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  • 51.
    Holmin, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Spångéus, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Krantz-Rülcher, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Compression of electronic tongue data based on voltammetry - A comparative study2001Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 76, nr 1-3, s. 455-464Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, three data compression methods are investigated to determine their ability to reduce large data sets obtained by a voltammetric electronic tongue without loss of information, since compressed data sets will save data storage and computational time. The electronic tongue is based on a combination of non-specific sensors and pattern recognition tools, such as principal component analysis (PCA). A series of potential pulses of decreasing amplitude are applied to one working electrode at a time and resulting current transients are collected at each potential step. Voltammograms containing up to 8000 variables are subsequently obtained. The methods investigated are wavelet transformation (WT) and hierarchical principal component analysis (HPCA). Also, a new chemical/physical model based on voltammetric theory is developed in order to extract interesting features of the current transients, revealing different information about species in solutions. Two model experiments are performed, one containing solutions of different electroactive compounds and the other containing complex samples, such as juices from fruits and tomatoes. It is shown that WT and HPCA compress the data sets without loss of information, and the chemical/physical model improves the separations slightly. HPCA is able to compress the two data sets to the largest extent, from 8000 to 16 variables. When data sets are scaled to unit variance, the separation ability improves even further for HPCA and the chemical/physical model. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 52.
    Hu, Jiwen
    et al.
    Tongji University, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Tongji University, Peoples R China.
    Cui, Yang
    Tongji University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Xuanjun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gao, Hong-Wen
    Tongji University, Peoples R China.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A rhodamine-based fluorescent probe for Hg2+ and its application for biological visualization2014Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 203, s. 452-458Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A new visible light excitable fluorescent probe (1) is synthesized by appending a hydroxymethyl-pyridine to rhodamine B hydrazide. The probe displays very specific Hg2+-induced colour change and fluorescent enhancement in the aqueous systems. The "turn-on" response of fluorescence is based on a binding-induced ring-opening process from the spirolactam (nonfluorescent) to acyclic xanthene (fluorescent) in rhodamine B. The coordinating atoms O-center dot-N-N-O-center dot from the hydroxymethyl-pyridine and rhodamine B hydrazide play dominant role in the formation of a complex with 1:1 stoichiometry of Hg2+ to 1. It exhibits a linear response in the range of 0.1-5 mu M with the limit of detection (LOD) of 15.7 nM (3 sigma/slope), while the calculated value of the association constant of Hg2+/1 is 0.70 x 10(5) M-1. Furthermore, confocal microscopy imaging experiment demonstrates the probe 1 can be applied as a fluorescent probe for visualization of Hg2+ in living HeLa cells.

  • 53.
    Hu, Jiwen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Tongji University, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Liu, Sheng
    Huaibei Normal University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Qiong
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gao, Hong-Wen
    Tongji University, Peoples R China.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A new ratiometric fluorescent chemodosimeter based on an ICT modulation for the detection of Hg2+2016Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 230, s. 639-644Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We design and synthesize a new ratiometric fluorescent chemodosimeter (S1) for the selective and sensitive detection of Hg2+. Upon addition of Hg2+, the emission of the S1 exhibits a large bathochromic shift from 393 to 515 nm (up to 122 nm) which is ascribed to an intramolecular charge transfer process in the resultant. The Hg2+-induced dethioacetalization for sensing mechanism has been demonstrated by using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the sensing process. The interference experiments further demonstrate that S1 exhibits very high selectivity towards Hg2+ over other coexisting cations/anions. Subsequently, a good linearity of the concentrations of Hg2+ (0-15 mu M) vs the ratiometric signals (I-515/I-393) allows a fluorogenic method for the quantitative detection of Hg2+, with the limitation of detection determined to be 5.22 x 10(-7) M. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 54.
    Hu, Jiwen
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, TingTing
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Gao, Hong-Wen
    Tongji Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lu, Senlin
    Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Shanghai Univ, Peoples R China.
    Selective detections of Hg2+ and F- by using tailor-made fluorogenic probes2018Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 269, s. 368-376Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By ingeniously using a (imino)coumarin-precursor, three reactive fluorogenic probes of MP, FP, and FMP have been fabricated in a single facile synthetic route. MP and FP are able to respectively act as selective "turn-on" fluorescent probes for detecting Hg2+ and F- in buffer solution via specific analyte-induced reactions. Linear ranges for the detection of Hg2+ and F- are 0-10 mu M and 0-100 mu M with the limits of detection (LODs) of 4.0 x 10(-8) M and 1.14 x 10(-6) M (3 delta/slope), respectively. FMP is able to work as a molecular "AND" logic gate-based fluorogenic probe for monitoring the coexistence of Hg2+ and F- via a multistep reaction cascade. The analytes-induced sensing mechanisms have been determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC). In addition, three probes show negligible toxicity under the experimental conditions, and are successfully used for monitoring Hg2+ and F- in living cells with good cell permeability. The success of the work demonstrates that ingenious utility of specific analyte-induced reactions and conventional concepts on the appropriate molecular scaffold can definitely deliver tailor-made probes for various intended sensing purposes. (C) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 55.
    Hu, Zhang-Jun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yang, Guanqing
    Anhui Univ, Peoples R China.
    Hu, Jiwen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Hui
    Anhui Univ, Peoples R China.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Ruilong
    Anhui Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Zhongping
    Anhui Univ, Peoples R China.
    Uvdal, Kajsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär ytfysik och nanovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Real-time visualizing the regulation of reactive oxygen species on Zn2+ release in cellular lysosome by a specific fluorescent probe2018Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 264, s. 419-425Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulating the release of free zinc ions (Zn2+) in cellular lysosome is closely related to various pathways of cellular signal transduction, such as inflammation and oxidative stress. Directly visualizing Zn2+ release in lysosome is essential for in-depth understanding these physiological processes, and is still an atelic challenge. In this work, we successfully fabricate a lysosome-specific Zn2+ fluorescent probe and achieve the visualization of ROS-induced Zn2+ release in lysosome of inflammatory cells. The as-prepared probe combines a green fluorophore, an ionophore with five-dentate sites, and a morpholine as the lysosome-specific localization moiety. The fluorescence of the fluorophore in the free probe is suppressed by a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process from nitrogen atoms in the ionophore. Upon the addition of Zn2+, the fluorescence can be promoted immediately, achieving the real-time detection. Meanwhile, the probe is sensitive and selective to Zn2+, which provides the capability to detect low-concentration of free Zn2+ in lysosomes. Accordingly, the Zn2+ release was clearly observed in lysosome with the increase of ROS levels when the inflammation occurred in living cells. (c) 2018 Published by Elsevier B.V.

