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  • 51.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hedner, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg.
    Implementing the SIV Model on an Intensively Innovation-Oriented Firm: The Case of Autoadapt AB2012Ingår i: World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development, ISSN 2042-5961, Vol. 8, nr 2/3, s. 122-145Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Small to medium-sized enterprise (SME) evaluation models lack a clear coupling to innovation and its impact on firm performance. A model which can achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate and predict the performance of a company. The firm, Autoadapt AB, is an innovation-oriented enterprise, adapting personal cars to be driven by handicapped people. The authors knew in advance about the good performance of the firm and its high efficiency in conducting its operations and expected the SIV model to reflect correctly on Autoadapt's performance. Because the handicap degree of each of the individuals who benefit from the firm activities differs from one person to another, product solutions have to be individually designed. Therefore the firm has had to pursue a high level of innovativeness and it had to abide with this policy right from the start. The product development processes in the firm needed to adapt to such strategies.

    To be able to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive performance due to the intensive innovation activities of Autoadapt AB, a case study approach was used. Case studies are very suited for in-depth analysis of an object under a longer period of time. It is a widely-used research method in firm performance studies.

    The results of the SIV analysis indicated that the model is able to project correctly the performance of the object firm. At all the four levels of analysis, i.e. SI values, the SPI slope, the survival factors, and the survivability coefficients, the SIV analysis performance indicated a stable positive development of the firm through the life time of the enterprise.

    Measuring performance of SMEs is an important issue. There are couple of models stemming from the traditional accountancy disciplines in use; however these models suffer from clear disadvantages. Recently a new model, the SIV model, was introduced and has shown the ability of being a better candidate for performance analysis. The paper demonstrates the ability of the SIV model to judge correctly the performance of an innovative firm.

  • 52.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Thornblad, Tobias
    Dermafol AB, Sundsvall.
    Edgar, Boo
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet och ­Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Cowlrick, Ivor
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet .
    Olausson, Michael
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet .
    Lind, Lars
    Yield Life Science AB.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stora förändringar i den globala läkemedelsindustrin2012Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 109, nr 7, s. 324-325Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den globala läkemedelsindustrin är under kraftig för- ändring. Under de senaste tio åren har 300 000 arbets- tillfällen lagts ner i »Big Pharma«. I stället utvecklas mindre, kreativa och »öppna« innovationsnätverk och organisationsstrukturer för att ta fram nya läkemedel, skriver Thomas Hedner och medförfattare.

  • 53.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Analysis of a Swedish High Technology SME Using the Survival Index Value (SIV) Model2011Ingår i: Paper Sessions, Workshops and Special Meetings: The 56th ICSB World Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, 15th and 18th of June, ICSB , 2011, s. 170-179Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the major deficiencies in the existing Small and Medium-sized Enterprises’ (SMEs) performance evaluation models is the fact that they lack a clear coupling to the issue of innovation and its impact on performance. A possible candidate model which could achieve this is the Survival Index Value (SIV) model. The model has a parameter incorporated in its structure, the technology-intake. This parameter can be used as an indicator of the degree of innovativeness of the firm. Previous works using the model looked at general performance without specific focus on innovation activities of the firm and without relating that to aspects of survival and growth. In this paper the aim was to demonstrate the ability of the SIV model to indicate a positive overall performance due to the intensive investment of a selected firm in innovation activities.

    The enterprise analyzed, Autoadapt AB, is a Swedish high technology firm working in adapting cars and automobiles to handicapped people. Due to the nature of their activities the firm has a high level of innovation input to be able to solve the complex problems related to usage of cars by disabled people. Both the product development process and managing the activities around it requires a high level of innovativeness and ingenuity. As thus the firm presented a very interesting object to study. The study has a clear significance as there is a need to differentiate the performance of innovation-intensive enterprises from firms who are using less investment in innovation in their activities. This can be done by considering the investment in new technologies both as product development and/or as investing in absorption of external management, product or process innovation. Applying the SIV model to run this analysis can help to demonstrate the need to incorporate the technology intake as an essential component of SME’s performance model.

    The results indicated that the SIVmodel is able to predict correctly the performance of the object firm. By having mostly positive survival factor values, which are single data-points, during years of operation, and also having mostly positive survivability coefficient values, which are agglomerate data-points, the SIVmodel proved its abilities. Clearly, the model has a good potential to be developed and fine-tuned even more. The SIV model can be tested further to look at deviations in performance of firms among different sectors and relates that to the innovativeness of whole sectors.

  • 54.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    "Cluster-like organizations as intermediaries"2011Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Clusters started recently became to be called as the “fuels” for national economic growth (Audretsh, 2000). They are seen as drivers for entrepreneurship and innovation through assisting firms with complementary competencies and creating arenas for collaborations (Oakey, 2007; Porter, 2000). Clusters combine different types of actors by providing linkages between them. Similar approach is raised in the Triple Helix model. These models highlight importance of variety of relations within clusters. The diversity of actors leads to the need for organizations specializing in intermediating between them.  This is what we call a cluster-like organization – an organization that operate within a cluster and intermediate between different actors with a certain aim. They could be very small but in the same time take advantage of the size and resources of a cluster (c.f. Kaiser, 2003; Etzkowitz & Leydesdorff , 1998; Etzkowitz & Klofsten, 2005). In this paper we approach cluster-like organizations as intermediaries, which “go in between” others to fulfill a certain need for their stakeholders. However, there are very few studies about cluster-like organizations as intermediaries and relatively little knowledge about how they operate in this particular role. This study therefore addresses the issue of the intermediating roles within various types of cluster-like organizations and provides answers on questions in what way clusters intermediate, which actors involved in this process and how such cluster role was developed.

