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  • 51.
    Evans, Kiah L.
    et al.
    Edith Cowan Univ, Australia; Telethon Kids Inst, Australia; Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Millsteed, Jeannine
    Edith Cowan Univ, Australia.
    Richmond, Janet E.
    Edith Cowan Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin Univ, Australia; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin Univ, Australia; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden; La Trobe Univ, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya J.
    Edith Cowan Univ, Australia; Curtin Univ, Australia.
    The impact of within and between role experiences on role balance outcomes for working Sandwich Generation Women2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 184-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Women combining paid employment with dual caring responsibilities for children and aging parents, otherwise known as the sandwich generation, experience both benefits and costs related to role participation and quality of life. However, previous literature is inconclusive regarding the impact of this role combination on role balance. In the context of these mixed findings on role balance for working sandwich generation women, this study aimed to explore how within role characteristics and between role interactions are related to role balance for these women. This aim was achieved through the use of a questionnaire administered to 18 Australian working sandwich generation women. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlation coefficients, with findings suggesting the women studied tended to experience neither role balance or role imbalance. Within-role characteristics, particularly within the mother and family member roles, were related to role balance. In addition, between-role conflict and role interactions involving either the home maintainer or family member roles had the greatest impact on role balance.

  • 52.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Municipal Council Norrkoping, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Anderson, Katie
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Joosten, Annette
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Parents Perspectives on Inclusive Schools for Children with Autism Spectrum Conditions2015In: International journal of disability, development and education, ISSN 1034-912X, E-ISSN 1465-346X, Vol. 62, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) increasingly participate in inclusive education. The present study reviewed studies of children with ASC for parents perceptions of aspects they believed contributed to inclusive mainstream school settings. Understanding the parental perspective on the facilitators for inclusion of their child with ASC in mainstream schools is likely to improve inclusive practice. Twenty-eight empirical articles revealed that parents perceived teachers as playing a vital role in the inclusion of their children with ASC. The school was considered important in creating an environment that enabled inclusion, particularly through positive peer relations, prevention of bullying and help from support staff. At the societal level, funding and legislative policies were considered important. By understanding these aspects, policy-makers, teachers, school administrators and therapists may better be able to address parents inclusion concerns and thereby develop strategies to improve inclusion in mainstream schools.

  • 53.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Barnett, Tania
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Olov
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Siljehav, Jessica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fristedt, Sofi
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Lee, Hoe C.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Chee, Derserri Y.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Wretstrand, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden; K2 Swedish National Knowledge Centre Public Transport, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Viewpoints of adults with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders on public transport2015In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 80, p. 163-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Public transport is low cost, allows for independence, and facilitates engagement and participation for non-drivers. However, the viewpoints of individuals with cognitive disabilities are rarely considered. In Australia, the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is approximately 1% and increasing. Many individuals with ASD do not possess a drivers licence, indicating that access to public transport is crucial for their independence. However, at present, there is no research on the opinions of adults with ASD on public transport. Aim: To identify the viewpoints of adults with ASD regarding the barriers and facilitators of public transport usage and their transportation preferences, and to contrast these against the viewpoints of neurotypical adults. Methods: Q. method was used to identify the viewpoints of both participant groups on public transport. Participants consisted of 55 adults with a diagnosis of ASD and a contrast group of 57 neurotypical adults. Both groups completed a Q sort task which took place in either Perth or Melbourne, Australia. Results: The most prominent viewpoint indicated that both groups preferred to use public transport over driving and believed that it supported their independence. This viewpoint also indicated that both groups preferred to use electronic ticketing when using public transport. Interestingly, the second most prominent viewpoint indicated that both groups preferred to drive themselves by private car rather than use public transport. Discussion: It appears that the viewpoints of adults with and without ASD regarding public transportation were largely similar. However, questions arose about whether the preference for public transport in the ASD group may be more a result of difficulties obtaining a driving licence than a deliberate choice. The only barrier specified by adults with ASD related to crowding on public transport. Safety and convenience in relation to location and timing of services were barriers reported by neurotypical adults. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 54.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonkoping University.
    Bjallmark, Anna
    Royal Institute Technology KTH.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Royal Institute Technology KTH.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Recognition of facially expressed emotions and visual search strategies in adults with Asperger syndrome2011In: RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 210-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Can the disadvantages persons with Asperger syndrome frequently experience with reading facially expressed emotions be attributed to a different visual perception, affecting their scanning patterns? Visual search strategies, particularly regarding the importance of information from the eye area, and the ability to recognise facially expressed emotions were compared between 24 adults with Asperger syndrome and their matched controls. While wearing a head mounted eye tracker, the participants viewed 12 pairs of photos of faces. The first photo in each pair was cut up into puzzle pieces. Six of the 12 puzzle pieced photos had the eyes bisected. The second photo showed a happy, an angry and a surprised face of the same person as in the puzzle pieced photo. Differences in visual search strategies between the groups were established. Adults with Asperger syndrome had greater difficulties recognizing these basic emotions than controls. The distortion of the eye area affected the ability to identify emotions even more negatively for participants with Asperger syndrome.

  • 55.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonkoping University.
    Bjallmark, Anna
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    The influences of static and interactive dynamic facial stimuli on visual strategies in persons with Asperger syndrome2011In: RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 935-940Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several studies, using eye tracking methodology, suggest that different visual strategies in persons with autism spectrum conditions, compared with controls, are applied when viewing facial stimuli. Most eye tracking studies are, however, made in laboratory settings with either static (photos) or non-interactive dynamic stimuli, such as video clips. Whether or not these results are transferable to a "real world" dialogue situation remains unclear. In order to examine the consistency of visual strategies across conditions, a comparison of two static conditions and an interactive dynamic "real world" condition, in 15 adults with Asperger syndrome and 15 matched controls, was made using an eye tracker. The static stimuli consisted of colour photos of faces, while a dialogue between the participants and the test leader created the interactive dynamic condition. A within-group comparison showed that people with AS, and their matched controls, displayed a high degree of stability in visual strategies when viewing faces, regardless of the facial stimuli being static or real, as in the interactive dynamic condition. The consistency in visual strategies within the participants suggests that results from studies with static facial stimuli provide important information on individual visual strategies that may be generalized to "real world" situations.

  • 56.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Black, Melissa
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Tang, Julia
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Fitzgerald, Patrick
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Leung, Denise
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Not Found:Linkoping Univ Pain and Rehabil Ctr, Dept Med and Hlth Sci IMH, Rehabil Med, Fac Hlth Sci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Jahan, Ishrat
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Local visual perception bias in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders; do we have the whole picture?2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 117-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: While local bias in visual processing in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has been reported to result in difficulties in recognizing faces and facially expressed emotions, but superior ability in disembedding figures, associations between these abilities within a group of children with and without ASD have not been explored. Methods: Possible associations in performance on the Visual Perception Skills Figure-Ground test, a face recognition test and an emotion recognition test were investigated within 25 8-12-years-old children with high-functioning autism/Asperger syndrome, and in comparison to 33 typically developing children. Results: Analyses indicated a weak positive correlation between accuracy in Figure-Ground recognition and emotion recognition. No other correlation estimates were significant. Conclusion: These findings challenge both the enhanced perceptual function hypothesis and the weak central coherence hypothesis, and accentuate the importance of further scrutinizing the existance and nature of local visual bias in ASD.