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  • 56.
    Huotari, J.
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lappalainen, J.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Pulsed Laser Deposited Nanostructured Vanadium Oxide Thin Films Characterized as Ammonia Sensors2015Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 217, s. 22-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium oxide thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The microstructure and crystal symmetry of the deposited films were studied with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The films surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy. Raman spectroscopy and XRD results showed that the thin film phase-structure was composed of pure orthorhombic V2O5 phase, or they had a mixed phase structure of orthorhombic V2O5 and triclinic V7O16. Surface morphology of the films consisted of nanosized particles, although in pure V2O5 films some bigger agglomerates and flakes were also seen. The conductivity based gas sensing measurements showed a clear response already at ppb-levels of NH3 and strong selectivity to ammonia was found when compared to NO and CO gases. Also, the films showed promising gas sensing behavior in cross-sensitivity measurements between NO and NH3, being able to sense ammonia even in the presence of NO. This is an important property when considering possible sensing applications to control Selective Catalytic Reduction processes, e.g. in diesel engine exhausts, where introduced ammonia, or urea, transforms nitrogen oxide gases in a catalytic converter to nitrogen and water. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 57.
    Huotari, Joni
    et al.
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Puustinen, Jarko
    University of Oulu.
    Lappalainen, Jyrki
    University of Oulu.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gas Sensing Properties of Pulsed Laser Deposited Vanadium OxideThin Films with Various Crystal Structures2013Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 187, nr SI, s. 386-394Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vanadium oxide thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The crystal structure and symmetry of the deposited films were studied with X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The film microstructure was also studied with atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The thin film crystal structures varied between almost pure V2O5 phase and another phase, suggested being V7O16, generally found in samples composed of nanotubes and identified as VOx-NT. The measured optical transmission spectra of the films also supported the existence of two different phases. The electrical resistivity of the films as a function of temperature behaved like in a typical semiconductor. The gas sensing properties of the films were characterized for different NOx, CO and H-2 concentrations. The results showed a response to NOx and H-2, which varied from oxidative to reducing according to the film composition and gas background environment. Only very small response was seen towards CO. Gas response and resistivity measurements indicated that the VOx-NT-type phase has both n-type and p-type conduction mechanisms.

  • 58.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jamal, N
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A potentiometric immunosensor based on silver nanoparticles decorated ZnO nanotubes, for the selective detection of d-dimer2013Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 182, s. 104-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a new, simple, fast and highly sensitive potentiometric immunosensor for the selective detection of d-dimer is developed using silver nanoparticles decorated ZnO nanotubes. The d-dimer is a biomarker and found at high levels in the human body when it suffers from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) disorders. ZnO nanotubes were obtained by the chemical etching of nanorods using a hydrothermal method. The silver nanoparticles were deposited on the ZnO nanotubes using an electrodepositing technique. The structure and the composition characterization was measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques respectively. The ZnO nanorods are perpendicular to the substrate with uniform distribution. The etching of the nanorods into nanotubes is almost complete and the nanotubes are fully covered with silver nanoparticles. The mouse anti human d-dimer antibody was immobilized on the silver nanoparticles decorated ZnO nanotubes for the selective detection of d-dimer. The potentiometric immunosensor has shown a highly sensitive and linear response for the wide range of 1.00 x 10(-5)-1.00 x 10(0) mu g/ml d-dimer concentrations prepared in the phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.4. The presented d-dimer biosensor exhibited a detection limit of 1.00 x 10(-6) mu g/ml. The antibody immobilized immunosensor presents a fast response time of less than 5 s with acceptable selectivity, reproducibility and storage stability. The observed performance of the developed immunosensor demonstrates the high usability for the selective detection of the d-dimer from clinical and real samples.

  • 59.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jamal, N.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Khun, Kimleang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Development of a disposable potentiometric antibody immobilized ZnO nanotubes based sensor for the detection of C-reactive protein2012Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 166, s. 809-814Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the fabrication of ZnO nanotubes was carried out through chemical etching of ZnO nanorods on the gold coated glass substrates. The monoclonal anti-C-reactive protein clone CRP-8 (mouse IgG1 isotype) with glutaraldehyde was immobilized on these ZnO nanotubes using simple physical adsorption method. The novelty of the present ZnO nanotubes based research is the generation of electromotive force (EMF) in the environment of rapid formation of complex between immobilized antibodies with CRP on the surface of ZnO nanotubes. The electrochemical response of the proposed C-reactive protein (CRP) of human plasma biosensor was measured using potentiometric technique. The antibody immobilized ZnO nanotubes based sensor electrode detected the concentration range of CRP from 1.0 x 10(-5) mg/L to 1.0 x 100 mg/L with an acceptable sensitivity of 13.17 +/- 0.42 mV/decade. This unusual behavior of the proposed ZnO nanotubes based sensor in no particular electrolytic atmosphere is opening a new way for the detection of proteins at the nanolevel. The response of CRP sensor was highly linear and stable for above detected concentrations. The time response of antibody immobilized ZnO nanotubes based sensor was observed less than 10 s with good selectivity, reproducibility, repeatability and stability. The life time of sensor was not more than three days after use, so it can be used as disposable sensor.

  • 60.
    Iqbal, Zafar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemiska och optiska sensorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Classification and quantitative optical analysis of liquid and solid samples using a mobile phone as illumination source and detector2013Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 185, s. 354-362Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A mobile phone has been used both as illumination source and image detector for quantitative optical analysis of colored liquid samples (4 different colorants) and solid samples (printed color patterns, plastic beads and colored sand grains). Even though the measurement conditions were far from ideal, because the light source was strongly polychromatic and the illumination was not a collimated light beam with homogeneous light intensity, a logarithmic concentration dependence, in accordance with the Beer-Lambert law, described the data of the colored liquids quite well. By utilizing blue-blue (420-510 nm), green-green (480-590 nm) and red-red (575-695 nm) illumination/detection combinations, each sample could be assigned a unique color signature for classification that agreed with reference absorbance spectra measured with a spectrometer. Quantification of validation samples within a few percent of the actual values was achieved. Also the long-term repeatability of the measurements was investigated and was surprisingly good for such a simple system. Analysis of the colored solid samples was more complex with results being dependent on the morphology and colorimetric properties of the samples.

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  • 61.
    Ivarsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Asko Cylinder AB.
    Johansson, Madeleine
    Asko Cylinda AB.
    Höjer, Nils-Erik
    Asko Cylinda AB.
    Krantz-Rülcher, Christina
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Supervision of rinses in a washing machine by a voltammetric electronic tongue2005Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 108, nr 01-Feb, s. 851-857Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A study that investigates if it is possible to discriminate between the different rinses in a household washing machine with a voltammetric electronic tongue is concluded. The voltammetric electronic tongue applies a potential pulse train over two electrodes and measures the produced current. Multivariate data analysis is used to treat the data. In this paper, a simplified electronic tongue, with only 5% of the original current responses, is used. The rinses from 20 machine wash runs with four different prerequisites are investigated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Soft-independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) are used in order to classify the rinses. In PCA, only one of the rinses is classified erroneous, and in SIMCA none of the rinses are classified only to the wrong class, although 38% of the rinses are classitied to more than one class. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 62.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Masurkar, Nirul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Felix Nworah, Nnamdi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gaihre, Babita
    University of Wollongong, Australia .
    Alici, Gursel
    University of Wollongong, Australia University of Wollongong, Australia .
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    University of Wollongong, Australia University of Wollongong, Australia .
    Patterning and electrical interfacing of individually controllable conducting polymer microactuators2013Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 183, s. 283-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymer actuators such as polypyrrole (PPy) microactuators are interesting candidates to drive autonomous microrobotic devices that require low weight and low power. Simple PPy tri-layer bending type microactuators that operate in air have been demonstrated previously but they lack individual control and had problems with short circuiting due to electrical connections. The lack of micropatterning methods and proper interfacing are currently major obstacles in the development of PPy tri-layer microactuators. Here, we report for the first time methods for successfully patterning and interfacing of such tri-layer PPy microactuators. The PPy tri-layer actuators were patterned using adapted microfabrication technology including photolithography. The interface was based on a flexible printed circuit board comprising the electronic circuit into which the actuator unit was embedded. It showed that the microfabricated tri-layer actuators functioned as good as the normally fabricated actuators. The new interface seemed to actually improve the actuator performance. This interfacing method could also be applied to other electroactive polymer devices, such as ion polymer metal composites (IPMC) and dielectric elastomers (DE).

