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  • 51.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg Sweden.
    Maack, Karl
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Emerging Open Models and Concepts of Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Sector2011In: Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2071-1395, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 5-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-tech innovation in a number of emerging and rapidly changing areas such as the pharmaceutical and bio-tech sectors, show signs of a movement from a closed to a more open innovation paradigm. This is primarily due to the possibility of rapid and unlimited communication through the Internet and the www, the increasing global availability of experts, the international reach of the venture capital market, as well as the increasing possibility and interest of external suppliers and interest groups to participate in new product and service development. As a result of this, novel forms of multisource open and user innovation models such as crowd-sourcing and crowd-casting are currently emerging. These new innovation concepts are based on global open innovation and development communities have emerged in several fields of science and business, such as e.g. in the information technologies and bio-medicine. Crowd sourcing and crowd casting are innovation concepts that are based on loosely formed groups of customers, users, scientific communities, or groups of experts who form and collectively shape product or process innovations within a specific innovation field or sector. These open platforms are altering and reforming previously closed innovation concepts to become more open, capable, innovative and cost-effective by using the "wisdom-of-crowds" concept.

    This paper describes different formats and potential ways by which emerging open multisource innovation paradigms may alter the pharmaceutical innovation and value creation process in the future. The paper is focusing on how the involvement of a variety of market actors, such as academics, innovators and entrepreneurs, pharmaceutical industry employees, patient advocacy groups, medical professional organizations, hospitals and insurance companies, will influence the common biomedical innovation process and product - market platform. The paper will also introduce a range of new innovation concepts and paradigms by discussing various emerging models of multi-source and open innovator platforms.

  • 52.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Thornblad, Tobias
    Dermafol AB, Sundsvall.
    Edgar, Boo
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet och ­Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Cowlrick, Ivor
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet .
    Olausson, Michael
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet .
    Lind, Lars
    Yield Life Science AB.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stora förändringar i den globala läkemedelsindustrin2012In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 109, no 7, p. 324-325Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den globala läkemedelsindustrin är under kraftig för- ändring. Under de senaste tio åren har 300 000 arbets- tillfällen lagts ner i »Big Pharma«. I stället utvecklas mindre, kreativa och »öppna« innovationsnätverk och organisationsstrukturer för att ta fram nya läkemedel, skriver Thomas Hedner och medförfattare.

  • 53.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thornblad, Tobias
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Remneland, Björn
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Open Innovation in the Biomedical Sector - An Alternative Approach to Organizational Value Extraction2011In: World Sustainable Development Outlook 2011 / [ed] A. Ahmed and M. Busler, 2011, p. 31-25Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Open innovation is a phenomenon gaining momentum amung pharmaceutical companies, university research consortia and other for-profit and non-profit organizations in order to address increasingly complex, uncertain and changing R&D projects. In medicine, open innovation projects may provide incentives for creativity, adaptability and easier access to knowledge as well as to generate quicker and cheaper innovation cycles for defined products and services. Also, projects and products may be better adjusted to the markets and provide flexible cost structures in developed as well as developing countries. There are today growing efforts for nonprofit foundations to participate and establish co-operation in complex research and development efforts such as bringing new medical drugs or new technology to public use. Interestingly, such incentives might open up for new and creative open innovation models. In this paper, we discuss how the open innovation model differs from the classical closed innovation model in respect tOj type of project, organizing aspects and value creation and value extraction aspects. We also illustrate 3 different value extraction concepts relating to open innovation in the pharmaceutical sector, representing different strategies and degrees of openness; the Medicine for Malaria Venture (MMV); InnovationXchange; and InnoCentive. Further, we discuss how the term "openness" can be understood in levels; in terms of the extent of control a collective upholds for ownership as well as the access and utilization of platform content that is jointly aggregated, created and developed. Collective innovation can be described as; open for all (openness with little, or no, limitations); open IP groups (openness within R&D groups); open IP projects (openness within R&D collaboration projects); open IP communities (openness within certain communities); and open IP platforms (structural arenas for openness). Our case examples illustrate how open innovation networks may provide new possibilities to generate value from academic - industrial networks. However, the open innovation model builds on involvement from a variety of external sources, such as independent researchers and experts, R&D institutes, universities and contract research organizations, customers, partner companies or even competitors. In the transition from a closed to an open innovation model, the pharmaceutical industry needs to develop flexible boundaries to allow a creative exchange of knowledge and experience from the outside to the inside of their organisation.