  • 57.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonköping University.
    Nilholm, Claes
    Jonköping University.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    From my perspective - Perceived participation in mainstream schools in students with autism spectrum conditions2012In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 191-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine perceived participation in students with ASC and their classmates in mainstream schools and to investigate correlations between activities the students wanted to do and actually participated in. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Twenty-two students with ASC and their 382 classmates responded to a 46-item questionnaire regarding perceived participation in mainstream schools. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults: On 57% of the items, students with ASC perceived lower participation than their classmates. These results emphasize the importance of knowledge about students perceived participation. However, positive correlations between what the students wanted to do and actually did indicate that students with ASC may be participating to the extent that they wanted. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion: Students with ASC perceived lower overall participation in mainstream school than their classmates. The correlations between "I want to" and "I do" statements in students with ASC indicated that aspects of autonomy are important to incorporate when studying, and interpreting, self-rated participation in mainstream schools.

  • 58.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University.
    Larsson, Matilda
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Bjallmark, Anna
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    The importance of the eye area in face identification abilities and visual search strategies in persons with Asperger syndrome2010In: RESEARCH IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, ISSN 1750-9467, Vol. 4, no 4, p. 724-730Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Partly claimed to explain social difficulties observed in people with Asperger syndrome, face identification and visual search strategies become important. Previous research findings are, however, disparate. In order to explore face identification abilities and visual search strategies, with special focus on the importance of the eye area, 24 adults with Asperger syndrome and matched controls viewed puzzle pieced photos of faces, in order to identify them as one of three intact photos of persons. Every second puzzle pieced photo had the eyes distorted. Fixation patterns were measured by an eye tracker. Adults with Asperger syndrome had greater difficulties in identifying faces than controls. However, the entire face identification superiority in controls was found in the condition when the eyes were distorted supporting that adults with Aspergers syndrome do use the eye region to a great extent in face identification. The visual search strategies in controls were more effective and relied on the use of the face information triangle, i.e. the two eyes and the mouth, while adults with Asperger syndrome had more fixations on other parts of the face, both when obtaining information and during the identification part, suggesting a less effective use of the face information triangle.

  • 59.
    Falkmer, Marita
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden; Municipal Council Norrkoping, Sweden; Curtin University, Australia.
    Oehlers, Kirsty
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Can you see it too? Observed and self-rated participation in mainstream schools in students with and without autism spectrum disorders2015In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 365-374Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To examine the degree to which observations can capture perception of participation, observed and self-rated levels of interactions for students with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD) were explored.Methods: Frequencies and levels of involvement in interactions with classmates were observed and compared in 22 students with ASD and 84 of their classmates in mainstream schools, using a standardized protocol. Self-reported participation measurements regarding interactions with classmates and teachers from five questionnaire items were correlated with the observations. In total, 51516 data points were coded and entered into the analyses, and correlated with 530 questionnaire ratings.Results: Only one weak correlation was found in each group. Compared with classmates, students with ASD participated less frequently, but were not less involved when they actually did.Conclusions: Observations alone do not capture the individuals perception of participation and are not sufficient if the subjective aspect of participation is to be measured.

  • 60.
    Falkmer, Torbjorn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County. Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Anderson, Katie
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University of Technology, Australia .
    Diagnostic procedures in autism spectrum disorders: a systematic literature review2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 329-340Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, gold standard diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is a lengthy and time consuming process that requires suitably qualified multi-disciplinary team (MDT) personnel to assess behavioural, historical, and parent-report information to determine a diagnosis. A number of different tools have been developed to assist in determination. To optimise the diagnostic procedures, the best diagnostic instruments need to be identified. This study is a systematic review addressing the accuracy, reliability, validity and utility of reported diagnostic tools and assessments. To be included in this review, studies must have (1) identified an ASD diagnostic tool; (2) investigated either diagnostic procedure or the tools or personnel required; (3) be presented in English; (4) be conducted in the Western world; (5) be one of three types of studies [adapted from Samtani et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 3:1-13, 2011], viz. (a) cohort studies or cross-sectional studies, (b) randomised studies of test accuracy, (c) case-control studies. MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Scopus, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were scrutinised for relevant literature published from 2000 inclusive on 20th January 2012. In total, 68 articles were included. 17 tools were assessed. However, many lacked an evidence base of high quality-independent studies. The Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) and Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) stood out with the largest evidence base and highest sensitivity and specificity. When the ADI-R and ADOS were used in combination they revealed levels of accuracy very similar to the correct classification rates for the current gold standard diagnostic procedure viz. 80.8 % for ASD. There is scope for future studies on the use of the ADI-R and ADOS in combination.

  • 61.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of health and environment. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Transport mobility for children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP)2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The transport mobility of children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) is of vital interest for the individual, as well as for society. Enhanced transport mobility can be related to improved functional health status and a higher degree of autonomy, which in turn may reduce the demand for societal support. UN Resolution 48/96, together with Swedish legislation and "Vision Zero" have in different ways established that the transport system must be designed to meet also the needs of children and adolescents with disabilities. Hence, it is necessary to identify and eliminate obstacles hindering children and adolescents with CP from using public transport and other means of transport, such as their own cars, at the same level as other members of society. However, in the case of children and adolescents with CP, the transport situation and the learner driver's educational situation have so far been largely unknown.

    Aim: The general aim of the thesis was to describe and analyse, from a legislative and a public health perspective, the transport mobility situation for children and adolescents with CP. Furthermore, the general aim was to identify obstacles for the target group to use public transport and other means of transportation, at the same level as other members of the society, and to suggest improvements that will remove the identified obstacles.

    Material and methods: Several different data collection methods were used. Data, concerning travel habits and parents' perceived risks regarding transportation, were taken from a postal questionnaire addressed to parents of children and adolescents with CP. In order to estimate the numbers of potential learner drivers with CP in each age group in Sweden, a literature review was conducted, based on Swedish material. Furthermore, logbooks for learner drivers with CP were analysed retrospectively, in order to identify procedures, problems and key tasks in their driver education. Visual search strategies for learner drivers with CP were analysed, utilizing an eye tracker, and an attempt was made to introduce a screening tool for predicting the outcome of driver education.

    Results: Children and adolescents with CP were found to be transported under unsafe conditions, causing worry among their parents. When transporting children in the family vehicle, the parents were exposed to a very heavy burden, which increased their worry. The prevalence of potential learner drivers with CP who were in need of highly specialised driver education, including individually adapted driver training vehicles, was estimated to be 0.15 per 1,000 of a population-based age group of learner drivers in Sweden. Complex procedures, structural problems and financial obstacles made it difficult for adolescents with CP to obtain a driving licence and an adapted vehicle. The total duration of the driving tuition given by a driving instructor was found to be almost nine times higher for learner drivers with CP than for non-disabled learner drivers. Visual search strategies among learner drivers with CP were found to be less flexible than among other learner drivers. This fact indicated a need for better methods of teaching such strategies to this group as an integral component of their driver education. The validity of the motor-free visual perceptual test, TVPS-UL, for predicting the outcome of driver education for learner drivers, was found to be low. In order to find a reliable and valid screening tool for this purpose, future studies should focus on cross-validation of visual perceptual and dual task performance tests for different types of independent variables, such as obtaining a driving licence or not, accident involvement and driving ability.