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  • 63.
    Jager, Edwin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Smela, Elisabeth
    Risø National Lab, Roskilde.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On-chip microelectrodes for electrochemistry with moveable PPy bilayer actuators as working electrodes1999Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 56, nr 1-2, s. 73-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present electrochemical microactuators which have all the electrodes necessary for the actuation—the working, counter, and reference electrodes—on-chip. This is a first step towards an all-polymer system, i.e., a system that does not require a liquid electrolyte. The microactuators' performance was as good as when standard, off-chip counter and reference electrodes were used. Specifically, the speed of actuation was the same. In addition, we obtained a good cyclic voltammogram, although the oxidation and reduction peaks were shifted and some noise was present. Apart from application in an all-polymer system, we will also use these microactuators for studies on the effect of mechanical stimulation of living cells.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 64.
    Kanungo, Jayita
    et al.
    IC Design & Fabrication Centre, Dept. of Electronics & Telecommunications Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Darmastuti, Zhafira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Basu, Sukumar
    IC Design & Fabrication Centre, Dept. of Electronics & Telecommunications Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, India.
    Käll, Per-Olov
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Fysikalisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Fysikalisk Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Development of SiC-FET methanol sensor2011Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 160, nr 1, s. 72-78Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A silicon carbide based field effect transistor (SiC-FET) structure was used for methanol sensing. Due to the chemical stability and wide band gap of SiC, these sensors are suitable for applications over a wide temperature range. Two different catalytic metals, Pt and Ir, were tested as gate contacts for detection of methanol. The sensing properties of both Ir gate and Pt gate SiC-FET sensors were investigated in the concentration range 0.3–5% of methanol in air and in the temperature range 150–350 °C. It was observed that compared to the Ir gate sensor, the Pt gate sensor showed higher sensitivity, faster response and recovery to methanol vapour at comparatively lower temperature, with an optimum around 200 °C. Quantum-chemical calculations were used to investigate the MeOH adsorption and to rationalize the observed non-Langmuir behavior of the response functions. The methanol sensing mechanism of the SiC-FET is discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 65.
    Khaldi, Alexandre
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik.
    Maziz, Ali
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alici, Gursel
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Spinks, Geoffrey M.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Bottom-up microfabrication process for individually controlled conjugated polymer actuators2016Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 230, s. 818-824Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Handling of soft and fragile sub-millimeter sized samples such as cells and tissues requires new tools that allow delicate manipulation. Conducting polymer actuators show unique characteristics suitable to driving such manipulators, however despite their potential, the current fabrication method of the trilayer structures does not allow constructing advanced micromanipulators operating in air using this technology. Here we show a novel bottom-up microfabrication process for conjugated polymer trilayer actuators using various solid polymer electrolytes. In addition, the process design integrates contact pads, which has been an issue for small scale conducting polymer actuators. The microfabrication process starts with a patterned layer of conjugated polymer, followed by depositing a polymer electrolyte and a second patterning of the second conjugated polymer layer. The process resulted in successful fabrication of individually controllable conducting polymer trilayer actuators comprising polyvinylidenefluoride and poly( vinylidenefluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) membranes and showed good interfacial adhesion between the different layers in the final device. The polyvinylidenefluoride trilayer actuator showed good actuation capability. The developed bottom-up microfabrication method paves the way for the development of novel micromanipulation tools. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 66.
    Khun, Kimleang
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ibupoto, Zafar Hussain
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    AlSalhi, M. S.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Atif, M.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Ansari, Anees A.
    King Saud University, Saudi Arabia .
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Potentiometric glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized iron ferrite magnetic particle/chitosan composite modified gold coated glass electrode2012Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 173, s. 698-703Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A potentiometric glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized on iron ferrite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles/chitosan composite modified gold coated glass substrate was fabricated. The electrode has advantages of both the inorganic Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles and the organic substance chitosan. The freshly prepared iron ferrite magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (xRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) technique was used for the analysis of dispersed iron ferrite magnetic nanoparticles in the mixture of glucose oxidase and chitosan. The electrostatic interaction of Fe3O4 nanoparticles with chitosan and the glucose oxidase molecules was investigated by the infra-red reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRAS) study. The glucose oxidase enzyme was immobilized on the surface of iron ferrite/chitosan composite without the use of Nafion or cross linker molecules. The fabricated glucose sensor has shown acceptable potentiometric response for the wide range of glucose concentrations from 1.0 x 10(-6) to 3.0 x 10(-2) M. The sensor electrode showed a sensitivity of 27.3 +/- 0.8 mV/decade and also fast response time of 7.0s. Moreover, the present glucose sensor has demonstrated good reproducibility, repeatability, selectivity and the storage stability. All the obtained results indicated that the glucose sensor based on the glucose oxidase immobilized iron ferrite/chitosan composite modified gold coated glass electrode can be used for the monitoring of glucose concentrations in human serum, drugs and may be applicable to detect glucose in the presence of other analytes.

  • 67.
    Kiefer, Rudolf
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Aydemir, Nihan
    University of Auckland, New Zealand .
    Torop, Janno
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Tamm, Tarmo
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Temmer, Rauno
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Travas-Sejdic, Jadranka
    University of Auckland, New Zealand .
    Must, Indrek
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Kaasik, Friedrich
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Aabloo, Alvo
    University of Tartu, Estonia .
    Carbide-derived carbon as active interlayer of polypyrrole tri-layer linear actuator2014Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 201, s. 100-106Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electro-chemo-mechanical deformations (ECMD) of electrochemically prepared tri-layer polypyrrole (PPy) linear actuators with active nanoporous carbide-derived carbon (CDC) based actuating interlayers were studied under isotonic (constant length) and isometric (constant force) conditions and compared with those of single-layer CDC and PPy linear actuators. The goal of this study was to combine two active materials with different electroactive and mechanical properties for obtaining improved tri-layer PPy linear actuators. CDC linear actuators were used as electrode materials for the electrochemical deposition of PPy. SEM images showed the PPy and polymeric CDC layers could be clearly distinguished. The CDC, CDC-PPy and PPy linear actuators were cycled in aqueous electrolyte in the voltage range of +/- 0.8 V. The CDC-PPy actuators had improved mechanical and electro-chemo-mechanical properties, compared to the free-standing CDC and PPy linear actuators. The Raman spectra did not show any signs of degradation of either CDC or PPy layers during actuation.

