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  • 51.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Comparative Study of Germination Ecology of Four Papaver Taxa2007Inngår i: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 99, nr 5, s. 935-946Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Aims: Comparative studies of closely related taxa can increase understanding of adaptations and changes in seed dormancy and germination preferences in an evolutionary perspective. For such studies, a method to describe and compare the performance of taxa in a general way is needed. The germination ecology of four Papaver taxa was studied with the aim of describing and comparing their responses to different seasonal temperature regimes.

    Methods: Germination of Papaver argemone, P. rhoeas, P. dubium ssp. dubium and P. dubium ssp. lecoqii was investigated in three different artificial climates over 2.5 years. Seeds were collected in southern Sweden, and samples from different populations were used as replicates of taxa.

    Key Results: Despite substantial intra-taxa variation, there were clear taxon-specific responses. Most germination occurred in the warmest climate. In general, the warmer the climate the more germination occurred in autumn instead of spring. Papaver argemone, phylogenetically most distant from the others, was, in contrast to the other taxa, restricted to germinating only at lower temperatures.

    Conclusions: Seed dormancy and germination may be described by dormancy pattern, germination preferences and dormancy strength. The general dormancy pattern was a common feature for these taxa and therefore probably an evolutionary conservative character. Germination preferences varied between taxa, resulting in different temperature optima and intervals for germination, and dormancy strength was to some extent taxon-specific, but highly variable. The dormancy pattern explained how the taxa can perform as winter annuals in warmer climates, but mainly as summer annuals in colder climates. Hence, there is no need to interpret the within-taxon temporal differences in seedling emergence as local adaptations. In the field, an entire seed cohort will not germinate during a single season. Instead, emergence will be distributed over several seasons, regardless of local climate, weather and soil cultivation methods.

  • 52.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Comparing after-ripening response and germination requirements of Conyza canadensis and C. bonariensis (Asteraceae) through logistic functions2007Inngår i: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 433-441Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Germination requirements and after-ripening effects during one year of dry storage at 15/5 and 25/15°C (day/night) were compared for Conyza bonariensis and C. canadensis (Asteraceae). A logistic function was fitted to the results from tests over time in various incubation conditions, using three populations of each species as replicates. Time required for response to dry storage was measured by using a new method; the third derivative of the logistic function. Therefore, a point when major germination was achieved could be detected, without having to rely on maximum germination (which is uncertain), individual data points or any subjectively chosen limit. Fresh seeds of both species were dependent on light for germination and after-ripening was mainly manifested by increasing germination in darkness. Low dormancy status and light requirement might indicate that soil cultivations should rapidly reduce the seed banks of these species, although fecundity and wind dispersal will affect population levels. The species differed in their germination response, with C. bonariensis germinating at lower temperatures than C. canadensis. This seemingly counter-intuitive result may explain the prevention of fatal germination of C. canadensis in cold conditions and its behaviour as a summer annual in northern climates, while C. bonariensis is restricted to warmer parts of the world.

  • 53.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Seed dormancy pattern and germination preferences of the South African annual Papaver aculeatum2007Inngår i: South African Journal of Botany, ISSN 0254-6299, E-ISSN 1727-9321, Vol. 73, nr 3, s. 422-428Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seeds from two populations of Papaver aculeatum, collected in South Africa, were subjected to a series of experiments to investigate their dormancy and germination. Dormancy was weak: fresh seeds germinated to nearly 100% at 20/10 and 25/15°C day/night if provided with light, up to 50% at 15/5, but not at all at 30/20°C. Warm stratification increased germination, both in darkness and at 15/5°C, but did not lead to germination at 30/20°C. Cold stratification reduced germination and limited germination to the cooler temperatures. Alternating cold and warm stratifications showed that the species undergoes dormancy cycles. When subjected to three different artificial annual changing climates, with onset both in summer and autumn, most seed germinated in the first autumn. However, in cooler climates, some germination occurred during spring and the second autumn. The general dormancy pattern; reduction during a warm period and induction during a cold, was similar to that of P. rhoeas, a European species and a wide-spread weed. However, germination temperature preferences differed by P. aculeatum avoiding germination at high temperatures, having substantially weaker dormancy when fresh and having more easily reduced dormancy, compared with P. rhoeas. These differences most likely result in differing temporal pattern of germination in the field.

  • 54.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Seed dormancy pattern of the annuals Argemone ochroleuca and A. mexicana (Papaveraceae)2003Inngår i: Flora: Morphologie, Geobotanik, Oekophysiologie, ISSN 0367-2530, E-ISSN 1618-0585, Vol. 198, s. 329-339Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 55.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Stepwise rather than cyclic dormancy changes explain emergence of the summer annuals Fumaria officinalis and Galeopsis speciosa2005Inngår i: 13th EWRS Symposium,2005, 2005Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 56.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Stratification responses in the late-germinating summer annual weed Erysimum cheiranthoides2002Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of cold stratification on seeds of Erysimum cheiranthoides L., a late germinating summer annual in Sweden, was studied. Seeds were stratified in darkness on filter paper, either at +3░C or under natural temperatures outdoors and were tested for germination at regular intervals during ten months. Cold stratification reduced dormancy, but full germination was not achieved, nor did seeds gain the ability to germinate at low temperatures. Dormancy increased when seeds were subjected to summer temperatures. The combination of a requirement for cold stratification and warm germination temperature ensures that Erysimum cheiranthoides does not germinate in the autumn in cold temperate climates, and that substantial germination commence in late spring when soil temperatures increase. This germination phenology pattern was confirmed in a parallel experiment with seeds sown outdoors.