    Conclusion: The transport system was found, from a legislative and public health perspective, to be unsuitable to meet the needs of children and adolescents with CP. Suggestions for improving transport mobility for children and adolescents with CP are provided. Several of these suggestions are practical, concrete and contextual for Swedish conditions, and some of them necessitate future research. However, a number of these suggestions are also applicable in an international context.

  • 62.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Truck and bus driver training, can simulation contribute?2005In: Driver behaviour and training volume II / [ed] Dorn, Lisa, Hampshire: Asghate , 2005, p. 93-104Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on driver behaviour over the past two decades has clearly demonstrated that the goals and motivations a driver brings to the driving task are important determinants for driver behaviour. The importance of this work is underlined by statistics: WHO figures show that road accidents are predicted to be the number three cause of death and injury by 2020 (currently more than 20 million deaths and injuries p.a.). The objective of this second edition and of the conference, on which it is based, is to describe and discuss recent advances in the study of driving behaviour and driver training. It bridges the gap between practitioners in road safety, and theoreticians investigating driving behaviour, from a number of different perspectives and related disciplines. A major focus is to consider how driver training needs to be adapted, to take into account driver characteristics, goals and motivations, in order to raise awareness of how these may contribute to unsafe driving behaviour, and to go on to promote the development of driver training courses that considers all the skills that are essential for road safety.As well as setting out new approaches to driver training methodology based on many years of empirical research on driver behaviour, the contributing road safety researchers and professionals consider the impact of human factors in the design of driver training as well as the traditional skills-based approach. The readership includes road safety researchers from a variety of different academic backgrounds, senior practitioners in the field of driver training from regulatory authorities and professional driver training organizations such as the police service, and private and public sector personnel who are concerned with improving road safety.

  • 63.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Anund, Anna
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Falkmer, Marita
    The transport mobility situation for children with autism spectrum disorders2004In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 90-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to investigate the transport mobility situation for children with autism spectrum disorders, questionnaires from 1,631 parents were analysed. The results showed that almost 3 out of 4 parents were worried when their child was transported by school transport or by the Special Transport System. Transports in the family vehicle caused worry among almost half of the parents. The parents' worries were justified by the fact that the children were not transported according to general safety recommendations. Moreover, it was common for the children to be transported with unfamiliar drivers, as well as with unknown passengers, which is known to be quite problematic. Transport mobility adaptation to this particular group of children with disabilities refers merely to implementation of knowledge and a specific, well-structured approach among the drivers towards the children during the ride, rather than to physical/mechanical adaptation of the vehicles.

  • 64.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport, Research Institute, VTI, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bjällmark, Anna
    School for Technique and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Larsson, Matilda
    School for Technique and Health, KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Fixation identification in centroid versus start-point modes using eye-tracking data2008In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 106, no 3, p. 710-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fixation-identification algorithms, needed for analyses of eye movements, may typically be separated into three categories, viz. (i) velocity-based algorithms, (ii) area-based algorithms, and (iii) dispersion-based algorithms. Dispersion-based algorithms are commonly used but this application introduces some difficulties, one being optimization. Basically, there are two modes to reach this goal of optimization, viz., the start-point mode and the centroid mode. The aim of the present study was to compare and evaluate these two dispersion-based algorithms. Manual inspections were made of 1,400 fixations in each mode. Odds ratios showed that by using the centroid mode for fixation detection, a valid fixation is 2.86 times more likely to be identified than by using the start-point mode. Moreover, the algorithm based on centroid mode dispersion showed a good interpretation speed, accuracy, robustness, and ease of implementation, as well as adequate parameter settings.

  • 65.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Hasewinkel, Håkan
    FOI, Linköping.
    Sjörs, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Ökad körsäkerhet och snabbare målidentifiering genom blickregistrering2006Report (Other academic)
  • 66.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    A comparison of eye movement behavior of inexperienced and experienced drivers in real traffic environments2005In: Optometry and Vision Science, ISSN 1040-5488, E-ISSN 1538-9235, Vol. 82, no 8, p. 732-739Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The importance of the visual system as the input channel for sensory information necessary when driving is often stated. There are several reports on differences in visual search strategies between experienced and inexperienced drivers, as well as in relation to the roadway. However, the results are ambiguous and are not sampled by similar procedures. Based on previous findings, the aim of the present study was to gain further knowledge on these differences by testing the hypotheses that inexperienced drivers, in comparison to experienced drivers, fixate closer to the vehicle, fixate more often on in-vehicle objects, spread their fixations less along the horizontal meridian, fixate more often on relevant traffic cues, and fixate more often on objects classified as potential hazards. Methods. Data from eye-tracker recordings of visual search strategies of the driver in real-world traffic were used for the analyses. Results. The results confirmed all stated hypotheses regarding differences between inexperienced and experienced drivers, with the exception of fixations closer to the vehicle, in which ambiguous results were found. Conclusions. The present study provides normative data for the understanding of the development of visual search strategies among drivers. The methodology used in the present study, i.e., to combine a quantitative analysis with a qualitative analysis proved, to be useful to compare visual search strategies among inexperienced and experienced drivers. Copyright © 2005 American Academy of Optometry.

  • 67.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Gregersen, Nils-Petter
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Perceived Risk Among Parents Concerning the Travel Situation for Children with Disabilities2002In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 34, p. 553-562Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 68.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine . Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Gregersen, N.P.
    Fixation patterns of learner drivers with and without cerebral palsy (CP) when driving in real traffic environments2001In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 171-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Among learner drivers with cerebral palsy (CP), driver education is problematic for those failing to fulfil their education as well as for those becoming licensed drivers. A crucial ingredient in the development of driving is the quality of the visual search. Problems increase for CP learners in those parts of training where high demands are set on visual search abilities. The aim of the study was to increase knowledge about search patterns among learners with CP in comparison with learners and experienced drivers without CP. The study was carried out in traffic by measuring eye movements and the duration and distribution of fixation. The results show that search strategies among learners with CP were less flexible than in the control groups. The results suggest a need for better methods for teaching CP learners search strategies and may provide a tool for such development. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 69.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Gregersen, NP
    Fixation patterns of learner drivers with and without cerebral palsy (CP) when driving in real traffic environments.2001In: Transportation Research Part F,2001, 2001, p. 171-185Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 70.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Henriksson, P
    Gregersen, NP
    Bjurulf, P
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Driver education for persons with cerebral palsy - a retrospective study of educational problems.2000In: Transportation Research Part F,2000, New York, USA: Elsevier Science , 2000, p. 15-27Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many countries, the community has a legal obligation to help persons with disabilities to participate in society on the same level as other groups. One aspect of such participation is access to unlimited and spontaneous transportation through the ability to drive a car. In the case of persons with cerebral palsy (CP), the possibility of becoming a driver is related to several factors such as the severity of the impairment, the individual’s financial situation and the quality of driver education. One of the aims of this study was to analyse the education process among learner drivers with CP, in order to understand where and why problems are encountered. A further aim was to enhance the development of test methods for predicting the ability of a person with CP to become a licensed driver. In the analysis of the learning process, logbooks from one of the two national Swedish centres for educating disabled learner drivers were analysed. The analysis showed that certain key tasks in the education process were critical for the outcome in terms of becoming a licensed driver or not. The results suggest that it may be possible to develop a test battery, which, in combination with an analysis of the performance of these key tasks, will assist prediction of the outcome of driving education for persons with CP.