  • 54.
    Heydebreck, Peter
    et al.
    Inno AG, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krüger, Lars
    Engage – Key Technology Ventures AG, Rostock / Germany.
    F2C – An Innovative Approach to Use Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) for the Valuation of High-Technology Ventures2011In: Communications of the IBIMA, ISSN 1943-7765, E-ISSN 1943-7765, Vol. 2011, no Article ID 483882, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel method - F2C - that can process the only information available in the early stages of a young high-technology venture: linguistic expert knowledge. This knowledge is the basis for the determination of an appropriate discount rate for the valuation of high-technology ventures in early stages of venture capital investments. A specific tool named Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) is used therein to capture and depict the expert knowledge. Consequently, the FCM is transformed into a system of Fuzzy Inference Systems. These systems allow eventually obtaining a crisp value for the crucial parameter, the discount rate r. First practical applications were carried out valuing a biotechnology venture. The obtained results are promising, though the need for further research efforts became obvious.

  • 55.
    Heydebreck, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Maier, JC
    Innovation support for new technology-based firms: the Swedish Teknopol approach2000In: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 89-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Small and medium sized firms in general and new technology-based firms in particular, serve as promoters of future economical growth. Therefore, it is of crucial importance to understand and satisfy their needs for innovation support services in regard to both the type of service and quality of delivery (e.g. confidentiality, speed).(1) Drawing upon a database of 259 new technology-based firms (NTBF) and 106 researchers, we have identified four needs bundles: marketing, technology, financing and soft service support. We have evaluated the effectiveness of the Swedish Teknopol scheme to meet these needs based upon 35 in-depth interviews with NTBFs. The conclusions of the evaluation are presented both for policy makers and NTBF managers.

  • 56.
    Jones-Evans, D
    et al.
    University of Glamorgan Business School.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Andersson, Ewa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pandya, D
    University of Glamorgan Business School.
    Creating a Bridge between University and Industry in Small European Countries - The Role of the Industrial Liaison Office1999In: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 47-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequent and intermittent need for new scientific knowledge has resulted in an increasing focus on links between industry and academic institutions. This has been particularly pronounced in the flows of knowledge between the two partners, which may lead to considerable diffusion of scientific and technical knowledge, particularly into the small firm sector. This development could be of particular benefit to smaller peripheral economies, which have demonstrated low levels of indigenous industrial technological development. As a result, universities could become increasingly important for local economic development in smaller countries on the periphery of Europe. However, a greater understanding is required of the pro-active role that the university itself can play in developing strong linkages with industry, particularly through mechanisms such as the Industrial Liaison Office (ILO). In particular, there needs to be an examination of the strategies and policies that are undertaken to increase the process of technology transfer from academia into local indigenous business within smaller countries. This paper will therefore examine the role that universities play in the regional economic development in two contrasting small countries of Europe, namely Sweden and Ireland. Drawing on interviews with key individuals in the processes of technology transfer between academia and industry (including ILOs), as well as secondary data, it will examine the general role and function of the industrial liaison office and how this has changed. It will also discuss the involvement of the university in different types of industrial links, the main opportunities and barriers to the development of links between university and industry, the benefits to the university from industrial links, and the perception of industry’s assessment of the relationship with universities. The research will provide valuable insight into the role of universities in developing innovation and entrepreneurship within the smaller and peripheral countries of Europe and will determine whether these universities are undertaking a pro-active role in encouraging the growth of innovative indigenous industry. This may have significant policy implications, especially with regard to the development of specific regional programmes to encourage academic-based entrepreneurship.