  • 57.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Variation within species and inter-species comparison of seed dormancy and germination of four annual Lamium species2008Inngår i: Flora: Morphologie, Geobotanik, Oekophysiologie, ISSN 0367-2530, E-ISSN 1618-0585, Vol. 203, nr 5, s. 409-420Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In an ecological context, knowledge of intra-species variation in dormancy and germination is necessary both for practical and theoretical reasons. We used four or five seed batches (replicates) of four closely related annuals co-occurring in arable fields in Sweden: Lamium amplexicaule, L. confertum, L. hybridum and L. purpureum. Seeds used for experiments stemmed from plants cultivated on two sites, each site harbouring one population of each species, thereby ensuring similar environmental history of seeds. Seeds were tested for germination when fresh and after three different pre-treatments (cold or warm stratification, or dry storage) for up to 24 weeks. Seeds were also sown outdoors. Despite substantial intra-species variation, there were clear differences between species. The general seed dormancy pattern, i.e. which environmental circumstances that affect dormancy, was similar for all species; dormancy reduction occurred during warm stratification or dry storage. Even though the response to warm stratification indicate a winter annual pattern, successful plants in Sweden were mostly spring emerged. Germination in autumn occurred, but plants survived winters poorly. Consequently, as cold stratification did not reduce dormancy, strong dormancy in combination with dormancy reduction during dry periods might explain spring germination. It is hypothesized that local adaptations occur through changes mainly in dormancy strength, i.e. how much effort that is needed to reduce dormancy; strong dormancy restrict the part of each seed batch that germinate during autumn, and thus risk winter mortality, in Sweden.

  • 58.
    Karlsson, Laila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tamado, T.
    Haramaya University.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Inter-species comparison of seed dormancy and germination of six annual Asteraceae weeds in an ecological context2008Inngår i: Seed Science Research, ISSN 0960-2585, E-ISSN 1475-2735, Vol. 18, s. 35-45Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand germination timing in an ecological context, the response to environmental events that affect seed dormancy is central, and has to be combined with knowledge of germination responses to different circumstances. In this study, seed dormancy, germination, and emergence phenology of six annual co-occurring weedy Asteraceae species were investigated. Three pre-treatments (warm and cold stratification, and dry storage) were tested as possible dormancy affecting environmental events. Seeds were also sown outdoors. Species-specific differences were revealed in analyses. To facilitate general descriptions of dormancy patterns and germination preferences separately, condensed responses to the different possible dormancy affecting treatments and relative germination in different environments were plotted, giving species-specific patterns. Most species exhibited decreased dormancy to two or three pre-treatments. Dormancy was most effectively reduced by cold stratification for three species (Guizotia scabra, Parthenium hysterophorus, Verbesina encelioides), by warm stratification for two (Bidens pilosa, Galinsoga parviflora) and by dry storage for one (Tagetes minuta). All species germinated more when provided with light than in continuous darkness. Temperature levels most suitable for germination varied from low (15/5-20/10°C) for Verbesina encelioides to high (25/15-30/20°C) for Bidens pilosa. It is concluded that, even though the species have different dormancy patterns and germination preferences that suggest different possible distribution ranges, the species achieve similar emergence timing in the field in environments with a pronounced dry period after dispersal and small annual temperature fluctuations.

  • 59.
    Kueffer, Christoph
    et al.
    ETH.
    Niinemets, Uelo
    Estonian University of Life Science, Estonia .
    E Drenovsky, Rebecca
    John Carroll University, USA .
    Kattge, Jens
    Max Planck Institute Biogeochem, Germany .
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Poorter, Hendrik
    Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany .
    Reich, Peter B
    University of Minnesota.
    Werner, Christiane
    University of Bielefeld.
    Westoby, Mark
    Macquarie University.
    J Wright, Ian
    Macquarie University.
    Letter: Fame, glory and neglect in meta-analyses2011Inngår i: Trends in Ecology & Evolution, ISSN 0169-5347, E-ISSN 1872-8383, Vol. 26, nr 10, s. 493-494Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 60.
    Larsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Göthberg, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Night, light and flight: light attraction in Trichoptera2019Inngår i: Insect Conservation and Diversity, ISSN 1752-458X, E-ISSN 1752-4598Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial light is an important and necessary part of urban environments, but light can have substantial direct and indirect effects on populations of various organisms. Urban areas are often situated close to water and thus organisms dependent on water could be especially vulnerable. Trichoptera is one of the most abundant insect orders in freshwater, but its attraction to light has not been analysed in detail. We contrasted catches in light traps and passive traps at three locations in Sweden. The results showed that artificial light can affect Trichoptera populations. Attraction to light varied between Trichoptera species and females were more attracted than males. Day-, evening- and especially night-active species were all attracted to light. Light catches of day- and evening-active Trichoptera could partly be a consequence of atypical flight activity, i.e. they are deceived to take flight when a lamp is lit during night. In all, artificial light can alter Trichoptera populations, sex ratios and species composition. This impact should be considered when erecting and managing light sources near waterways.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-09-06 11:49
  • 61.
    Lattman, Hakan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindblom, Louise
    Department of Biology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University College, SE-181 49 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Skage, Morten
    Department of Biology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway.
    Ekman, Stefan
    Museum of Evolution, Evolutionary Biology Centre, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 16, SE-752 36 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Estimating the dispersal capacity of the rare lichen Cliostomum corrugatum2009Inngår i: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 142, nr 8, s. 1870-1878Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to estimate the dispersal rate in an organism assumed to be confined to tree stands with unbroken continuity. We used the lichen-forming ascomycete Cliostomum corrugatum, which is largely confined to old oak stands. Five populations, with pairwise distances ranging from 6.5 to 83 km, were sampled in Ostergotland, south-eastern Sweden. DNA sequence data from an intron in the small subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA gene was obtained from 85 samples. Nearly all molecular variance (99.6%) was found within populations and there were no signs of isolation-by-distance. The absolute number of immigrants per population per generation (estimated to 30 years), inferred by Bayesian MCMC, was found to be between 1 and 5. Altogether, evidence suggests abundant gene flow in the history of our sample. A simulation procedure demonstrated that we cannot know whether effective dispersal is ongoing or if it ceased at the time when oaks started to decrease dramatically around 400 years BP. However, a scenario where effective dispersal ceased already at the time when the postglacial reinvasion of oak had reached the region around 6000 years BP is unlikely. Vegetation history suggests that the habitat of C. corrugatum was patchily distributed in the landscape since the early Holocene. Combined with the high dispersal rate estimate, this suggests that the species has been successful at frequently crossing distances of at least several kilometres and possibly that it has primarily been limited by the availability of habitat rather than by dispersal.

