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  • 51.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlin, J-. F.
    Feltin, E.
    Gonschorek, M.
    Grandjean, N.
    Effects of strain and composition on the lattice parameters and applicability of Vegard's rule in Al-rich Al1-x Inx N films grown on sapphire2008Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, nr 10, s. 103513-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The lattice parameters and strain evolution in Al1-x In x N films with 0.07≤x≤0.22 grown on GaN-buffered sapphire substrates by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy have been studied by reciprocal space mapping. Decoupling of compositional effects on the strain determination was accomplished by measuring the In contents in the films both by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Differences between XRD and RBS In contents are discussed in terms of compositions and biaxial strain in the films. It is suggested that strain plays an important role for the observed deviation from Vegard's rule in the case of pseudomorphic films. On the other hand, a good agreement between the In contents determined by XRD and RBS is found for Al1-x Inx N films with low degree of strain or partially relaxed, suggesting applicability of Vegard's rule in the narrow compositional range around the lattice matching to GaN. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  • 52.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lorenz, K
    CFNUL.
    Xie, Mengyao
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alves, E
    CFNUL.
    Hsiao, C L
    National Taiwan University.
    Chen, L C
    National Taiwan University.
    Tu, L W
    National Sun Yat Sen University.
    Schaff, W J
    Cornell University.
    Yamaguchi, T
    Ritsumeikan University.
    Nanishi, Y
    Ritsumeikan University.
    Unintentional incorporation of hydrogen in wurtzite InN with different surface orientations2011Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 110, nr 6, s. 063535-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied hydrogen impurities and related structural properties in state-of-the-art wurtzite InN films with polar, nonpolar, and semipolar surface orientations. The effects of thermal annealing and chemical treatment on the incorporation and stability of H are also discussed. The near-surface and bulk hydrogen concentrations in the as-grown films increase when changing the surface orientation from (0001) to (000 (1) over bar) to (1 (1) over bar 01) and to (11 (2) over bar0), which may be associated with a decrease in the grain size and change of the growth mode from 2D to 3D. Thermal annealing at 350 degrees C in N(2) leads to a reduction of H concentrations and the intrinsic levels of bulk H are found to correlate with the structural quality and defects in the annealed films.

  • 53.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Paskova, Tanja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Paskov, Plamen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Ashkenov, N.
    Schubert, M.
    Structural characteristics and lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxial GaN free-standing quasisubstrates2005Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 97, nr 1, s. 013517-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the lattice parameters of hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE)-GaN quasisubstrates in relation to their structural properties. Layers grown on single-layer metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) templates and on epitaxial lateral overgrown MOVPE templates are characterized by Raman scattering, high-resolution x-ray diffraction, and reciprocal space mapping. The strain relaxation in the films versus their thickness was found to proceed similarly in the GaN samples grown using the two types of templates but the strain saturates at different nonzero levels. The lattice parameters of relatively thin HVPE-GaN free-standing quasisubstrates indicate that no total strain relaxation is achieved after the sapphire removal. The lattice parameters of the thick quasisubstrates grown on different templates are not affected by the separation process and are found to have values very close to the reference strain-free lattice parameters of GaN powder. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.

  • 54.
    de Jong, Michel P
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi.
    Dediu, V.A.
    ISMN-Bo CNR, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Taliani, C.
    ISMN-Bo CNR, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi.
    Electronic structure of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films for hybrid organic/inorganic spintronics applications2003Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 94, nr 11, s. 7292-7296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure of the spin injecting La0.7Sr 0.3MnO3 (LSMO) thin film contacts was investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy. Clean LSMO surfaces were obtained by annealing at 450°C in vacuum, which additionally stabilized the oxygen content determined from the exchange splitting of the Mn(3s) x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The valence-band structure of the films showed features of metallic LSMO. The work-function measruements of clean, annealed films yield lower values due to oxygen depletion upon annealing.

  • 55.
    Duc Tran, Thien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Investigation of deep levels in bulk GaN material grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 114, nr 15Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron traps in thick free standing GaN grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy were characterized by deep level transient spectroscopy. The measurements revealed six electron traps with activation energy of 0.252 (E1), 0.53 (E2), 0.65 (E4), 0.69 (E3), 1.40 (E5), and 1.55 eV (E6), respectively. Among the observed levels, trap E6 has not been previously reported. The filling pulse method was employed to determine the temperature dependence of the capture cross section and to distinguish between point defects and extended defects. From these measurements, we have determined the capture cross section for level E1, E2, and E4 to 3.2 × 10−16 cm2, 2.2 × 10−17 cm2, and 1.9 × 10−17 cm2, respectively. All of the measured capture cross sections were temperature independent in the measured temperature range. From the electron capturing kinetic, we conclude that trap E1, E2, and E3 are associated with point defects. From the defect concentration profile obtained by double correlated deep level transient spectroscopy, we suggest that trap E4 and E6 are introduced by the polishing process.

  • 56.
    Duc Tran, Thien
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ohshima, Takeshi
    Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Takasaki, Japan.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Deep levels in as-grown and electron-irradiated n-type GaN studied by deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy2016Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, nr 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    By minority carrier transient spectroscopy on as-grown n-type bulk GaN produced by halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) one hole trap labelled H1 (EV + 0.34 eV) has been detected. After 2 MeV-energy electron irradiation, the concentration of H1 increases and at fluences higher than 5×1014 cm-2, a second hole trap labelled H2 is observed. Simultaneously, the concentration of two electron traps, labelled T1 (EC - 0.12 eV) and T2 (EC - 0.23 eV) increases. By studying the increase of the concentration versus electron irradiation fluences, the introduction rate of T1 and T2 using 2 MeV-energy electrons was determined to 7X10-3 cm-1 and 0.9 cm-1, respectively. Due to the low introduction rate of T1 and the low threading dislocation density in the HVPE bulk GaN material, it is suggested that the defect is associated with a primary defect decorating extended structural defects. The high introduction rate of the trap H1 suggests that the H1 defect is associated with a primary intrinsic defect or a complex.