  • 57.
    Jones-Evans, Dylan
    et al.
    University of Wales.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Role of the university in the technology transfer process: A European view1998In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 373-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies have examined the contributions made by universities to technological development in industry from the viewpoint of the recipient firm. However, very little detailed examination has been made of the proactive role that the university can play in developing strong linkages with industry, or of the strategies and policies that are undertaken to increase the process of technology transfer from academia into local indigenous business. Using three specific cases, this paper examines the role that universities play in regional economic development. The results show that technology transfer with industry is most effective when resources go to activities that are carried out in close cooperation with external actors and when the clear purpose of those activities is to satisfy real needs. Selective and goal-oriented initiatives are preferable to broad and unfocused programmes.

  • 58.
    Jones-Evans, Dylan
    et al.
    UWE Bristol.
    Klofsten, MagnusLinköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship.
    Technology, Innovation and Enterprise: The European Experience1997Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 59.
    Jones-Evans, Dylan
    et al.
    University of Wales.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Universities and local economic development: The case of Linköping1997In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 77-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increasing focus by policy‐makers on links between industry and academic institutions, universities have become important for local economic development in generating new and applied knowledge which can be used by indigenous high‐technology industry. As a number of studies have demonstrated, the stimulation of small technology‐based firms is one of the more relevant methods of undertaking efficient technology transfer from university to industry. This paper examines an example of this type of technology transfer in the Linköping region of Sweden, looking at the relationship between SMIL (a local association of small technology‐based firms) and the Centre for Innovation and Entrepreneurship (CIE) at Linköping University. The conclusion that can be drawn in the case of CIE‐SMIL is that a university, through a policy and strategy of delegating various tasks to smaller internal departments with focused activities, can successfully devote itself to external activities.

  • 60.
    Jones-Evans, Dylan
    et al.
    University of Glamorgan, UK.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindell, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Fast and Slow Growing Technology-Based Firms: Important Factors in their Early Development1996In: Effective entrepreneurship: recent research in European entrepreneurship : RENT VIII conference proceedings / [ed] Antii J. Haahti, Tampere: University of Tampere , 1996, p. 133-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Jones-Evans, Dylan
    et al.
    University of Glamorgan, UK.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pandya, Dipti
    Andersson, E.
    Linköping University.
    Bridging the Gap Between University and Industry: A Study of the Industrial Liaison Function in Sweden and Ireland1998In: New technology-based firms in the 1990s. Vol. 5 / [ed] Ray Oakey and Wim During, London: Paul Chapman , 1998, p. 32-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 62.
    Kirwan, P.M
    et al.
    Dutch Institute of Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship .
    van der Sijde, P
    Dutch Institute of Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship .
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Supporting High-Tech Companies: Using the Business Platform as a Practical Instrument2008In: The International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 48-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the support structures in the regions surrounding two European Universities, the University of Twente (UT) in the Netherlands and the University of Linkoping in Sweden, with an established track record in spinning out high-tech companies. This paper details programmes and activities undertaken by the Universities in an effort to create and foster entrepreneurship. This paper details support mechanisms which can be utilised by high-tech companies to aid them in reaching the highest level for each of the cornerstones in the business platform, thus providing a stronger footing from which the company can grow. In a comparison of the support structures surrounding the two Universities three support mechanisms have been identified, namely: training, coaching and networking. In conclusion, we offer recommendations for using these support mechanisms to other regions/universities and we further explain the differences and similarities between the two universities.

  • 63.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Affärsplattformen: Entreprenören och företagets första år2002 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppslag, idéer, kontrollsystem och checklistor gör boken till ett effektivt redskap för personer som avser att bli eller redan är företagare. Också användbar för andra aktörer, t ex investerare och banker, som är nära relaterade till företagandet.

  • 64.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Affärsplattformen: Entreprenören och Företagets Första År2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 65.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Affärsplattformen: entreprenören och företagets första år : nu med Idéplattformen2009 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppslag, idéer, kontrollsystem och checklistor gör boken till ett effektivt redskap för personer som avser att bli eller redan är företagare. Också användbar för andra aktörer, t ex investerare och banker, som är nära relaterade till företagandet.Denna titel har tidigare givits ut av SNS förlag men ingår numera i Studentlitteraturs sortiment.