  • 62.
    Lundkvist, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Landin, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Diving beetle (Dytiscidae) assemblages along environmental gradients in an agricultural landscape in Southeastern Sweden2001Inngår i: Wetlands (Wilmington, N.C.), ISSN 0277-5212, E-ISSN 1943-6246, Vol. 21, nr 1, s. 48-58Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated diving beetle (Dytiscidae) assemblages in twelve wetlands in an agricultural landscape in southeastern Sweden. Beetles were trapped in wetlands that varied in permanence (temporary or permanent), area (25 to 4,800 m2), age (11 to >50 yr), and shading (open to wooded surroundings). Our objective was to determine if those environmental factors are important in structuring the local assemblages of diving beetles and how the combination of different types of wetlands influence the diversity of diving beetles in a landscape. Generally, species-area relationships were weak, and shaded wetlands, both permanent and temporary, of intermediate size (240-1,100 m2) had the highest richness after a rarefaction analysis. It was not possible to discern a certain type of wetland where diversity was highest (measured by index a and Shannon-Wiener's index), although, again, intermediate sized wetlands did tend to be more diverse than others. Similarities in species compositions were highest among environmentally similar wetlands, and assemblage structure differed substantially between different types of wetlands. Results of ordination (CCA) and variance partitioning revealed that permanence and degree of shading were the most important factors in structuring assemblages. Our findings imply that high diversity of the diving beetles depends on the number of wetland types represented in a landscape. It is possible to achieve high diversity in a small area by combining permanent and temporary wetlands, as well as many age and successional stages, located in wooded and open environments.

  • 63.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rapp, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Biodiversity in the wake of urban sprawl: loss among epiphytic lichens on large oaksManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity often suffers from urbanisation. In the present study, we focused on how the age of urbanisation affects the richness of 17 epiphytic lichens species and their cover on large oaks, with a minimum spacing of 250 m, in urban environments in the city of Linköping (100,000 inhabitants), SE Sweden. We also surveyed trees in adjacent rural areas, selected to have similar distributions of tree trunk circumference and oak density within 300 m. Lichen richness and cover were significantly lower on urban trees compared to rural trees. Furthermore, richness and cover decreased with the length of time that urban trees had been surrounded by houses. Roughly one species is lost every 30 years. Most of the species that were analysed demonstrated a drop in occurrence with respect to the duration of housing development. The reduction in the probability of occurrence varied from 60% (Calicium viride, Evernia prunastri), 80% (Chrysotrix candelaris) to 90% (Ramalina spp.) during the 160-year period of urbanisation considered. Therefore, even if valuable trees survive over the course of development, their lichen flora are likely to become depleted over time.

  • 64.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rapp, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Decline in lichen biodiversity on oak trunks due to urbanization2014Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 32, nr 4, s. 518-528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity often suff ers from urbanization. In the present study, we focused on how the duration of urbanization aff ects therichness of 17 epiphytic lichen species and their cover on large oaks in urban environments in a city of 100 000 inhabitantsin southeast Sweden. We also surveyed trees in adjacent rural areas, selected to have similar distributions of tree trunkcircumference and surrounding oak density (within 300 m). Lichen richness and cover were lower on urban trees comparedto rural trees. Furthermore, richness and cover decreased with the length of time that urban trees had been surrounded byhouses. Most of the species that were analysed demonstrated a decline in occurrence with respect to the duration of housingdevelopment. Th e reduction in the probability of occurrence varied from 60% ( Calicium viride , Evernia prunastri ), 80%( Chrysothrix candelaris ) to 90% ( Ramalina spp.) during the considered 160-year period of urbanization. Th erefore, even ifvaluable trees survive over the course of development, their lichen biota is likely to become depleted over time.

  • 65.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindblom, Lousie
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Skage, Morten
    Ekman, Stefan
    Habitat availability is likely to limit the occurrence of the rare lichen Cliostomum corrugatum2008Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 66.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lönn, Mikael
    Högskolan i Borås.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn University, SE-141 89 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Regional gradients in occurrence and size of the epiphytic lichen: Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. in southern SwedenManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Despite their omnipresence throughout the world, the demography of lichens is poorly documented and understood. Contributing to this lack of understanding are the small propagules involved, the difficulty of separating individuals and asexual reproduction strategies.

    Aim: In the present study we searched for possible regional gradients in thallus size distribution and abundance of the common epiphytic lichen Hypogymnia physodes. We expected the species to display large-scale spatial gradients as it had been previously shown to decrease in presence in the southernmost part of Sweden. More specifically the aim was to examine whether the gradients in occurrence and diameter of thallus correspond.

    Methods: The lichen was sampled on 66 sites in southern Sweden. Initial analyses were done by rotating the reference system of investigated sites around the origin to search for the angle that would result in the largest explanatory power of models fitted to data. Two models were used: one based on presence/absence data and the other on the diameter of the thalli.

    Results: Presence/absence data showed an increased occurrence of H. physodes with the strongest directional gradient at 15° (north-north-east) and an increase of thallus diameter with the strongest directional gradient at 304° (west-north-west).

    Conclusions: As the gradients identified in thallus size and occurrence were almost perpendicular, it seems that the processes governing growth and establishment/death do not co vary.