  • 55.
    Cowlrick, Ivor
    et al.
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Wolf, Roland
    AMS Advanced Medical Services GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Olausson, Michael
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Decision-making in the pharmaceutical industry: analysis of entrepreneurial risk and attitude using uncertain information2011Ingår i: R &D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, E-ISSN 1467-9310, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 321-336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate judgments made by employees from the pharmaceutical industry and allied health-care sectors in a set of four different drug discovery and development cases derived from real scenarios. Each case study related to go/no-go decisions taken from various steps in drug discovery through preclinical and clinical development (investigational new drug) on to market introduction (new drug application) and treatment of the target population. Using a web-based questionnaire, 52 respondents made five sets of judgment within each drug case whether to continue or halt further project development. For each case, additional details of the developmental scenario were disclosed to the respondent after completion of each judgment response. We also assessed to what extent the individual judgments given by the respondents were influenced by work experience and functional role, education, or their perceived entrepreneurial character. Our study demonstrates that health-care employees differ substantially in their individual intuitive judgments of benefit and risk in go/no-go decisions during the drug discovery and development process. This lack of coherence and wide variability with respect to the drug development cases selected may reflect judgment in the real world. Such judgments are usually taken from incomplete information, and individual decision-making rules vary substantially between experts in the field. Further knowledge about this inherent human functional judgment variability may be helpful to form a better understanding of individual decision-making in relation to inherent uncertainties. Additional research may also clarify how personal experience within drug discovery and development influences judgment and help to optimize decision outcomes in the drug development sector. Importantly, a deeper insight of the fundamentals and rules that shape individual and group decision-making of everyday drug discovery and development may help to optimize the decision processes in the pharmaceutical industry.

  • 56.
    Frykfors, Carl-Otto
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Emergence of the Swedish Innovation Systemand the Support for Regional Entrepreneurship: A Socio-Economic Perspective2011Ingår i: Science and Technology Based Regional Entrepreneurship: Global Experience in Policy and ProgramDevelopment / [ed] Mian, S.A. Edward Elgar, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Globalization and the shift towards knowledge a major source of competitiveness have rendered traditional policy instruments less effective. Traditional economic/industrial policies can no longer guarantee high growth and employment, certainly not for all countries and regions. System failure and a more systemic view on innovation and science and technology development as an integral system is often seen as a more appropriated way. This chapter gives a broad overview of the development of the Swedish innovation system that served Sweden as an industrial advanced country well for more than 100 years and current policy shift in search for a new R&D and innovation model towards a knowledge driven entrepreneurial economy. The thesis brought forward is that a basic understanding of the structure and the development of the Swedish innovation system and the shift require an understanding of the importance of ”la longue durée” and of innovative technology procurement by “development pairs” as a regime for innovation policy and entrepreneurial growth. An interplay between economic, technological and governance drivers has led to radical change of the prevalent model during the last decades. To some extent the established model became a victim of a tandem effect from globalisation and deregulation. The most important consequence was that a new order that is transactional in character replaced the old model that was basically relational.

  • 57.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg Sweden.
    Maack, Karl
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Emerging Open Models and Concepts of Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Sector2011Ingår i: Asia Pacific Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2071-1395, Vol. 5, nr 1, s. 5-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-tech innovation in a number of emerging and rapidly changing areas such as the pharmaceutical and bio-tech sectors, show signs of a movement from a closed to a more open innovation paradigm. This is primarily due to the possibility of rapid and unlimited communication through the Internet and the www, the increasing global availability of experts, the international reach of the venture capital market, as well as the increasing possibility and interest of external suppliers and interest groups to participate in new product and service development. As a result of this, novel forms of multisource open and user innovation models such as crowd-sourcing and crowd-casting are currently emerging. These new innovation concepts are based on global open innovation and development communities have emerged in several fields of science and business, such as e.g. in the information technologies and bio-medicine. Crowd sourcing and crowd casting are innovation concepts that are based on loosely formed groups of customers, users, scientific communities, or groups of experts who form and collectively shape product or process innovations within a specific innovation field or sector. These open platforms are altering and reforming previously closed innovation concepts to become more open, capable, innovative and cost-effective by using the "wisdom-of-crowds" concept.

    This paper describes different formats and potential ways by which emerging open multisource innovation paradigms may alter the pharmaceutical innovation and value creation process in the future. The paper is focusing on how the involvement of a variety of market actors, such as academics, innovators and entrepreneurs, pharmaceutical industry employees, patient advocacy groups, medical professional organizations, hospitals and insurance companies, will influence the common biomedical innovation process and product - market platform. The paper will also introduce a range of new innovation concepts and paradigms by discussing various emerging models of multi-source and open innovator platforms.