  • 66.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Can Entrepreneurship be Taught? Supporting Academic Enterprise2006In: The Associated Universitites of the Northeast Conference on Entrepreneurship,2006, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 67.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Entrepreneurship2015In: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Quality and the Service Economy / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Thousand Oaks, CA, USA: Sage Publications, 2015, p. 204-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From the early1800s to over 30 years following World War II, a classical industrial economy dominated Europe and the US. In the 1980s, this classical form began to disintegrate, and new opportunities for the development of novel business forms began to appear. Classical thinking persisted in the aftermath of the Second World War in response to the need to rebuild economies ravaged during the struggle. The focus was on industrial and corporate management theories underlying the central role of large, multinational corporations, and it was some 30 years before the academic community began to show renewed interest in entrepreneurship theory. Numerous textbooks discuss the dominant lines of entrepreneurship theory, and many scholars have remarked on the need for a comprehensive theoretical framework of entrepreneurship that includes theoretical variables and the relationship between those variables. Entrepreneurship research has clearly had entrepreneurial processes, issues related to business opportunity concepts and firm creation as its main focus. Researchers appear to have not yet reached a consensus on a definition of entrepreneurship. Two approaches can be used to explore this issue. The first approach considers the historical progression of entrepreneurship theory while the second attempts to categorize the theories into groups based on specific lines of thinking. This entry shortly reviews these key theories and approaches in entrepreneurship with a main focus on the process approach. It also discusses, in line with the on-going debate, sustainability issues related to entrepreneurship. The chapter winds up with a discussion of the Klofsten’s “Business Platform Model” an example of a practical model for investigating and understanding early entrepreneurial development processes in firms and organizations.

  • 68.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Fem år med Venture Cup - en studie2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 69.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Från idé till marknad: En diskussion om entreprenörskapets villkor2005In: Innovation: Dynamik och Förnyelse i Ekonomi och Samhälle / [ed] Mats Benner, Staffan Laestadius, Bjørn T. Asheim, Birgitta Södergren, Magnus Klofsten, Åsa Lindholm Dahlstrand, Åke Uhlin, Arne Eriksson, Per Frankelius, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, p. 95-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens ekonomi är kunskapsintensiv och snabbt föränderlig. Ekonomisk tillväxt är alltmer beroende av innovationer, av nya idéer, produkter och sätt att producera, marknadsföra och konsumera. Några exempel på innovationer som förändrat vår värld är elektriciteten, lasern, informationsteknologin och Internet. Men innovationer kan också bestå i gradvisa förbättringar av produktion och distribution. Innovationer uppstår inte i isolering utan i samverkan mellan företag, konsumenter, politiker, marknader och regelverk. Innovationer förnyar ekonomin, men utmanar också etablerade positioner för företag, regioner, nationer och för den enskilde. Att förstå vad innovationer är och hur de uppkommer är därför nödvändigt för den som vill förstå hur moderna ekonomier utvecklas. Innovationer ger en klargörande bild av vad innovationer är, hur de uppkommer, sprids och används. Författarna är samtliga ledande företrädare för svensk innovationsforskning. Boken tar upp innovationsforskningens rötter, betydelsen av plats och rum för innovationer, innovationer inom företag och organisationer, teknikbaserat tillväxtföretagande, villkoren för innovationspolitik och innovationers sociala dimensioner. Sammantaget ges en bred och mångfacetterad bild av ett snabbväxande kunskapsfält. Boken vänder sig till studenter inom ekonomi, teknik och samhällsvetenskap, till dem som arbetar med ledning och organisering av innovationer inom företag och myndigheter och till alla som vill ha en lättillgänglig orientering i innovationers betydelse för omvandling av ekonomi och samhällsliv. Dahméninstitutet är en nätverksorganisation som bygger på tvärvetenskapligt samarbete. Institutet samordnar forskare och praktiker engagerade inom området "innovation och tillväxt". Syftet med institutet är att undersöka, understödja och utveckla den svenska innovationspolitiken....