  • 67.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmer, Michael W
    Department of Botany, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74078, USA.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    School of Life Sciences, Södertörn Univ., SE 181 89 Huddinge, Sweden.
    Changes in the distributions of epiphytic lichens in southern Sweden using a new statistical method2009Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 413-418Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Past studies on changes in species distribution have mainly been based on analysis of range boundaries. In contrast, the method used here evaluates shifts in species geographic centroids within a predefined area. We used presence/absence data on epiphytic lichens collected 1986 and 2003 from 64 sites in southern Sweden. A centroid was calculated each year, for each lichen species and substrate. The distance of centroid movement was evaluated in a permutation procedure. In total, 56 lichen species on 22 tree species were involved in the analyses, yielding 30 cases that had sufficient sample sizes both years to be evaluated. Out of these, three exhibited a significant movement of their centroid. The shift of lichen centroids of Hypogymnia physodes (L.) Nyl. and Vulpicida pinastri (Scop.) J.-E. Mattsson andamp; M. J. Lai on the tree species Juniperus communis L. was 50 and 151 km with the direction 27 degrees and 48 degrees, respectively. For Hypogymnia physodes on Pinus sylvestris L., corresponding values were 41 km and 30 degrees. The northnortheast shifts of these species in Sweden could be a response to a warming climate.

  • 68.
    Lättman, Håkan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmer, Michael W.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mattsson, Jan-Eric
    Spatio-temporal range shift of epiphytic lichens within a distribution area2008Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 69.
    Manton, Michael
    et al.
    Forest-Landscape-Society Research Network, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg SE 739 21, Sweden; Institute of Forest Biology and Silviculture, Faculty of Forest Science and Ecology, Aleksandras Stulginskis University, Akademija LT 53361, Lithuania.
    Angelstam, Per
    Forest-Landscape-Society Research Network, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg SE 739 21, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    Forest-Landscape-Society Research Network, School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Skinnskatteberg SE 739 21, Sweden.
    Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservationin Southern Sweden as a Case Study2016Inngår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, nr 4, s. 340-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biosphere Reserves aim at being role models for biodiversity conservation. This studyfocuses on the unsuccessful conservation of waders (Charadrii) on wet grasslands in the KristianstadVattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR) in southern Sweden. Predation on nests and young hasbeen proposed as one reason contributing to the decline of waders. We explored this hypothesisby comparing two landscapes, one with declining (KVBR) and one with stable (Östergötland)wader populations on managed wet grasslands in southern Sweden. Specifically, we tested threepredictions linked to predation on wader nests and young, namely that (1) the relative abundanceof avian predators and waders; (2) the avian predator abundance; and (3) the predation rate onartificial wader nests, should all be higher in declining versus stable populations. All predictionswere clearly supported. Nevertheless, predation may not be the ultimate factor causing waderpopulation declines. We discuss the cumulative effects of landscape change linked to increased foodresources for predators, reduced wet grassland patch size and quality. Holistic analyses of multiplewet grassland landscapes as social-ecological systems as case studies, including processes such aspredation and other factors affecting waders, is a promising avenue towards collaborative learningfor wet grasslands as a functional green infrastructure. However, if governance and managementapproaches can be improved is questionable without considerable investment in both ecological andsocial systems.

  • 70. Mattsson, J-E
    et al.
    Lättman, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Rapid changes in the epiphytic macrolichen flora on sites in southern Sweden.2006Inngår i: The Lichenologist, ISSN 0024-2829, E-ISSN 1096-1135, Vol. 38, s. 323-329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 71.
    Menegat, Alexander
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nilsson, Anders T. S.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sweden.
    Andersson, Lars
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sweden.
    Vico, Giulia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Sweden.
    Soil water potential and temperature sum during reproductive growth control seed dormancy in Alopecurus myosuroides Huds.2018Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 8, nr 14, s. 7186-7194Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable management of unwanted vegetation in agricultural fields through integrated weed control strategies requires detailed knowledge about the maternal formation of primary seed dormancy, to support the prediction of seedling emergence dynamics. This knowledge is decisive for the timing of crop sowing and nonchemical weed control measures. Studies in controlled environments have already demonstrated that thermal conditions and, to some extent, water availability during seed set and maturation has an impact on the level of dormancy. However, it is still unclear if this applies also under field conditions, where environmental stressors and their timing are more variable. We address this question for Alopecurus myosuroides in south-western Sweden. We quantified the effects of cumulated temperature and precipitation as well as soil water potential during the reproductive growth phase of Amyosuroides on primary seed dormancy under field conditions. Empirical models differing in focal time intervals and, in case of soil water potential, focal soil depths were compared regarding their predictive power. The highest predictive power for the level of primary dormancy of A.myosuroides seeds was found for a two-factorial linear model containing air temperature sum between 0 and 7days before peak seed shedding as well as the number of days with soil water potential below field capacity between 7 and 35days before peak seed shedding. For soil water potential, it was found that only the top 10cm soil layer is of relevance, which is in line with the shallow root architecture of A. myosuroides. We conclude that for this species the level of dormancy depends on the magnitude and timing of temperature and water availability during the reproductive growth phase. Water availability appears to be more important during maternal environmental perception and temperature during zygotic environmental perception.

  • 72.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evidence-based vegetation management: prospects and challenges2014Inngår i: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, E-ISSN 1654-109X, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 604-608Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of applied vegetation science on society has the potential to increaseby adopting an evidence-based approach. However, this would require a shift infocus towards effect size and results suitable formeta-analyses, a focus on practitionersas potential readers, more emphasis on practical problems rather thanmechanism, and an acceptance of all well-executed experimental studies, evenif confirmatory. Thus, the prevailing editorial policies need to be reconsidered,as well as the methods of analysing, reporting and evaluating research, for ourresearch efforts to be of better use within society.

  • 73.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Akoto, Brenda
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fogelfors, Håkan
    Department of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Paltto, Heidi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Is spring burning a viable management tool for species-rich grasslands?2014Inngår i: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, E-ISSN 1654-109X, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 429-441Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Question

    The management of species-rich semi-natural grasslands, a fragmented and threatened vegetation type in Europe, involves costs. Mowing is expensive and grazing can be difficult to achieve and maintain for logistical reasons. Is annual spring burning, which is potentially cheaper than mowing and grazing, a viable management tool for species-rich grasslands?