  • 68.
    Klingvall, Roger
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Robust gas detection at sub ppm concentrations2011Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 160, nr 1, s. 571-579Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gas sensors often suffer from signal drift and long response and recovery times, giving rise to problems to evaluate the steady state gas response. It is shown that these problems can be reduced by modulating the test gas concentration and utilizing the change in the slope of the sensor signal as the sensor response feature. The case of low hydrogen concentration detection is studied using a light pulse technique and a PdPt-MIS field-effect device. For the difference in slope method it was possible to reduce the measurement time from hours in the steady state measurements to 1 + 1 min (test gas + reference gas exposure time) and still achieve a detection limit of about 40 ppb for a step change in hydrogen concentration. Such measurements could be made in spite of a drifting baseline caused, e.g. by previous hydrogen exposures. A theoretical model of how a step change in the hydrogen partial pressure affects the difference in slope is given. The model also predicts a non-reactive hydrogen sticking probability (i.e. the probability that an incoming hydrogen molecule from the gas phase will contribute to the response) of about 1 x 10(-8) at 100 ppb H(2), which is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than the reactive sticking coefficient. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 69.
    Larsson, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wang, Xiaodong
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. null.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. null.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. null.
    Proton motion in a polyelectrolyte: A probe for wireless humidity sensors2010Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 143, nr 2, s. 482-486Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-cost passive wireless electronic sensor labels glued onto packages are highly desirable since they enable monitoring of the status of the packages for instance along the logistic chain or while stored at a shelf. Such additional sensing feature would be of great value for many producers and vendors, active in e.g. the food or construction industries. Here, we explore a novel concept for wireless sensing and readout, in which the humidity sensitive ionic motion in a polyelectrolyte membrane is directly translated into a shift of the resonance frequency of a resonance circuit. Thanks to its simplicity, the wireless sensor device itself can be manufactured entirely using common printing techniques and can be integrated into a low-cost passive electronic sensor label.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 70.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Huotari, Joni
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Bur, Christian
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Bjorklund, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lappalainen, Jyrki
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Jantunen, Heli
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chemical sensor systems for emission control from combustions2013Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 187, nr SI, s. 184-190Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental and health concern has increased the importance to monitor and control emissions like toxic gases and particulate matter from combustion processes. The silicon carbide-field effect transistor (SiC-FET) technology offers versatile and powerful sensors for gas detection also in combination with combustion of particles. Emission control has been demonstrated e. g. for small and medium sized power plants and diesel exhausts. The potential danger of nanoparticles makes such detectors interesting not only for detection of concentration and size of particles but also detection of the content of particles. Due to the possibility of operating the sensor devices in different independent modes (e. g. temperature- and bias-modulated) the SiC-FET technology also lends itself for the future development of sensor adaptation, self-diagnosis and auto calibration, which is expected to improve the performance of such a combined gas/particle sensor system. Here we report progress on the sensor technology itself, the application of a sensor system as an alarm for ammonia emission and preliminary results of particle detection in diesel exhausts and particles from a power plant and a steel plant.

  • 71.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Tobias, P.
    Unéus, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Svenningstorp, H.
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    High temperature catalytic metal field effect transistor for industrial applications2000Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 70, nr 1-3, s. 67-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Field effect chemical sensors, utilising silicon carbide as semiconductor, can be operated at high temperature and in rough environments. Gas sensitive field effect transistors, MISiCFET, are now developed (ACREO, Kista in Sweden). This will increase the number of possible applications for field effect gas sensors. The first batch of MISiCFET devices is possible to operate in intermittent pulses of hydrogen/oxygen up to 775°C. At temperature above 600°C, the gas response of the MISiC devices has very short time constants for a change between oxidising and reducing atmosphere and cylinder specific monitoring of a combustion engine has been demonstrated. Other industrial applications, like exhaust diagnosis and flue gas monitoring, have been demonstrated by the use of MISiC Schottky diodes at lower temperatures, 200°C-500°C.

  • 72.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kariis, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Spetz, Anita.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Recent developments in field-effect gas sensors1995Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 23, nr 2-3, s. 127-133Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Some of the ongoing studies at our laboratory of gas-sensitive field-effect devices with catalytic metal gates are reviewed. More particularly, we discuss the use of such devices in so-called electronic noses due to the possibility of changing the selectivity patterns of the devices by the choice of catalytic metal and operation temperature. Several examples of the application of electronic noses consisting of field-effect devices in combination with metal oxide-based sensors are given. Finally, a summary is given of some remaining scientific problems and studies related to the understanding and development of gas-sensitive field-effect devices.

  • 73.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ackelid, U.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Catalytic metals and field-effect devices—a useful combination1990Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 1, nr 1-6, s. 15-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The properties of gas-sensitive field-effect devices with catalytic metal gates are described. We demonstrate especially how the selectivity of these sensors depends on parameters such as the choice of catalytic metal, the structure of the catalytic metal film and the operation temperature of the device. The sensitivity towards molecules like hydrogen, ammonia, ethanol and ethylene is demonstrated. The selectivity pattern of devices with catalytic metal gates is discussed in relation to the fabrication of multisensor arrays and the development of 'artificial olfactory senses'.

  • 74.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Krantz-Rülcker, Tina
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Twenty-five years of field effect gas sensor research in Linköping2007Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 121, nr 1, s. 247-262Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present contribution contains an overview of the development of gas sensitive field-effect devices in Linköping during the last 25 years. It is completely centred to the work at the Laboratory of Applied Physics at Linköping University, and is therefore not a proper review of a research field where many important contributions have been made by several other research groups. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 75.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Christer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundgren, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    From hydrogen sensors to olfactory images — twenty years with catalytic field-effect devices1993Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 13, nr 1-3, s. 16-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A personal description of the history of gas-sensitive field-effect devices is given. It is shown how the originally described palladium-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor has developed into sensing surfaces enabling the production of response images to odours. Images obtained for the odour from different cheeses are presented as examples of such artificial olfactory images.

  • 76.
    Lvova, Larisa
    et al.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Pudi, Rajesh
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Galloni, Pierluca
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Lippolis, Vito
    University of Cagliari, CA USA.
    Di Natale, Corrado
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Paolesse, Roberto
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Multi-transduction sensing films for Electronic Tongue applications2015Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 207, s. 1076-1086Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the use of multi-transduction principle for sensing materials development is reviewed. In particular, the application of porphyrin-based films to a multi-transduction Electronic Tongue system for different analytical tasks is presented. The optical response of sensing films was registered by means of Computer Screen Photoassisted Technology (CSPT) that applies familiar devices, such as computer monitor screen and web-camera, as illumination light source and signal detectors. Simultaneously the electrochemical amperometric or potentiometric response of the same sensing material was measured. Data analysis combining both signals significantly improves the performance of the Electronic Tongue, thus opening new frontiers in application of such a system.

  • 77.
    Löfdahl, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Chemical images2000Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 70, nr 1-3, s. 77-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemical sensors can be used to generate a vast amount of information about the emissions from bio- and chemical processes, from food and bacteria and from a number of products. These emissions are either wanted or should be avoided. Wolfgang Gopel was one of those who recognized early the large potential of chemical sensor arrays and different modes of operation of a given sensor. We describe how large area field effect devices, with catalytic metal gates, can be used for the construction of a response image of a gaseous emission. More specifically, we discuss the new possibilities obtained through the use of catalytic metals with a gradient in thickness. Some basic features of such sensing surfaces are demonstrated and, finally, time-dependent response images from aging meat are used to demonstrate the potential of the method used. It is based on a scanning light pulse technique (SLPT) which measures local polarization or work function changes in two dimensions and, e.g. a sensing surface consisting of bands of different catalytic metals with a gradient in thickness.

