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  • 51.
    Collste, Göran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Verweij, Marcel
    Utrecht University.
    Editorial: Personal Health Monitoring and Human Interaction2012Ingår i: American Journal of Bioethics, ISSN 1526-5161, E-ISSN 1536-0075, Vol. 12, nr 9, s. 47-48Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 52.
    Collste, Göran
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för religion och kultur, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    Willner, JanLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för religion och kultur, Centrum för tillämpad etik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Perspektiv på forskningsetik: en liten festskrift till Bo Petersson2008Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 53.
    Colnerud, Gunnel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    The Ethical Problems of Reserach: An empirical study of ethics in research practice2013Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Most accounts of the ethical problems facing researchers across a broad spectrum of research fields come from ethicists, ethics committees and specialists committed to the study of ethics in human research. In contrast, this study reports on the ethical questions that researchers, themselves, report facing in their everyday practice. Fifty-five Swedish researchers contributed 109 examples of ethical dilemmas, conflicts and problems in research. They were all researchers at the post-doctoral level in the fields of medicine, the humanities, education and social sciences, who devoted at least 50% of their working hours to research. They reported issues they face before, during, and after gathering data. Their range of issues is broader than generally discussed and point to the importance of researchers’ ethical sensitivity.

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    The Ethical Problems of Reserach: An empirical study of ethics in research practice
  • 54.
    d'Annibale, Eleonora
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation.
    Defence of a Principle of International Corrective Justice2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis argues that Rawlsian Law of Peoples would benefit from the addition of a principle of corrective justice aimed at repairing past wrongdoings such as colonialism and violations of human rights. The argumentation is conducted exclusively within the Rawlsian theoretical framework. The proposed principle establishes the remedial responsibility of perpetrators of violations of human rights towards their victims. Perpetrators owe their victims apologies and economic redistribution. The principle is defended with, first, the tool of the second original position and the test of the strains of commitment, then by pointing at the value Rawls attributes to the notion of equality of peoples. The second original position is modified for what concerns the awareness of the parties of the historical moment the society of peoples take place. This modification of the veil of ignorance is aimed at securing that probabilities do not affect the deliberation on principles of justice. Indeed, complete uncertainty is maintained to be a crucial condition for the validity of the maximin criterion. In further research, this principle could be proven capable of enabling Rawlsian theory to meet some of the cosmopolitan demands.

     

  • 55.
    Echeverria, Ana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    ReservationHop and the Effect of Unrestricted Marketization on Society2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to conduct a case study examining the intrusion of marketplace ideals on various aspects of everyday life. In this thesis, I provide a case study of a new business in San Francisco, ReservationHop, that transforms the previously first come, first serve restaurant reservation service into an auction style scalping (resell at a higher price) system, thereby affecting the distribution of an economic service, or good.

    In order to investigate this phenomenon, this thesis is organized into six main sections. First, I will provide a brief introduction to the thesis, presenting my aim and purpose in writing and why I believe that this is an important topic. I then introduce ReservationHop and describe the site and its business model, the controversy that it has evoked, and the app's creator Brian Mayer's attempts to defend the app's legitimacy. Thirdly, I will provide considerations in support of the ethical permissibility of the ReservationHop business model, using two neoclassical economic arguments: consumer choice theory and the Pareto-efficiency argument. Fourthly, I will counter these arguments, claiming that this service is not a Pareto optimal improvement because it involves deception, which is incompatible with genuine Pareto optimality. In the fifth section, I will introduce my main argument against ReservationHop in which I introduce the idea that there is something inherently wrong with the service even if its deceptive characteristics were corrected for. I argue that there should be "things that money cannot buy" because unfettered marketization erodes the nonmarket value of community, or commonality.

    In conclusion, this thesis argues that the intrusion of marketplace values on all aspects of society should be resisted, and that we must rethink the increased influence of marketization for it crowds out other important non-market values, e.g., our sense of community solidarity.

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  • 56.
    Ek, Adam
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation.
    Distributing Educational Opportunities: Strengths and Weaknesses of Different Approaches2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    When there is scarcity of educational position, we need a just system of distribution that decides who's to be admitted to said position. In this text I argue that the common system of using grades and test results as merit to distribute educational opportunities is unjust. The reason being that we simply cannot assign grades that are neither fully reliable or valid. I describe a generalized education system that we have today distributing educational opportunities. The system is characterized by having a compulsory basic education that distributes its educational opportunities strictly egalitarian. Later introducing grades and standardized tests to progress into higher education creating a meritocratic distribution. Furthermore I introduce Nozickian libertarianism and a version of Rawls distributional principles including affirmative action policies. All of which have their merits and drawbacks, which is why I lastly put forth my own proposed approach. The proposal consists of the fundamental right that every person with the adequate knowledge and skills to succeed in referred education is entitled to it. The building blocks for this education system and its distribution of educational opportunities is compulsory basic education, specialized admission tests and lottery accompanied by a queue system.

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  • 57.
    Grankvist, Hannah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Can Risks be Offset by the Prospect of Benefit in Trial Design?2015Ingår i: American Journal of Bioethics Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 61-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 58.
    Grankvist, Hannah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Kimmelman, Jonathan
    Studies for Translation, Research Ethics, and Medicine (STREAM), Biomedical Ethics Unit/Social Studies of Medicine, McGill University.
    How do researchers decide early clinical trials?2016Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 191-198Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Launch of clinical investigation represents a substantial escalation in commitment to a particular clinical translation trajectory; it also exposes human subjects to poorly understood interventions. Despite these high stakes, there is little to guide decision-makers on the scientific and ethical evaluation of early phase trials. In this article, we review policies and consensus statements on human protections, drug regulation, and research design surrounding trial launch, and conclude that decision-making is largely left to the discretion of research teams and sponsors. We then review what is currently understood about how research teams exercise this discretion, and close by laying out a research agenda for characterizing the way investigators, sponsors, and reviewers approach decision-making in early phase research.

  • 59.
    Granér, Rolf
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Växjö.
    Wieslander, MalinLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Etiska perspektiv på polisarbete2022Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 60.
    Grooteman, Lisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    Integration – the Tool for a Better Future?: A Descriptive Ethical Analysis of the Dutch Integration Policy2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis in applied ethics is a descriptive ethical analysis of the current integration policy in the Netherlands. The main purpose is to describe and critically discuss the Dutch integration policy. In the recent years there has been a major shift in the Dutch integration directive, from a liberal to a harsher integration policy. This thesis contributes with a characterization of integration by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, European Commission and within the Dutch context, particularly a characterization of values and ideals in integration policies. Also, an attempt is made to analyze what the underlying motives and core values are, and which values should be fostered. Moreover, an overview is given of the various dimensions of integration. The second part of this thesis explores the Dutch integration policy in light of the European Commission's eleven common basic principles for immigrant integration policy in the European Union. In addition, ethical implications concerning the Dutch integration policy will be stated. Finally, the consequences of failing integration will be identified and some practical recommendations for the Dutch integration policy will be provided.

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  • 61.
    Guimarães Naso, Renata
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Forum för genusvetenskap och jämställdhet.
    Therapeutic Alliance between Psychologists and Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence: A Feminist Ethics of Care Interpretation2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the construction of the therapist-client alliance in the therapeutic setting with perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Moreover, it explores the ways a Feminist Ethics of Care perspective could enhance the partnership between the actors. To fulfil such aims, the author conducted six in-depth semi-structured interviews with psychologists working at one of the most renowned institutions for perpetrators of IPV in Norway and Sweden. The analysis of the psychologists' discourses demonstrates that several factors are influential in the alliance construction. The most important aspects are: the clients' perspective towards the psychologists; the therapists' views towards the clients; the psychologists' engagement with moral sentiments; the power struggle between the actors; and the use of techniques for the professionals to enhance their connection with the clients. Besides that, the discourses also show that moral superiority seems to guide the psychologists when relating with the perpetrators. Their views are embedded in an individualistic ethics based on the principles of Kohlberg's Ethics of Justice. The thesis suggests that a collective ethics such as Gilligan's Feminist Ethics of Care would enhance the partnership between the actors. This theoretical framework allows the psychologists to change their superior moral views of the clients to a moral responsibility towards them. When such movement in perspective happens, the therapists begin to see the perpetrators as human beings with many different facets. Consequently, they truly deny a judgmental impression towards their identity.