  • 57.
    Echresh, Ahmad
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Oeurn Chey, Chan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zargar Shoushtari, Morteza
    Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tuning the emission of ZnO nanorods based light emitting diodes using Ag doping2014Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, nr 19, s. 2-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have fabricated, characterized, and compared ZnO nanorods/p-GaN and n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN light emitting diodes (LEDs). Current-voltage measurement showed an obvious rectifying behaviour of both LEDs. A reduction of the optical band gap of the Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods compared to pure ZnO nanorods was observed. This reduction leads to decrease the valence band offset at n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN interface compared to n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction. Consequently, this reduction leads to increase the hole injection from the GaN to the ZnO. From electroluminescence measurement, white light was observed for the n-Zn0.94Ag0.06O nanorods/p-GaN heterojunction LEDs under forward bias, while for the reverse bias, blue light was observed. While for the n-ZnO nanorods/p-GaN blue light dominated the emission in both forward and reverse biases. Further, the LEDs exhibited a high sensitivity in responding to UV illumination. The results presented here indicate that doping ZnO nanorods might pave the way to tune the light emission from n-ZnO/p-GaN LEDs.

  • 58.
    Edström, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sangiovanni, Davide
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Chirita, Valeriu
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effects of incident N atom kinetic energy on TiN/TiN(001) film growth dynamics: A molecular dynamics investigation2017Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 121, nr 2, artikel-id 025302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Large-scale classical molecular dynamics simulations of epitaxial TiN/TiN(001) thin film growth at 1200 K, a temperature within the optimal range for epitaxial TiN growth, with an incident N-to-Ti flux ratio of four, are carried out using incident N energies E-N = 2 and 10 eV and incident Ti energy E-Ti = 2 eV. To further highlight the effect of E-N, we grow a bilayer film with E-N = 2 eV initially and then switch to E-N = 10 eV. As-deposited layers are analyzed as a function of composition, island-size distribution, island-edge orientation, and vacancy formation. Results show that growth with E-N = 2 eV results in films that are globally overstoichiometric with islands bounded by N-terminated polar 110 edges, whereas films grown with E-N = 10 eV are flatter and closer to stoichiometric. However, E-N = 10 eV layers exhibit local N deficiency leading to the formation of isolated 111-oriented islands. Films grown by changing the incident energy from 2 to 10 eV during growth are more compact than those grown entirely with E-N = 2 eV and exhibit greatly reduced concentrations of upper-layer adatoms, admolecules, and small clusters. Islands with 110 edges formed during growth with E-N = 2 eV transform to islands with 100 edges as E-N is switched to 10 eV. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 59. Egilsson, T.
    et al.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Excitation spectra of nitrogen bound excitons in 4H- and 6H-SiC2002Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 91, nr 3, s. 2028-2032Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report photoluminescence excitation spectra of the nitrogen (N) donor bound excitons (BE) in 4H- and 6H-SiC. The spectra reveal several excited states of the N-BEs. An attempt is made in the article to classify the N-BE states according to a simple shell model. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • 60.
    Elofsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Almyras, Georgios
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lü, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Garbrecht, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Boyd, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Structure formation in Ag-X (X = Au, Cu) alloys synthesized far-from-equilibrium2018Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 123, nr 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We employ sub-monolayer, pulsed Ag and Au vapor fluxes, along with deterministic growth simulations, and nanoscale probes to study structure formation in miscible Ag-Au films synthesized under far-from-equilibrium conditions. Our results show that nanoscale atomic arrangement is primarily determined by roughness build up at the film growth front, whereby larger roughness leads to increased intermixing between Ag and Au. These findings suggest a different structure formation pathway as compared to the immiscible Ag-Cu system for which the present study, in combination with previously published data, reveals that no significant roughness is developed, and the local atomic structure is predominantly determined by the tendency of Ag and Cu to phase-separate.

  • 61.
    Elofsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnfält, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Münger, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Unravelling the Physical Mechanisms that Determine Microstructural Evolution of Ultrathin Volmer-Weber Films2014Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, nr 4, s. 044302-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial formation stages (i.e., island nucleation, island growth, and island coalescence) set characteristic length scales during growth of thin films from the vapour phase. They are, thus, decisive for morphological and microstructural features of films and nanostructures. Each of the initial formation stages has previously been well-investigated separately for the case of Volmer-Weber growth, but knowledge on how and to what extent each stage individually and all together affect the microstructural evolution is still lacking. Here we address this question using growth of Ag on SiO2 from pulsed vapour fluxes as a case study. By combining in situ growth monitoring, ex situ imaging and growth simulations we systematically study the growth evolution all the way from nucleation to formation of a continuous film and establish the effect of the vapour flux time domain on the scaling behaviour of characteristic growth transitions (elongation transition, percolation and continuous film formation). Our data reveal a pulsing frequency dependence for the characteristic film growth transitions, where the nominal transition thickness decreases with increasing pulsing frequency up to a certain value after which a steady-state behaviour is observed. The scaling behaviour is shown to result from differences in island sizes and densities, as dictated by the initial film formation stages. These differences are determined solely by the interplay between the characteristics of the vapour flux and time required for island coalescence to be completed. In particular, our data provide evidence that the steady-state scaling regime of the characteristic growth transitions is caused by island growth that hinders coalescence from being completed, leading to a coalescence-free growth regime.

  • 62.
    Elofsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnfält, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Samuelsson, M
    Impact Coatings, Linköping, Sweden .
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tilt of the columnar microstructure in off-normally deposited thin films using highly ionized vapor fluxes2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, nr 17, s. 7 pages-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The tilt of the columnar microstructure has been studied for Cu and Cr thin films grown off-normally using highly ionized vapor fluxes, generated by the deposition technique high power impulse magnetron sputtering. It is found that the relatively large column tilt (with respect to the substrate normal) observed for Cu films decreases as the ionization degree of the deposition flux increases. On the contrary, Cr columns are found to grow relatively close to the substrate normal and the column tilt is independent from the ionization degree of the vapor flux when films are deposited at room temperature. The Cr column tilt is only found to be influenced by the ionized fluxes when films are grown at elevated temperatures, suggesting that film morphology during the film nucleation stage is also important in affecting column tilt. A phenomenological model that accounts for the effect of atomic shadowing at different nucleation conditions is suggested to explain the results.