  • 58.
    Heydebreck, Peter
    et al.
    Inno AG, Karlsruhe, Germany.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krüger, Lars
    Engage – Key Technology Ventures AG, Rostock / Germany.
    F2C – An Innovative Approach to Use Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) for the Valuation of High-Technology Ventures2011Ingår i: Communications of the IBIMA, ISSN 1943-7765, E-ISSN 1943-7765, Vol. 2011, nr Article ID 483882, s. 1-14Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a novel method - F2C - that can process the only information available in the early stages of a young high-technology venture: linguistic expert knowledge. This knowledge is the basis for the determination of an appropriate discount rate for the valuation of high-technology ventures in early stages of venture capital investments. A specific tool named Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM) is used therein to capture and depict the expert knowledge. Consequently, the FCM is transformed into a system of Fuzzy Inference Systems. These systems allow eventually obtaining a crisp value for the crucial parameter, the discount rate r. First practical applications were carried out valuing a biotechnology venture. The obtained results are promising, though the need for further research efforts became obvious.

  • 59.
    De Cleyn, Sven
    et al.
    University of Antwerp.
    Braet, Johan
    University of Antwerp.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    How Do Human and Social Capital Contribute to the Early Development of Academic Spin-Off Ventures2011Ingår i: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] Zacharakis, A., et al, Boston: The Arthur Blank Center for Entrepreneurship , 2011, -, s. 567-581Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on venture team characteristics with respect to human and social capital dimensions. Three major groups have been investigated such as founders, top management and board of directors. Data have been obtained using personal interviews with 185 product-oriented academic spin-offs within nine European countries. The results show a significant positive but diminishing impact of team heterogeneity on venture success, as well as a positive impact from legal expertise in the board of directors. Several implications are addressed dealing with an appropriate team composition, on both top management and board of director level as well as the importance to pay attention to the team development process.

  • 60.
    Laur, Inessa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    "Intermediary function of cluster-like organizations"2011Ingår i: / [ed] Ray Oakey, Manchester, 2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 61.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thornblad, Tobias
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Remneland, Björn
    Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Open Innovation in the Biomedical Sector - An Alternative Approach to Organizational Value Extraction2011Ingår i: World Sustainable Development Outlook 2011 / [ed] A. Ahmed and M. Busler, 2011, s. 31-25Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of Open innovation is a phenomenon gaining momentum amung pharmaceutical companies, university research consortia and other for-profit and non-profit organizations in order to address increasingly complex, uncertain and changing R&D projects. In medicine, open innovation projects may provide incentives for creativity, adaptability and easier access to knowledge as well as to generate quicker and cheaper innovation cycles for defined products and services. Also, projects and products may be better adjusted to the markets and provide flexible cost structures in developed as well as developing countries. There are today growing efforts for nonprofit foundations to participate and establish co-operation in complex research and development efforts such as bringing new medical drugs or new technology to public use. Interestingly, such incentives might open up for new and creative open innovation models. In this paper, we discuss how the open innovation model differs from the classical closed innovation model in respect tOj type of project, organizing aspects and value creation and value extraction aspects. We also illustrate 3 different value extraction concepts relating to open innovation in the pharmaceutical sector, representing different strategies and degrees of openness; the Medicine for Malaria Venture (MMV); InnovationXchange; and InnoCentive. Further, we discuss how the term "openness" can be understood in levels; in terms of the extent of control a collective upholds for ownership as well as the access and utilization of platform content that is jointly aggregated, created and developed. Collective innovation can be described as; open for all (openness with little, or no, limitations); open IP groups (openness within R&D groups); open IP projects (openness within R&D collaboration projects); open IP communities (openness within certain communities); and open IP platforms (structural arenas for openness). Our case examples illustrate how open innovation networks may provide new possibilities to generate value from academic - industrial networks. However, the open innovation model builds on involvement from a variety of external sources, such as independent researchers and experts, R&D institutes, universities and contract research organizations, customers, partner companies or even competitors. In the transition from a closed to an open innovation model, the pharmaceutical industry needs to develop flexible boundaries to allow a creative exchange of knowledge and experience from the outside to the inside of their organisation.

  • 62.
    Brulin, Göran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ellström, Per-Erik
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Arbete och arbetsliv. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kloftsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Lennart
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Arbete och arbetsliv. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och sociologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Policy Programmes to promote Entrepreneurship and Innovation: A study of the art, design and impact issues2011Ingår i: Proceedings of 56:th ISCB world conference, 2011, s. 1-11Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe 2020 strategy EU puts forward three mutually reinforcing priorities smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. A main driving force are innovation programmes. Our understanding of programme-drivingwill always be tentative but can be improved. Analysis of programmedriving provides an alternative way of tackling the problem. It is an approach that enhances the understanding – contextually, practically and theoretically. Rather than heading for final, concrete and onedimensionaloften quantitative knowledge we should get used to the fact that our understanding always will be fragmentary and imperfect though, on a higher level! Knowledge on innovation programme-driving should improve innovation institutions/practices/ethos in different respects.

  • 63.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Öberg, Staffan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Regional Entrepreneurship Development: Promoting Spin-offs through Coaching and mentoring2011Ingår i: Handbook of Regional Innovation and Growth / [ed] Philip Cooke , Bjørn Asheim , Ron Boschma , Ron Martin , Dafna Schwartz , Franz Tödtling, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, s. 505-513Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    There is, from both a scientific and a practical point of view, an emerging interest in investigating the necessary conditions for creating new businesses. Perhaps one of the most important factors is the presence of an entrepreneurial university that both advances emerging areas of knowledge and puts this knowledge to use in developing the local region (Clark, 1998; Cooke, 2002). Therefore, has academic entrepreneurship been of high focus in spin-off creation both from the research (Lindholm, 1994; Feldman and Klofsten, 2000; Rickne, 2000) as well as from the practitioner viewpoint? Furthermore, to what extent has it resulted in the creation of various training programmes and incu- bators (Aaboen et al., 2008; Bergek and Norman, 2008)? A good practical example of the positive regional development effects of promoting entrepreneurship is the Entrepreneurship and New Business Development Programme (hereafter called the ENP) which is highlighted in this chapter. To understand the underlying structures and processes of entrepreneurial regional developments, this chapter addresses the use of academic entrepreneurship training, where coaching and mentoring are key tools to improve the quality and economic value of new spin-off firms.