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    MA Thesis Renata Guimaraes Naso
  • 62.
    Guntram, Lisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    May I have your uterus?: The contribution of considering complexities preceding live uterus transplantation.2021Ingår i: Medical Humanities, ISSN 1468-215X, E-ISSN 1473-4265, Vol. 47, nr 7, s. 425-437Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Uterus transplantation combined with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) (henceforth called UTx-IVF) as a treatment for infertility caused by an absence or malfunction of the uterus is advancing. About 50 transplantations have been conducted worldwide and at least 14 children have been born-9 of them by women taking part in a Swedish research project on UTx-IVF. The Swedish research protocol initially stated that the potential recipient must 'have her own donor' who is preferably related to the recipient. But what does it mean to ask someone for a uterus? What challenges does this question instigate? And what norms may it enact? In this article, I explore how 10 women-who have considered, and sometimes pursued, UTx-IVF-describe their experiences of searching for a donor. I aim to show how an analysis of such accounts can help us unpack some of the specific relational and gendered dimensions of UTx-IVF and by doing so enrich discussions of risks, benefits, care and support in UTx-IVF. Drawing on research in social sciences and medical humanities that has demonstrated how assisted reproductive technologies and organ donation can provoke social and familial conundrums, with respect to such topics as embodiment and identity, I present three patterns that describe different dimensions of the interviewees' quest for a uterus donor. I discuss the negotiations that took place, how expectations unfolded and how entanglements were managed as the interviewees considered asking someone for a donation. Such an examination, I suggest, contributes to make care and support more attuned to the experiences and entanglements that UTx-IVF entails for those pursuing it. This will become increasingly important if (or when) UTx-IVF becomes part of general healthcare. To conclude, I problematise responsibilities and relational challenges in medical innovation, and in this way provide insights into how the ethical debate over UTx-IVF can broaden its scope.

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  • 63.
    Guntram, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Williams, Nicola Jane
    Univ Lancaster, England.
    Positioning uterus transplantation as a more ethical alternative to surrogacy: Exploring symmetries between uterus transplantation and surrogacy through analysis of a Swedish government white paper2018Ingår i: Bioethics, ISSN 0269-9702, E-ISSN 1467-8519, Vol. 32, nr 8, s. 509-518Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the ethics and science literature surrounding uterus transplantation (UTx), emphasis is often placed on the extent to which UTx might improve upon, or offer additional benefits when compared to, existing treatment options for women with absolute uterine factor infertility, such as adoption and gestational surrogacy. Within this literature UTx is often positioned as superior to surrogacy because it can deliver things that surrogacy cannot (such as the experience of gestation). Yet, in addition to claims that UTx is superior in the aforementioned sense it is also often assumed (either implicitly or explicitly) that UTx is less fraught with ethical difficulties and thus should be considered a less morally problematic option. This article seeks to examine this assumption. Given that much UTx research has been performed in Sweden, a country where surrogacy is effectively although not currently explicitly forbidden, we do this through an analysis of the arguments underpinning a 2016 Swedish white paper which considered amending existing policy such that altruistic surrogacy arrangements would be permitted. By applying the white papers arguments for a restrictive position on altruistic surrogacy to the case of UTx using living altruistic donors we find that such arguments, if they hold in the case of surrogacy, apply similarly to UTx. We thus suggest that, for reasons of consistency, a similar stance should be taken towards the moral and legal permissibility of these two practices.

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  • 64.
    Gustavsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Avdelningen för filosofi och tillämpad etik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Björk, Joar
    Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics (CHE), LIME, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg, Växjö, Sweden.
    The Ethical Relevance of "Alternatives" in Health Care Priority Setting - The Case of Preexposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV2022Ingår i: The Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, ISSN 0044-0086, E-ISSN 1551-4056, Vol. 95, nr 3, s. 359-365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Preexposure prophylaxis for HIV is a drug that reduces the risk for an HIV-negative person to acquire HIV if taken prior to sex. It has been suggested that it is important for resource allocation decisions that there are alternatives (such as abstinence, masturbation, etc.) for individuals potentially benefitted by this prophylaxis. In this paper we explore this idea from an ethical perspective in relation to three notions often discussed in priority setting ethics, namely responsibility, outcomes, and severity of disease. While the relevance of alternatives may be explained in terms by responsibility-sensitive priority setting, such a view comes with several challenges. We then discuss two other ways in which this intuition could be better explained: (a) in terms of total outcome of health, and (b) in terms of severity of the condition.

  • 65.
    Gustavsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för kultur och estetik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för hälso- och sjukvårdsanalys. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Juth, Niklas
    LIME, Stockholm Centre for Healthcare Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Principles of Need and the Aggregation Thesis2019Ingår i: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 27, nr 2, s. 77-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Principles of need are constantly referred to in health care priority setting. The common denominator for any principle of need is that it will ascribe some kind of special normative weight to people being worse off. However, this common ground does not answer the question how a plausible principle of need should relate to the aggregation of benefits across individuals. Principles of need are sometimes stated as being incompatible with aggregation and sometimes characterized as accepting aggregation in much the same way as utilitarians do. In this paper we argue that if one wants to take principles of need seriously both of these positions have unreasonable implications. We then characterize and defend a principle of need consisting of sufficientarian elements as well as prioritarian which avoids these unreasonable implications.

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  • 66.
    Gustavsson, Erik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Avdelningen för filosofi, historia, konst och religion. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Raaschou, Pauline
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Larfars, Gerd
    Reg Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för samhälle och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Juth, Niklas
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Novel drug candidates targeting Alzheimers disease: ethical challenges with identifying the relevant patient population2021Ingår i: Journal of Medical Ethics, ISSN 0306-6800, E-ISSN 1473-4257, Vol. 47, nr 9, s. 608-614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensive research is carried out to develop a disease-modifying drug for Alzheimers disease (AD). The development of drug candidates that reduce Ass or tau in the brain seems particularly promising. However, these drugs target people at risk for AD, who must be identified before they have any, or only moderate, symptoms associated with the disease. There are different strategies that may be used to identify these individuals (eg, population screening, cascade screening, etc). Each of these strategies raises different ethical challenges. In this paper, we analyse these challenges in relation to the risk stratification for AD necessary for using these drugs. We conclude that the new drugs must generate large health benefits for people at risk of developing AD to justify the ethical costs associated with current risk stratification methods, benefits much larger than current drug candidates have. This conclusion raises a new set of ethical questions that should be further discussed.

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  • 67.
    Gyllander, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation.
    Ethical Aspects of Norwegian Aquaculture2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian government has submitted a report to the Norwegian parliament, concluding that raw oil export can no longer sustain economic growth. Norway is therefore seeking other industries to minimize the economic loss this is causing. Norway is already the largest exporter of salmon and trout in the world. The report states that the government's goal is to increase production to five times today's production by 2050. The ability and desire to grow has its backing from a handful of large companies dominating the aquaculture business and a newly recognized right-wing government eager to make the playroom larger for the aquaculture industry. This paper analyzes the report, using an ethical matrix, looking for ethical arguments from the government as well as defining the stakeholders affected by the government's goal.