  • 63.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sasvári, Szilvia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmquist, Jens-Petter
    Department of Material Chemistry, Uppsala University, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Jansson, Ulf
    Department of Material Chemistry, Uppsala University, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Molina-Aldareguia, Jon M.
    CEIT (Centro de Estudios e Investigaciones Técnicas e Gipuzkoa), Spain .
    Czigány, Zsolt
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungary .
    Growth of Ti3SiC2 thin films by elemental target magnetron sputtering2004Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 96, nr 9, s. 4817-4826Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial Ti3SiC2(0001) thin films have been deposited by dc magnetron sputtering from three elemental targets of Ti, C, and Si onto MgO(111) and Al2O3(0001) substrates at temperatures of 800–900 °C. This process allows composition control to synthesize Mn+1AXn (MAX) phases (M: early transition metal; A: A-group element; X: C and∕or N; n=1–3) including Ti4SiC3. Depositions on MgO(100) substrates yielding the Ti–Si–C MAX phases with (105), as the preferred orientation. Samples grown at different substrate temperatures, studied by means of transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction investigations, revealed the constraints of Ti3SiC2 nucleation due to kinetic limitations at substrate temperatures below 700 °C. Instead, there is a competitive TiCx growth with Si segregation to form twin boundaries or Si substitutional incorporation in TiCx. Physical properties of the as-deposited single-crystal Ti3SiC2 films were determined. A low resistivity of 25 μΩ cm was measured. The Young’s modulus, ascertained by nanoindentation, yielded a value of 343–370 GPa. For the mechanical deformation response of the material, probing with cube corner and Berkovich indenters showed an initial high hardness of almost 30 GPa. With increased maximum indentation loads, the hardness was observed to decrease toward bulk values as the characteristic kink formation sets in with dislocation ordering and delamination at basal planes.

  • 64.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zhirkov, I.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dahlqvist, Martin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosen, J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Characterization of plasma chemistry and ion energy in cathodic arc plasma from Ti-Si cathodes of different compositions2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, nr 16Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Arc plasma from Ti-Si compound cathodes with up to 25 at. % Si was characterized in a DC arc system with respect to chemistry and charge-state-resolved ion energy. The plasma ion composition showed a lower Si content, diverging up to 12 at. % compared to the cathode composition, yet concurrently deposited films were in accordance with the cathode stoichiometry. Significant contribution to film growth from neutrals is inferred besides ions, since the contribution from macroparticles, estimated by scanning electron microscopy, cannot alone account for the compositional difference between cathode, plasma, and film. The average ion charge states for Ti and Si were higher than reference data for elemental cathodes. This result is likely related to TiSix phases of higher cohesive energies in the compound cathodes and higher effective electron temperature in plasma formation. The ion energy distributions extended up to ∼200 and ∼130 eV for Ti and Si, respectively, with corresponding average energies of ∼60 and ∼30 eV. These averages were, however, not dependent on Si content in the cathode, except for 25 at. % Si where the average energies were increased up to 72 eV for Ti and 47 eV for Si.

  • 65.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reflectivity and structural evolution of Cr/Sc and nitrogen containing Cr/Sc multilayers during thermal annealing2008Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 104, nr 6, s. 063516-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that the thermal stability in vacuum of Cr/Sc multilayer thin films used as reflective optical components in soft x-ray instrumentation has substantial dependence on incorporation of N. The thermal stability is increased by incorporating 34 at.% of N in Cr/Sc multilayers. A pure Cr/Sc multilayer x-ray mirror starts a continuous degradation already at ~100 °C with a complete destruction of the multilayer at 500 °C. The resulting structure is a mixture of Cr and Sc nanocrystallites. The degradation can be described by linear diffusion theory and is suggested to be due to the formation of uniformly distributed phase-separated nanocrystallites followed by an Ostwald ripening process with an apparent activation energy of 0.5 eV. At the multilayer-substrate interface, a 7 nm thin Sc-Si layer is formed which effectively hinders indiffusion of Si and outdiffusion of Cr and Sc. A nitrided multilayer, initially consisting of crystalline fcc CrNx and fcc ScNy layers (x and y<1), is observed to improve in structural quality up to ~250 °C where it is stable for more than 12 h. At ~330 °C, the multilayer separates into regions with two multilayer periods, differing by less than 0.04 nm, which are stable at 420 °C over an extended period of time >40 h. It is proposed that the separation into the different multilayer periods is a consequence of redistribution of N within the Cr layers. Sc is observed to be stabilized in the ScN layers, which, in turn, inhibit the formation of a Sc-Si barrier layer at the substrate leading to a strong exchange of Si and Cr across the film substrate. This leads to a Cr-Si/ScN layered structure close to the substrate and chromium silicide crystallites inside the substrate. Close to the top of the multilayer, a CrN/ScN multilayer appears to be retained.

  • 66.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemiska och optiska sensorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hydrogen adsorption states at the Pd-SiO2 interface and simulation of the response of a Pd metal-oxide-semiconductor hydrogen sensor1998Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 83, nr 8, s. 3947-3951Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The response of a Pd–SiO 2 –Si hydrogen sensor depends on the reaction kinetics of hydrogen on the Pd surface and on the hydrogen adsorption states at the Pd/SiO 2 interface. In this work we show that besides the dominating hydrogen adsorption state located on the oxide side of the interface, a second state, resulting in opposite hydrogen polarization, exists. This state is possibly a reminiscence of the hydrogen adsorption state on a clean Pd surface. Taking both states into account, a simulation of the hydrogen response over more than ten decades in hydrogen pressures gives good agreement with published data.

  • 67.
    Eriksson, Mats
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemiska och optiska sensorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ekedahl, Lars-Gunnar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A model of the Temkin isotherm behaviour for hydrogen adsorption at Pd-SiO2 interfaces1997Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 82, nr 6, s. 3143-3146Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple electrostatic model of the adsorbate–adsorbateinteraction of hydrogen atoms at a Pd–SiO 2 interface is presented. The model predicts a hydrogen adsorption isotherm of the Temkin type. It is found that, in practice, an upper limit for the hydrogen response of a Pd-metal-oxide-semiconductor device exists. The value (in V) is equal to the difference of the initial heats of adsorption (in eV) of the interface and the Pd bulk, respectively. Furthermore, a corresponding maximum hydrogen concentration, at the interface, of 1×10 18  m −2 is predicted. The predictions are in good agreement with previously observed experimental data.