  • 71.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden .
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, VTI, Linköping, Sweden .
    Barnett, Tania
    Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA, Australia .
    Usability of the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system in children with cognitive disabilities2013In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 127-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    SAFEWAY2SCHOOL is a programme based on several systems for the enhancement of school transportation safety for children. The aim of the study was to explore whether children with cognitive disabilities will notice, realise, understand, trust and accept the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system and act in accordance with its instructions.

    Methods

    Fourteen children with cognitive disabilities and a control group of 23 children were shown five videos of scenarios involving journeys to and from school. During the first viewing visual scanning patterns were recorded with an eye tracking device. After a second viewing the participant was asked ten questions per scenario. Five questions addressed what the children saw on the video, and the remaining five what they would need to know and/or do within the scenario. Additional ratings of trust, likability, acceptability and usability were also collected.

    Results

    Very few differences were found in the visual scanning patterns of children with disabilities compared to children who participated in the control group. Of the 50 questions regarding what children saw or needed to know and/or do, only one significant difference between groups was found. No significant differences were found regarding self-reported ratings of trust, acceptability or usability of the system. Despite some significant differences across five of the 11 likability aspects, ratings were consistently high for both groups.

    Conclusions

    Children with cognitive disabilities proved that the SAFEWAY2SCHOOL system is as useful for them as it was for children in the control group. However, a valid estimation of the full utility of SAFEWAY2SCHOOL requires in situ testing of the system with these children.

  • 72.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Lövgren, Anna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Anund, Anna
    VTI, Linköping.
    Nyberrg, Jonna
    VTI, Linköping.
    Elkehag, Kerstin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Elm, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Gustavson, Pamela
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Åkerberg, Pia
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Occupational Therapy.
    Säkerhet och trygghet i samband med skolskjuts2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 73.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, Division of Preventive and Social Medicine and Public Health Science.
    Vogel, K
    Gregersen, NP
    The test of visual perceptual skills (non-motor) upper level is not a valid predictor for the outcome of driver education2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 72-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reduce the monetary and personal costs of driver training for persons with cerebral palsy, it is of interest to find a predictor that is able to select potential license holders. Previous research has shown that such a predictor could be one that assesses visual perception. In the present study, the Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (non-motor) Upper Level, was validated for predicting the outcome of driver education. It was found that using the test for this purpose could not be recommended. The findings of the present study were not in accordance with the results of other studies on the predictive value of perceptual tests regarding the ability to drive, owing to the use of different methods. Future studies should focus on cross-validation of perceptual tests for different types of independent variables, such as driving license or not, accident involvement and driving ability.

  • 74.
    Forsman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Sjörs-Dahlman, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Dahlman, Joakim
    Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Lee, Hoe C
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Eye tracking during high speed naviation at sea: Field trial in search of navigational gaze behaviour2012In: Journal of Transportation Technologies, ISSN 2160-0473, E-ISSN 2160-0481, Vol. 2, p. 277-283Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Professional high speed sea navigational procedures are based on turn points, courses, dangers and steering cues in the environment. Since navigational aids have become less expensive and due to the fact that electronic sea charts can be integrated with both radar and transponder information, it may be assumed that traditional navigation by using paper based charts and radar will play a less significant role in the future, especially among less experienced navigators. Possible navigational differences between experienced and non-experienced boat drivers is thus of interest with regards to their use of navigational aids. It may be assumed that less experienced navigators rely too much on the information given by the electronic sea chart, despite the fact that it is based on GPS information that can be questioned, especially in littoral waters close to land.

    Method: This eye tracking study investigates gaze behaviour from 16 experi- enced and novice boat drivers during high speed navigation at sea.

    Results: The results show that the novice drivers look at objects that are close to themselves, like instrumentation, while the experienced look more at objects far away from the boat. This is in accordance with previous research on car drivers. Further, novice boat drivers used the elec-tronic navigational aids to a larger extent than the experienced, especially during high speed conditions. The experienced drivers focused much of their attention on objects outside the boat.

    Conclusions: The findings verify that novice boat drivers tend to rely on electronic navigational aids. Experienced drivers presumably use the navigational aids to verify what they have observed in the surrounding environment and further use the paper based sea chart to a larger extent than the novice drivers.

  • 75.
    Forsman, Åsa
    et al.
    VTI, Linköping.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine .
    Handbook guidance promoting a safe journey for children with disabilities - An evaluation2006In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 40, no 9, p. 712-724Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that both mobility and safety for children with disabilities are reduced, due to several reasons, one of them being lack of adequate and focused information on safety measures to be taken. A handbook was created and disseminated for free to parents of children with disabilities, organised in parental organisations. The handbook was evaluated from a user perspective, by a parental questionnaire survey. The results confirmed the parents' lack of information and further valued the handbook as useful. The parents stated the benefits of the handbook to be largest in contacts with drivers of school transportation and special transport systems. Future development and research should focus on: (i) "early intervention" by occupational therapists and paediatricians by providing the parents the handbook at the clinic, (ii) dissemination strategies towards parents not being members of the parental interest organisations, and (iii) translation and evaluation of the handbook for parents not having Swedish as their native language. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 76.
    Fristedt, Sofi
    et al.
    Jonköping University, Sweden .
    Dahl, Anna K.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden Jonköping University, Sweden .
    Wretstrand, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Bjorklund, Anita
    Jonköping University, Sweden .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Changes in Community Mobility in Older Men and Women. A 13-Year Prospective Study2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 87827-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Community mobility, defined as "moving [ones] self in the community and using public or private transportation", has a unique ability to promote older peoples wellbeing by enabling independence and access to activity arenas for interaction with others. Early predictors of decreased community mobility among older men and women are useful in developing health promoting strategies. However, long-term prediction is rare, especially when it comes to including both public and private transportation. The present study describes factors associated with community mobility and decreased community mobility over time among older men and women. In total, 119 men and 147 women responded to a questionnaire in 1994 and 2007. Respondents were between 82 and 96 years old at follow-up. After 13 years, 40% of men and 43% of women had decreased community mobility, but 47% of men and 45% of women still experienced some independent community mobility. Cross-sectional independent community mobility among men was associated with higher ratings of subjective health, reporting no depression and more involvement in sport activities. Among women, cross-sectional independent community mobility was associated with better subjective health and doing more instrumental activities of daily living outside the home. Lower subjective health predicted decreased community mobility for both men and women, whereas self-reported health conditions did not. Consequently, general policies and individual interventions aiming to improve community mobility should consider older persons subjective health.