    This thesis' aim is to analyze and discuss the broad range of ethical concerns, based on an ethical matrix, so that a variety of ethical perspectives can be included in an evaluative discussion.

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  • 68.
    Gürtler, Paula
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle.
    A Capabilities Approach to Late Modernity: Flexibility, Singularity, and Human Flourishing in the Labor Market2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In my paper, I argue that the underlying social ideals of the late modern labor market, namely flexibility and singularity, undermine human flourishing as conceptualized by Martha C. Nussbaum. It is on these grounds, that we should be critical of late modernity. For an account of late modernity, I rely on the sociological works of Ulrich Beck (1992), Zygmunt Bauman (2000; 2007a), and Andreas Reckwitz (Reckwitz & Pakis, 2020). My account of this socio-historical era focusses on the three main components that set it apart from the previous industrial modernity according to the aforementioned sociologists: the revolution in ICT, the creative economy, and the socio-cultural revolution within the new middle class. It becomes clear that these three components contribute to a more liquid, flexible, and singularized setting. On this basis, then, I will introduce the ethical theory of Martha C. Nussbaum: The Capabilities Approach. I will justify the methodological choice of using her theory, and not that the Capabilities approach of Amartya Sen. My focus on human flourishing will be defended against the accusation of being universalist or biased, and the suggestion that preference utilitarianism would be a better fit for my research objective. 

    The main body of my paper is the ethical analysis and weighing of arguments for and against my thesis, that we ought to object to the social ideals promoted by the late modern labor market because they undermine human flourishing. I will give two main arguments in support of this thesis, each corresponding to one of Nussbaum's central Capabilities. The first one identifies a conflict between the requirements for our emotional Capability and the kind of self-sufficiency needed to achieve the social ideal of flexibility. I show, that flexibility has become a necessary coping strategy for the late modern individual, making the conflict a pressing one to solve. My second argument draws out a lack of respect and dignity granted to those who perform functional labor (mostly in the service sector) in late modernity, because the functional worker can not live up to the social ideal of singularity. The lack of respect for functional workers pushes them below the threshold required for human flourishing. Finally, I will consider the counterargument, that the late modern labor market provides better opportunities for creative expression and self-actualization. Is that not the epitome of human flourishing i.e. the actualization of one's potentialities? However, I refute this counterargument on multiple grounds: firstly, the goal is not human flourishing, but economic profit. Secondly, it promotes a kind of consumerism, that seems to conflict with emotional needs. Lastly, the workers who are enabled creative expression, are and will remain few.

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  • 69.
    Hammarström, Gunhild
    Prioriteringscentrum.
    Ekonomi och etik: Argumentering vid besparingar inom sjukvården i ljuset av Prioriteringsutredningen2003Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie har varit att studera om, och i så fall på vilket sätt Prioriteringsutredningens etiska riktlinjer har tillämpats i praktiken vid besparingar inom ett sjukhus. Studien utgörs av en fallstudie av en beslutsprocess år 1996 vid Akademiska sjukhuset i Uppsala läns landsting, där sjukhuset var ålagt ett besparingskrav från landstingets sida. Det empiriska material, som studien baseras på, består av den skriftliga dokumentation som föreligger från beslutsprocessens olika aktörer. De aktörer som deltagit i beslutsprocessen är sjukhusdirektören samt representanter för den medicinska professionen och landstingspolitiker på olika nivåer. De som jag ser som huvudaktörerna är, förutom sjukhusdirektören, en medicinskt-etiska arbetsgrupp tillsatt av sjukhusdirektören samt landstingets tre hälso- och sjukvårdsnämnder bestående av politiker.

    I samband med studien har jag kunnat konstatera att även om de olika aktörskategoriernas argumentering kan karakteriseras om rationell utifrån deras respektive mål och intentioner, har inte själva beslutsprocessen skett i enlighet ned den normativt rationalistiska beslutsmodell, som förutsätts inom traditionell organisationsteori.

    När det gäller frågan om i vilken mån Prioriteringsutredningens etiska riktlinjer har beaktats under själva beslutsprocessen, föreligger en viss skillnad mellan den argumentering, som förts i fråga om förslag till besparingar, och själva beslutet. Vid en jämförelse av politikerna i hälso- och sjukvårdsnämnderna och ledamöterna i den medicinskt-etiska arbetsgruppen framkommer, att i de besparingsförslag, som härrör från den medicinska professionen, har de etiska riktlinjerna beaktats. Jag har dock tolkat den medicinska professionens argumentation som relativt schablonmässig. Hälso- och sjukvårdsnämnderna har däremot i sitt gemensamma yttrande över huvudtaget inte nämnt Prioriteringsutredningen och dess riktlinjer.

    Hälso- och sjukvårdsnämnderna har främst argumenterat utifrån målet att uppnå en ”ekonomi i balans”, medan den medicinskt-etiska arbetsgruppen har utgått från ”patientens behov” och ”de medicinskt-etiska konsekvenserna” för patienterna. Min tolkning är att de båda aktörskategorierna har argumenterat utifrån olika normativa rationaliteter, genom att de har utgått från olika kulturella och normativa föreställningar och värderingar. De har därvid använt den argumentering som är accepterad inom respektive kultur, vilket ger ökad legitimitet till de föreslagna besparingarna inom den egna gruppen. Även om deras respektive argumentering kan fungera inkluderande i förhållande till den egna gruppen, kan den samtidigt fungera avskiljande och gränssättande gentemot den andra.

    Det slutliga beslutet om de faktiska besparingarna utgör i huvudsak en kompromiss mellan hälso- och sjukvårdsnämndernas kraftigare besparingskrav med sänkt omvårdnad och den medicinskt-etiska arbetsgruppens beaktande av konsekvenserna för patienterna. Eftersom beslutsprocessen varit interaktiv till sin karaktär, har jag tolkat kompromissen och överbryggandet av den gränssättande retoriken som ett resultat av både strategiskt och kommunikativt handlande från sjukhusdirektörens sida, d.v.s. ett handlande som är både framgångsorienterat och inriktat på inbördes förståelse.

    Frågan om i vilken mån Prioriteringsutredningens riktlinjer har inverkat på det faktiska beslutet är dock inte så lätt att besvara, eftersom även generella medicinskt-etiska principer har inverkat, och genom att det inte är möjligt att särskilja betydelsen av dessa generellt formulerade medicinskt-etiska principer i relation till Prioriteringsutredningens riktlinjer. En förklaring till detta kan också vara att de fastställda prioriteringsgrupperna kanske inte är helt praktiskt ”översättbara” till olika verksamheter inom ett sjukhus på den politiskt-administrativa nivån på det sätt som var tänkt.

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  • 70.
    Hellström, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Hälsa, Aktivitet, Vård (HAV). Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    I’m his wife not his carer!: dignity and couplehood in dementia2014Ingår i: Beyond Loss: dementia, identity, personhood / [ed] Lars-Christer Hydén, Hilde Lindemann, Jens Brockmeier, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014, s. 53-66Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 71.
    Holgersson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Informationssystem och digitalisering. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bilden av polisen i media2022Ingår i: Etiska perspektiv på polisarbete / [ed] Rolf Granér, Malin Wieslander, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2022, Vol. Sidorna 217-231, s. 217-231Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kapitel behandlar de risker som är förknippade med att Polismyndigheten kommunicerar ut skönmålade och även felaktiga bilder av verksamheten. Baserat på ett antal forskningsrapporter om polisens sätt att kommunicera reflekteras över motsatsställningen mellan de kortsiktigt gynnsamma effekterna av att förneka eller undanhålla problem och den långsiktiga riskerna för förtroendeskada.