  • 68. Ewing, D.J.
    et al.
    Porter, L.M.
    Wahab, Qamar Ul
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Ma, X.
    Sudharsan, T.S.
    Tumakha, S.
    Goa, M.
    Brillson, L.J.
    Inhomogeneities in Ni4H-SiC Schottky barriers: Localized Fermi-level pinning by defect states2007Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 101, nr 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated arrays of Ni, Pt, or Ti Schottky diodes on n -type 4H-SiC epitaxial layers using current-voltage (I-V) measurements, electron beam induced current (EBIC), polarized light microscopy, x-ray topography, and depth-resolved cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. A significant percentage of diodes (∼7%-30% depending on epitaxial growth method and diode size) displayed "nonideal" or inhomogeneous barrier height characteristics. We used a thermionic emission model based on two parallel diodes to determine the barrier heights and ideality factors of high- and low-barrier regions within individual nonideal diodes. Whereas high-barrier barrier heights increased with metal work function, low-barrier barrier heights remained constant at ∼0.60, 0.85, and 1.05 eV. The sources of these nonidealities were investigated with a variety of spectroscopic and imaging techniques to determine the nature and energy levels of the defects. EBIC indicated that clusters of defects occurred in all inhomogeneous diodes. Cathodoluminescence spectra revealed additional peaks in the nonideal diodes at 2.65, 2.40, and 2.20 eV, which complement the low-barrier barrier heights. It is proposed that defect clusters act to locally pin the Fermi level, creating localized low-barrier patches, which account for the inhomogeneous electrical characteristics. © 2007 American Institute of Physics.

  • 69.
    Fager, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tengstrand, Olof
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bolz, S.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Mesic, B.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Koelker, W.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Schiffers, Ch.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Lemmer, O.
    CemeCon AG, Germany.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Low-temperature growth of dense and hard Ti0.41Al0.51Ta0.08N films via hybrid HIPIMS/DC magnetron co-sputtering with synchronized metal-ion irradiation2017Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 121, nr 17, artikel-id 171902Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hard Ti1-xAlxN thin films are of importance for metal-cutting applications. The hardness, thermal stability, and oxidation resistance of these coatings can be further enhanced by alloying with TaN. We use a hybrid high-power pulsed and dc magnetron co-sputtering (HIPIMS/DCMS) technique to grow dense and hard Ti0.41Al0.51Ta0.08N alloys without external heating (T-s amp;lt; 150 degrees C). Separate Ti and Al targets operating in the DCMS mode maintain a deposition rate of similar to 50 nm/min, while irradiation of the growing film by heavy Ta+/Ta2+ ions from the HIPIMS-powered Ta target, using dc bias synchronized to the metal-ion-rich part of each HIPIMS pulse, provides effective near-surface atomic mixing resulting in densification. The substrate is maintained at floating potential between the short bias pulses to minimize Ar+ bombardment, which typically leads to high compressive stress. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy analyses reveal dramatic differences in the microstructure of the co-sputtered HIPIMS/DCMS films (Ta-HIPIMS) compared to films with the same composition grown at floating potential with all targets in the DCMS mode (Ta-DCMS). The Ta-DCMS alloy films are only similar to 70% dense due to both inter-and intra-columnar porosity. In contrast, the Ta-HIPIMS layers exhibit no inter-columnar porosity and are essentially fully dense. The mechanical properties of Ta-HIPIMS films are significantly improved with hardness and elastic modulus values of 28.0 and 328 GPa compared to 15.3 and 289 GPa for reference Ta-DCMS films. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 70.
    Fagerlind, M.
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Allerstam, F.
    Chalmers.
    Sveinbjornsson, E.O.
    Chalmers.
    Rorsman, N.
    Chalmers.
    Kakanakova-Georgieva, Anelia
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Lundskog, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Investigation of the interface between silicon nitride passivations and AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructures by C(V) characterization of metal-insulator-semiconductor-heterostructure capacitors2010Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 108, nr 1, s. 014508-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Capacitance-voltage [C(V)] measurements of metal-insulator-semiconductor-heterostructure capacitors are used to investigate the interface between silicon nitride passivation and AlGaN/AlN/GaN heterostructure material. AlGaN/AlN/GaN samples having different silicon nitride passivating layers, deposited using three different deposition techniques, are evaluated. Different interface state distributions result in large differences in the C(V) characteristics. A method to extract fixed charge as well as traps from the C(V) characteristics is presented. Rough estimates of the emission time constants of the traps can be extracted by careful analysis of the C(V) characteristics. The fixed charge is positive for all samples, with a density varying between 1.3 x 10(12) and 7.1 x 10(12) cm(-2). For the traps, the peak density of interface states is varying between 16 x 10(12) and 31 x 10(12) cm(-2) eV(-1) for the three samples. It is concluded that, of the deposition methods investigated in this report, the low pressure chemical vapor deposited silicon nitride passivation shows the most promising results with regards to low densities of interface states.

  • 71.
    Fallqvist, Amie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fager, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Self-organization during Growth of ZrN/SiNx Multilayers by Epitaxial Lateral Overgrowth2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 114, nr 224302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrN/SiNx nanoscale multilayers were deposited on ZrN seed layers grown on top of MgO(001) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering with a constant ZrN thickness of 40 Å and with an intended SiNx thickness of 2, 4, 6, 8, and 15 Å at a substrate temperature of 800 °C and 6 Å at 500 °C. The films were investigated by X-ray diffraction, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The investigations show that the SiNx is amorphous and that the ZrN layers are crystalline. Growth of epitaxial cubic SiNx – known to take place on TiN(001) – on ZrN(001) is excluded to the monolayer resolution of this study. During the course of SiNx deposition, the material segregates to form surface precipitates in discontinuous layers for SiNx thicknesses ≤ 6 Å that coalesce into continuous layers for 8 and 15 Å thickness at 800 °C, and for 6 Å at 500 °C. The SiNx precipitates are aligned vertically. The ZrN layers in turn grow by epitaxial lateral overgrowth on the discontinuous SiNx in samples deposited at 800 °C with up to 6 Å thick SiNx layers. Effectively a self-organized nanostructure can be grown consisting of strings of 1-3 nm large SiNx precipitates along apparent column boundaries in the epitaxial ZrN.