  • 64.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Center for Innovation and Entrepreneurship, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Cowlrick, Ivor
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Wolf, Roland
    AMS Advanced Medical Services GmbH, Munich, Germany.
    Olausson, Michael
    Transplant Institute, The Sahlgrenska Academy, Göteborg University, Göteborg.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The changing structure of the pharmaceutical industry: perceptions on entrepreneurship and openness2011Ingår i: Entrepreneurship And Technological Change / [ed] Lucio Cassia, Tommaso Minola and Stefano Paleari, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011, s. 73-94Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The cost for radical innovation in the pharmaceutical industry, that is the development of a completely new molecular entity (NME), was recently estimated to be in the range of US$800 million (DiMasi et aI., 2003) and for a novel biologic it was calculated to be more than US$1300 million (DiMasi and Grabowski, 2007). These cost estimates were based on conventional discovery and process development programs in the pharmaceutical industry up to the point of registration and marketing authorization of an NME. However, there are additional costs stretching beyond the development program relating to the regulatory requirements to perform post-approval studies after introduction into the market. Such regulatory costs may include obtaining marketing approval in a variety of countries, costs for extended indications for new formulations as well as new patents (Gamier, 2008). In earlier estimates provided (DiMasi et aI., 2003; DiMasi and Grabowski, 2007), the authors assumed an average success rate for an NME emerging from clinical trials to be 21.5 per cent. Recent research has adjusted this estimate downwards to 11.5 per cent and the initial cost estimates of drug development have been adjusted upwards to more than US$1700 million per new NME. If further adjustment is made for additional cost increases over time and inflation, the true cost per NME is probably in the range of US$4000 million (Munos, 2009).

    However, it still remains a complex issue to accurately estimate the costs of NMEs since research and development (R&D) expenses are typically invested over decades and should be depreciated over a longer period. In real life the true duration of this life cycle cost is highly variable and has probably increased over time. Experts are not able to agree how to evaluate capitalization and depreciation of drug R&D for large pharmaceutical companies (Big Pharma). Therefore, providing simple and accurate cost estimates of NME development in Big Pharma is likely to remain a major difficulty. The ability to predict success for an NME and calculate return on investment is further complicated by the nature of the drug discovery R&D model which has recently been under extensive review and question.

  • 65.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Triple Helix networking during PhD education: A study of mobility and attitudes towards commercialization of research2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 66.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre.
    Creating entrepreneurial networks: Commercialisation of research, mobility and collaboration during PhD education2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     The universities are expected to contribute to the society in manifold ways; their main tasks include supplying the labour market with educated workers, developing scientific knowledge, both basic and applied, and recently also supporting entrepreneurial initiatives and commercialisation of research results. PhD education constitutes a considerable part of many universities’ activities and PhD students perform a large share of research. Yet there are few studies concerned with PhD students’ possibilities to commercialise research results or the university context supportiveness in this regard. Therefore, this paper investigates PhD students’ views on commercialisation and perceived grade of support from various levels of the university hierarchy. Moreover, the extent of mobility and external collaborations during PhD education and their correlations with opinions of PhD students are studied. These aspects are studied through analysis of data from a survey of 465 PhD students at Linköping University, Sweden.

    The results show that PhD students are on average slightly positive towards commercialisation of research results, although there are differences between various faculties. The university context is perceived as slightly supportive, except for the department and division levels at the faculties of Arts & Sciences (incl. Educational Sciences) and Health Sciences. A majority of PhD students are involved in external collaborations as a part of their PhD education, while a quarter have been spending a part of their PhD studies at another organisation. PhD students’ views on commercialisation are more connected to the direction of mobility than to mobility per se, while for external collaboration interest in commercialisation is lowest amongst those not involved in collaboration at all.

  • 67.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Financing New Ventures: Attitudes Towards Public Innovation Support2010Ingår i: New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millenium / [ed] Oakey, R et al, Emerald Group Publishing , 2010, -, s. 89-110Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate if there exist a gap between the supply (the financial scheme) and the demand (the entrepreneur) of public innovation support. Our research is built upon a survey of the applicant’s attitudes to the support given by the scheme Sweden Innovation Centre (SIC). In common for our respondents is that they have applied for public innovation finance from the SIC during its final years, 2002-2003. Among the recipients there are both rejected and supported cases. In total 294 questionnaires have been analysed, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show upon that there is a gap between the support given and the support demanded. This gap is constituted by a demand for support coupled to the market. It is also shown that the support has increased the motivation of the supported firms, but we found no evidence that it has increased the credibility of the supported venture, nor it seem to have enlarged their networks or developed their business in a substantial way.