  • 70.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Generella framgångsfaktorer i kluster: En studie av entreprenörskap och innovation2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportens resultat kan sammanfattas på följande vis:

    • Det är möjligt att definiera generella kvalitativa framgångsfaktorer på klusternivå och dessa inkluderar klustrets verksamhet (idé, aktiviteter och organisation), aktörer och individer (engagemang och drivkrafter) och dess externa koppling (kritisk massa).
    • Framgångsfaktorerna är alla dynamiska och genom operationalisering så är det högst troligt att dessa går att mäta och praktiskt tillämpa.
    • En klusterplattform måste etableras för att trygga klusterorganisations långsiktiga överlevnad och utveckling.

    Vid uppföljning och utvärdering av kluster är en processuell ansats att föredra eftersom den: 1) Tillåter analys oberoende typ av kluster eller stadium mognadsprocessen. 2) Möjliggör en bedömning av sambandet mellan orsak och verkan i utvecklingsprocessen. 3) Inkluderar utvecklingsprocessens dynamik och de eventuella lärprocesser som sker i klustret.

    Genom att använda ett prestationsmått – klusterplattform - går det dessutom att avgöra vad som krävs för att klustret på lång sikt skall bli verksamhetsmässigt hållbart.

  • 71.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Management of the early development process in technology-based firms1997In: Technology, innovation and enterprise: the european experience / [ed] Dylan Jones-Evans, Magnus Klofsten, Houndsmill, Basingstoke: Macmillan Publishers Ltd., 1997, p. 148-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    New Venture Ideas: An analysis of their Origin and Early Development2005In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 105-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the requirements for starting a firm is an idea that can be developed into a business opportunity. This paper focuses on the early development of a firm's business idea and the factors that affect this process. The assumption is that the founders of the firm have a core importance in the formulation of the first draft of the idea, but that the continued development and polishing that turns the idea into a business opportunity occurs in interaction with a number of actors in the market such as clients, financiers, suppliers and other collaboration partners. Five wholly newly started knowledge-intensive firms - A-TV, A-Tech, S-Tire, M-Qon and M-Point, all of whom are spin-offs from Linköping University or from firms - are analysed. The results of the study agree with previous research on business opportunities and ideas and the link to the skills base of the founders, envíronmental effects, and changes in the idea over time. Practical and theoretical implications of new venture idea development and entrepreneurship training are presented.

  • 73.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    New Venture Ideas: Their Origin and Metamorphosis into Viable Business Concepts2004In: Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference,2004, Enschede: University of Twente , 2004, p. 28-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Problem med tillväxten2003In: Östgöta Correspondenten, ISSN 1104-0394, Vol. 29 NovemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 75.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Supporting Academic Enterprise: A case study of an Entrepreneurship Programme2005In: The Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 76.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Supporting Academic Enterprise: A Case study of an Entrepreneurship Programme2008In: New Technology-Based Firms at the New Millennium, Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd , 2008, p. 53-67Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 77.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Technology-based firms: Critical aspects of their early development1994In: Journal of Enterprising Culture, ISSN 0218-4958, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 535-557Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The founding and early development of a firm are crucial events. Despite this fact, most research is aimed at problems existing in firms that are established and have passed the early development. Consequently, knowledge of the early development process in a business firm is limited, particularly where technology-based firms are concerned.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the early development processes of technology-based firms. The research questions are: What aspects are important in the early development of a technology-based firm? Are some of these aspects more difficult to develop than others and, if so, why? A case study approach is used. Three technology-based firms have over a period of five years been studied in detail, using interviews and sources such as minutes of board meetings, business and market plans and other documents.

    From a review of the literature, eight essential aspects (business idea, product, market, organization, expertise, prime mover, customer relations and other corporate relations) of the early development have been chosen. The results show that the degree of difficulty to develop the aspects vary. A particularly difficult aspect is to define the market.