    Location

    Long-term field trials in 11 grasslands in southern Sweden.

    Methods

    We calculated the odds for a species being an indicator of good management, an indicator of poor management, or an indicator of nitrogen influence in spring-burned plots, grazed plots and annually mowed plots. Odds ratios contrasting spring-burned plots with grazed plots and spring-burned plots with mowed plots were subjected to meta-analyses in which we compared the odds ratios after 1, 8 and 14 spring burns. For a single trial, we also analysed data after 1, 8, 14, 28 and 39 spring burns.

    Results

    Compared with mowed and grazed plots, the odds of the four different indicators of good management decreased in spring-burned plots, while the odds for the two indicators of poor management increased. There was no trend in the two indicators of excess nitrogen. Therefore, the conservation value of vegetation in spring-burned plots becomes reduced over time relative to traditional management.

    Conclusions

    Spring burning is not an appropriate long-term management method if the aim is to maintain the conservation value of the vegetation in traditionally managed semi-natural grasslands.

  • 74.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Amundin, M
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Zoologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wahlström, Dan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Precision i poängsättning av essäfrågor och examensarbeten: implikationer för betyg enligt ECTS2006Inngår i: Nya vilkor för lärande och undervisning. 9:e universitetspedagogiska konferensen vid Linköpings universitet 17 oktober 2005,2005, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2006, s. 167-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 75.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Andersson, L
    Evaluating the potential spread of two grass weeds in Sweden.2006Inngår i: Acta agriculturae Scandinavica. Section B, Soil and plant science, ISSN 1651-1913, Vol. 56, s. 91-95Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 76.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Andersson, L
    Thompson, K
    Large-seeded species are less dependent on light for germination than small-seeded ones2000Inngår i: Seed Science Research, ISSN 0960-2585, E-ISSN 1475-2735, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 99-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Germination in light and darkness was compared after cold stratification of seeds of 54 species known or suspected to accumulate persistent seed banks. Germination became less dependent on light with increasing seed mass. This pattern was clear in a direct correlation of individual species data (P <0.0001) as well as when considering phylogenetically independent contrasts (P <0.001). The latter analysis suggests that light response and seed mass coevolved.

  • 77.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evidence-based conservation - a brief introduction [Evidensbaserad naturvård - Nytt begrepp och ny färdriktning?]2010Inngår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 104, nr 1, s. 18-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article briefly describes the success of the knowledge-transfer reform within medicine known as evidence-based medicine. In this field, the idea is that any decision about an intervention, or lack thereof, should be based on the best available knowledge. The current move towards a similar reform within nature conservation is reviewed, and its differences with medicine discussed. If "evidencebased conservation" is broadly accepted among researchers, practitioners and NGOs, it might lead to a more consistent protocol for reporting case studies trying interventions and, in the long run, a more efficient use of limited resources for conservation.

  • 78.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vårbränning är inte ett långsiktigt alternativ till bete eller slåtter av värdefulla artrika gräsmarker2014Inngår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 108, nr 6, s. 312-322Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 79.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cronvall, Erik
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Åsa I.
    Department of Forest Resource Management, SLU, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Glimskär, Anders
    Department of Ecology, SLU, Box 7044, SE-750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Islamovic, Azra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Löfqvist, Zandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Flower abundance and vegetation height as predictors fornectar-feeding insect occurrence in Swedish semi-natural grasslands2016Inngår i: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 230, s. 47-54Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With steadily shrinking areas of species-rich semi-natural grasslands in Europe, the management of theremaining fragments becomes ever more crucial for the preservation of key elements of biodiversity inthe agricultural landscape. Detailed knowledge about species-wise, as well as group-wise, relationshipscan provide guidelines for conservation management and a basis for predictions about differentmanagement scenarios. In the present study, we related the occurrence of species of bumblebees (N = 12),butterflies (31) and day-flying moths (4) and their total richness in 424 sites in southern Sweden to threegrass sward attributes, (i)flower abundance, (ii) height of the grass sward and (iii) within-site variation inheight of vegetation. The abundance of nectar-bearingflowers proved overall the best predictor ofrichness and in most of the occurrence-based species-wise models. However, both high grass swardheight and high variation in grass sward height contributed significantly to species richness andoccurrence of individual species. There was a tendency for bumblebees to respond less positively toflower abundance and vegetation height than butterflies and moths. One expectation was that grasslandspecialists, red-listed species, or species decreasing in other part of Europe, would be more responsive totall vegetation orflower abundance but there was no support for this in the data. Hence, managementstrategies that promote common species will also benefit all, or most of, the rare ones as well.