  • 72.
    Fare, T.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Armgarth, M.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reversible interaction of hydrogen with thin layers of thermally grown silicon dioxide1988Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 63, nr 11, s. 5507-5513Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Some effects of hydrogen on the electrical properties of Pd‐metal‐thin (≊10 nm) oxide‐silicon capacitors are reported. High‐frequency (1 MHz) and quasistatic capacitance voltage curves are measured at 100 °C as a function of hydrogen partial pressure in a background atmosphere of 20% O2/Ar. Besides the standard hydrogen‐induced shift of the capacitance‐voltage characteristics we find: (1) an increase in the accumulation capacitance with increasing hydrogen partial pressure, and (2) a nonmonotonic increase in the quasistatic capacitance minimum with increasing hydrogen pressure. The relative increase in the accumulation capacitance is shown to be related to the square of the hydrogen‐induced voltage shift (and hence to the square of the concentration of hydrogen atoms at the Pd‐SiO2 interface). We discuss our findings, based on existing hydrogen‐silicon dioxide models, to interpret the effects of hydrogen on the high‐frequency and quasistatic capacitance characteristics.

  • 73.
    Ferreira, da Silva A.
    et al.
    Ferreira da Silva, A., Instituto de Física, Lab. de Propriedades Óticas, Camp. Universitário de Ondina, 40210-340 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
    Pepe, I.
    Instituto de Física, Lab. de Propriedades Óticas, Camp. Universitário de Ondina, 40210-340 Salvador, Bahia, Brazil.
    Sernelius, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik.
    Persson, C.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401.
    Ahuja, R.
    Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden.
    De, Souza J.P.
    De Souza, J.P., Institute de Física, Univ. Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501970 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil, Thomas J. Watson Research Center, IBM, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598.
    Suzuki, Y.
    Physics Department, City College, City University of New York, New York 10031.
    Yang, Y.
    Physics Department, City College, City University of New York, New York 10031.
    Electrical resistivity of acceptor carbon in GaAs2004Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 95, nr 5, s. 2532-2535Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The resistivity of GaAs implanted with carbon acceptors for concentrations spanning the insulating to the metallic regimes were investigated experimentally and theoretically between room temperature and 1.7 K. The resistivities obtained experimentally were compared with resistivity values calculated from a generalized Drude approach. The value of the critical impurity concentration was found to be about 1018cm-3. Good agreement was obtained between the experimental results and calculations.

  • 74.
    Filippini, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Gunnarsson, J.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Chemical image generation with a grid-gate device2004Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 96, nr 12, s. 7583-7590Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Scanning light pulse technique generating distinctive chemical images of diverse gases is demonstrated using a sensing arrangement that allows unrestricted choice of sensing materials, disregarding its conductivity or morphology. The present device, a metal oxide semiconductor structure, disentangles biasing from chemical functions by providing an inert grid as a gate that supplies the proper biasing, while functional materials even in the form of disconnected clusters can be used for sensing. The reading of conductimetric chemical responses of clustered materials, in nominal operating conditions, is demonstrated by the generation of chemical images acquired for inversion biasing conditions. © 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  • 75.
    Filippini, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Hydrogen detection on bare SiO2 between metal gates2002Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 91, nr 6, s. 3896-3903Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with gates of Pd and Au forming a wedge of bare SiO2 between them are described. It is observed that the sensitivity to H2 in the wedge is larger than on the outside of the metal gates due to the different distribution of potential determined by the geometrical constraints. The local response of the surface is obtained through the use of a scanning light pulse technique (SLPT), showing photocurrent versus voltage curves shifted to more negative voltages upon exposure to hydrogen. Within the wedge there is a two-dimensional photocurrent pattern composed of two splitting photocurrent peaks, whose separation depends on the distance between Au and Pd contacts, and on the composition of the ambient. The transient response in the wedge is comparable to that of Pd gates and the possibility of detecting hydrogen (or other molecules) by measuring on the bare insulator surface provides new possibilities for the use of field-effect structures for gas sensing. A semiempirical model describing the SLPT response for this particular geometry, conforms to experimental features, and highlights the sensitivity of the distribution of potential in the wedge to the density of charges induced on the semiconductor surface. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • 76.
    Filippini, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik.
    Spectral characteristics of computer screen photoassisted classification2006Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 99, nr 11Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The computer screen photoassisted technique (CSPT) is a practical method for the classification of colored or fluorescent substances such as those present in bioassays but using standard computer sets and regular web cameras as all instruments. It is empirically known that the performance of the CSPT classification depends on the composition of the illuminating sequences displayed by the computer screens during the measurements, and by the way that substance fingerprints from these measurements are composed. Here the illuminating conditions are examined with the help of a CSPT model that allows to examine the physical grounds of optimum illuminating sequences different from just three screen primaries and to assess the limitations and importance of longer illuminating sequences in practical determinations. © 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  • 77.
    Filippov, Stanislav
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wang, X. J.
    National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China .
    Devika, M.
    Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, Republic of Korea .
    Koteeswara Reddy, N.
    Department of Nanobio Materials and Electronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500712, Republic of Korea.
    Tu, C. W.
    Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA .
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Buyanova, Irina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Funktionella elektroniska material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effects of Ni-coating on ZnO nanowires: A Raman scattering study2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, nr 21, s. 214302-1-214302-6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural properties of ZnO/Ni core/shell nanowires (NWs) are studied in detail by means of Raman spectroscopy. It is shown that formation of the Ni shell leads to passivation of surface states responsible for the observed enhanced intensity of the A1(LO) Raman mode of the bare ZnO NWs. It also causes appearance of 490 cm−1 and 710 cm−1 modes that are attributed to local vibrational modes of a defect/impurity (or defects/impurities). This defect is concluded to be preferably formed in annealed ZnO/Ni NWs and is unlikely to contain a Ni atom, as the same Raman modes were also reported for the Ni-free ZnO nanostructures. From our resonant Raman studies, we also show that the ZnO/Ni core/shell NWs exhibit an enhanced Raman signal with a multiline structure involving A1(LO). This observation is attributed to combined effects of an enhanced Fröhlich interaction at the ZnO/Ni heterointerface and coupling of the scattered light with local surface plasmons excited in the Ni shell. The plasmonic effect is also suggested to allow detection of carbon-related species absorbed at the surface of a single ZnO/Ni NW, promising for applications of such structures as efficient nano-sized gas sensors.

