electroanalysis, ISSN 1040-0397, E-ISSN 1521-4109, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 203-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructured materials are becoming important for high performance electrochemical device especially for energy storage due to their advantageous diffusion and flux properties. Utilizing a rationally designed hollow structured polypyrrole microparticles (PPyMPs) with controllable wall thicknesses of -110 to 340 nm, we observed a significant morphological effect on electrocapacitive kinetics of the PPyMPs modulated by the voltammetric potential window and scan rate. The thinhollow architecture of PPyMPs revealed significant enhancement of charge storage performance (up to 447%), high retention at high scan rate and faster charge/dis-charge kinetics compared to the thick-hollow PPyMPs due to the larger accessible surface area and decrease of diffusion length. These findings demonstrated the electrocapacitive kinetics performance of microstructured soft materials related to morphological effect modulated by operational conditions. Our study provides new insight on electrochemistry of soft electrode materials with controlled nanostructured morphology for understanding the mechanism of charge insertion and mass diffusion for the future development of high performance porous electrode material.

  • 55.
    Vagin, Mikhail Yu.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems.
    Jeerapan, Itthipon
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Hat Yai, Songkla, Thailand.
    Wannapob, Rodtichoti
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hat Yai, Songkla, Thailand.
    Thavarungkul, Panote
    Hat Yai, Songkla, Thailand.
    Kanatharana, Proespichaya
    Hat Yai, Songkla, Thailand.
    Anwar, Nargis
    Dublin Road, Dundalk, County Louth, Ireland.
    McCormac, Timothy
    Dublin Road, Dundalk, County Louth, Ireland.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemical and Optical Sensor Systems.
    Turner, Anthony P.F
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jager, Edwin W.H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wing Cheung, Mak
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Water-processable polypyrrole microparticle modules for direct fabrication of hierarchical structured electrochemical interfaces2016In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 190, p. 495-503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hierarchically structured materials (HSMs) are becoming increasingly important in catalysis, separation and energy applications due to their advantageous diffusion and flux properties. Here, we introduce a facile modular approach to fabricate HSMs with tailored functional conducting polypyrrole microparticles (PPyMP). The PPyMPs were fabricated with a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) template-assisted polymerization technique in aqueous media at room temperature, thus providing a new green chemistry for producing water-processable functional polymers. The sacrificial CaCO3 template guided the polymerization process to yield homogenous PPyMPs with a narrow size distribution. The porous nature of the CaCO3 further allows the incorporation of various organic and inorganic dopants such as an electrocatalyst and redox mediator for the fabrication of functional PPyMPs. Dawson-type polyoxometalate (POM) and methylene blue (MB) were chosen as the model electrocatalyst and electron mediator dopant, respectively. Hierarchically structured electrochemical interfaces were created simply by self-assembly of the functional PPyMPs. We demonstrate the versatility of this technique by creating two different hierarchical structured electrochemical interfaces: POM-PPyMPs for hydrogen peroxide electrocatalysis and MB-PPyMPs for mediated bioelectrocatalysis. We envision that the presented design concept could be extended to different conducting polymers doped with other functional organic and inorganic dopants to develop advanced electrochemical interfaces and to create high surface area electrodes for energy storage.