  • 72.
    Jaarsma, Pier
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Gelhaus, Petra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Psykiatri- och habiliteringsenheten.
    Welin, Stellan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Living the Categorical Imperative: autistic perspectives on lying and truth telling-between Kant and care ethics2012Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 271-277Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lying is a common phenomenon amongst human beings. It seems to play a role in making social interactions run more smoothly. Too much honesty can be regarded as impolite or downright rude. Remarkably, lying is not a common phenomenon amongst normally intelligent human beings who are on the autism spectrum. They appear to be 'attractively morally innocent' and seem to have an above average moral conscientious objection against deception. In this paper, the behavior of persons with autism with regard to deception and truthfulness will be discussed in the light of two different ethical theories, illustrated by fragments from autobiographies of persons with autism. A systemizing 'Kantian' and an empathizing 'ethics of care' perspective reveal insights on high-functioning autism, truthfulness and moral behavior. Both perspectives are problematic from the point of view of a moral agent with autism. High-functioning persons with autism are, generally speaking, strong systemizes and weak empathizers. Particularly, they lack 'cognitive empathy' which would allow them to understand the position of the other person. Instead, some tend to invent a set of rules that makes their behavior compatible with the expectations of others. From a Kantian point of view, the autistic tendency to always tell the truth appears praiseworthy and should not be changed, though it creates problems in the social life of persons with autism. From a care ethics perspective, on the other hand, a way should be found to allow the high-functioning persons with autism to respect the feelings and needs of other persons as sometimes overruling the duty of truthfulness. We suggest this may even entail 'morally educating' children and adolescents with autism to become socially skilled empathic 'liars'.

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  • 73.
    Jaarsma, Pier
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Welin, Stellan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Autism as a Natural Human Variation: Reflections on the Claims of the Neurodiversity Movement2012Ingår i: Health Care Analysis, ISSN 1065-3058, E-ISSN 1573-3394, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 20-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Neurodiversity has remained a controversial concept over the last decade. In its broadest sense the concept of neurodiversity regards atypical neurological development as a normal human difference. The neurodiversity claim contains at least two different aspects. The first aspect is that autism, among other neurological conditions, is first and foremost a natural variation. The other aspect is about conferring rights and in particular value to the neurodiversity condition, demanding recognition and acceptance. Autism can be seen as a natural variation on par with for example homosexuality. The broad version of the neurodiversity claim, covering low-functioning as well as high-functioning autism, is problematic. Only a narrow conception of neurodiversity, referring exclusively to high-functioning autists, is reasonable. We will discuss the effects of DSM categorization and the medical model for high functioning autists. After a discussion of autism as a culture we will analyze various possible strategies for the neurodiversity movement to claim extra resources for autists as members of an underprivileged culture without being labelled disabled or as having a disorder. We will discuss their vulnerable status as a group and what obligation that confers on the majority of neurotypicals.

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  • 74.
    Jaarsma, Pier
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Welin, Stellan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Hälsa och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Human capabilities, mild autism, deafness and the morality of embryo selection2013Ingår i: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 817-824Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A preimplantation genetic test to discriminate between severe and mild autism spectrum disorder might be developed in the foreseeable future. Recently, the philosophers Julian Savulescu and Guy Kahane claimed that there are strong reasons for prospective parents to make use of such a test to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to autism or Asperger’s disorder. In this paper we will criticize this claim. We will discuss the morality of selection for mild autism in embryo selection in a hypothetical in vitro fertilization (IVF) situation where preimplantation genetic diagnosis is performed and compare this with a similar selection for congenital deafness. To do this we first discuss relevant human differences. We then introduce the principle of human capabilities (PC) and compare this principle with the principle of procreative beneficence (PB) introduced by Savulescu and Kahane. We apply the two principles to selection for mild autism and selection for congenital deafness. We argue that PC allows for the selection for mild autism but rules out selection for congenital deafness. PB will not give clear answers; the ruling of PB depends to a large extent on expected social, cultural and political developments. We will argue that PC is preferable to PB. We will discuss arguments for the value of mild autism for individuals who have this condition and argue that they are able to lead a life with human dignity provided autism-friendly social circumstances are present. Neither PC nor PB yields strong reasons for prospective parents to seek to prevent the birth of children who are disposed to mild autism spectrum disorder.

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  • 75.
    Janus, Dominika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle.
    Technology and the Value of Trust: Can Society Trust AI?2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring "public trust" in AI seems to be a priority for policymakers and the private sector. It is expected that without public trust, such innovations cannot be implemented with legitimacy, and there is a risk of potential public backlash or resistance (for example cases of Cambridge Analytica, predictive policing, or Clearview AI). There is a rich body of research relating to public trust in data use that suggests that "building public trust" can too often place the burden on the public to be "more trusting" and will do little to address other concerns, including whether trust is a desirable and attainable characteristic of human-AI relation. I argue that there is good reason for the public not to trust AI, especially in the absence of regulatory structures that afford genuine accountability, but at the same time AI can be considered reliable. To that end, the main argument of this paper is

    1. We are asked to trust an entity that cannot enter the trust relationship, because it doesn’t fulfil the conditions spelled out by the definitions of trust.

    2. We are presented with a misdescription of the agent. Who we trust in fact are developers or policy makers.

    I also argue that the term "reliance" should be used instead of "trust", as by definition it is more fitting current AI applications. Additionally, the focus should be on framing trust as part of practices expected from AI solution providers, developers and regulators.

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  • 76.
    Johansson, Janet
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lindström Sol, Sofia
    Univ Borås, Sweden.
    Artistic Freedom or the Hamper of Equality?: Exploring Ethical Dilemmas in the Use of Artistic Freedom in a Cultural Organization in Sweden2022Ingår i: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 181, s. 811-825Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With this paper, from the perspective of ethics at the workplace, we problematize the taken-for-granted assumptions embedded in the use of artistic freedom in creative processes. Drawing on the notion of inequality regimes (e.g. Acker, 2006) and using empirical material from a performing arts organization in Sweden, we explore how the assumptions of artistic freedom facilitate and legitimize the emergence of inequality regimes in invisible and subtle manners. Our findings indicate that non-reflexive interpretations of the concept of artistic freedom result in ethical dilemmas that impact the organizations pursuits of equality work. The aesthetic ethics oriented around the notion of art for the sake of art tends to camouflage the centralization of aesthetic authority in processes where formal hierarchical structures are missing. Consequently, asymmetrical power relations between the Directors, actors, and producers are legitimized. Ethics of quality of art and that of the social ideal of equality have been constructed as dichotomic notions indicating that aesthetic ethics of art can only be preserved at the expense of social objectives of equality. We argue that the current interpretative practices of artistic freedom in some cultural organizations add little value of ethics to the freedom of expressing artistic opinions and in achieving the social ideal of equality but lead to the emergence of inequality regimes in the artistic work processes.

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  • 77.
    Johansson, Janet
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Wickström, Alice
    Aalto Univ, Finland.
    Constructing a 'Different' Strength: A Feminist Exploration of Vulnerability, Ethical Agency and Care2023Ingår i: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 184, s. 317-331Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores how ethical agency, as other-oriented caring, emerged from feelings of being different in a cultural organization by drawing on feminist ethics of care. By analyzing interview material from an ethnographic study, we centralize the relationship between feelings of being different, vulnerability and the development of sensibilities, practices and imaginaries of care. We elaborate on how vulnerability serves as a ground for caring with rather than for others, and illustrate how it allowed individuals to challenge both organizational, normative diversity discourses and essentialization of differences. We contribute to the literature on critical diversity management by furthering problematizations of instrumental diversity management from the perspective of care, and to the organizational literature on feminist care ethics by empirically exploring how ethical agency emerges from tensions related to feeling different. While previous studies have shown how marginalized individuals use their sense of otherness to negotiate, conform to and resist organizational norms, practices and discourses, we provide further insights on how it also can drive concern and care for others, and thus serve as possible ground for ethical change initiatives within organizations.