  • 77.
    Gribble, Nigel
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Donlau, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Adult Habilitation.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia.
    Predictors of time to complete toileting for children with spina bifida2013In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 343-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aim

    Previous research has shown that children with spina bifida use clean intermittent catheterisation for urination, a rather complex procedure that increases the time taken to completion. However, no studies have analysed the factors impacting on the time taken to complete the urination that could inform occupational therapy practice. Therefore, the aim was to identify the variables that predict extended time children with spina bifida take to complete urination.

    Methods

    Fifty children, aged 5–18 years old with spina bifida using clean intermittent catheterisation, were observed while toileting and responding to a set of assessments tools, among them the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. A logistic regression was used to identify which variables were independently associated with an extended toileting time.

    Results

    Children with spina bifida do take long time to urinate. More than half of this study's participants required more than five minutes completing urination, but not all required extended times. Ambulant, independent girls were more likely to perform toileting in less than six minutes compared with other children with spina bifida. However, age, IQ, maintained focus on the task, Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, time processing abilities and self-reported ratings of independence appeared to be of no relevance, to predict extended toileting times.

    Conclusion

    To minimise occupational disruption caused by extended toileting times, occupational therapists should utilise the relevant predictors: gender, independence and ambulation when they prioritise children for relevant interventions.

     

  • 78.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    et al.
    VTI.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    The traffic safety situation among foreign born in Sweden2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

           

  • 79.
    Hanson, L.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Jeppson, M.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rafstedt, P.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Yong, L.
    Zhongyuan University of Technology.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Effects of stature, age and vehicle motion on ingress movement2009In: International Journal of Vehicle Design, ISSN 0143-3369, Vol. 51, no 3-4, p. 292-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle ingress is an important automotive industry issue. End-users and production line assemblers perform similar ingress tasks. In this study, comparisons were made of the car ingress motion in 40 subjects of different statures, acting both as assemblers and end-users. Half of the subjects were under 28 years of age and the remaining were over 60. Results show no significant differences in motion patterns between assemblers and end-users, i.e., slow forward motion of the car on the assembly line had no effect on ingress patterns. This suggests that ergonomie departments working either with end-users or assemblers may instead cooperate or even be fully integrated. Stature significantly affected joint angle distribution and joint angle velocity distribution. No stature effect was found on time to perform ingress movements or on ingress technique. Age significantly affected all test parameters and is thus an issue for developers to consider along with anthropometric variables like stature. To facilitate age analysis, manikins in digital human modelling tools should be able to replicate the physical characteristics of different age groups and the movement behaviour of older people.

  • 80.
    Hatfield, Megan
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Effectiveness of the BOOST-A (TM) online transition planning program for adolescents on the autism spectrum: a quasi-randomized controlled trial2017In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 11, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The majority of existing transition planning programs are focused on people with a disability in general and may not meet the specific need of adolescents on the autism spectrum. In addition, these interventions focus on specific skills (e.g. job readiness or self-determination) rather than the overall transition planning process and there are methodological limitations to many of the studies determining their effectiveness. The Better OutcOmes amp; Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A (TM)) is an online program that supports adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the BOOST-A T in enhancing self-determination. Methods: A quasi-randomized controlled trial was conducted with adolescents on the autism spectrum enrolled in years 8 to 11 in Australian schools (N = 94). Participants had to have basic computer skills and the ability to write at a year 5 reading level. Participants were allocated to a control (n = 45) or intervention (n = 49) group and participants were blinded to the trial hypothesis. The intervention group used the BOOST-A T for 12 months, while the control group participated in regular practice. Outcomes included self-determination, career planning and exploration, quality of life, environmental support and domain specific self-determination. Data were collected from parents and adolescents. Results: There were no significant differences in overall self-determination between groups. Results indicated significant differences in favor of the intervention group in three areas: opportunity for self-determination at home as reported by parents; career exploration as reported by parents and adolescents; and transition-specific self-determination as reported by parents. Conclusions: Results provide preliminary evidence that the BOOST-A T can enhance some career-readiness outcomes. Lack of significant outcomes related to self-determination at school and career planning may be due to the lack of face-to-face training and parents being the primary contacts in the study. Further research is needed to determine effectiveness of the BOOST-A T related to post-secondary education and employment.

  • 81.
    Hatfield, Megan
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia; Jonköping univ, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Evaluation of the effectiveness of an online transition planning program for adolescents on the autism spectrum: trial protocol2016In: CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRY AND MENTAL HEALTH, ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 10, article id 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The transition from high school to post-secondary education and work is difficult for adolescents on the autism spectrum. Transition planning can be an effective way of supporting adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school and to succeed in obtaining employment; however, there is a need for an autism-specific transition planning program with proven effectiveness. This paper describes a trial protocol for evaluating the Better OutcOmes amp; Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A (TM)); an online interactive program that empowers adolescents on the autism spectrum to plan their transition from school to further study, training, or employment. Methods: The trial will involve adolescents on the autism spectrum in high school and their parents, who will be alternately assigned to a control group (regular practice) or an intervention group (using the BOOST-A (TM)). The BOOST-A (TM) was developed using the PRECEDE-PROCEED model, and is based on the self-determination model, and the strengths-and technology-based approaches. It involves participants completing a series of online modules. The primary outcome will be self-determination, because high self-determination has been linked to successful transition to employment among adolescents on the autism spectrum. Secondary outcomes will include domain-specific self-determination, career planning and exploration, quality of life, and environmental support. Data will be obtained from questionnaires completed by the adolescent on the autism spectrum and their parent/s. Data collection will take place at baseline (Time point 1) and 12 months later (Time point 2). Discussion and conclusions: This trial will provide evidence of the effectiveness of the BOOST-A T to assist adolescents on the autism spectrum to successfully transition from school.

  • 82.
    Hatfield, Megan
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Australia; Cooperat Res Ctr Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin Univ, Australia; Cooperat Res Ctr Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin Univ, Australia; Cooperat Res Ctr Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin Univ, Australia; Cooperat Res Ctr Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Process Evaluation of the BOOST-A (TM) Transition Planning Program for Adolescents on the Autism Spectrum: A Strengths-Based Approach2018In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 377-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A process evaluation was conducted to determine the effectiveness, usability, and barriers and facilitators related to the Better OutcOmes amp; Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A (TM)), an online transition planning program. Adolescents on the autism spectrum (n = 33) and their parents (n = 39) provided feedback via an online questionnaire. Of these, 13 participants were interviewed to gain in-depth information about their experiences. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (i) taking action to overcome inertia, (ii) new insights that led to clear plans for the future, (iii) adolescent empowerment through strengths focus, and (iv) having a champion to guide the way. The process evaluation revealed why BOOST-A (TM) was beneficial to some participants more than others. Trial registration #ACTRN12615000119594.