  • 78.
    Löfdahl, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Utaiwasin, C.
    Carlsson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Gas response dependence on gate metal morphology of field-effect devices2001Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 80, nr 3, s. 183-192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The dependence of the gas response on the gate metal morphology of field-effect gas sensors has been investigated in a new systematic way by using a scanning light pulse technique (SLPT) together with fabrication of metal gates where the metal morphology is continuously varied over the gate area. With the SLPT the local gas response at different points of the gate area can be measured. Furthermore, a mass spectrometric local gas sampling technique has been applied in combination with the local gas response measurements, which gives complementary information about the surface chemistry and how it changes with the morphology of the metal gate. Three different gate metals, Pd, Pt and Ir, have been studied by analysing the morphology and the gas response to five different gases, H2, NH3, C2H5OH, C2H4 and CH3CHO. Morphological aspects such as crack coverage, concentration of cracks and the length of the crack boundary, have been calculated from acquired scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Different possible response mechanisms are discussed in order to explain the observed responses and to understand the role of the morphology and the choice of the catalytic metal. Only in the case of ammonia a direct correlation between the morphological aspects, e.g. crack coverage, and the response was found. For Pd large changes in the local water pressure close to the metal gate surface have been measured at different parts of the metal gate by using the local gas sampling technique and a correlation is observed with the simultaneously measured gas response. Of the response mechanisms discussed in this contribution only a dissociative mechanism, where hydrogen atoms trapped at the interface between the metal gate and the insulator gives the response of the device, is consistent with all obtained results. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 79. Manzano, J.
    et al.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Computer screen illumination for the characterization of colorimetric assays2003Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 96, nr 1-2, s. 173-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Colorimetric evaluation of samples sorted in a two-dimensional (2D) array is performed with a computer screen used as a controlled light source and a web camera as detector. The transmittance profiles are predicted with a 12 parameters model within errors of 5 or 10% for qualitative or semi-quantitative purposes, respectively. The use of random colour illumination additionally enables robust acquisition with only 50 snap-shots (in less than 1min) that contains the information of the whole array, independently of the number of samples. © 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 80.
    Masunaga, Kumi
    et al.
    Kyushu University Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences.
    Michiwaki, Shintaro
    Kyushu University Graduate School of Information Science and Electrial Engineering.
    Izumi, Ryosuke
    Kyushu University Graduate School of Information Science and Electrial Engineering.
    Ivarsson, Patrik
    Asko Cylinda AB .
    Björefors, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensorvetenskap och Molekylfysik.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Hayashi, Kenshi
    Kyushu University Graduate School of Information Science and Electrial Engineering.
    Toko, Kiyoshi
    Kyushu University Graduate School of Information Science and Electrial Engineering.
    Development of sensor surface with recognition of molecular substructure2008Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 130, nr 1, s. 330-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A biological olfaction system is one of the highest performance chemical sensing systems for low-molecular-weight compounds. An ability of recognizing a various molecular properties based on their structures is essential for a biological odor recognition process. For the development of a sensor mimicking the olfactory system, we have formed benzene-patterned self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the sensor surface using SAMs with nanostructure that serves as adsorption sites for benzene ring, which is representative substructure of aromatics. The structure of the benzene-patterned SAM surface was analyzed by contact-angle measurement, ellipsometry, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Moreover, the electrodes evaluated as sensor surfaces with cyclic surface-polarization impedance (cSPI) sensor that measures changes in impedance of the electrode surface by adsorption of substances. The results of cSPI indicated the benzene-patterned SAM surface could distinguish benzene by recognizing of the hydrophobicity and the molecular size. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 81.
    Mousavisani, Seyedeh Zeinab
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Raoof, Jahan-Bakhsh
    Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ojani, Reza
    Eletroanalytical Chemistry Research Laboratory, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran.
    Mak, Wing Cheung
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Label-free DNA sensor based on diazonium immobilisation for detection of DNA damage in breast cancer 1 gene2018Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 264, s. 59-66Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical DNA biosensors offer simple and rapid tools for detection of DNA sequences or damaged genes associated with human disease. The performance of electrochemical DNA sensors is critically dependent on the quality of the DNA immobilisation. Many DNA biosensors have been focused on studying DNA hybridisation preformed under relatively mild assay conditions, while the development of stable DNA biosensors to study DNA damage under a much harsher condition typically in the presence of reactive oxygen species is more challenging. In this article, we developed an electrochemical DNA biosensor based on a stable diazonium-modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE) for the detection of damage in DNA sequences related to the BRCA1 gene by using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The successful preparation of the DNA sensor was confirmed by FTIR-ATR, contact angle and electrochemical measurements. The DNA sensor exhibited good reproducibility and high stability and could also have potential for investigation of the glutathione antioxidant effect. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 82.
    Nakagomi, Shinji
    et al.
    School of Science and Engineering Ishinomaki Senshu University.
    Fukumura, Akira
    School of Science and Engineering Ishinomaki Senshu University.
    Kokubun, Yoshihiro
    School of Science and Engineering Ishinomaki Senshu University.
    Savage, Susan
    Acreo AB.
    Wingbrant, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Löfdahl, Mikael
    AppliedSensor AB.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Influence of gate bias of MISiC-FET gas sensor device on the sensing properties2005Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 108, s. 501-507Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of gate bias on the gas sensing properties of SiC-based field effect transistors with catalytic gate and a buried short channel has been studied. The drain current-voltage (I-d-V-D) characteristics of the device reveal non-saturation property, which is a consequence of the short channel design. The drain current is larger in hydrogen ambient than in oxygen ambient at the same drain voltage. The threshold voltage decreases with increasing positive gate bias, and increases with increasing negative gate bias. When a positive bias is applied to the gate, the I-d-V-D characteristics reveal a tendency to saturate. A positive gate bias increases the drain voltage response to hydrogen, as compared with a negative applied gate bias. However, a positive gate bias decreases the stability of the device signal. A change in the channel resistivity is the main reason for the change in the electrical properties when a positive gate bias is applied. A physical model that explains the influence of the gate bias has been studied, and the behavior of the barrier height in the channel was estimated by using the temperature dependence of the I-d-V-D characteristics.

  • 83.
    Nakagomi, Shinji
    et al.
    School of Science and Engineering, Ishinomaki Senshu University, Ishinomaki, Japan.
    Tobias, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Univ, S SENCE, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden; Linkoping Univ, Appl Phys Lab, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden; Ishinomaki Senshu Univ, Sch Sci and Engn, Ishinomaki 98680, Japan; .
    Baranzahi, Amir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mårtensson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Influence of carbon monoxide, water and oxygen on high temperature catalytic metal-oxide-silicon carbide structures1997Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 183-191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    High temperature sensors, Schottky diodes and capacitors, based on catalytic metal-oxide-silicon carbide devices are investigated. Reducing gases like hydrogen and other hydrogen containing gases, decrease the barrier height and the flat band voltage, respectively, which is used as the sensor signal. The sensitivity of the devices at 600 degrees C to mixtures of carbon monoxide and oxygen with and without water vapour is studied in this paper. A large binary response of the sensors to carbon monoxide similar to the sensor response to hydrogen gas is observed. Close to the stoichiometric ratio of carbon monoxide and oxygen, the signal changes from a high to a low value corresponding to an excess of carbon monoxide and an excess of oxygen, respectively. When hydrogen is added to a mixture of carbon monoxide and oxygen, the signal changes from a high to a low value at a higher oxygen concentration. Since the response of these devices to hydrogen and hydrogen containing gases is supposed to emanate from hydrogen atoms, the mechanism of the response to carbon monoxide is discussed. The signal to carbon monoxide as well as to hydrogen decreases in the presence of water vapour and the reason for this is discussed.