  • 80.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Helena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. County Administration Board of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden.
    Low host-tree preferences among saproxylic beetles: acomparison of four deciduous species2014Inngår i: Insect Conservation and Diversity, ISSN 1752-458X, E-ISSN 1752-4598, Vol. 7, nr 6, s. 508-522Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]
    • Many wood-dwelling beetles rely on old hollow trees. In Europe, oaks are known to harbour a species-rich saproxylic beetle fauna, while less is known regarding other broad-leaved tree species. Furthermore, the extent to which saproxylic insect species have specialised on different tree species remains unknown.
    • In this study, we sampled beetles through pitfall traps and window traps in four different tree species in a landscape with many old oaks.
    • We recorded 242 saproxylic beetle species of which 27 were red-listed. After eliminating the species recorded only on a single tree, few cases among the 171 remaining species in the data set were confined to a single tree species.
    • Using odds ratios, we showed that 19 of the 171 beetle species showed significant associations with Quercus robur in at least one of the two trap types. For Acer platanoides, Fraxinus excelsior and Tilia cordata, the corresponding numbers were 6, 2 and 5, respectively. One species showed a negative association with Q. robur.
    • Using meta-analysis, we quantified the degree of association between the beetle species and the tree species. The associations were most profound among species classified as obligate saproxylic rather than facultative in lifestyle. Overall, a significant association was only found with Q. robur.
    • We conclude that the saproxylic fauna is dominated by non-specialist species but includes a small proportion of truly host-tree-specific species. Furthermore, other broad-leaved trees can be important as supporting habitats for many saproxylic organisms that have had presumed associations with oaks to date.
  • 81.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Land-use history influence the vegetation in coniferous production forests in southern Sweden2019Inngår i: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 440, s. 23-30Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last centuries, land use in Europe intensified, which has led to a drastic decrease in the cover of semi-natural grasslands. In Sweden, much of the lost grasslands was turned into forest. This study investigated if species typical of managed grasslands could be found in coniferous production forests more than 80 years after grassland management ceased. Species and trait composition for plants was investigated in two types of forest differing in land use history (meadow in the 1870s or continuous coniferous forest), and in reference grasslands. The average plant species richness as well as the richness of grassland indicator species were 30% higher in forests with a history as meadow compared to in forests with a history as forest, hence clear signs of historical grassland management in todays forests. Compared with forests with continuous coniferous history, vegetation in forests with a meadow history tended to be more similar to reference grassland regarding both plant species and especially plant trait composition. The study provides proof of remnant grassland populations in coniferous production as the source for the biodiversity of clearcuts, rather than seed dispersal or seed bank survival. The result highlights the importance of land use for biodiversity of clearcuts, and points to the potential value of forests with a history of meadow in grassland conservation and restoration.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-03-09 08:04
  • 82.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Norman, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pettersson, Roger B.
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, SLU, 901 83 Umea°, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wikars, Lars-Ove
    Hovgården 66, Borlänge, Sweden .
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A burning desire for smoke? Sampling insects favoured by forestfire in the absence of fire2015Inngår i: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 19, nr 1, s. 55-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire-favoured insects are difficult to sampleexcept opportunistically after forest fires. Here, we tested ifsmoke from a small fire could be an efficient way to samplesuch insects. Insects were sampled over ca. 10 h hours, byhand-picking and netting on screens put up around the fire.Two specimens of the rare and redlisted Hormopeza spp.(Diptera, Empididae) were caught. Large numbers([20,000) of Microsania spp. (Diptera, Platypezidae) werecaught, but none in the absence of smoke. The numbers ofMicrosania spp. clearly peaked in late afternoon, and ashort sampling period would be sufficient if targeting onlythis taxon. Of the almost 200 species of Coleoptera, 17 %were considered as fire-favoured, contributing 9 % of thespecimens, suggesting low efficiency of the method for thisgroup. Using 23 sites differing in fire history, catches ofMicrosania spp. were unaffected by numbers and area offorest fire (preceding 5 years and within 10 km radius overthe sampling sites). In contrast, there was a weak trend forthe proportion of fire-favoured Coleoptera to increase withincreasing number of fires. To conclude, smoke as producedin our study can clearly attract fire-favoured Diptera,but smoke had only a weak effect on fire-favoured Coleopterain the study area. It is still likely that selectivelypicking specimens of species attracted to smoke is a morecost-efficient method than using, e.g., Malaise traps thatcatch indiscriminately.

  • 83.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sancak, Kerem
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak2016Inngår i: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, nr 6, s. 1614-1625Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

  • 84.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergstedt, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fridman, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odell, Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Systematic and random variation in vegetation monitoring data2008Inngår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 19, s. 633-644Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Detecting species presence in vegetation and making visual assessment of abundances involve a certain amount of skill, and therefore subjectivity. We evaluated the magnitude of the error in data, and its consequences for evaluating temporal trends.

    Location: Swedish forest vegetation.

    Methods: Vegetation data were collected independently by two observers in 342 permanent 100-m2 plots in mature boreal forests. Each plot was visited by one observer from a group of 36 and one of two quality assessment observers. The cover class of 29 taxa was recorded, and presence/absence for an additional 50.

    Results: Overall, one third of each occurrence was missed by one of the two observers, but with large differences among species. There were more missed occurrences at low abundances. Species occurring at low abundance when present tended to be frequently overlooked. Variance component analyses indicated that cover data on 5 of 17 species had a significant observer bias. Observer-explained variance was < 10% in 15 of 17 species.

    Conclusion: The substantial number of missed occurrences suggests poor power in detecting changes based on presence/absence data. The magnitude of observer bias in cover estimates was relatively small, compared with random error, and therefore potentially analytically tractable. Data in this monitoring system could be improved by a more structured working model during field work.

  • 85.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fogelfors, Håkan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Annual burning of semi-natural grasslands for conservation favours tall-grown species with high nectar production2018Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 36, nr 5, artikkel-id UNSP e01709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Species-rich semi-natural grasslands in Europe are a main target for conservation efforts, and alternative methods to the traditional management of mowing or grazing would be welcome due to the difficulties in maintaining traditional management practices. One such method proposed is burning of grassland vegetation during late winter or spring. To evaluate the effects of annual spring burning vs annual mowing on semi-natural grassland vegetation, we compared the frequency of species in eleven field experiments in southern Sweden after ca 14 years. Out of the 88 species analyzed, five were more frequent in burnt plots compared with mowed plots (Vicia cracca, Cirsium arvense, Urtica dioica, Galium verum, Convallaria majalis). In contrast, 37 species were significantly less frequent in burnt plots compared with mowed ones, those with the largest differences being Ranunculus acris, Briza media, Veronica chamaedrys, Festuca ovina, Plantago lanceolata and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Tall-grown species and those with preferences for N-rich soils increased in frequency under an annual spring-burn regime, compared with annual mowing, as did species producing larger amounts of nectar. Hence, although vegetation composition becomes more trivial with annual spring burns, there might be long-term benefits for nectar-feeding insects.