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  • 78.
    Johansson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trollbridge: Order effects, and moral dilemmas with three choice alternatives2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Research about morality heavily relies on using questionnaires and moral dilemmas when answering different research questions. Despite this very little focus has been put on how the order of presentation alters response frequencies. A test was put forth to test if there is any effect based on order of presentation, and despite that it has been found before, no such effects were found. Why no order effects were found here are not clear, but it shows that it is something that needs to be controlled for in research on moral dilemmas. Secondly, in moral research a lot of focus is put on moral principles to use as explanation for whole groups of respondents, such as deontology, utilitarianism and the DDE. To see if these are strong indicators of what humans will do in these moral dilemmas, two versions of the trolley and footbridge dilemma was put together, where all three response alternatives were presented at once, that is push the stranger, pull the switch or do nothing. In one of these conditions one person are on the side tracks in the switch condition, and in the second three workers are on the side tracks. It was found that although individuals motivate their actions in line with utility and the DDE, less people decide to act when three alternatives are presented. This shows that people are not consistent with their moral evaluation, and that it might be hard to predict what one will do in these situations.

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  • 79. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Children at the Borders2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kölvattnet av en stadig ström av barn som migrerar över statsgränser har medial rapportering, protester och offentliga diskussioner aktualiserat frågor om asylsökande barns rättigheter. Det ”moraliska glappet” mellan tillämpningen av demokratiskt stiftade lagar i syfte att reglera invandringen,å ena sidan, och offentliga krav på att skydda universella rättigheter för asylsökande barn, å andra sidan, har växt fram som en samtida utmaning för demokratiska stater att hantera. I denna avhandling undersöks två specifika arenor där normer om asylsökande barns rättigheter och immigrationskontroll har etablerats och ifrågasatts under de senaste åren; den svenska Migrationsöverdomstolen och Sveriges största morgontidning, Dagens Nyheter. Avhandlingen kombinerar empiriska analyser med teoretiska undersökningar om asylsökande barns rättigheter i dialog med en samtida politisk filosofisk diskussion om medlemskap, rättigheter och gränser.

    Delarbeten
    1. 'We beg you, let them stay!': Right claims of asylum-seeking children as a socio-political practice
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>'We beg you, let them stay!': Right claims of asylum-seeking children as a socio-political practice
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 316-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s rights to asylum have emerged as an urgent political challenge. This article uses a number of cases discussed in Sweden’s largest morning paper to analyse claims of asylum-seeking children and how these claims challenge the normative limits of contemporary asylum, concerning what and who ought to be recognized by law. Even though the universality of the child constitutes a running theme, the arguments and the conception of children underpinning the claims are diverse. The article suggests that the claiming of rights as a socio-political practice could be a vital analytical approach to studying children’s rights and offers a much needed alternative to the dominant mainstreaming paradigm.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    London: Sage Publications, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Asylum, children’s rights, citizenship, deportation, mainstreaming, right claims, socio-political practice
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Internationell Migration och Etniska Relationer (IMER) Etik Medievetenskap Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133237 (URN)10.1177/0907568216674785 (DOI)000407128200004 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-12-15 Skapad: 2016-12-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Children's Rights to Asylum and the Capability Approach
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Children's Rights to Asylum and the Capability Approach
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Ethical Perspectives, ISSN 1370-0049, E-ISSN 1783-1431, Vol. 23, nr 1, s. 101-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The prospect of large populations of children migrating across national borders raises urgent political and ethical questions about childrens rights to asylum. In recent years, there has been an increase in scholarly interest in migrating children and childrens rights, but this interest has thus far been scant in political theory. The present article uses the Capability Approach to discuss childrens rights to asylum and to examine the prospects and limitations of the approach in this context. It underlines that, despite a global consensus on the rights of the child, the political and ethical challenges to childrens rights to asylum cannot be reduced to a question of the implementation of universal rights or capabilities of children a matter of technicalities or mainstreaming of legislation. Instead, the question of childrens rights to asylum is a highly political and ethical matter, characterized by ambivalent conceptualizations of children and conflicting interests that continue to pose a considerable challenge to the organisation of the international political and legal system. The Capability Approach has the potential to fill a theoretical gap with regard to childrens interests and the setting of threshold levels, although it continues to wrestle with questions of how to confront the asylum-seeking child as a political subject within well-functioning democracies and how to determine a specific list of capabilities and corresponding duties in deliberation between the right to self-determination of nation states and universal entitlements of children.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Peeters Publishers, 2016
    Nyckelord
    Children; migration; asylum; Capability Approach; childrens rights
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128971 (URN)10.2143/EP.23.1.3141836 (DOI)000375827100005 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-09 Skapad: 2016-06-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-06
    3. Children's Rights to Asylum in the Swedish Migration Court of Appeal
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Children's Rights to Asylum in the Swedish Migration Court of Appeal
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Children's Rights, ISSN 0927-5568, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 85-113Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s rights to asylum have led to political controversies in a number of countries in recent years. This article focuses on the translation of nearly universally recognised children’s rights principles into a domestic practice of immigration control, and explores how legal norms regarding children’s rights to asylum have developed in the Swedish Migration Court of Appeal 2006–2013. Court decisions are analysed with a focus on the meanings given to the best interests of the child, how this is given weight against state interests of immigration control, and how children’s interests are given normative force. It is only in a small minority of cases in which the Best Interests Principle (BIP) in fact does have a decisive normative force in granting residence permits and the meanings and use of children’s interests in court argument makes evident that the BIP enables both the granting and denial of residence permits. The BIP is doing normative work in double directions.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Brill Nijhoff, 2017
    Nyckelord
    children’s rights; law; decision-making; migration; best interests of the child; Migration Court of Appeal; asylum
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139972 (URN)10.1163/15718182-02501009 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-23 Skapad: 2017-08-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Children at the Borders
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  • 80.
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Ethical Challenges of The Multicultural Classroom: A teacher's examination of Martha Nussbaum's theory of world citizenship education 2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of this thesis is to examine in what way ethical theory and ethical analysis can contribute to further understanding of the ethical challenges of the multicultural classroom. Based on the fact that the world is going through a process of globalization and migration, the education-system and daily praxis of teaching is put in front of new ethical challenges. The teacher in the multicultural classroom is on a daily base confronted with various dilemmas regarding for example conflicting duties, universal and conflicting values and citizenship. Martha Nussbaum´s theory of world citizenship is used as an analytical framework for the thesis and student interviews from upper secondary school is used as a complementary perspective to Nussbaum´s theory. The research questions of the thesis are: Can the theory of World Citizenship Education, when structured and analyzed, give guidance for teaching citizenship in a multicultural classroom? Is it a plausible theory confronted with the ethical challenges of the multicultural classroom? In what way can a student perspective from a multicultural classroom try the relevance and present a complementary perspective to the theory of World citizenship education? The theory and the interviews are analyzed and structured out of the research questions and by the three ethical challenges of universal values, conflicting values and sense of belonging.