  • 84.
    Nakagomia, Shinji
    et al.
    Ishinomaki Senshu University.
    Wingqvist, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åbom, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik.
    Lloyd-Spets, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Hydrogen sensing by NKN thin film with high dielectric constant and ferroelectric property2005Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 108, s. 490-495Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen sensing properties of sodium potassium niobate NaxKyNbOz (NKN) thin films were studied. The NKN thin films were prepared by reactive rf magnetron sputtering. NKN is a ferroelectric material with high dielectric constant. The polarization increases in hydrogen ambient and decreases in oxygen ambient. The conductivity of the NKN film in hydrogen ambient is higher than in oxygen ambient, and these changes are reversible. The threshold voltage of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics depends on the hydrogen concentration, and a large response of 3.3V was obtained.

  • 85.
    Nakshatharan, S. Sunjai
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Martinez Gil, Jose Gabriel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Punning, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Aabloo, Alvo
    Univ Tartu, Estonia.
    Jager, Edwin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Soft parallel manipulator fabricated by additive manufacturing2020Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, SENSORS AND ACTUATORS B-CHEMICAL, Vol. 305, artikkel-id 127355Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymer (CP) based soft actuators are good candidates for miniaturised manipulation systems and soft robotic applications. We present the fabrication, characterization, and modelling, of a novel ionically driven soft, flat, parallel manipulator with minimal footprint actuated by CP actuators. This three degrees of freedom (3Dof) manipulator consists of four trilayer actuators with poly (3, 4- ethylenedioxy-thiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes on both sides of PVDF separator membrane with 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazoliummethyl imidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid used as the electrolyte. The complete manipulator is fabricated as a monolithic structure using commercially available off the shelf materials by additive manufacturing technique including a syringe type printer. Its workspace and dynamics are characterised and the results are compared with a multiphysics model based on the finite element method. The model uses two types of charge storage mechanism namely electrical double layer and redox reactions to describe the electrode kinetics. Through simulation the charge contributed by each of the processes is separated and presented providing new insights in the underlying kinetics in this type of actuators. It is found the double layer charge is the dominant phenomenon driving these actuators compared to the redox process. Finally, to demonstrate the versatile applications, the manipulator is explored for a four-way laser steering application. This work has demonstrated high levels of manipulability along three degrees of freedom from the printed CP actuators that are outstanding within the class of soft ionic actuators while using off the shelf commercially available materials keeping the fabrication method simple, scalable and cost-effective along with the electro-chemo-mechanical model providing an insightful view of the charge storage mechanism.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-11-09 13:14
  • 86.
    Olsson, John
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Winquist, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    A self polishing electronic tongue2006Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 118, nr 1-2, s. 461-465Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation to obtain reproducible measurements with a pulse voltammetric electronic tongue has lead to the development of self polishing device. A grit paper covered bar rotating over the working electrodes is performing the polishing, to avoid measurements while the polishing bar covers the electrodes an angular decoder is fitted. Measurements in buffer, 2 mM K3[Fe(CN)6] and a buffered tea samples shows that polishing reduces drift, sensitivity decreases with electrode fouling, pre-treatment or conditioning of electrodes post polishing must be optimised concerning the analyte. Also found was that drift due to electrode fouling is a repeatable mechanism which pattern can be used to increase information about the analyte. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 87.
    Pardo, M.
    et al.
    INFM and Gas Sensor Laboratory, Dept. Chem. Phys. Mat., Univ. B., Brescia, Italy.
    Niederjaufner, G.
    INFM and Gas Sensor Laboratory, Dept. Chem. Phys. Mat., Univ. B., Brescia, Italy.
    Benussi, G.
    INFM and Gas Sensor Laboratory, Dept. Chem. Phys. Mat., Univ. B., Brescia, Italy.
    Comini, E.
    INFM and Gas Sensor Laboratory, Dept. Chem. Phys. Mat., Univ. B., Brescia, Italy.
    Faglia, G.
    INFM and Gas Sensor Laboratory, Dept. Chem. Phys. Mat., Univ. B., Brescia, Italy.
    Sberveglieri, G.
    INFM and Gas Sensor Laboratory, Dept. Chem. Phys. Mat., Univ. B., Brescia, Italy.
    Holmberg, M.
    S-SENCE and Div. of Applied Physics, Linkoping University, S-581 83, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Lundstrom, I.
    S-SENCE and Div. of Applied Physics, Linkoping University, S-581 83, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Data preprocessing enhances the classification of different brands of Espresso coffee with an electronic nose2000Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 69, nr 3, s. 397-403Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different ways of preprocessing chemical sensor data are presented as a means to improve the interpretation and the classification ability of an electronic nose (EN). The practical problem at hand is the distinction between four commercial coffee blends - containing up to 12 types of coffees - all of which are to be consumed as Espresso. Coffee was sampled in three successive preparation phases: a beans, ground (powder) or liquid (the actual Espresso). In the case of beans, stress is put on the improved clusters visualization after the preprocessing and before the actual classification is performed. Different catalysed sensors and successive extractions were used to differentiate the response pattern towards the various coffees. The features which permitted the best samples' classification as judged from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) score plots were selected. To this end, an empirical search strategy inside the feature space is presented. Scores from PCA were subsequently utilized as inputs for a feed forward multilayer perceptron (MLP) with cross-validation resulting in 100% correct classification with just two sensors. In the case of ground coffee, a (supervised) drift compensation algorithm was developed. It essentially consists of removing the first principal component (PC) for every cluster since this is seen to be given by the drift. An 87.5% classification performance was achieved. Liquid coffee, on the other hand, was not successfully classified, probably due to the difficulty in assuring reproducible sampling conditions.

  • 88.
    Pearce, Ruth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Iakimov, Tihomir
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Epitaxially grown graphene based gas sensors for ultra sensitive NO(2) detection2011Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 155, nr 2, s. 451-455Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxially grown single layer and multi layer graphene on SiC devices were fabricated and compared for response towards NO(2). Due to electron donation from SiC:, single layer graphene is n-type with a very low carrier concentration. The choice of substrate is demonstrated to enable tailoring of the electronic properties of graphene, with a SiC substrate realising simple resistive devices tuned for extremely sensitive NO(2) detection. The gas exposed uppermost layer of the multi layer device is screened from the SiC by the intermediate layers leading to a p-type nature with a higher concentration of charge carriers and therefore, a lower gas response. The single layer graphene device is thought to undergo an n-p transition upon exposure to increasing concentrations of NO(2) indicated by a change in response direction. This transition is likely to be due to the transfer of electrons to NO(2) making holes the majority carriers. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 89.
    Petersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Initial studies on the possibility to use chemical sensors to monitor and control boilers2005Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 111-112, s. 487-493 Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Small-scale boilers are quite often installed in facilities like schools, households and at local heat distributors. Because of economical considerations such boilers often lack appropriate control-systems, which results in inefficient and pollutant combustions with high levels of carbon monoxides, hydrocarbons, and in ashes with unburned charcoal. Monitoring of oxygen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons, which is essential to be able to control a boiler, requires expensive instruments like flame-ionization detectors, IR- and mass-spectrometers.