  • 86.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Gezelius, L
    Blindow, I
    Nilsson, L
    Tyrberg, T
    Submerged vegetation and the variation in the autumn waterfowl community at Lake Tσkern, southern Sweden2002Inngår i: Ornis Fennica, ISSN 0030-5685, Vol. 79, nr 2, s. 72-81Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analysed data from 25 years of standardised mid-September counts of waterfowl at eutropic Lake Tσkern, southern Sweden. For eight species, counts were compared with a national index constructed from similar counts at numerous lakes and coastal sites. For Crested Grebes and Mute Swans there was a correlation between counts at Lake Tσkern and the national index, suggesting that they simultaneously vary in number over a large geographic area. Indirect gradient analysis (PCA) revealed a strong temporal trend in the data, which was covaried out in a partial PCA to expose residual patterns. This ordination separated Pochards and Tufted Ducks at one end of the first axis from Cormorants and Goosanders at the other. A direct gradient analysis, with biomass of submerged macrophytes (recorded for 14 of the 25 years) as the sole environmental variable, showed that bird species composition varied significantly with plant biomass. The piscivores, Cormorants and Goosanders, were abundant in years with small amounts of plant biomass, while several species were most abundant in years with large amounts. Our analyses suggest that the abundance of submerged macrophytes is an important determinant of the bird community composition in eutrophic lakes.

  • 87.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Hallgren, E
    Highlighting differential control of weeds by management methods using an ordination technique2002Inngår i: Weed technology, ISSN 0890-037X, E-ISSN 1550-2740, Vol. 16, s. 675-679Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 88.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Hallgren, E
    Yield loss due to weeds in cereals and its large-scale variability in Sweden2004Inngår i: Field crops research (Print), ISSN 0378-4290, E-ISSN 1872-6852, Vol. 86, nr 2-3, s. 199-209Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Data was used from 1691 field trials testing herbicides to explore large-scale patterns in yield loss in cereals due to weeds in Sweden. More specifically, we evaluated the relative importance of differences between regions, crops, soils, and years. In a negative hyperbolic function, weed biomass explained 31% of the variation in yield loss due to weeds (calculated from yield in herbicide-treated control plots and in weedy control plots). Variation in the residuals was then partitioned between groups of categorical, environmental variables. Geographic region (8) and crops (5) accounted for most of this variation. Crops which ranked from the most to the least affected by weeds, were spring-barley, spring-wheat, oats, winter-wheat and rye. When adjusted for differing weed abundance, clay soil suffered the smallest and organogenic soil suffered the largest yield losses due to weeds. Differences between years were non-significant. The large unexplained variation in yield loss was the likely result of spatial heterogeneity of weeds, other pests and soil within trials. Considering this large variation, it might be difficult to combine in the same field trial, the two aims of most weed trials: estimating the beneficial/detrimental effect of a treatment and the species-wise responses towards it. We described the association between weed communities and situations with high or low losses with ordination methods. In this way, the weeds could be ranked from the most benign to the most detrimental for cereal yields in Sweden. The worst weed species in autumn-sown crops were Capsella bursa-pastoris and Matricaria perforata, and in spring-sown Polygonum spp. and Galeopsis spp. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 89.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Hallgren, E
    Palmer, MW
    Interannual variation in weed biomass on arable land in Sweden2000Inngår i: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 40, s. 311-321Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 90.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Hallgren, E
    Palmer, MW
    Timing of disturbance and vegetation development: How sowing date affects the weed flora in spring-sown crops2001Inngår i: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 93-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of annual weeds were recorded in 752 field experiments in spring-sown cereal crops conducted in Sweden 1972-1993. Two null hypotheses were tested regarding how the sowing date influenced the weed flora. 1. There is no relationship between the weed flora composition and sowing date. A pCCA (with geographic regions, crop species and soil types as covariables) clearly refuted this hypothesis. Hence, the composition of the weed flora varied depending on sowing date. 2. Species classified as summer annuals, winter annuals and germination generalists (that can germinate substantially in both spring and autumn) do not differ in their placement along the first ordination axis in the pCCA, i.e. according to sowing date. An ANOVA was unable to reject this hypothesis. Hence, germination syndrome classification did not explain the observed community differences related to sowing date. These results illustrate the importance of the date of disturbance for any secondary succession involving a seed bank and also the importance of annual dormancy cycles in seed banks.

  • 91.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wessman, Lotta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Laila
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Do differences in plasticity during early growth lead to differing success in competition? A test using four co-occurring annual Papaver2014Inngår i: Plant Species Biology, ISSN 0913-557X, E-ISSN 1442-1984, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 92-100Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant species differ in their ability to transform available resources to biomass and to respond in a plastic way to environmental circumstances; we hypothesized that such differences among four weed taxa of Papaver would explain differences in their competitive response. We first compared two populations each of Papaver rhoeasL., P.dubiumL. ssp. dubium, P.dubiumL. ssp. lecoqii (Lamotte) Syme and P.argemoneL., grown in a greenhouse for 6 weeks in a nutrient gradient combined with two light treatments to elucidate possible differences in responses. As there were clear differences, a second experiment evaluated whether these differences also meant differences in competitive response, during early growth, when tested against two crops (wheat, rape). The assumption that competitive response was linked to the ability to transform nutrient and light to biomass was not supported: even though differences in extent of plasticity existed, the effect of competition was similar for the taxa. Thus, higher plasticity and ability to transform available recourses to biomass did not lead to stronger competitiveness for Papaver during early growth.