  • 68.
    Frykfors, Carl-Otto
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    From Firm Network to a Sector-System of Production and Innovation: A Case Study of Innovation Policy Initiative2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines innovation policy making during the transition of innovative ideas into mature industries within building/construction and mineral extraction/mining industries. The main focus is how interaction occurs between major stakeholders and intermediating actors and how industrial change processes are orchestrated. A case study approach examines the rather complex processes occurring within industrial sector development. Two main success criteria were observed: (1) continuity in initial vision and leadership and (2) a clear intention to achieve strategic interplay and knowledge fusion between heterogonous industrial sectors. Currently, this has been achieved in a classic way using R&D and technology development approaches combined with explorative market development to co-ordinate and allow knowledge fusion between the sectors. The transition process is illustrated in four phases: (1) idea and start-up, (2) formation of a technical R&D programme and networking, (3) consolidation of actor networks and formation of an embryological innovation system, and (4) development of a more sector-based production and innovation system.

  • 69.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Generella framgångsfaktorer i kluster: En studie av entreprenörskap och innovation2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapportens resultat kan sammanfattas på följande vis:

    • Det är möjligt att definiera generella kvalitativa framgångsfaktorer på klusternivå och dessa inkluderar klustrets verksamhet (idé, aktiviteter och organisation), aktörer och individer (engagemang och drivkrafter) och dess externa koppling (kritisk massa).
    • Framgångsfaktorerna är alla dynamiska och genom operationalisering så är det högst troligt att dessa går att mäta och praktiskt tillämpa.
    • En klusterplattform måste etableras för att trygga klusterorganisations långsiktiga överlevnad och utveckling.

    Vid uppföljning och utvärdering av kluster är en processuell ansats att föredra eftersom den: 1) Tillåter analys oberoende typ av kluster eller stadium mognadsprocessen. 2) Möjliggör en bedömning av sambandet mellan orsak och verkan i utvecklingsprocessen. 3) Inkluderar utvecklingsprocessens dynamik och de eventuella lärprocesser som sker i klustret.

    Genom att använda ett prestationsmått – klusterplattform - går det dessutom att avgöra vad som krävs för att klustret på lång sikt skall bli verksamhetsmässigt hållbart.

  • 70.
    Abouzeedan, Adli
    et al.
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hedner, Thomas
    Innovation and Entrepreneurship, Department of Medicine Sahlgrenska Academy, University of.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Innovation and entrepreneurship – new themes for new times2010Ingår i: Annals of Innovation & Entrepreneurship, ISSN 2000-7396, E-ISSN 2000-7396, ISSN ISSN 2000-7396, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 1-3Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout history, innovators and entrepreneurs have had a tremendous impact on development, exploration, trade, education, science, and integration. During the 20th century, innovation and entrepre-neurship have been regarded as key drivers in technological progress and productivity development worldwide. New radical innovations from new fields of knowledge such as information and communication technologies and biotechnology have emerged to influence everyday life for most people. Realizing this, policy makers as well as individuals argue that innovative and entrepreneurial change processes need to be further implemented on the micro as well as macro levels in society (Abouzeedan, Busler, & Hedner, 2009; Busenitz, Gomez, & Spencer, 2000). The study of innovation is therefore likely to be an increasingly important topic in, for example, economics, business, entrepreneurship, tech-nology, engineering, medicine, environmental biology, sociology, design, and reregional development (cf. Etzkowitz & Klofsten, 2005).

  • 71.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Reglerteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Integrating Entrepreneurship in DBT Project Courses at Linköping University2010Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th International CDIO Conference, 2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An example of how entrepreneurship can be integrated into Design-Build-Test (DBT) project courses is presented. The example is taken from the engineering program Applied Physics and Electrical Engineering at Linköping University, where entrepreneurship has been introduced in ten different DBT project courses related to the specializations of the program. The purpose of the entrepreneurship part is that the students shall acquire knowledge and abilities within the general area of entrepreneurship with particular focus on business planning for new ventures. The organization and execution of the entrepreneurship activities are described in detail together with a summary of the experiences from the first year. The results of the entrepreneurship activities within the project courses are positive and will be further developed, with emphasis on the connections between project ideas and technical contents of the courses.

  • 72.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Seed Funding for Innovative Ventures: A Survey of Public Finance, Venture Capital2010Ingår i: New Technology-Based Firms at the New Millennium / [ed] Ray Oakey, Aard Groen, Gary Cook, Peter van der Sijde, Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd. , 2010, s. -229Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

           "The New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millenium" series provides up to date research on a variety of aspects of High Technology Small Firm formation and growth (HTSFs) from a range of interdisciplinary perspectives and from national contexts throughout the world. This edited book series reflects on and shapes currently popular national government policies insofar as they relate to HTSFs. It is the only international publication specifically dealing with HTSF formation and growth and it uniquely provides an uninterrupted record of research in this area since 1993. This latest volume is a collection of the best papers presented at the HTSF Conference held in the United Kingdom at Manchester Business School in June 2007. Three major themes have emerged. Six particularly strong chapters of this volume are devoted to the critical problems of HTSF financing, comprising two contributions from the United Kingdom and individual chapters from Sweden, the Irish Republic, Italy, and Belgium. A further four papers are concerned with aspects of strategic development in HTSFs, and a final group of three papers deal with HTSF marketing problems, often in a 'born global' strategic context.