  • 78. Fogelberg, J.
    et al.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dannetun, Helen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Petersson, L.-G.
    Kinetic modelling of hydrogen ad/absorption in thin films of hydrogen sensitive field effect devices: Observation of large hydrogen induced dipoles at the Pd/SiO2 interface1995Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 78, s. 988-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A kinetic modeling of the hydrogen interaction with a Pd‐SiO2‐Si (Pd‐MOS) device is reported. The model is fitted to a number of experimental results, mainly from mass spectrometric desorption measurements. The new results verify an older description of the energetics of hydrogen adsorption states at the Pd/SiO2 interface in the sense that the adsorption may be described by a so‐called Temkin isotherm; however, several new findings have to be incorporated into the model in order to obtain a consistent picture. The initial heat of adsorption at the interface is around 0.8 eV/hydrogen atom. The number of adsorption sites at the interface is considerably smaller than at the surface, 6×1017 m−2 versus 1.5×1019 m−2. Furthermore, the interface hydrogen atoms are strongly polarized. An average value of 2 Debye is obtained. It is the large hydrogen polarization at the Pd/SiO2 interface and not a large concentration of adsorbed hydrogen atoms per se which accounts for the very high sensitivity of a Pd‐MOS device as hydrogen sensor

  • 79.
    Forsén, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Coherency strain engineered decomposition of unstable multilayer alloys for improved thermal stability2013Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 114, nr 24, s. 244303-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A concept to improve hardness and thermal stability of unstable multilayer alloys is presented based on control of the coherency strain such that the driving force for decomposition is favorably altered. Cathodic arc evaporated cubic TiCrAlN/Ti 1−x Cr x N multilayer coatings are used as demonstrators. Upon annealing, the coatings undergo spinodal decomposition into nanometer-sized coherent Ti- and Al-rich cubic domains which is affected by the coherency strain. In addition, the growth of the domains is restricted by the surrounding TiCrN layer compared to a non-layered TiCrAlN coating which together results in an improved thermal stability of the cubic structure. A significant hardness increase is seen during decomposition for the case with high coherency strain while a low coherency strain results in a hardness decrease for high annealing temperatures. The metal diffusion paths during the domain coarsening are affected by strain which in turn is controlled by the Cr-content (x) in the Ti 1−x Cr x N layers. For x = 0 the diffusion occurs both parallel and perpendicular to the growth direction but for x > =0.9 the diffusion occurs predominantly parallel to the growth direction. Altogether this study shows a structural tool to alter and fine-tune high temperature properties of multicomponent materials.

  • 80.
    Fu, Y
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Electron wave-packet transport through nanoscale semiconductor device in time domain2005Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 97, nr 9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Future low-power downscaled metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) devices are in a size regime that requires a quantum-mechanical approach. Two theoretical approaches, the steady-state single plane-wave transport model and the time-dependent wave-packet transport model, have been discussed to study the electron transport through model nanoscale potential profiles. It has been shown that the single plane-wave transport model at steady state neglects the coupling among different plane waves induced by the potential profile variation induced by the external bias. Thus, the model is only valid when the external bias is rather small. The electron wave-packet transport theory models the electrons by wave packets consisting of all available plane waves in the contact from where the electrons originate. The couplings among different plane waves are included in the temporal evolution of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation. This model is thus more proper when studying nanoscale devices at normal device working configurations. The effects of gate bias and the device geometry on the wave-packet transport are then studied by model potentials of future downscaled devices, which explains the experimentally reported conventional I-V characteristics of nanoscale MOS field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) at room temperature, while the normal MOSFET functioning is expected to be impossible by the single plane-wave transport model due to the independent tunneling effects of individual plane waves.

  • 81.
    Fu, Y
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Willander, Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Jiang, J
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Li, N
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Lu, W
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Liu, HC
    Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Photocurrents of 14 mu m quantum-well infrared photodetectors2003Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 93, nr 12, s. 9432-9436Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the factors that determine photogenerated carriers and response wavelengths of photocurrents of long wavelength (similar to14 mum) quantum well (QW) infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). The material structures of QWIPs are first characterized by the photoluminescence measurements (PL). By calculating the density of photogenerated carriers in the continuum above the energy barriers using the PL calibrated QWIP structures, we have demonstrated that due to the sample quality, the photocarriers can be either in miniband states (Bloch states in the multiple quantum wells), or they transport from one quantum well to the next in the form of running waves. By including possible scattering processes at the QWIP working temperature to link the theoretically calculated photocarrier density with the experimentally measured photocurrent, it is shown that the width of the photocurrent peaks of 14 mum GaAs/AlGaAs QWIPs under investigation is determined by the optical phonon emissions of photocarriers. We have further calculated the densities of photocarriers in the QWIPs reported in the literature. It is shown that the Bloch wave boundary conditions are appropriate for QWIPs with narrow QWs, whereas running wave boundary conditions are appropriate for wide QWs.

  • 82. Gago, R
    et al.
    Jimenez, I
    Agullo-Rueda, F
    Albella, JM
    Czigany, Z
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Transition from amorphous boron carbide to hexagonal boron carbon nitride thin films induced by nitrogen ion assistance2002Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 92, nr 9, s. 5177-5182Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Boron carbon nitride films (BCN) were grown by B4C evaporation under concurrent N-2 ion beam assistance. The films were characterized by x-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy, infrared and Raman spectroscopies, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The bonding structure and film composition correlate with the momentum transfer per incoming atom during deposition. As the momentum transfer is increased, the film structure evolves from an amorphous boron carbide network towards a hexagonal ternary compound (h-BCN) with standing basal planes. The growth of h-BCN takes place for momentum transfer in the window between 80 and 250 (eVxamu)(1/2). The characteristic vibrational features of the h-BCN compounds have also been studied. Finally, the solubility limit of carbon in the hexagonal BN structure, under the working conditions of this article, is found to be similar to15 at. %. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  • 83.
    Gao, Feng
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cai, C.
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Y.
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Dong, S.
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Qiu, X. Y.
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Yuan, G. L.
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Z. G.
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, J. -M.
    Nanjing University, Peoples R China.
    Preparation of la-doped BiFeO3 thin films with Fe2+ ions on Si substrates2006Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 99, nr 9, s. 094105-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    La-doped BiFeO3 thin films with Fe2+ ions have been prepared on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition in order to enhance the ferroelectric and magnetic properties. The targets for the film deposition were synthesized using a rapid liquid phase sintering technique to ensure the low leakage. The dielectric properties at room temperature and above were investigated. It was observed that the La doping greatly enhances the ferroelectric polarization at room temperature by modifying the film structure from rhombohedral to monoclinic. The saturation magnetization was enhanced about two times due to the Fe2+ ions in the thin films. (C) 2006 American Institute of Physics.