  • 56.
    Wannapob, Rodhichoti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Functional Microparticles – “LEGO” for Printable Bioelectronics2017In: 26th Anniversary World Congress on Biosensors (Biosensors), Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 27, p. 3-3Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Wannapob, Rodtichoti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Prince Songkla University, Thailand.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Jeerapan, Itthipon
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Prince Songkla University, Thailand.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pure Nanoscale Morphology Effect Enhancing the Energy Storage Characteristics of Processable Hierarchical Polypyrrole2015In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 31, no 43, p. 11904-11913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a new synthesis approach for the precise control of wall morphologies of colloidal polypyrrole microparticles (PPyMPs) based on a time-dependent template-assisted polymerization technique. The resulting PPyMPs are water processable, allowing the simple and direct fabrication of multilevel hierarchical PPyMPs films for energy storage via a self-assembly process, whereas convention methods creating hierarchical conducting films based on electrochemical polymerization are complicated and tedious. This approach allows the rational design and fabrication of PPyMPs with well-defined size and tunable wall morphology, while the chemical composition, zeta potential, and microdiameter of the PPyMPs are well characterized. By precisely controlling the wall morphology of the PPyMPs, we observed a pure nanoscale morphological effect of the materials on the energy storage performance. We demonstrated by controlling purely the wall morphology of PPyMPs to around 100 nm (i.e., thin-walled PPyMPs) that the thin-walled PPyMPs exhibit typical supercapacitor characteristics with a significant enhancement of charge storage performance of up to 290% compared to that of thick-walled PPyMPs confirmed by cyclic voltametry, galvanostatic charge-discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. We envision that the present design concept could be extended to different conducting polymers as well as other functional organic and inorganic dopants, which provides an innovative model for future study and understanding of the complex physicochemical phenomena of energy-related materials.

  • 58.
    Wannapob, Rodtichoti
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Prince Songkla University, Thailand.
    Vagin, Mikhail
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Yu
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Sichuan Agriculture University, Peoples R China.
    Thavarungkul, Panote
    Prince Songkla University, Thailand.
    Kanatharana, Proespichaya
    Prince Songkla University, Thailand.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Printable Heterostructured Bioelectronic Interfaces with Enhanced Electrode Reaction Kinetics by Intermicroparticle Network2017In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 9, no 38, p. 33368-33376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Printable organic bioelectronics provide a fast and cost-effective approach for the fabrication of novel biodevices, while the general challenge is to achieve optimized reaction kinetics at multiphase boundaries between biomolecules and electrodes. Here, we present an entirely new concept based on a modular approach for the construction of heterostructured bioelectronic interfaces by using tailored functional "biological microparticles" combined with "transducer micro particles" as modular building blocks. This approach offers high versatility for the design and fabrication of bioelectrodes with a variety of forms of interparticle spatial organization, from layered structures to more advance bulk heterostructured architectures. The heterostructured biocatalytic electrodes delivered twice the reaction rate and a six-fold increase in the effective diffusion kinetics in response to a catalytic model using glucose as the substrate, together with the advantage of shortened diffusion paths for reactants between multiple interparticle junctions and large active particle surface. The consequent benefits of this improved performance combined with the simple means of mass production are of major significance for the emerging printed electronics industry.

  • 59.
    Wen, Xiaogang
    et al.
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China .
    Xie, Yu-Tao
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Cheung, Kwan Yee
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Li, Xiao-Yuan
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Renneberg, Reinhard
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Shihe, Yang
    Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China.
    Dendritic nanostructures of silver: Facile synthesis, structural characterizations, and sensing applications2006In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 22, no 10, p. 4836-4842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Silver nanodendrites are synthesized by a simple surfactant-free method using a suspension of zinc microparticles as a heterogeneous reducing agent. Structural characterizations suggest the preferential growth along  <100>  and  <111>  directions by oriented attachment of silver nanocrystals in the diffusion limit, leading to the formation of silver nanodendrites 20−30 nm in stem and branch diameter and 5−50 μm in length. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering studies show that the silver nanodentrites give an intensive and enhanced Raman scattering when pyridine was used as a probing molecule. We have also demonstrated that the silver nanodendrites increase the sensitivity of an electrochemical glucose biosensor by as much as 1−2 orders of magnitude.

     

  • 60.
    Wing Cheung, Mak
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Layer-by-Layer (LbL) thin film: From conventional to advanced biomedical and bioanalytical applications2012In: Biomedical Materials and Diagnostic Devices / [ed] Ashutosh Tiwari, Murugan Ramalingam, Hisatoshi Kobayashi and Anthony P. F. Turner, John Wiley & Sons ; Scrivener Pub., , 2012, p. 101-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "The functional materials with the most promising outlook have the ability to precisely adjust the biological phenomenon in a controlled mode. Engineering of advanced bio- materials has found striking applications in used for biomedical and diagnostic device applications, such as cell separation, stem-cell, drug delivery, hyperthermia, automated DNA extraction, gene targeting, resonance imaging, biosensors, tissue engineering and organ regeneration"--Provided by publisher. 