  • 78.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The Business Platform: Entrepreneurship and Management in the Early Stages of a Firm's Development2002 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The case of Focal Point Inc.2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 80.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The case of Kreatel Inc.2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 81.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The case of Licera Inc.2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 82.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The case of Mathcore Inc.2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 83.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The case of Micromuscle Inc.2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    The case of Optimal Solutions Inc.2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 85.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Training entrepreneurship at universities: A Swedish case2000In: Journal of European Industrial Training, ISSN 0309-0590, E-ISSN 1758-7425, Vol. 24, no 6, p. 337-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden today there are many initiatives to stimulate individuals to act in an entrepreneurial manner, including professorships in entrepreneurialism at universities, new courses and training programmes, while firms such as Ericsson, Telia and Saab have established “innovation units” to stimulate new ideas and utilize the energy and ideas of their employees. The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse such an initiative: the Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Programme (the ENP-programme) for the training of individuals in the start-up of new technology-based or knowledge-intensive enterprises. The model has been developed by the Centre for Innovation and Entrepreneurship at Linköping University and a private network of enterprises. This article begins with a comprehensive discussion on what characterises entrepreneurs and what implications this has in the training of individuals. Subsequently, the ENP-programme, feedback from the participants in the programme, and what characterises a successful entrepreneurship programme are presented.

  • 86.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Training for entrepreneurship and new businesses1999In: Industry & higher education, ISSN 0950-4222, E-ISSN 2043-6858, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 397-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important part of governmental industrial policy is to support entrepreneurship and the creation of new businesses through various programmes. These are often organized at regional or local level by support organizations such as innovation centres (at universities), regional development funds and science parks. Earlier studies of business support structures have focused mainly on the `demand' side; that is, on participants' perceptions of the usefulness of taking part in different support programmes. These studies have shown that there is a mismatch between the supply and demand side in business support activities. This paper deals with the supply side's view of organizing support activities for entrepreneurs and new businesses. The author analyses the responses to a questionnaire survey of business support organizations in Sweden. The results show that the support organizations are well aware of the problems the participants have - relating to, among other things, time, educational methods, finance, priorities, and access to information. At the same time, the support organizations disagree with suggestions that they are too theoretical in their teaching, lack experience in the problems of small businesses, offer inflexible programmes, have problems communicating, or lack teaching expertise (in, for example, training programmes). This paper discusses the gap in perception between the suppliers and their market and addresses the policy issues it raises. The implications for training for entrepreneurship and new businesses are also addressed.

  • 87.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Utbildning och träning i entreprenörskap - ett praktikfall från universitetsvärlden2006In: Ledning i småföretag / [ed] Håkan Ylinenpää, Bo Johansson, Jan Johansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2006, 1, p. 257-272Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Småföretagen har en central betydelse för sysselsättning, tillväxt och utveckling i Sverige. Ledningsfrågor i dessa företag är därför mycket viktiga och kommer så att förbli även i framtiden. Med fokus på strategi och handling tar Ledning i småföretag helhetsgrepp på området ledarskap i småföretag. Flera av landets ledande forskare bidrar med sina kunskaper i ämnet och de viktiga lednings- och utvecklingsfrågor som småföretag ställs inför i dag diskuteras.

  • 88.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Alain, Fayolle
    EM Lyon Business School, Lyon, France.
    Guerrero, Maribel
    School of Business and Economics at Universidad del Desarrollo, Chile and Newcastle Business School at Northumbria University, UK.
    Mian, Sarfraz
    State University of New York, Oswego, NY, USA.
    Urbano, David
    Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Spain.
    Wright, Mike
    Imperial College London, London, UK.
    The entrepreneurial university as driver for economic growth and social change - Key strategic challenges2019In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 141, p. 149-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limitations of the research on the various leadership and strategic issues facing universities seeking to become more entrepreneurial has led this special issue to focus on the management, development, and implementation of this vision. We have solicited original research on the strategic challenges that these universities currently encounter. Researchers in management and related disciplines have contributed to this field of inquiry, which is having growing implications for our universities and stakeholders in the social and economic spheres. We begin by tracing an overarching framework, to which we add brief descriptions of the contributing papers in this special issue. To conclude, we outline future research goals and discuss how, around the world, academic actors involved in university development - such as university managers and policy makers - could view the ideas presented here.