  • 73.
    Svensson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell marknadsföring och industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Etzkowitz, Henry
    Clayman Institute for Gender Research, Stanford University, USA.
    The Norrköping Way: A Knowledge-based Strategy for Renewing a Declining Industrial City2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Norrköping, a small urban area formerly dependent upon old labour-intensive industries, has developed a knowledge-based renewal strategy inspired by ideas emanating from its superseded local economy. Using a longitudinal case study, this paper explicates the dynamics of change amongst a triple helix of university, industry, and government actors that involved building consensus within the city and with its neighbour city of Linköping. The keys to success have been cross-institutional entrepreneurship, aggregating regional and national resources to realise a unique, locally generated strategy rather than adopting the usual list of such hot high-tech topics as information technology, biotechnology, or alternative energy, and striking a balance between intra-regional competition and collaboration in order to achieve common objectives and avoid any stasis arising from hyper-competitiveness. This paper utilizes a Triple Helix “spaces” framework and makes comparisons with other relevant cases to develop a theoretical model of regional renewal through the hybridisation of old and new industrial and knowledge elements.

  • 74.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Heydebreck, Peter
    inno-AG.
    Jones Evans, D
    Cardiff University.
    Transferring good practice beyond organisational boarders - lessons from transferring an entrepreneurship programme2010Ingår i: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 44, nr 6, s. 791-799Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Transferring good practice beyond organizational borders: lessons from transferring an entrepreneurship programme, Regional Studies. This paper examines the transfer of a ‘good practice’ entrepreneurship initiative from Linköping in Sweden to nine other regions. It shows that the success of transferring ‘good practice’ is dependent on various preconditions in respect of the sender and recipient systems, as well as the interaction between these two systems. These include an openness to continue the learning process and adapting the knowledge to be transferred to local conditions. A long-term commitment by both parties is also required which derives not only from the role of institutions, but also from enthusiastic individuals who drive the transfer process and sustainably link the systems after the initial transfer.

  • 75.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Affärsplattformen: Entreprenören och Företagets Första År2009Bok (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 76.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Affärsplattformen: entreprenören och företagets första år : nu med Idéplattformen2009 (uppl. 3)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppslag, idéer, kontrollsystem och checklistor gör boken till ett effektivt redskap för personer som avser att bli eller redan är företagare. Också användbar för andra aktörer, t ex investerare och banker, som är nära relaterade till företagandet.Denna titel har tidigare givits ut av SNS förlag men ingår numera i Studentlitteraturs sortiment.

  • 77.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An Entrepreneurship Policy Programme: Implications and Expectations2009Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, E-ISSN 2043-6882, Vol. 10, nr 1, s. 33-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the extent to which the expected outcomes from a public support programme match the real outcomes and whether the support given matches the needs of the receivers. The findings are drawn from a survey of 154 ventures supported by a major Swedish entrepreneurship policy programme. The results show that public support increases motivation and has a positive effect on product development processes. One major implication is that there is a mismatch between product development and market development. This should therefore be an important consideration for the designers of all types of public support programmes.

  • 78.
    Bienkowska, Dzamila
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, HELIX Vinn Excellence Centre. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Entrepreneurship and the PhD: A case study of a doctoral mobility program2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the university context we see an intensified co-operation with industry which includesmobility aspects e.g. PhDs increasingly working in the private sector. This is a desirabledevelopment since it encourages network formation, knowledge transfer and innovation. Dueto that we have devoted our interest to the formation of PhD students’ professional networksthrough mobility as part of doctoral education. The following questions are addressed in thispaper: 1) How could a mobility program for PhD students be designed and implemented? 2)How are mobility aspects of PhD studies affected by career plans and existing networks in thestudents’ research teams? The data used in this study comes from a novel Swedish approachto PhD education in life science technologies - a program called AgoraLink (ALP). The resultsshow that ALP is in many cases used to develop existing links with industry in the participants’home country and research organisations abroad. Furthermore, the PhD students admitted toextramural activities tend to have well articulated career plans and use the program to realizetheir ambitions. Finally, ALP seems to catalyse mobility and development of previouslyestablished contacts by providing a framework and legitimacy.

  • 79.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Scheele, J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Book Review: Bright Satanic Mills2008Ingår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 395-397Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 80.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Seed Funding for Innovative Ventures: A Survey of Selection Mechanisms of a Public Support Scheme2008Ingår i: International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, E-ISSN 2043-6882, Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation, ISSN 1465-7503, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 11-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on public innovation support for ventures in their early stages of development. Based on quantitative analysis of programme-specific data, the authors explore and discuss what mechanisms have influenced a public sector actor in selecting ideas for funding. The main findings show, first, that the 'legal form of the firm' and the 'type of industry' are the main factors that discriminate among firms that have gained public financial support and, second, that explicit and tacit selection criteria affect the process that determines which ideas are to receive support.

  • 81.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stöd till innovativa företag: Utvärdering av ett policyinitiativ2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den föreliggande rapporten redovisar vi resultaten av den uppföljning som utförts vid Linköpings Universitet av de 60 företag som år 2002, 2003 och 2004 fick det av VINNOVA och NUTEK instiftade programmet VINN NU. VINN NU-finansieringen är ett bidrag om 300.000 kronor som varje år i konkurrens delas ut till upp till 20 företag med idéer i kunskapsintensiva branscher. Programmet instiftades 2002 i syfte att möta finansieringsbehovet hos innovativa företag i ett tidigt utvecklingsskede. Uppföljningen har genomförts i form av enkätbaserade telefonintervjuer med VINN NU-företagen. Vi har kartlagt basuppgifter om företagen, följt upp deras utveckling baserat på de åtta hörnstenarna i Klofstens (1992) affärsplattformsmodell. Vidare har vi undersökt VINN NU-företagens attityder till programmet samt efterfrågat deras åsikter om styrkor och förbättringsområden för VINN NU-programmet.