  • 83.
    Hatfield, Megan
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Murray, Nina
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Pilot of the BOOST-A: An online transition planning program for adolescents with autism2017In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 448-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundMany adolescents with autism face difficulties with the transition from high school into post-school activities. The Better OutcOmes amp; Successful Transitions for Autism (BOOST-A) is an online transition planning program which supports adolescents on the autism spectrum to prepare for leaving school. This study describes the development of the BOOST-A and aimed to determine the feasibility and viability of the program. MethodsTwo pilot studies were conducted. In Pilot A, the BOOST-A was trialled by six adolescents on the autism spectrum, their parents, and the professionals who worked with them, to determine its feasibility. In Pilot B, 88 allied health professionals (occupational therapists, speech pathologists, and psychologists) reviewed the BOOST-A to determine its viability. ResultsParticipants rated the BOOST-A as a feasible tool for transition planning. The majority of allied health professionals agreed that it was a viable program. Based on participant feedback, the BOOST-A was modified to improve usability and feasibility. ConclusionThe BOOST-A is a viable and feasible program that has the potential to assist adolescents with autism in preparing for transitioning out of high school. Future research will determine the effectiveness of the BOOST-A with adolescents across Australia.

  • 84.
    Henning, Belindi
    et al.
    James Cook University, Australia.
    Cordier, Reinie
    James Cook University, Australia; Curtin University, Australia.
    Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah
    Australian Catholic University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    A pilot play-based intervention to improve the social play interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder and their typically developing playmates2016In: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, ISSN 0045-0766, E-ISSN 1440-1630, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 223-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/aimOccupational therapists play a key role in addressing the social difficulties of children with ASD. However, interventions are often time intensive, without outcomes generalising beyond the clinic setting. To examine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an intervention to address the social play skills of children with ASD. MethodsParticipants in this multiple case study design were five children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), five typically developing playmates and five parents of children with ASD. Two therapists and parents delivered the intervention involving clinic play sessions and home modules. Parents treatment adherence was recorded. The Test of Playfulness was scored by a blinded rater to examine child outcomes following the intervention. Line graphs were used to examine case data. Percentage of non-overlapping data (PND) was used to calculate the single-case effect size for each child. ResultsParents completed 92.2% of the intervention. Childrens case data showed an upwards trend from pre- to post-intervention in four of the five pairs (child with ASD and playmate). However, there was a decrease in scores from post-intervention to the two-month home follow-up for all but one pair. PND indicated the intervention was effective for two children with ASD and three of their playmates, had a questionable effect on three children with ASD and no observable effect on two playmates. ConclusionThe intervention demonstrated preliminary feasibility and effectiveness for improving the social play skills of some children with ASD. Careful consideration is needed to identify which children with ASD and which playmates would be best suited for this intervention approach.

  • 85.
    Horlin, C.
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University of of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Albrecht, M.A.
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, CHIRI, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Falkmer, M.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University of of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; School of Education and Communication, Institute of Disability Research, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leung, D.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University of of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Tan, T.
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Lee, W.L.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (CHIRI), Curtin University of of Technology, GPO Box U1987, Perth, WA 6845, Australia; School of Occupational Therapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC 3086, Australia.
    Visual search strategies of children with and without autism spectrum disorders during an embedded figures task2014In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 463-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with ASD often demonstrate superior performance on embedded figures tasks (EFTs). We investigated visual scanning behaviour in children with ASD during an EFT in an attempt replicating a previous study examining differences in visual search behaviour. Twenty-three children with, and 31 children without an ASD were shown 16 items from the Figure-Ground subtest of the TVPS-3 while wearing an eye tracker. Children with ASD exhibited fewer fixations, and less time per fixation, on the target figure. Accuracy was similar between the two groups. There were no other noteworthy differences between children with and without ASD. Differences in visual scanning patterns in the presence of typical behavioural performance suggest that any purported differences in processing style may not be detrimental to cognitive performance and further refinement of the current methodology may lead to support for a purported advantageous cognitive style. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 86.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Black, Melissa
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    Proficiency of individuals with autism spectrum disorder at disembedding figures: A systematic review2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 54-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This systematic review examines the proficiency and visual search strategies of individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) while disembedding figures and whether they differ from typical controls and other comparative samples. Methods: Five databases, including Proquest, Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL and Science Direct were used to identify published studies meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: Twenty articles were included in the review, the majority of which matched participants by mental age. Outcomes discussed were time taken to identify targets, the number correctly identified, and fixation frequency and duration. Conclusions: Individuals with ASD perform at the same speed or faster than controls and other clinical samples. However, there appear to be no differences between individuals with ASD and controls for number of correctly identified targets. Only one study examined visual search strategies and suggests that individuals with ASD exhibit shorter first and final fixations to targets compared with controls.

  • 87.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia Jonköping University, Sweden .
    Fitzgerald, Patrick
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Leung, Denise
    Curtin University, Australia .
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    The influence of static versus naturalistic stimuli on face processing in children with and without Asperger syndrome or high-functioning autism2013In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 7, no 12, p. 1617-1624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions regarding the use of static or dynamic facial stimuli in experimental studies investigating facial processing of individuals with AS/HFA raises issues of both ecological validity and the applicability of experimental findings to clinical or everyday practice. Children with and without AS/HFA (n = 38) were fitted with a head-mounted eye-tracker and exposed to either static or interactive dynamic facial stimuli. Average fixation duration, the proportion of fixations in areas of interest and a comparative index that was independent of differences in presentation length between stimuli types were calculated. Visual scanning patterns of individuals with AS/HFA were not affected by stimuli type. However, control participants exhibited different scanning patterns between dynamic and static stimuli for certain regions of the face. Visual scanning patterns in children with AS/HFA are consistent regardless of the stimuli being a static photo or dynamic in the form of a real face. Hence, information from experimental studies with static photos of faces provide information that is valid and can be generalised to "real world" interactions.

  • 88.
    Horlin, Chiara
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    The Cost of Autism Spectrum Disorders2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, p. e106552-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: A diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorders is usually associated with substantial lifetime costs to an individual, their family and the community. However, there remains an elusive factor in any cost-benefit analysis of ASD diagnosis, namely the cost of not obtaining a diagnosis. Given the infeasibility of estimating the costs of a population that, by its nature, is inaccessible, the current study compares expenses between families whose children received a formal ASD diagnosis immediately upon suspecting developmental atypicality and seeking advice, with families that experienced a delay between first suspicion and formal diagnosis. Design: A register based questionnaire study covering all families with a child with ASD in Western Australia. Participants: Families with one or more children diagnosed with an ASD, totalling 521 children diagnosed with an ASD; 317 records were able to be included in the final analysis. Results: The median family cost of ASD was estimated to be AUD $ 34,900 per annum with almost 90% of the sum ($ 29,200) due to loss of income from employment. For each additional symptom reported, approximately $ 1,400 cost for the family per annum was added. While there was little direct influence on costs associated with a delay in the diagnosis, the delay was associated with a modest increase in the number of ASD symptoms, indirectly impacting the cost of ASD. Conclusions: A delay in diagnosis was associated with an indirect increased financial burden to families. Early and appropriate access to early intervention is known to improve a childs long-term outcomes and reduce lifetime costs to the individual, family and society. Consequently, a per symptom dollar value may assist in allocation of individualised funding amounts for interventions rather than a nominal amount allocated to all children below a certain age, regardless of symptom presentation, as is the case in Western Australia.