    The conclusion of the thesis states that, even though Nussbaum´s theory does have some constraints, it is to a large degree applicable and possible to relate to the ethical challenges of the multicultural classroom and as a guide for teachers. The theory is plausible in some aspects because it presents reasonable arguments on the necessity of educational reform in an interconnected world and because it makes educational proposals of instrumental worth of the teacher. The theory is however not plausible in other aspects because; the universal values presented are to vague and not specified which makes the theory difficult to use in practise, it does not pay enough attention to the conflicting perspective of the ethical challenges in classroom nor the pedagogical importance of social inclusion when discussing conflicting values and finally the theory demonstrates a contradiction regarding how to act as a teacher about sense of belonging and recognising identity of the students. The interviews demonstrate similar but also different responses to the ethical challenges in comparison with the theory. The students recognize the existence of universal values across cultural borders in a similar way as Nussbaum, even though the values put forward are of another character than Nussbaum´s. They do however present a sceptical view towards the idea of a world citizenship and stresses the importance of bringing up discussions about nationhood, migration and belonging without being afraid of breaking any taboos. At the end the thesis presents some practical guidelines for the teacher in the multicultural classroom that follows logical out of the conclusion. The final discussion highlight the fact that the challenges of the multicultural classroom in Sweden will likely continue, and emphasizes the potential of using ethics as an analytical tool for further developing a professional teaching approach.

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    Ethical challenges of the multicultural classroom
  • 81.
    Josefsson, Jonathan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Barn. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    'We beg you, let them stay!': Right claims of asylum-seeking children as a socio-political practice2017Ingår i: Childhood, ISSN 0907-5682, E-ISSN 1461-7013, Vol. 24, nr 3, s. 316-332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Children’s rights to asylum have emerged as an urgent political challenge. This article uses a number of cases discussed in Sweden’s largest morning paper to analyse claims of asylum-seeking children and how these claims challenge the normative limits of contemporary asylum, concerning what and who ought to be recognized by law. Even though the universality of the child constitutes a running theme, the arguments and the conception of children underpinning the claims are diverse. The article suggests that the claiming of rights as a socio-political practice could be a vital analytical approach to studying children’s rights and offers a much needed alternative to the dominant mainstreaming paradigm.

  • 82.
    Juhlin, Stina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för studier av samhällsutveckling och kultur, Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier – CKS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tisell, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för studier av samhällsutveckling och kultur, Centrum för kommunstrategiska studier – CKS. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Som komplement – men aldrig för att ersätta: En kvalitativ studie om socialsekreterares syn på kommunikation med klienter via digitala verktyg2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Internet har blivit en stor del av människors vardag och för vissa till och med ett oersättligt medel för social samvaro. I och med denna digitala utveckling ställs det ökade krav på landets socialtjänster att vara en del av utvecklingen, då klienterna efterfrågar nya sätt att komma i kontakt med dem på. Vi har av denna anledning valt att, i en kvalitativ studie, undersöka vilka tankar och erfarenheter socialsekreterare som arbetar med utredande myndighetsutövning har av att kommunicera med klienter via digitala verktyg, för att på så sätt få en förståelse för deras syn på denna kommunikationsform. Då vi var ute efter gruppens inställning har vi använt fokusgrupper för insamling av data. Materialet har analyserats med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys och ur ett professionsetiskt perspektiv. Det professionsetiska perspektivet kan hjälpa oss att belysa och bidra till förståelse för hur synen kan påverkas av olika etiska dilemman som kan uppstå i användandet av digitala verktyg. Studien belyser de digitala verktygens för- respektive nackdelar i kommunikation med klienter. Dessa för- och nackdelar presenteras utifrån hur socialsekreterarna tänker sig att klienterna upplever denna form av kommunikation, samt hur socialsekreterarna själva upplever det.

    Likt tidigare forskning visar, lyfter vi i vårt resultat fram de fördelar som socialsekreterarna ser för klienterna med denna kommunikationsform, vilka handlar om att de digitala verktygen ökar deras delaktighet och tillgängligheten till socialtjänsten. Dock framhävs att de digitala verktygen riskerar att påverka socialsekreterarnas möjligheter att kunna genomföra analyser och göra bedömningar kring klienternas situation, vilket är grundläggande för deras arbete och de menar vidare att användandet av dessa verktyg riskerar att utmana den kunskap som professionen besitter.

    Resultatet i denna studie visar på att socialsekreterarnas syn på kommunikation med klienter via digitala verktyg är att dessa kan fungera som ett komplement men de kan aldrig ersätta det fysiska mötet då det fysiska mötet är grundläggande för att klienterna ska få den hjälp de behöver, samt för att socialsekreterarna ska kunna utföra sina arbetsuppgifter på ett tillfredsställande sätt.

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  • 83.
    Kanakulya, Dickson
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Governance and Development of the East African Community: The Ethical Sustainability Framework2015Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The pursuit of sustainability of governance and development has become a major challenge in contemporary times because of increasing realization that: various ecological and social systems are interconnected; and the complexity of our natural and constructed environs requires holistic approaches to avoid catastrophic fissures in the systems on which humans depend. As regional governments such as the East African Community (EAC) become important in Africa (and other regions), they present opportunities to generate cross-national approaches to achieving sustainability albeit success in that direction is limited and sporadic. In order to mitigate the underlying causes of that situation, we need to reconceptualize and reconstruct sustainability thinking and policy. From an applied ethics perspective, the study set out to explicate the value of and constructively generate a more viable conceptualization of sustainability in relation to the EAC. The study used qualitative methodology; designed as an atypical regionalization case-study and an analytical-constructive research; compatible research tools were employed in interrogating and analyzing secondary sources relating to member states of the EAC and the research was executed between 2011 and 2014.

    The research found a divergence between the two main conceptual approaches to sustainability in Africa, namely, the ‘Market inspired sustainability’ (MIS) logic and the ‘Traditional African sustainability’ (TAS) logic. The study also uncovered colonial Social Darwinism as a major underlying governance philosophy that motivated the EAC’s former colonial rulers; which became a key ingredient in the application of a colonial-functionalist approach to the region’s earlier integration project (EAC-1).This was traced as a major premise on which the unsustainabilities within the contemporary regionalization project (EAC-2) were crafted. The research also found some acceptable levels of competence in regional governance within the individual EAC member countries in terms of: i) hierarchical, ii) network, and iii) market styles of metagovernance. However, closer analysis revealed: i) an inverse relationship between transfer of capabilities from colonizers to natives (TCCN) and the sustainability of postindependence states (SPIS); and ii)a directly proportional relationship between colonial governance style (CGS) and the economic performance of post-colonial (EPPC) East African countries. It also revealed an ambitious but inadequately grounded drive to expand the EAC project without due attention being given to existing faultlines of possible disintegration such as: perpetuation of colonially-initiated injustices, citizens’ incapacity to partake of the benefits of the integration, and low levels of integrity, among others.

    The EAC faces a risk of turning into colonial victimization and villainization writ large; which is unsustainable due to the social laws of victim-disaffection (ViD) and villain-encumbrance (ViE). Further analysis showed that these faultlines of disintegration could be exasperated internally by the governance styles and stances taken by the ruling regimes of the core member states: Kenya’s Jubilee Alliance Party (JAP) has to balance between the forces of ethnically inspired devolution and multicultural capitalism; Tanzania’s Chama Cha Mapimduzi (CCM) still has to overcome a socialist single-party hangover and manage the political marriage between the mainland and the island; and Uganda’s National Resistance Movement (NRM) has chosen a governance philosophy of hybrid Marxism. From a justice point of view, the study advocates for establishing a Regional Basic Structure (RBS) that uses a ‘one-step original position’ as a mitigation measure. The RBS should befounded on universal egalitarianism so as to minimize misrepresentation and diminish the political elitist culture of betrayal of the electorate at all levels of representative leadership.