  • 84.
    Gogova, Daniela
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kasic, A.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tuomisto, F.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland .
    Saarinen, K.
    Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, Finland .
    Dobos, L.
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science of the Hungarian Academy of Science, Hungary .
    Pécz, B.
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science of the Hungarian Academy of Science, Hungary .
    Gibart, P.
    LUMILOG, 2720, Chemin de Saint Bernard, France .
    Beaumont, B.
    LUMILOG, 2720, Chemin de Saint Bernard, France .
    Strain-free bulk-like GaN grown by hydride-vapor-phase-epitaxy on two-step epitaxial lateral overgrown GaN template2004Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 96, nr 1, s. 799-806Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Crack-free bulk-like GaN with high crystalline quality has been obtained by hydride-vapor-phase-epitaxy (HVPE) growth on a two-step epitaxial lateral overgrown GaN template on sapphire. During the cooling down stage, the as-grown 270-μm-thick GaN layer was self-separated from the sapphire substrate. Plan-view transmission electron microscopy images show the dislocation density of the free-standing HVPE-GaN to be ∼2.5×107 cm−2 on the Ga-polar face. A low Ga vacancy related defect concentration of about 8×1015 cm−3 is extracted from positron annihilation spectroscopy data. The residual stress and the crystalline quality of the material are studied by two complementary techniques. Low-temperature photoluminescence spectra show the main neutral donor bound exciton line to be composed of a doublet structure at 3.4715 (3.4712) eV and 3.4721 (3.4718) eV for the Ga- (N-) polar face with the higher-energy component dominating. These line positions suggest virtually strain-free material on both surfaces with high crystalline quality as indicated by the small full width at half maximum values of the donor bound exciton lines. The E1(TO) phonon mode position measured at 558.52 cm−1 (Ga face) by infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry confirms the small residual stress in the material, which is hence well suited to act as a lattice-constant and thermal-expansion-coefficient matched substrate for further homoepitaxy, as needed for high-quality III-nitride device applications. © 2004 American Institute of Physics.

  • 85.
    Gonschorek, M.
    et al.
    Institute of Quantum Electronics and Photonics, Ecole Polytechnique F´d´rale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Carlin, J.-F.
    Institute of Quantum Electronics and Photonics, Ecole Polytechnique F´d´rale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Feltin, E.
    Institute of Quantum Electronics and Photonics, Ecole Polytechnique F´d´rale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Py, M.A.
    Institute of Quantum Electronics and Photonics, Ecole Polytechnique F´d´rale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Grandjean, N.
    Institute of Quantum Electronics and Photonics, Ecole Polytechnique F´d´rale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.
    Darakchieva, Vanya
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Monemar, Bo
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Lorenz, M.
    Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnstraße 3-5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Ramm, G.
    Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universität Leipzig, Linnstraße 3-5, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
    Two-dimensional electron gas density in Al1-x InMx N/AlN/GaN heterostructures (0.03=x=0.23)2008Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 103, nr 9, s. 093714-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to the AlGaN alloy, which can only be grown under tensile strain on GaN, the AlInN alloy is predicted by Vegard's law to be lattice-matched (LM) on fully relaxed GaN templates for an indium content of ~17.5%, i.e., it can be grown either tensely or compressively on GaN. The effect of strain on the polarization induced sheet charge density at the Al1-x Inx N/AlN/GaN heterointerfaces is carefully investigated for 6 and 14 nm thick AlInN barriers including a 1 nm thick AlN interlayer. The barrier indium content ranges at 0.03=x=0.23 for 6 nm thick barriers and 0.07=x=0.21 for 14 nm thick barriers. It is found that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density varies between (3.5±0.1) × 1013 cm-2 and (2.2±0.1) × 1013 cm-2 for 14 nm thick barriers. Finally, a 2DEG density up to (1.7±0.1) × 1013 cm-2 is obtained for a nearly LM AlInN barrier with ~14.5% indium on GaN as thin as 6 nm. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  • 86.
    Granlund, T
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, Appl Phys Lab, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Organ Chem & Polymer Technol, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Andersson, MR
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik.
    Luminescence probing of crystallization in a polymer film2000Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 87, nr 12, s. 8549-8556Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report studies of a thin film multilayer stack including a highly emissive substituted polythiophene, poly[3-(2,5-dioctylphenyl)thiophene]. Analysis of the photoluminescence spectra revealed an inhomogeneous polymer film. X-ray diffraction studies attribute the existence of an inhomogeneous film as originating from crystallization of the polymer. We used the interference effect of light to detect the region of crystallization in the film. Photoluminescence and absorption were redshifted upon crystallization and displayed an enhanced vibronic structure. Comparison between calculated and measured photoluminescence shows that the crystallization starts from the top of the film and not from the supporting substrate. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0021- 8979(00)08112-3].