  • 89.
    Hughes, B. P.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Anund, A.
    Swedish Rd and Transport Research Institute, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    System theory and safety models in Swedish, UK, Dutch and Australian road safety strategies2015In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 74, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety strategies represent interventions on a complex social technical system level. An understanding of a theoretical basis and description is required for strategies to be structured and developed. Road safety strategies are described as systems, but have not been related to the theory, principles and basis by which systems have been developed and analysed. Recently, road safety strategies, which have been employed for many years in different countries, have moved to a vision zero, or safe system style. The aim of this study was to analyse the successful Swedish, United Kingdom and Dutch road safety strategies against the older, and newer, Australian road safety strategies, with respect to their foundations in system theory and safety models. Analysis of the strategies against these foundations could indicate potential improvements. The content of four modern cases of road safety strategy was compared against each other, reviewed against scientific systems theory and reviewed against types of safety model. The strategies contained substantial similarities, but were different in terms of fundamental constructs and principles, with limited theoretical basis. The results indicate that the modern strategies do not include essential aspects of systems theory that describe relationships and interdependencies between key components. The description of these strategies as systems is therefore not well founded and deserves further development.

  • 90.
    Hughes, B. P.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Anund, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Swedish Rd and Transport Research Institute, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; La Trobe University, Australia.
    A comprehensive conceptual framework for road safety strategies2016In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 90, p. 13-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road safety strategies (generally called Strategic Highway Safety Plans in the USA) provide essential guidance for actions to improve road safety, but often lack a conceptual framework that is comprehensive, systems theory based, and underpinned by evidence from research and practice. This paper aims to incorporate all components, policy tools by which they are changed, and the general interactions between them. A framework of nine mutually interacting components that contribute to crashes and ten generic policy tools which can be applied to reduce the outcomes of these crashes was developed and used to assess 58 road safety strategies from 22 countries across 15 years. The work identifies the policy tools that are most and least widely applied to components, highlighting the potential for improvements to any individual road safety strategy, and the potential strengths and weaknesses of road safety strategies in general. The framework also provides guidance for the development of new road safety strategies, identifying potential consequences of policy tool based measures with regard to exposure and risk, useful for both mobility and safety objectives. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 91.
    Hughes, B. P.
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Newstead, S.
    Monash University, Australia.
    Anund, A.
    Swedish Rd and Transport Research Institute, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Shu, C. C.
    Neurodegenerat Disorders Research Pty Ltd, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    A review of models relevant to road safety2015In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 74, p. 250-270Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is estimated that more than 1.2 million people die worldwide as a result of road traffic crashes and some 50 million are injured per annum. At present some Western countries road safety strategies and countermeasures claim to have developed into Safe Systems models to address the effects of road related crashes. Well-constructed models encourage effective strategies to improve road safety. This review aimed to identify and summarise concise descriptions, or models of safety. The review covers information from a wide variety of fields and contexts including transport, occupational safety, food industry, education, construction and health. The information from 2620 candidate references were selected and summarised in 121 examples of different types of model and contents. The language of safety models and systems was found to be inconsistent. Each model provided additional information regarding style, purpose, complexity and diversity. In total, seven types of models were identified. The categorisation of models was done on a high level with a variation of details in each group and without a complete, simple and rational description. The models identified in this review are likely to be adaptable to road safety and some of them have previously been used. None of systems theory, safety management systems, the risk management approach, or safety culture was commonly or thoroughly applied to road safety. It is concluded that these approaches have the potential to reduce road trauma.

  • 92.
    Jacob, Andrew
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Scott, Melissa
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia; Cooperat Research Centre Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    The Costs and Benefits of Employing an Adult with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 10, p. e0139896-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Despite an ambition from adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) to be employed, there are limited opportunities for competitive employment for this group. Employment is not only an entitlement enjoyed by others in society, but employing adults with ASD also has economic benefits by decreasing lost productivity and resource costs for this group. Few studies have explored the cost-benefit ratio for employing adults with ASD and even fewer have taken the viewpoint of the employer, particularly applying this situation to ASD. Until such study occurs, employers may continue to be reluctant to employ adults from this group. Objective This review aimed to examine the costs, benefits and the cost-benefit ratio of employing adults with ASD, from a societal perspective and from the perspective of employers. Methods Eight databases were searched for scientific studies within defined inclusion criteria. These databases included CINAHL Plus, Cochrane Library, Emerald, Ovid Medline, ProQuest, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. Results and Conclusion Enhancing the opportunities for adults with ASD to join the workforce is beneficial from a societal perspective, not only from an inclusiveness viewpoint, but also from a strict economic standpoint. Providing supported employment services for adults with ASD does not only cut the cost compared with providing standard care, it also results in better outcomes for adults with ASD. Despite the fact that ASD was the most expensive group to provide vocational rehabilitation services for, adults with ASD have a strong chance of becoming employed once appropriate measures are in place. Hence, rehabilitation services could be considered as a worthwhile investment. The current systematic review uncovered the fact that very few studies have examined the benefits, the costs and the cost-benefit ratio of employing an adult with ASD from the perspective of employers indicating a need for this topic to be further explored.

  • 93.
    Joosten, Annette
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Albrecht, Matthew A.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Horlin, Chiara
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Leung, Denise
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Fleischer, Håkan
    Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Gaze and visual search strategies of children with Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism viewing a magic trick2016In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 95-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine visual search patterns and strategies used by children with and without Asperger syndrome/high functioning autism (AS/HFA) while watching a magic trick. Limited responsivity to gaze cues is hypothesised to contribute to social deficits in children with AS/HFA. Methods: Twenty-one children with AS/HFA and 31 matched peers viewed a video of a gaze-cued magic trick twice. Between the viewings, they were informed about how the trick was performed. Participants eye movements were recorded using a head-mounted eye-tracker. Results: Children with AS/HFA looked less frequently and had shorter fixation on the magicians direct and averted gazes during both viewings and more frequently at not gaze-cued objects and on areas outside the magicians face. After being informed of how the trick was conducted, both groups made fewer fixations on gaze-cued objects and direct gaze. Conclusions: Information may enhance effective visual strategies in children with and without AS/HFA.

  • 94.
    Kuzminski, Rebecca
    et al.
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Netto, Julie
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Wilson, Joel
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin Univ, Australia; Cooperat Res Ctr Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia.
    Chamberlain, Angela
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin Univ, Australia; Cooperat Res Ctr Living Autism Autism CRC, Australia; Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Linking knowledge and attitudes: Determining neurotypical knowledge about and attitudes towards autism2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 7, article id e0220197Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why are neurotypicals so pig-ignorant about autism?