    Sammantaget visar vår undersökning att VINN NU-programmet har uppfyllt sina mål. Företagen har, med genomsnittliga mått mätt, utvecklats positivt på samtliga centrala frågeställningar inom ramen för affärsplattformens hörnstenar. Vi bedömer det därför som högst sannolikt att VINN NUprogrammet bidragit till att de företag som fått stödet utvecklats positivt.Förbättringarna har varit allra störst på de centrala frågeställningar som konstituerar företagens produkter/ tjänster, övriga relationer (t ex med finansiärer och andra stödjande aktörer) och marknaden för dess erbjudande. De tillfrågade företagen ansåg att offentligt stöd till företag i tidiga utvecklingsskeden är viktigt. De ansåg även att dessa stöd bör kombineras med rådgivning och att de bör ges ett långsiktigt perspektiv. VINN NUfinansieringen sågs som en viktig ”morot” eller ”motivationshöjare” som som ökar företagarnas lust att lägga ner ytterligare kraft och engagemang på att vidareutveckla företaget. Man kan heller inte bortse från finansieringens trovärdighetsförhöjande effekt gentemot omgivande aktörer som exempelvis externa finansiärer.

    Andra resultat som framkommit är att de studerade företagen kan karaktäriseras som kunskapsintensiva från en rad olika branscher, där ICT och Biotech är de dominerande. Grundarna till företagen var även välutbildade eller mycket välutbildade (magisterexamen eller forskarutbildning). De skiljer sig åt storleksmässigt, det största företaget omsätter ca 30 miljoner medan flera helt saknar, eller har mycket låg omsättning. Företagen har tillväxtambitioner, dock var flertalet företag, sett till antalet anställda, fortfarande relativt små vid uppföljningstillfället.

  • 82.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Supporting Academic Enterprise: A Case study of an Entrepreneurship Programme2008Ingår i: New Technology-Based Firms at the New Millennium, Oxford: Elsevier Science Ltd , 2008, s. 53-67Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 83.
    Kirwan, P.M
    et al.
    Dutch Institute of Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship .
    van der Sijde, P
    Dutch Institute of Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship .
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Supporting High-Tech Companies: Using the Business Platform as a Practical Instrument2008Ingår i: The International Journal of Innovation and Regional Development, ISSN 1753-0660, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 48-65Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the support structures in the regions surrounding two European Universities, the University of Twente (UT) in the Netherlands and the University of Linkoping in Sweden, with an established track record in spinning out high-tech companies. This paper details programmes and activities undertaken by the Universities in an effort to create and foster entrepreneurship. This paper details support mechanisms which can be utilised by high-tech companies to aid them in reaching the highest level for each of the cornerstones in the business platform, thus providing a stronger footing from which the company can grow. In a comparison of the support structures surrounding the two Universities three support mechanisms have been identified, namely: training, coaching and networking. In conclusion, we offer recommendations for using these support mechanisms to other regions/universities and we further explain the differences and similarities between the two universities.

  • 84.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Financing New Ventures: Attitudes Toward Public Financing2007Ingår i: The Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference,2007, 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 85.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Ska verkligen universitetet ta affärsrisk?2007Ingår i: Dagens Industri, ISSN 0346-6400, Vol. 19 januari, nr DN DebattArtikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

         

  • 86.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Heydebreck, Peter
    inno-AG.
    Jones Evans, Dylan
    Cardiff University.
    Transferring an Entrepreneurship Training Programme: A Swedish Case Study2007Ingår i: Triple Helix Conference,2007, Singapore: National University of Singapore , 2007Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

       

  • 87.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Which New Venture Ideas Get Public Sector Innovation Support?: A study of Early-Stage Financing from a Supply Side Perspective2007Ingår i: New Technology-based firms in the new millennium / [ed] Aard Groen, Ray Oakey, Peter van der Sijde, Saleema Kauser, Elsevier, 2007, s. 89-108Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This book consists of selected papers from the Annual High Technology Small Firms (HTSFs). The conference is acknowledged by experts in the field to be a particularly useful and authoritative record of the evolution of HTSF research since the inception of the series in 1993. It addresses strategic growth for small firms. It discusses how to harness external resources to promote growth (i.e., government and/or larger firms) while maintaining a win-win. It includes discussion of "spin off" the transformation from a non-profit making entity to a competitive busines world

  • 88.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Can Entrepreneurship be Taught? Supporting Academic Enterprise2006Ingår i: The Associated Universitites of the Northeast Conference on Entrepreneurship,2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 89.
    Davidsson, Per
    et al.
    Brisbane Graduate School of Business, QUT, Australia and Jönköping International Business School.
    Hunter, Erik
    Jönköping International Business School.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Institutional Forces - The invisible hand that shapes venture ideas?2006Ingår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 115-131Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Institutional theory is employed for examining how and to what extent external pressure leads to changes in the venture idea during the start-up and early life of new, knowledge-intensive ventures. From a population of 321 young, knowledge-intensive firms that underwent a training program at Linköping University, Sweden, structured telephone interview data were obtained from 167 firms. The results confirmed that the venture idea had undergone more change in ventures that had more external owners a dominant customer, and an incubator location. The results imply that institutional theory is a meaningful tool for understanding why and how venture ideas change over time.