  • 61.
    Wing Cheung, Mak
    et al.
    National University of Singapore.
    Cheung, Kwan Yee
    National University of Singapore.
    Trau, Dieter
    National University of Singapore.
    Influence of Different Polyelectrolytes on Layer-by-Layer Microcapsule Properties: Encapsulation Efficiency and Colloidal and Temperature Stability2008In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 20, no 17, p. 5475-5484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fabrication of colloidal and temperature stable microcapsules for encapsulation of biomolecules based on matrix-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) encapsulation by polyelectrolyte self-assembly has been demonstrated. In brief, the process is based on the emulsification of a hydrogel in warm oil for microdroplet formation. The hydrogel acts as a matrix for the later encapsulation process and can be loaded with biomolecules. After microdroplets of, for example, protein loaded hydrogel are formed by emulsification, cooling leads to solidification of the droplets to form microbeads, followed by encapsulation of the hydrogel microbeads with polyelectrolyte multilayers through an LbL self-assembly process to form polymeric capsules. Colloidal stability, encapsulation efficiency, and temperature stability of the LbL hydrogel microcapsules composed from different polyelectrolytes with various ionic strengths and charge densities have been studied. Microcapsules fabricated with strong polyelectrolytes showed better colloidal stability, while microcapsules fabricated with weak polyelectrolytes showed better encapsulation efficiency and temperature stability. After temperature treatment, microcapsules fabricated with different polyelectrolytes exhibited different morphological changes from complete rupturing over broken microcapsules with deformed hollow shells to intact microcapsules. Among all the studied polyelectrolyte pairs, the PAH/PSS polyelectrolyte system was found to be the best material to fabricate microcapsules with good colloidal and temperature stability and high encapsulation efficiency. Microcapsules with PSS as the outermost layer remained similar in size after temperature treatment, while microcapsules with PAH as the outermost layer shrunk by 76% in capsule volume. The present study provides a detailed overview on properties and design of LbL microcapsules as a function of polyelectrolyte materials and layer number. As a result of the versatility of loading LbL hydrogel microcapsules with various biomolecules or mixtures, potential applications are in the fields of diagnostics, drug delivery, and life sciences.

  • 62.
    Zaidon, Nuradawiyah
    et al.
    Int Islamic Univ, Malaysia.
    Mansor, Ahmad Fairuzabadi Mohd
    Int Islamic Univ, Malaysia.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ismail, Ahmad Faris
    Int Islamic Univ, Malaysia.
    Nordin, Anis Nurashikin
    Int Islamic Univ, Malaysia.
    Microfluidic Concentration Gradient for Toxicity Studies of Lung Carcinoma Cells2017In: BIOSENSORS 2016, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2017, Vol. 27, p. 153-154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 63.
    Zaidon, Nuradawiyah
    et al.
    Int Islamic University of Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Nurashikin Nordin, Anis
    Int Islamic University of Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Faris Ismail, Ahmad
    Int Islamic University of Malaysia, Malaysia.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Serpentine Microfluidic Structures for Concentration Gradient Generators2016In: Symposium on Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS (DTIP), 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents microfluidic concentration gradient generator having tree-like structures with implementation of laminar flow concept and small-scale mixing through diffusion inside its microchannel. The microchannels aim for constant flow rate at each outlet and is achieved by optimizing the channel lengths. The generation of concentration gradients is achieved at the outlet by simply tuning the flow rate and geometries of the microfluidics network. Variations in channel dimension and geometry demonstrates possible combinations of the microfluidics network is simulated using circuit simulator, PSpice and computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis software, Fluent 14.5. Next, PDMS-based microfluidic chips are fabricated by using soft lithography technique. The simulation and experimental results showed that the prominent mixing behaviour can be obtained inside the serpentine channels with constant flow rate at each outlet.

12 51 - 63 of 63
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