  • 92.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Lamont, BB
    Pérez-Fernández, MA
    Survival and growth of native and exotic composites in response to a nutrient gradient1999Inngår i: Plant Ecology, ISSN 1385-0237, E-ISSN 1573-5052, Vol. 145, s. 125-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 93.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Pérez-Fernández, MA
    Lamont, BB
    Seedling growth response to added nutrients depends on seed size in three woody genera1998Inngår i: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, E-ISSN 1365-2745, Vol. 86, s. 624-632Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 94.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fogelfors, Hakan
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The biodiversity cost of reducing management intensity in species-rich grasslands: Mowing annually vs. every third year2017Inngår i: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, Vol. 22, s. 61-74Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mowing is an important management method for species-rich semi-natural grasslands in Europe. Since mowing is costly, it is important to find a balance between mowing frequency and conservation benefits. We compared vegetation data from eleven field trials situated in southern Sweden that involved two mowing regimes, annually and every third year, as well as a no-management control. After approximately 14 years, mowing every third year showed (i) a drop in species richness and Shannon and GiniSimpson diversity indices, (ii) an increase in woody species, and (iii) increases in tall-grown species. However, there were no apparent changes in (iv) species that were indicative of poor management, nor (v) those indicating good management. For one of the trials, data after 38 years were also evaluated. Compared with annual mowing, there were strong negative changes in the number of species in the untreated control, while the results were conflicting for mowing every third year. In conclusion, the expected loss of conservation values from reduced mowing intensity was 5060% of the loss after abandonment. The outcomes, however, varied among the eleven sites. (C) 2017 Gesellschaft fur Okologie. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  • 95.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tälle, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fogelfors, Håkan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Corrigendum to "The biodiversity cost of reducing management intensity in species-rich grasslands: Mowing annually vs. every third year" [Basic Appl. Ecol. 22 (2017) 61-74]2018Inngår i: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, s. 97-98Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 96.
    Milberg, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Törnqvist, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Temporal variations in methane emissions from emergent aquatic macrophytes in two boreonemoral lakes2017Inngår i: AoB Plants, ISSN 2041-2851, E-ISSN 2041-2851, Vol. 9, artikkel-id plx029Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4) emissions via emergent aquatic macrophytes can contribute substantially to the global CH4 balance. We addressed temporal variability in CH4 flux by using the static chamber approach to quantify fluxes from plots dominated by two species considered to differ in flux transport mechanisms (Phragmites australis, Carex rostrata). Temporal variability in daily mean emissions from early June to early October was substantial. The variable that best explained this variation was air temperature. Regular and consistent diel changes were absent and therefore less relevant to include when estimating or modelling CH4 emissions. Methane emissions per m(2) from nearby plots were similar for Phragmites australis and Carex rostrata indicating that CH4 production in the system influenced emissions more than the species identity. This study indicates that previously observed diel patterns and specieseffects on emissions require further evaluation to support improved local and regional CH4 flux assessments.

  • 97.
    Musa, Najihah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Klas
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Burman, Joseph
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Hedenstrom, Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Paltto, Heidi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Winde, Inis
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Using Sex Pheromone and a Multi-Scale Approach to Predict the Distribution of a Rare Saproxylic Beetle2013Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The European red click beetle, Elater ferrugineus L., is associated with wood mould in old hollow deciduous trees. As a result of severe habitat fragmentation caused by human disturbance, it is threatened throughout its distribution range. A new pheromone-based survey method, which is very efficient in detecting the species, was used in the present study to relate the occurrence of E. ferrugineus to the density of deciduous trees. The latter data were from a recently completed regional survey in SE Sweden recording >120,000 deciduous trees. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus increased with increasing amount of large hollow and large non-hollow trees in the surrounding landscape. Quercus robur (oak) was found to be the most important substrate for E. ferrugineus, whereas two groups of tree species (Carpinus betulus, Fagus sylvatica, Ulmus glabra, vs. Acer platanoides, Aesculus hippocastanum, Fraxinus excelsior, Tilia cordata) were less important but may be a complement to oak in sustaining populations of the beetle. The occurrence of E. ferrugineus was explained by the density of oaks at two different spatial scales, within the circle radii 327 m and 4658 m. In conclusion, priority should be given to oaks in conservation management of E. ferrugineus, and then to the deciduous trees in the genera listed above. Conservation planning at large spatial and temporal scales appears to be essential for long-term persistence of E. ferrugineus. We also show that occurrence models based on strategic sampling might result in pessimistic predictions. This study demonstrates how pheromone-based monitoring make insects excellent tools for sustained feedback to models for landscape conservation management.

  • 98.
    Nkurunziza, Libère
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Repeated grading of weed abundance and multivariate methods to improve the efficacy of on-farm weed control trials2007Inngår i: Weed Biology and Management, ISSN 1444-6162, E-ISSN 1445-6664, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 132-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated whether new information could be drawn from additional data collection and unconventional statistical analyses of an on-farm trial. First, we compared a conventional sampling method using a biomass estimate of weed abundance to repeated visual assessment of the percentage ground cover of weeds. The biomass was sampled once after the treatment, whereas the ground cover was repeatedly sampled once before weed control plus several occasions after weed control. Second, we contrasted the outcomes from analysis of variance (ANOVA), taking samples from a single point in time with repeated measures (rm)ANOVA and a multivariate method. As the outcomes and conclusions drawn were relatively similar, we conclude that the ground cover estimate of weed abundance was as reliable as the biomass estimate. The rmANOVA enabled us to follow the temporal trend in response to treatments in the most abundant species, including possible initial differences. Multivariate analysis went even further, by clearly displaying species-wise responses and treatment selectivity.

  • 99. Nyström, Kerstin
    et al.
    Karlsson, Laila
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    En fyrtioårig fröbank i en före detta åker2006Inngår i: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 100:4, s. 271-276Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 100. Palmer, MW
    et al.
    McGlinn, D
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ekologi.
    Indices for detecting differences in species composition: some simplifications of RDA and CCA2008Inngår i: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 89, s. 1769-1771Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide algebraic simplifications for the redundancy analysis (RDA) eigenvalue and the canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) eigenvalue in the special case of permanent plots sampled twice. The indices for RDA and CCA are interrelated and are intuitively interpretable. These simplifications also apply to simple split-plot designs and to a balanced design with two independent samples.

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