    We demonstrate the possibility to use a low-cost chemical sensor array to monitor a small-scaled boiler. By using metal oxide sensors, metal insulator silicon carbide field effect transistors, and by applying multivariate data modeling, promising results have been obtained. The data modeling was made using a joint approach based on blind source separations and multiple linear regressions. This approach showed similar result compared to results from the well-known PLSR algorithm.

  • 90.
    Petersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klingvall, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Holmberg, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sensor Array Optimization using Variable Selection and a Scanning Light Pulse Technique2009Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 142, nr 2, s. 435-445Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the design of a chemical sensor. the constructor has several degrees of freedom setting parameters that influence the final characteristics of the component. For applications where several sensors are required, the number of possible parameter configurations increases dramatically. The work of configuring a sensor array is therefore tedious and many test sensors may need to be processed before a final configuration is found. The Scanning Light Pulse Technique (SLPT) is a technique for investigating insulator-semiconductor interfaces and can be used to scan surfaces with non-uniform properties, Thereby a virtual pool of test components can be evaluated simultaneously eliminating the need for processing individual test sensors. We report here on a method combining SLPT with algorithmic sensor selection techniques. This is a powerful combination providing the user with a candidate array configuration containing combinations of sensors optimal for the current application and data analysis algorithms. The need to process many individual test sensors is eliminated and the only sensor components that must be produced are those included in the final array. The selection techniques evaluated here are based on forward selection and Asymmetric Class Projection (ACP), Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), and Mutual Information (MI). The Suggested method is successfully evaluated using an experiment in which the purpose was to find means to detect small amounts of hydrogen in a background dominated by an interfering gas, in this case ammonia. In this particular study, the selection techniques based on ACP and CCA showed the most promising result.

  • 91.
    Poksinski, Michal
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Arwin, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad optik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    In situ monitoring of metal surfaces exposed to milk using total internal reflection ellipsometry2003Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 94, nr 3, s. 247-252Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A technique combining ellipsometry with total internal reflection is presented. The method is called total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and is suitable for monitoring of internal surfaces which opens new possibilities for measuring adsorption on metal surfaces in opaque liquids. Results from measurements of adsorption of milk and subsequent cleaning with sodium hydroxide on metal surfaces are given. These include studies on gold, iron, and chromium surfaces. A schematic design of the instrument used in TIRE is included. The main advantages of the system are non-invasive probing, fast response, and high sensitivity. The method has potential for applications in monitoring of internal surfaces of pipelines in industrial processes.

  • 92.
    Polese, D
    et al.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Martinelli, E
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Magna, G
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Dini, F
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Catini, A
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Paolesse, R
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Di Natale, C
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy .
    Sharing data processing among replicated optical sensor arrays2013Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 179, nr SI, s. 252-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensor networks prompt a great deal of research interest within the computer and analytical sciences. To this regard, one of the most important issues is concerned with the interpretation of data that are collected by different sensors. Due to sensors non-reproducibility, this problem may also persist even when many replicas of the same sensors are considered. In this case additional calibrations may be required to use a common knowledge database. Noteworthy, the same problem arises in case of sensors replacement. In this paper we demonstrate that in case of optical chemical sensors drawing inspiration from the connectivity strategy of the olfactory bulb, this problem can find a straightforward solution when an image sensor is used to measure the optical properties of an extended sensing layer. If the sensing layer is formed by a number of spots of different indicators, it is demonstrated that a common data processing can be applied to any replica of the sensing layer even if the indicators are spotted with different geometries and in different quantities.

  • 93.
    Randek, Judit
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biofysik och bioteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biofysik och bioteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    In situ scanning capacitance sensor with spectral analysis reveals morphological states in cultures for production of biopharmaceuticals2020Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 313, artikkel-id 128052Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In situ capacitance sensing is shown to be capable of monitoring critical morphological changes in industrial cultures by analyzing the sensor’s frequency spectrum. Scanning the frequency of an alternating current between the electrodes of a capacitance sensor, placed in a cell culture, allowed detection of the size change of microbial cells from shifts in the spectra. The frequency was scanned between 0.1–15 MHz and cell size was measured from 1 to 20 μm. The analysis of the spectra was verified with two recombinant strains, one producing human insulin and another Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP). Both the insulin and GFP cultivations were carried out in 6 L fed-batch bioreactors using typical industrial procedures. The spectral analysis provided critical information about the changes in the size of the cells. It is suggested that this information may have high relevance for a better assessment of the state of cultivations producing proteins, for optimization and for improving the economy of large-scale biopharmaceutical production.

  • 94. Risveden, K.
    et al.
    Bhand, S.
    Ponten, J.F.
    Anden, T.
    Calander, N.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    Danielsson, B.
    Signal frequency studies of an environmental application of a 65 nm region ion sensitive field effect transistor sensor2007Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 127, nr 1, s. 198-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A rapid and sensitive novel type of bioelectronic Region Ion Sensitive Field Effect Transistor (RISFET) nanosensor was constructed on a chip with a 65 nm sensing electrode gap. The RISFET nanosensor was demonstrated for the environmental pesticide analysis of neurotoxic organocarbamate/carbofuran. The linear range for carbofuran analysis is ac signal frequency dependent, studied in the range (500 down-0.5 Hz, 50 mVpeak-peak ac) and a bias voltage applied between the bottom capacitor plate and the electrodes. The signal current response is measured using a low-noise pico ammeter. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by carbofuran was detectable in a logarithmic linear range (0.1-100 nM) at 1.08 Hz, with a lower limit of detection of inhibition 0.1 nM with 10 min incubation time. The sensor is based on the principle of focusing charged reaction products with an electrical field in a region between the sensing electrodes. The current measurement by the sensor electrodes is correlated to the composition of the sample. The carbofuran detection is based on the ability to inhibit the enzyme AChE. The RISFET sensor chip is fabricated using conventional electron beam lithography. The encompassed sensor volume in the "nanocell" is in the attoliter range. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 95.
    Sandstrom, KJM
    et al.
    Natl Institute Working Life, Department Chemistry, S-90713 Umea, Sweden; Umea University, Department Publ Hlth and Clin Med, S-90581 Umea, Sweden; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Newman, J
    Natl Institute Working Life, Department Chemistry, S-90713 Umea, Sweden; Umea University, Department Publ Hlth and Clin Med, S-90581 Umea, Sweden; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Sunesson, AL
    Natl Institute Working Life, Department Chemistry, S-90713 Umea, Sweden; Umea University, Department Publ Hlth and Clin Med, S-90581 Umea, Sweden; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Levin, JO
    Natl Institute Working Life, Department Chemistry, S-90713 Umea, Sweden; Umea University, Department Publ Hlth and Clin Med, S-90581 Umea, Sweden; Cranfield University, Cranfield Biotechnol Centre, Cranfield MK43 0AL, Beds, England; .
    Turner, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    Amperometric biosensor for formic acid in air2000Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 70, nr 03-jan, s. 182-187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of developing a simple, inexpensive and specific personal passive "real-time" air sampler incorporating a biosensor for formic acid was investigated. The sensor is based on the enzymatic reaction between formic acid and formate dehydrogenase (FDH) with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) as a co-factor and Meldolas blue as mediator. An effective way to immobilise the enzyme, co-factor and Meldolas blue on screen-printed, disposable, electrodes was found to be in a mixture of glycerol and phosphate buffer covered with a gas-permeable membrane. Steady-state current was reached after 4-15 min and the limit of detection was calculated to be below 1 mg/m(3). However, the response decreased by 50% after storage at -15 degreesC for 1 day. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 96.
    Santangelo, Francesca
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Shtepliuk, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Filippini, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Real-time sensing of lead with epitaxial graphene-integrated microfluidic devices2019Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 288, s. 425-431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since even low concentrations of toxic heavy metals can seriously damage human health, it is important to develop simple, sensitive and accurate methods for their detection. Graphene, which is extremely sensitive to foreign species, is a key element in the development of a sensing platform where low concentrations of analyte have to be detected. This work discusses the proof of concept of a sensing platform for liquid-phase detection of heavy metals (e.g. Pb) based on epitaxial graphene sensors grown on Si-face 4H-SiC substrate (EG/SiC). The sensing platform developed includes a microfluidic chip incorporating all the features needed to connect and execute the Lab-on-chip (LOC) functions using 3D printing fast prototyping technology. Herein, we present the response of EG to concentrations of Pb2+ solutions ranging from 125 nM to 500 mu M, showing good stability and reproducibility over time and an enhancement of its conductivity with a Langmuir correlation between signal and Pb2+ concentration. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed and clearly explain the conductivity changes and the sensing mechanism in agreement with the experimental results reported, confirming the strong sensitivity of the sensor to the lowest concentrations of the analyte. Furthermore, from the calibration curve of the system, a limit of detection (LoD) of 95 nM was extrapolated.