    In a reconstructive fashion, the research amplified the classical philosophical position that ethical values within society (the ethical fabric) provide the foundation on which other dimensions of sustainability are built. On the basis of that premise, the study generated and proposes the Comprehensive Ethical Sustainability (CES) frameworkas a scheme of axiomized ethical principles designed to be used towards the realization of the sustainability of systems and processes. The CES scheme is a principlistic recasting of selected intuitively valuable dominant approaches to development; designed to be convertible into a comprehensive program of action (or sets of regional policies) towards the attainment of governance and development sustainability in an integrated EAC. The CES framework is fashioned as a reorganized, multi-dimensional cocktail of i) compound, ii) compatible and iii) complimentary principles of: i) Justice, ii) Capabilities, iii) Ubuntu and iv) Integrity, whose application would make the regional bloc sustainable. These principles are considered and proposed as pillars in the: i) theorization of sustainability; and ii) policy formulation, structural arrangements and individual action aimed at sustainability.

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  • 84.
    Kapeller, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Felzmann, Heike
    Natl Univ Ireland, Ireland.
    Fosch-Villaronga, Eduard
    Leiden Univ, Netherlands.
    Hughes, Ann-Marie
    Univ Southampton, England.
    A Taxonomy of Ethical, Legal and Social Implications of Wearable Robots: An Expert Perspective2020Ingår i: Science and Engineering Ethics, ISSN 1353-3452, E-ISSN 1471-5546, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 3229-3247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable robots and exoskeletons are relatively new technologies designed for assisting and augmenting human motor functions. Due to their different possible design applications and their intimate connection to the human body, they come with specific ethical, legal, and social issues (ELS), which have not been much explored in the recent ELS literature. This paper draws on expert consultations and a literature review to provide a taxonomy of the most important ethical, legal, and social issues of wearable robots. These issues are categorized in (1) wearable robots and the self, (2) wearable robots and the other, and (3) wearable robots in society.

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  • 85.
    Karampaxoglou, Thaleia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Genetically Modified Food and Crops: Risks and Intellectual Property Rights2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to present and analyze problems that may arise from the use of Genetically Modified (GM) products and issues raised by the Intellectual Property (IP) rights that Genetic Engineering (GE) companies have on their products. Arguments in favor and against the existence of health risks and environmental risks of GM products are presented. The European policy of the socioeconomic effects of the GM products is discussed and is proposed the application of the precautionary principle for the prevention of unintended consequences from the GM products to other than health and environmental domains. The need of IP rights is supported, but is also suggested an IP rights flexibility. Do IP rights violate the rights of all people to a nourishing life, natural resources, the right to decide about what they eat and the right to live in a viable ecosystem? Finally, I provide an analysis of the effects on the farmers due to the IP rights on GM crop for cultivation and state dependency issues that may occur.

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  • 86.
    Karlsson, Malin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Jarlinius, Mikaela
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    "Jag letar efter något som heter 'integritet'": -Värdegrundsarbete genom barnlitteratur i årskurs F-32018Studentarbete övrigt, 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna strukturerade litteraturstudie är att undersöka hur skönlitteratur som verktyg kan användas i värdegrundsarbetet, med inriktning på integritet som en mänsklig rättighet.  I studien har både manuella sökningar och databassökningar genomförts för att hitta relevant forskning. Detta är en latent kvalitativ innehållsanalys där syftet är preciserat i en frågeställning: Vad säger litteraturvetenskaplig forskning om barnlitteraturens användningsområden gällande värdegrundsfrågor i samhällskunskapsdidaktik, i årskurs F-3? Vårt resultat visar att skönlitteraturen öppnar upp för möjligheter att arbeta med integritet som en mänsklig rättighet i samhällskunskapsundervisningen för årskurs F-3. Resultatet visar att skönlitteraturens möjligheter, förankrat i kunskapsarbetet, kan leda till en reflekterad och genomtänkt värdegrundsundervisning.

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  • 87.
    Koenraads, Stijn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    Reduction of the Global Human Population: A Rectificatory Argument based on Environmental Considerations2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to what many scholars hold, a case can be made for human population reduction (the practice of artificially decreasing the number of human beings on the Earth). Robin Attfield's, Paul Taylor's, Arne Næss's and J. Baird Callicott's theories are considered for justifying human population reduction; however, only Næss's actually justifies reduction. Another argument for human population reduction is developed, based on rectification: humans have unjustly harmed other living entities and themselves, and they should provide rectification for the harm done. Human population reduction is a way in which this rectification can be given.

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  • 88.
    Landström, Karl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation.
    Olika former av köttproduktion: - En etisk analys2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte är tudelat. Jag ämnar beskriva och analysera olika etiska uppfattningar av matproduktion baserad på djur och dagens köttindustri. Tre olika produktionsformerundersöks. Dessa är fabriksuppfödning, human konventionell köttproduktion och ekologisk köttproduktion. Utöver att beskriva och definiera dessa undersöks olika sätt att etiskt rättfärdiga dessa produktionsformer. I studien analyseras och jämförs de etiska resonemangen för att tydliggöra likheter och skillnader. Jag avser att kritiskt granska de olika moraliska positionerna och de resonemang som ligger till grund för dessa i syfte att diskutera huruvida de är moraliskt hållbara. Detta syfte ligger till grund för följande frågeställningar:

    • Vad utmärker dessa treolika produktionsformer?
    • Vilka moraliska uppfattningar innehas av de som förespråkar respektive produktionsform?
    • Hur berättigas dessa uppfattningar?
    • Överensstämmer de moraliska resonemangen med företrädarnas beskrivningar av sin produktionsform?
    • Är dessa moraliska positioner och de etiska resonemang som rättfärdigar dem moraliskt hållbara?
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  • 89. Lee, Samuel
    Collective Actions, Individual Reasons, and the Metaphysics of Consequence2022Ingår i: Ethics, ISSN 0014-1704, E-ISSN 1539-297X, Vol. 133, nr 1, s. 72-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    I defend the view that individual agents have instrumental moral reasons for and against contributing to collective actions. I distinguish three versions of this view found in the literature and argue that only one withstands scrutiny: the version on which each individual contribution to a collective action is a cause of the latter’s large-scale outcomes. The central difficulty with this view is its apparent incom- patibility with leading theories of causation. Against these theories I motivate a general structural principle about causation which enables instrumentalism to deliver the intuitively correct verdicts about individual agents’ moral reasons in cases of collective action.

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  • 90.
    Limaverde Falcão, Gabriel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation.
    Capability of Justice: Amartya Sen's Capability Approach and its Application as a Framework for Global Justice2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis assesses the Amartya Sen's Capability Approach as a theory of global justice. Sen proposes a new paradigm for human development, having expansion of human capability as the moral norm for individual and institutional actions. Sen's paradigm-shifting theory is tested first as a theory of social ethics; and then as a theory of global justice, taking into account globalization’s challenges to theories of justice. The theory's known application – UNDP's Human Development Index and other initiatives – is also scrutinized, aiming to determine whether this application is an accurate translation of the capability approach into reality. On a theoretical point of view, the thesis reveals that what started as a simple interpersonal comparison method can be considered as an efficient theory of global justice, provided that minor proposed amendments are taken. On a practical point of view, the thesis points out that the application of Sen's capability approach is a weak normative representation of the theory, which urges to be reengineered. The thesis calls for a radical expansion of HDI, both in the components of the index (it should urgently have a component for political freedom) and in its unit of comparison. Rather than comparing just nations, human development indexes should target most actors in the global scenario: organizations, NGOs, institutions of global governance and so on.