  • 89.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Entrepreneurship support and sustainable business models – a European study of business incubators2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the role of business incubators in providing support for sustainable entrepreneurship and in promoting sustainable business models among entrepreneurs and their ventures. Through a survey of 96 European incubators we have focused on the present situation concerning incubators’ profiling and accommodation of firms with sustainable orientation, how incubators apply sustainability aspects when recruiting tenants as well as how this could benefit development of sustainable business models. It is shown that many incubators perceive themselves to be profiled as environmental or sustainable, but there are notable differences between countries. Regional development is the most important target for incubators. Traditional selection criteria such as entrepreneur’s capabilities and business idea’s commercial potential is seen as most important while incubators do generally not prioritise criteria relating to sustainability. It is suggested that incubators should strive to adapt their recruitment strategies to the local and regional conditions, that a structured and time-limited pre-incubation program could be offered to potential tenants, and that incubators integrate competence on sustainable business development into their daily operations.

  • 90.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Laur, Inessa
    Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sölvell, Ingela
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Success Factors in Cluster Initiative Management2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Laur, Inessa
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sölvell, Ingela
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Success factors in cluster initiative management: Mapping out the ‘big five’2015In: Industry & higher education, ISSN 0950-4222, E-ISSN 2043-6858, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 65-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cluster development is prioritized in policy programmes as a means to facilitate regional growth and job creation. Triple Helix actors are often involved in so-called cluster initiatives – intermediary organizations having the objective of the development of a local or regional cluster. This paper maps out the ‘big five’ qualitative success factors in cluster initiative management: the idea; driving forces and commitment; activities; critical mass; and organization. The proposed framework enables the assessment of performance and sustainability over time, useful for both everyday management operations and policy programmes designed to support cluster initiatives.

  • 92.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Davidsson, Per
    The business platform model: A practical tool for understanding and analysing firms in early development2004In: New technology-based firms in the new millennium. Vol. 3 / [ed] Wim During, Ray Oakey, Saleema Kauser, Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd , 2004, p. 55-66Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This tenth volume of papers emanating from the annual International High Technology Small Firms Conference represents a full decade of research and policy relevant papers on innovation and growth problems of New Technology-based Firms (NTBf). Because this series has become the major vehicle for publication among the best international researchers working on the formation and subsequent growth problems of NTBfs, it represents an authoritative voice on NTBf development problems. Topics covered in this volume include strategy, spin offs - their contribution to NTBf growth and the problems they encounter during the traumatic spin off process, the current hot topic of clusters and their role in enhancing NTBf formation and growth, networking and global issues since many NTBfs are truly born global.

  • 93.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Heydebreck, P
    Mutually Learning with Partners how to Foster Entrepreneurship2006In: RD Management Conference,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heydebreck, Peter
    inno-AG.
    Jones Evans, D
    Cardiff University.
    Transferring good practice beyond organisational boarders - lessons from transferring an entrepreneurship programme2010In: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 791-799Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transferring good practice beyond organizational borders: lessons from transferring an entrepreneurship programme, Regional Studies. This paper examines the transfer of a ‘good practice’ entrepreneurship initiative from Linköping in Sweden to nine other regions. It shows that the success of transferring ‘good practice’ is dependent on various preconditions in respect of the sender and recipient systems, as well as the interaction between these two systems. These include an openness to continue the learning process and adapting the knowledge to be transferred to local conditions. A long-term commitment by both parties is also required which derives not only from the role of institutions, but also from enthusiastic individuals who drive the transfer process and sustainably link the systems after the initial transfer.

  • 95.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Heydebreck, Peter
    inno-AG.
    Jones Evans, Dylan
    Cardiff University.
    Transferring an Entrepreneurship Training Programme: A Swedish Case Study2007In: Triple Helix Conference,2007, Singapore: National University of Singapore , 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 96.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jones-Evana, Dylan
    University of Wales.
    Open learning within growing businesses2013In: European Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 2046-9012, E-ISSN 2046-9020, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 298-312Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose—Understanding the factors behind successful enterprise policy interventions are critical in ensuring effective programme development. The aim of this paper is to analyse an academic-industry initiative in Sweden developed to support knowledge-intensive businesses in expanding their operations.

    Approach—This paper describes a case study of a specific policy intervention to facilitate further business growth and development. Since 1986, 490 individuals from 194 companies have attended the Business Development Programme (BDP) organised by Linköping University. Through analysing interviews with participants on the programme, the paper examines the origins and motivations behind its creation, management and development.