  • 95.
    Larsson, Helena
    et al.
    Karolinska institutitet, Stockholm.
    Lundberg, Catarina
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset, Stockholm.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Johansson, Kurt
    Karollinska institutet, Stockholm.
    A Swedish survey of occupational therapists' involvement and performance in driving assessments2007In: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 215-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which occupational therapists (OTs) are involved in driving assessments in Sweden and how these assessments are performed. A questionnaire was sent to 154 geriatric, rehabilitation, and neurological clinics, and additionally directly to 19 OTs who had purchased a test battery specifically used for driving assessments. The response rate was 60%. Of those responding, 57% reported being involved in fitness-to-drive assessments. However, such assessments were carried out in various manners and diverse methods were used, ranging from unstandardized activity assessments to a test developed specifically for driving assessments. Only 19% used on-road driving tests as a complement to the clinical assessments. Apart from the lack of appropriate methods, the respondents said that they did not have sufficient knowledge to perform driving assessments and expressed a need for further education. In the future it seems necessary for OTs in Sweden to undergo specialized training and perform the assessments on a regular basis to maintain a high level of competence as driving assessors.

  • 96.
    Lee, Elinda Ai Lim
    et al.
    Curtin Univ Technol, Australia; Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Black, Melissa H.
    Curtin Univ Technol, Australia; Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin Univ Technol, Australia; Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Girdler, Sonya
    Curtin Univ Technol, Australia; Curtin Univ, Australia.
    Im Destined to Ace This2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 8, p. 3089-3101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As postsecondary outcomes of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are poor, there is a need for programs that aim to improve employment and education outcomes. This study employed a grounded theory approach to explore the key factors contributing to successful work placement experience and the perceived benefits of these placements from the perspective of adolescents with ASD (n=5), their parents (n=6) and employers (n=6). Key factors contributing to success include preparing for the workplace, harnessing strengths and interests and developing work related skills, while the benefits include insight into the workplace, recognising and realising potential, working as a team and the pathway ahead. The findings articulate a framework which could underpin future transition interventions for adolescents with ASD.

  • 97.
    Lee, H
    et al.
    University of Technology Western Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Rehabilitation Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Paediatric Habilitation Community Service.
    Rosenwax, L
    University of Technology Western Australia.
    Cordell, R
    Osborne Park Hospital Western Australia.
    Granger, A
    Osborne Park Hospital Western Australia.
    Vieira, B
    Osborne Park Hospital Western Australia.
    Lee, A
    University of Technology Western Australia.
    Validity of driving simulator in assessing drivers with parkinson´s disease2007In: Advances in transportation studies, ISSN 1824-5463, Vol. special issue, p. 81-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 98.
    Lee, Hoe C
    et al.
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Yanting Chee, Derserri
    School of Occupational Therapy and Social Work, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Selander, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Habilitation in Central County.
    Is it reliable to assess visual attention of drivers affected by Parkinson's disease from the backseat? - a simulator study2012In: Emerging health threats journal, ISSN 1752-8550, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Current methods of determining licence retainment or cancellation is through on-road driving tests. Previous research has shown that occupational therapists frequently assess drivers' visual attention while sitting in the back seat on the opposite side of the driver. Since the eyes of the driver are not always visible, assessment by eye contact becomes problematic. Such procedural drawbacks may challenge validity and reliability of the visual attention assessments. In terms of correctly classified attention, the aim of the study was to establish the accuracy and the inter-rater reliability of driving assessments of visual attention from the back seat. Furthermore, by establishing eye contact between the assessor and the driver through an additional mirror on the wind screen, the present study aimed to establish how much such an intervention would enhance the accuracy of the visual attention assessment.

    METHODS: Two drivers with Parkinson's disease (PD) and six control drivers drove a fixed route in a driving simulator while wearing a head mounted eye tracker. The eye tracker data showed where the foveal visual attention actually was directed. These data were time stamped and compared with the simultaneous manual scoring of the visual attention of the drivers. In four of the drivers, one with Parkinson's disease, a mirror on the windscreen was set up to arrange for eye contact between the driver and the assessor. Inter-rater reliability was performed with one of the Parkinson drivers driving, but without the mirror.

    RESULTS: Without mirror, the overall accuracy was 56% when assessing the three control drivers and with mirror 83%. However, for the PD driver without mirror the accuracy was 94%, whereas for the PD driver with a mirror the accuracy was 90%. With respect to the inter-rater reliability, a 73% agreement was found.

    CONCLUSION: If the final outcome of a driving assessment is dependent on the subcategory of a protocol assessing visual attention, we suggest the use of an additional mirror to establish eye contact between the assessor and the driver. The clinicians' observations on-road should not be a standalone assessment in driving assessments. Instead, eye trackers should be employed for further analyses and correlation in cases where there is doubt about a driver's attention.

  • 99.
    Lee, Wee Lih
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia .
    Tan, Tele
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia .
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Leung, Yee Hong
    Curtin University, Perth, Australia .
    Single-Trial Multi-channel N170 Estimation Using Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA)2012In: Neural Information Processing: 19th International Conference, ICONIP 2012, Doha, Qatar, November 12-15, 2012, Proceedings, Part IV / [ed] Tingwen Huang, Zhigang Zeng, Chuandong Li, Chi Sing Leung, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, p. 347-355Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The five volume set LNCS 7663, LNCS 7664, LNCS 7665, LNCS 7666 and LNCS 7667 constitutes the proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Neural Information Processing, ICONIP 2012, held in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012. The 423 regular session papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. These papers cover all major topics of theoretical research, empirical study and applications of neural information processing research. The 5 volumes represent 5 topical sections containing articles on theoretical analysis, neural modeling, algorithms, applications, as well as simulation and synthesis.

  • 100.
    Leung, Denise
    et al.
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Ordqvist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Rehabilitation Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Parsons, Richard
    Curtin University, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Falkmer, Marita
    CHILD Programme, Institute of Disability Research, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Facial emotion recognition and visual search strategies of children with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome2013In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 7, no 7, p. 833-844Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adults with high functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger syndrome (AS) are often less able to identify facially expressed emotions than their matched controls. However, results regarding emotion recognition abilities in children with HFA/AS remain equivocal. Emotion recognition ability and visual search strategies of 26 children with HFA/AS and matched controls were compared. An eye tracker measured the number of fixations and fixation durations as participants were shown 12 pairs of slides, displaying photos of faces expressing anger, happiness or surprise. The first slide of each pair showed a face broken up into puzzle pieces. The eyes in half of the puzzle piece slides were bisected, while those in the remaining half were whole. Participants then identified which of three alternative faces was expressing the same emotion shown in the preceding puzzle piece slide. No differences between the participant groups were found for either emotion recognition ability or number of fixations. Both groups fixated more often on the eyes and performed better when the eyes were whole, suggesting that both children with HFA/AS and controls consider the eyes to be the most important source of information during emotion recognition. Fixation durations were longer in the group with HFA/AS, which indicates that while children with HFA/AS may be able to accurately recognise emotions, they find the task more demanding.

     

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