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  • 91.
    Lin, Zhihao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Centrum för tillämpad etik.
    Children's Privacy and the Justification of ICT-based Parental Monitoring2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As Information and Communication technology (ICT) has rapidly advanced in China, parental monitoring may invasively penetrate into children's privacy, while China is lagging behind on the issue of children privacy protection. Privacy is invaluable to human development, and children do have interests in their privacy. This thesis is going to investigate under which condition it is desirable for parents to apply ICT techniques to monitor children, which does not invade children's privacy. Before reaching the decision of carrying out monitoring, the intent and the necessity of monitoring should be considered. Children should be informed and their consent should be acquired before deploying monitoring. After the decision is made, the proportionality of monitoring practice requires parents to opt for the least invasive and the most necessary approach. Besides parental monitoring, states and schools can offer media literacy education to enable children to protect themselves from privacy infringement.

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  • 92.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Department of Historical, Religious and Philosophical Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Anarchy, State, and Property2014Ingår i: Rationality, Markets and Morals, ISSN 1869-778X, Vol. 5, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental function of the state is safeguarding the safety of its citizens. Thecombination of Nozick’s invisible hand explanation with his theory of justice implies thatindividuals can have full private property rights in the state. An individual with suchproperty rights thus has the right to sell and destroy what he or she owns. This impliesthat it is perfectly fair to buy a state and dismantle it, thereby leaving citizens withoutprotection. I conclude that Nozick’s theory of the state fails since it cannot guarantee theprotection of its citizens’ safety.

  • 93.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Childhood and the metric of justice2018Ingår i: The Routledge Handbook of the philosophy of childhood and children / [ed] Anca Gheaus, Gideon Calder, Jurgen De Wispelaere, London: Routledge, 2018, s. 317-327Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The debate on the appropriate metric of justice has standardly been conducted with the characteristics and capacities of adults in mind. Recently, this approach has been challenged. This contribution aims to explain this development and to identify the philosophical issues at stake. There are the two major areas of debate. One is the Agency Assumption; standard theories of the metric assume an ideal of responsible agency that may make them inappropriate as a metric for children. The second area of debate revolves around the issue of the intrinsic goods of childhood (see ch. 7). Are there some human goods that are only, or especially, valuable in childhood? Such goods would put the ideal that justice should be neutral with regards to conceptions of the good in question. It is concluded that taking childhood seriously raises new questions regarding neutrality and responsibility for the metric of justice.

  • 94.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Department of Historical, Religious and Philosophical Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Combining Democratic Equality and Luck Egalitarianism2018Ingår i: Ethics, Politics & Society, E-ISSN 2184-2582, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 39-64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of responsibility plays a crucial part in the debate between proponents of democratic equality, like Rawls, and defenders of luck egalitarianism, such as Dworkin. In this paper it is argued that the two theories can be combined, and that they should be combined to achieve a theory of justice that puts personal responsibility in its proper place. The concept of justice requires two different conceptions. The two theories can be combined because they deal with different problems of justice. They ought to be combined because, first, luck egalitarianism needs a theory of background justice, and second, a theory of justice must supply an answer to the question of just individual allocations, something that is not provided by democratic equality. Democratic equality and luck egalitarianism solve each other’s problems. The combined theory will lead to allocations of goods that respect both the difference principle and the envy test.

  • 95.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Comments on ‘Child Rights without Substance’2023Ingår i: The Rights of the Child: Legal and Ethical Challenges / [ed] Rebecca Adami, Margareta Aspan & Anna Kaldal, Leiden: Brill , 2023Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 96.
    Lindblom, Lars
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Consent, Contestability and Employer Authority2009Ingår i: Revue de philosophie économique, ISSN 1376-0971, E-ISSN 2118-4852, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 47-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common idea is that market exchange is justified by informed and free agreement between parties. This paper investigates the idea that employer authority is justified by consent. According to this view, agents in the market are informed of the consequences of their actions and are not coerced. This makes their acts voluntary. A problem in the application of this justification to the employer/employee relationship is pointed out. If the contemporary economics of the employment contracts is correct, we must, in order to explain the existence of such contracts, make the assumption that the contracting parties are attempting to deal with decision-theoretic ignorance. This is why the parties agree to an incomplete contract in which the employer has authority. However, this implies that consent to acts of authority has been given under conditions of ignorance; it follows, then, that the course of action that the employer chooses to take cannot be justified by consent because the informedness criterion of consent will not have been satisfied due to this ignorance. Another method of justification must be sought. It is suggested that in order to achieve justification of acts of authority, there should be in place a real possibility to contest employers’ decisions. This possibility is needed, rather than just more information, because if the “volenti not fit injura”-principle is not in effect, then the employee is in a coercive situation. This problem of coercion must be alleviated before justification on the basis of informed voluntariness can be achieved. Pettit’s idea of contestability will then be applied. The firm must satisfy three conditions in order to make effective contestability possible. There must be a basis and channels for contest, which means that there must be transparency as well as effective measures to make grievances heard. There must also be a forum of contest where proper hearings of contestations are guaranteed.

     

    KEYWORDS: Contestability, Consent, Ignorance, Incomplete Contracts, Employment Contracts.

  • 97.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Consent, Contestability, and Unions2019Ingår i: Business ethics quarterly, ISSN 1052-150X, E-ISSN 2153-3326, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 189-211Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides a normative justification for unions. It discusses three arguments. The argument from consent justifies unions in some circumstances, but if the employer prefers to not bargain with unions, it may provide very little justification. The argument from contestability takes as its starting point the fact that employment contracts are incomplete contracts, where authority takes the place of complete contractual terms. This theory of contracts implies that consent to authority has been given under ignorance, and, therefore, that authority cannot be justified by consent. Contestability is a mechanism that can handle this problem for consent theory. It demands transparency, channels for voice, and a forum where contestations can be evaluated. This idea can be implemented in firms in different ways, but the argument from the separation of powers implies that unions are uniquely suited to implement contestability, since they are organized outside of the employer’s domain of authority.

  • 98.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Department of Philosophy and the History of TechnologyDivision of Philosophy, Royal Institue of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dissolving the Moral Dilemma of Whistleblowing2007Ingår i: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, E-ISSN 1573-0697, Vol. 76, nr 4, s. 413-426Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The ethical debate on whistleblowing concerns centrally the conflict between the right to political free speech and the duty of loyalty to the organization where one works. This is the moral dilemma of whistleblowing.  Political free speech is justified because it is a central part of liberal democracy, whereas loyalty can be motivated as a way of showing consideration for one’s associates. The political philosophy of John Rawls is applied to this dilemma, and it is shown that that the requirement of loyalty, in the sense that is needed to create the moral dilemma of whistleblowing, is inconsistent with that theory. In this sense, there is no moral dilemma of whistleblowing. This position has been labeled extreme in that it says that whistleblowing is always morally permitted. In a discussion and rejection of Richard De George’s criteria on permissible whistleblowing, it is pointed out that the mere rejection of loyalty will not lead to an extreme position; harms can still be taken into account. Furthermore, it is argued that the best way is, in this as in most other political circumstances, to weigh harms is provided by the free speech argument from democracy.

     

    Keywords: Free Speech, Justice as Fairness, Loyalty, Permission for Whistleblowing, Whistleblowing

  • 99.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier.
    Equality of Resources, Risk, and the Ideal Market2015Ingår i: Erasmus Journal for Philosophy and Economics, E-ISSN 1876-9098, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 1-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ronald Dworkin’s theory of equality of resources makes extensive use of markets. I show that all these markets rely on one specific neoclassical conception of the ideal market in full equilibrium, as analyzed by Debreu. This market must be understood as operating under circumstances of certainty, and this is incompatible with several components of Dworkin’s account. In particular, it does not allow one to hold people responsible for their option luck, and it implies a high social safety net rather than insurance schemes for addressing brute luck. I conclude by outlining an interpretation of equality of resources that takes the ideal market seriously.

  • 100.
    Lindblom, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Avdelningen för filosofi och tillämpad etik.
    From the Editor2024Ingår i: De Ethica, ISSN 2001-8819, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 1-2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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