  • 97.
    Scharnagl, K.
    et al.
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Physics, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg, Germany.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Karthigeyan, A.
    DAAD Fellow, Central Electronics Engineering Research Institute, Pilani 333031, India.
    Burgmair, M.
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Physics, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg, Germany.
    Zimmer, M.
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Physics, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg, Germany.
    Eisele, I.
    Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Physics, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, 85577 Neubiberg, Germany.
    Hydrogen detection at high concentrations with stabilised palladium2001Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 78, nr 1-3, s. 138-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve the stability to high hydrogen concentrations, of hybrid suspended gate field effect transistors (HSGFETs) with thin palladium films as sensitive layer, Pd-Ni and Pd-Ag alloys have been produced by co-evaporation techniques in UHV. In this paper, the preparation methods as well as hydrogen response measurements are presented. The observed results show that the Pd-Ni alloy is an appropriate material for hydrogen sensing at concentrations up to 2% H2, even at room temperature. The response to 2% H2 is around 500 mV at dry conditions. It is reduced to less than half of this value with moistened carrier gas, but at the same time, the desorption time is lowered. In contrast, the Pd-Ag alloy was not stable. A large drift of the sensor signal was observed and the morphology as well as the composition had changed after the test gas exposures. © 2001 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  • 98.
    SCHUBERT, F
    et al.
    CTR INST MOLEC BIOL,W-1115 BERLIN,GERMANY; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    SAINI, S
    CTR INST MOLEC BIOL,W-1115 BERLIN,GERMANY; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    TURNER, APF
    Cranfield University, UK.
    SCHELLER, F
    CTR INST MOLEC BIOL,W-1115 BERLIN,GERMANY; CRANFIELD INST TECHNOL,CTR BIOTECHNOL,CRANFIELD MK43 0AL,BEDS,ENGLAND; .
    ORGANIC-PHASE ENZYME ELECTRODES FOR THE DETERMINATION OF HYDROGEN-PEROXIDE AND PHENOL1992Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 7, nr 03-jan, s. 408-411Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An amperometric horseradish peroxidase electrode is described for the determination of hydrogen peroxide in organic solvents. The enzyme was co-adsorbed with an electron mediator, hexacyanoferrate(II), to the surface of a graphite foil electrode making reagentless measurement possible. The electrochemical reduction of the enzymatically oxidized mediator was utilized as the analytical signal. The electrode can be operated in dioxane, chloroform and chlorobenzene, the presence of a small quantity of aqueous buffer being essential for activity. On this basis a small, probe-type sensor has been assembled the response of which is linearly related to hydrogen peroxide concentration between 0.05 and 1 mM. A tyrosinase sensor has been constructed by combining a Clark-type oxygen electrode with a membrane bearing adsorbed enzyme. The sensor is capable of measuring between 0.1 and 5 mM phenol in chloroform saturated with aqueous buffer.

  • 99.
    Sherrell, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Elmén, Karin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cieslar-Pobuda, Artur
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Silesian Technical University, Poland.
    Wiechec, Emilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Lemoine, Mark
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arzhangi, Zahra
    University of Ottawa, Canada.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Brask, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Daka, Joseph N.
    Health Canada, Canada.
    Rafat, Mehrdad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicinsk teknik, Biomedicinsk instrumentteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Health Canada, Canada; LinkoCare Life Science AB, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Cardiac and stem cell-cocooned hybrid microspheres: A multi factorial design approach2016Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 236, s. 480-489Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell therapy is a promising approach for the treatment of patients suffering from myocardial infarction. Most recent therapies involve direct injection of cells into the damaged heart tissue to induce regeneration and help restore its functions, however, anoikis and the harsh environment at the sight of injection limit the therapeutic efficacy of current techniques. Biopolymeric microspheres such as alginate have been widely used for cells encapsulation and delivery for cell therapy applications. However, majority of these techniques are not standardized that is a big challenge for translation into clinically-relevant treatment options. In addition, purely-alginate base microspheres are limited by poor biodegradability and lack of strong interaction between the encapsulated cells and their surrounding alginate matrix. In this work, we have shown that the addition of type I collagen into alginate microspheres, systematically optimized by a multivariate experimental design, improves the biocompatibility of the microspheres towards induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), cardiomyocytes, and blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC), whilst improving diffusion between outside environment and the inner sphere. The addition of collagen allows for multiple routes for sphere degradation leading to potentially greater control over cell release once delivered. Mathematical models were developed and utilized to effectively evaluate and predict the influence of various factors such as polymer ratios, micronization air flow rate, and air-gap distance on spheres size and shape, which play a key role in cell viability, degradation rate of microspheres, as well as controlled production of the cell cocoons toward clinically-relevant cell therapies for treatment of myocardial infarction. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 100.
    Shukla, Sudheesh K.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Demir, Mustafa M.
    Izmir Institute Technology, Turkey.
    Govender, Penny P.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik.
    Shukla, S. K.
    University of Delhi, India.
    Optical fibre based non-enzymatic glucose sensing over Cu2+-doped polyaniline hybrid matrix2017Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 242, s. 522-528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The opto-chemical glucose sensing over cupric ion doped polyaniline (Cu+2/PANI) hybrid polymer matrix coated glass rod based optode has been demonstrated.Cu+2/PANI hybrid matrix was synthesized by in situ chemical polymerization of intrinsically functionalized aniline. Furthermore, developed optode has been explored for direct oxidisation of glucose on Cu+2/PANI hybrid matrix for non-enzymatic glucose sensing employing O-dianisidine indicator system. The proposed glucose sensor works well in range of 50 mg/dL-200 mg/dL with response time of 15 s in artificial as well as in biological samples along with 40 days of lifespan. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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