    Findings—This study finds that future policy interventions in enterprise development must cultivate an open style of learning, similar to the principles of open innovation, which engages directly with the participants, is based on a process of informality and flexibility, reflects the needs of the business and includes engaged programme leadership based on a successful entrepreneurial track record.

    Practical implications—The programme has succeeded through an informal, flexible and needs-orientated approach that essentially reflects the needs of the participating businesses.

    Value—Interventions that are targeted towards supporting established businesses could help to create wealth and employment. However, understanding the factors behind such interventions is critical in ensuring that policymakers design the most relevant programmes to assist support businesses that have the potential to grow.

  • 97.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Jones-Evans, D
    Linkoping Univ, Ctr Innovat & Entrepreneurship, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Univ Wales, Sch Business & Reg Dev, Ctr Entreprise & Reg Dev, Bangor LL57 2DG, Gwynedd, Wales.
    Comparing academic entrepreneurship in Europe - The case of Sweden and Ireland2000In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 299-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the greatest challenges facing European economies is the comparatively limited capacity to convert scientific breakthroughs and technological achievements into industrial and commercial successes. As a result, there is growing awareness of the proactive approach being undertaken by academic institutions, with many adopting a direct entrepreneurial role in collaborating with industry. This paper examines the activities of those academics involved with industry within two small European countries, namely Sweden and Ireland. In particular, it discusses and contrasts the extent to which academic entrepreneurship (i.e. all commercialisation activities outside of the normal university duties of basic research and teaching) has developed. It examines the influence of gender, age, previous entrepreneurial experience, work experience and university environment on the entrepreneurship activities of a sample of academics in both countries. The results demonstrate that there is considerable entrepreneurial experience among academics in both countries, and that this translates into a high degree of involvement in "soft" activities such as consultancy and contract research, but not into organizational creation via technology spin-offs.

  • 98.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Jones-Evans, D
    Andersson, E
    Schärberg, Carina
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Growing the Linköping Technopole: A longitudinal Study of the Triple Helix Development in Sweden1999In: Journal of Technology Transfer, ISSN 0892-9912, E-ISSN 1573-7047, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 125-138Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jones-Evans, Dylan
    University College, Dublin.
    Stimulation of technology-based small firms—A case study of university-industry cooperation1996In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 187-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known that owner-managers of technology-based firms usually have superior technical skills but are less competent in the area of business development. Consequently, in order to address these weaknesses, it has been suggested that an important part of support activities for these firms should be oriented towards the development of their management and business competences. As such, this paper describes a successful model which has been developed over a 10-year period to stimulate the growth and development of small technology-based firms. Four types of interrelated activities are in operation: entrepreneurship and new business development programmes, development programmes, management groups, and club/networking activities. The success of these stimulating activities can, above all, be related to five factors: an ability to meet real needs, a core group, a clear focus, credibility, and close relations between the stimulation organization and the university. One important task for researchers and practitioners is to understand the mechanisms behind these criteria for success.

  • 100.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jonsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Simón, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Supporting the pre-commercialization stages of technology-based firms: The effects of small-scale venture capital1999In: Venture Capital: an International Journal of Entrepreneurial Finance, ISSN 1369-1066, E-ISSN 1464-5343, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 83-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of studies discuss the financing of small firms from the perspective of bank loans and different forms of venture capital. In this paper, a form of financing that is rarely touched upon in studies is discussed, namely, small-scale capital up to 500 KSEK (1 US$=7.9 SEK) that is provided in the form of soft loans or grants in the very early stages of a firm's development. Drawing upon a sample of 48 firms located in Swedish Science Parks, the authors mapped what the firms used their subsidies for (e.g. development of a business plan or a prototype and marketing). Particular emphasis was paid to the outcome of the financial support. Two main effects were found to be significant. First, the money was spent on activities that enable the companies to establish customer contacts as part of a process of successful market introduction. Second, the mere fact of selecting companies is widely regarded as an indicator of the selected companies' integrity and high potential by private investors and business partners. Thus, the reputation and network position of the young venture is leveraged.

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