  • 90.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Heydebreck, P
    Mutually Learning with Partners how to Foster Entrepreneurship2006Ingår i: RD Management Conference,2006, 2006Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 91.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Utbildning och träning i entreprenörskap - ett praktikfall från universitetsvärlden2006Ingår i: Ledning i småföretag / [ed] Håkan Ylinenpää, Bo Johansson, Jan Johansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2006, 1, s. 257-272Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Småföretagen har en central betydelse för sysselsättning, tillväxt och utveckling i Sverige. Ledningsfrågor i dessa företag är därför mycket viktiga och kommer så att förbli även i framtiden. Med fokus på strategi och handling tar Ledning i småföretag helhetsgrepp på området ledarskap i småföretag. Flera av landets ledande forskare bidrar med sina kunskaper i ämnet och de viktiga lednings- och utvecklingsfrågor som småföretag ställs inför i dag diskuteras.

  • 92.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Scheele, J
    Academic entrepreneurship: University spin-offs and wealth creation.2005Ingår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 214-217Artikel, recension (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 93.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Scheele, J.
    Book Review: Academic Entrepreneurship2005Ingår i: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 214-217Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 94.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap.
    Fem år med Venture Cup - en studie2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

      

  • 95.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Från idé till marknad: En diskussion om entreprenörskapets villkor2005Ingår i: Innovation: Dynamik och Förnyelse i Ekonomi och Samhälle / [ed] Mats Benner, Staffan Laestadius, Bjørn T. Asheim, Birgitta Södergren, Magnus Klofsten, Åsa Lindholm Dahlstrand, Åke Uhlin, Arne Eriksson, Per Frankelius, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2005, s. 95-118Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Dagens ekonomi är kunskapsintensiv och snabbt föränderlig. Ekonomisk tillväxt är alltmer beroende av innovationer, av nya idéer, produkter och sätt att producera, marknadsföra och konsumera. Några exempel på innovationer som förändrat vår värld är elektriciteten, lasern, informationsteknologin och Internet. Men innovationer kan också bestå i gradvisa förbättringar av produktion och distribution. Innovationer uppstår inte i isolering utan i samverkan mellan företag, konsumenter, politiker, marknader och regelverk. Innovationer förnyar ekonomin, men utmanar också etablerade positioner för företag, regioner, nationer och för den enskilde. Att förstå vad innovationer är och hur de uppkommer är därför nödvändigt för den som vill förstå hur moderna ekonomier utvecklas. Innovationer ger en klargörande bild av vad innovationer är, hur de uppkommer, sprids och används. Författarna är samtliga ledande företrädare för svensk innovationsforskning. Boken tar upp innovationsforskningens rötter, betydelsen av plats och rum för innovationer, innovationer inom företag och organisationer, teknikbaserat tillväxtföretagande, villkoren för innovationspolitik och innovationers sociala dimensioner. Sammantaget ges en bred och mångfacetterad bild av ett snabbväxande kunskapsfält. Boken vänder sig till studenter inom ekonomi, teknik och samhällsvetenskap, till dem som arbetar med ledning och organisering av innovationer inom företag och myndigheter och till alla som vill ha en lättillgänglig orientering i innovationers betydelse för omvandling av ekonomi och samhällsliv. Dahméninstitutet är en nätverksorganisation som bygger på tvärvetenskapligt samarbete. Institutet samordnar forskare och praktiker engagerade inom området "innovation och tillväxt". Syftet med institutet är att undersöka, understödja och utveckla den svenska innovationspolitiken....

  • 96.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    New Venture Ideas: An analysis of their Origin and Early Development2005Ingår i: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 105-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the requirements for starting a firm is an idea that can be developed into a business opportunity. This paper focuses on the early development of a firm's business idea and the factors that affect this process. The assumption is that the founders of the firm have a core importance in the formulation of the first draft of the idea, but that the continued development and polishing that turns the idea into a business opportunity occurs in interaction with a number of actors in the market such as clients, financiers, suppliers and other collaboration partners. Five wholly newly started knowledge-intensive firms - A-TV, A-Tech, S-Tire, M-Qon and M-Point, all of whom are spin-offs from Linköping University or from firms - are analysed. The results of the study agree with previous research on business opportunities and ideas and the link to the skills base of the founders, envíronmental effects, and changes in the idea over time. Practical and theoretical implications of new venture idea development and entrepreneurship training are presented.

  • 97.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergek, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Projekt, innovationer och entreprenörskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Public Innovation Support and Innovative Ideas2005Ingår i: Babson Kauffman Entrepreneurship Research Conference, 2005Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 98.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Seed Funding for Innovative Ventures: A Survey of Public Finance2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

         

  • 99.
    Hedner, Thomas
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Akademin Göteborgs universitet.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Stimulera entreprenörskap och avlägsna infrastrukturella hinder2005Ingår i: Biotech Sweden, ISSN 1651-324X, Vol. 8Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 100.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Ekonomiska institutionen.
    Supporting Academic Enterprise: A case study of an Entrepreneurship Programme2005Ingår i: The Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference,2005, 2005Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
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