  • 87.
    Granlund, T
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys & Measurement Technol, Appl Phys Lab, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biomolekylär och Organisk Elektronik.
    Determination of the emission zone in a single-layer polymer light-emitting diode through optical measurements2001Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 89, nr 11, s. 5897-5902Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the emission zone in a single-layer polymer light-emitting diode. The emission zone is found by studying the angular distribution of the electroluminescence. The emission is modeled by accounting for optical interference. We account for birefringence of the anode layer in our model. The active polymer was, however, found to be isotropic. The anode consists of a single-layer of the conducting polymer complex poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT-PSS), with enhanced conductivity. As a cathode we use plain aluminum. By using only PEDOT-PSS we avoid having a thin metal layer or indium-tin-oxide as the anode in the path of the escaping light. The active material is a substituted polythiophene with excellent film forming properties. A comparison between the experimental and calculated angular distribution of light emission from a single-layered polymer light-emitting diode was shown to be in good agreement for the spectral region studied. By assuming a distribution of the emission zone, we deduce the position as well as the width of the zone. (C) 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  • 88.
    Greczynski, G
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden ACREO AB, Interconnect & Packaging, S-60221 Norrkoping, Sweden.
    Kugler, T
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi.
    Energy level alignment in organic-based three-layer structures studied by photoelectron spectroscopy2000Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 88, nr 12, s. 7187-7191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The alignment of energy band edges at interfaces in three-layer structures, important in polymer-based electroluminescent devices, have been studied using photoelectron spectroscopy. Careful choice of the materials allows investigation of the role of the substrate work function. These results are in agreement with the energy level diagram commonly assumed for the metal/polymer/metal structure, with the potential drop over the polymer layer being equal to the difference between the work functions of the metal contacts. Direct indication of the alignment of the electrochemical potential across the three-layer structure has been observed by photoelectron spectroscopy. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0021-8979(00)06801-3].

  • 89.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Mraz, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hans, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Primetzhofer, D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schneider, J. M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Unprecedented Al supersaturation in single-phase rock salt structure VAlN films by Al+ subplantation2017Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 121, nr 17, artikel-id 171907Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern applications of refractory ceramic thin films, predominantly as wear-protective coatings on cutting tools and on components utilized in automotive engines, require a combination of excellent mechanical properties, thermal stability, and oxidation resistance. Conventional design approaches for transition metal nitride coatings with improved thermal and chemical stability are based on alloying with Al. It is well known that the solubility of Al in NaCl-structure transition metal nitrides is limited. Hence, the great challenge is to increase the Al concentration substantially while avoiding precipitation of the thermodynamically favored wurtzite-AlN phase, which is detrimental to mechanical properties. Here, we use VAlN as a model system to illustrate a new concept for the synthesis of metastable single-phase NaCl-structure thin films with the Al content far beyond solubility limits obtained with conventional plasma processes. This supersaturation is achieved by separating the film-forming species in time and energy domains through synchronization of the 70-mu s-long pulsed substrate bias with intense periodic fluxes of energetic Al+ metal ions during reactive hybrid high power impulse magnetron sputtering of the Al target and direct current magnetron sputtering of the V target in the Ar/N-2 gas mixture. Hereby, Al is subplanted into the cubic VN grains formed by the continuous flux of low-energy V neutrals. We show that Al subplantation enables an unprecedented 42% increase in metastable Al solubility limit in V1-xAlxN, from x-0.52 obtained with the conventional method to 0.75. The elastic modulus is 325 +/- 5GPa, in excellent agreement with density functional theory calculations, and approximately 50% higher than for corresponding films grown by dc magnetron sputtering. The extension of the presented strategy to other Al-ion-assisted vapor deposition methods or materials systems is straightforward, which opens up the way for producing supersaturated single-phase functional ceramic alloy thin films combining excellent mechanical properties with high oxidation resistance. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 90.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Mraz, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Ruess, H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hans, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schneider, J. M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Extended metastable Al solubility in cubic VAlN by metal-ion bombardment during pulsed magnetron sputtering: film stress vs subplantation2017Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 122, nr 2, artikel-id 025304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic ion-recoil mixing of near-film-surface atomic layers is commonly used to increase the metastable solubility limit x(max) in otherwise immiscible thin film systems during physical vapor deposition. Recently, Al subplantation achieved by irradiating the film growth surface with Al+ metal-ion flux was shown to result in an unprecedented x(max) for VAlN, far above values obtained with gas ion irradiation. However, it is reasonable to assume that ion irradiation necessary for subplantation also leads to a compressive stress sigma buildup. In order to separate the effects of Al+ bombardment on sigma and x(max), and realize low-stress high-x(max) nitride alloys, we grow metastable cubic V1-xAlxN (0.17 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 0.74) films using reactive magnetron sputtering under different ion irradiation conditions. Al and V targets are operated in Ar/N-2 discharges employing (i) conventional DC (Ar+, N-2(+)), (ii) hybrid High-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS)/DC processing with one type of metal ion present (Al+ or V+/V2+), and (iii) HIPIMS with concurrent Al+ and V+/V2+ fluxes. Comparison to the ab initio calculated Al solubility limit reveals that x(max) = 0.55 achieved with V+/V2+ irradiation is entirely accountable for by stress. In contrast, Al+ fluxes provide a substantial increase in x(max) to 0.63, which is 12% higher than that expected based on the stress-induced increase in metastable solubility. Correlative stress and atom probe tomography data confirm that the metastable Al solubility enhancement is enabled by Al+ subplantation. The here proposed processing strategy allows for growth of single-phase cubic nitride alloys with significantly increased Al concentrations embodying tremendous promise for substantial improvements in high temperature oxidation resistance and mitigates the risk of stress-induced adhesive or cohesive coating failure. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 91.
    Gunnarsson, Rickard
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pilch, Iris
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Boyd, Robert
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Brenning, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The influence of pressure and gas flow on size and morphology of titanium oxide nanoparticles synthesized by hollow cathode sputtering2016Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 120, nr 4, s. 044308-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized via sputtering of a hollow cathode in an argon atmosphere. The influence of pressure and gas flow has been studied. Changing the pressure affects the nanoparticle size, increasing approximately proportional to the pressure squared. The influence of gas flow is dependent on the pressure. In the low pressure regime (107 amp;lt;= p amp;lt;= 143 Pa), the nanoparticle size decreases with increasing gas flow; however, at high pressure (p = 215 Pa), the trend is reversed. For low pressures and high gas flows, it was necessary to add oxygen for the particles to nucleate. There is also a morphological transition of the nanoparticle shape that is dependent on the pressure. Shapes such as faceted, cubic, and cauliflower can be obtained. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 92. Haddad, Noël
    et al.
    Garcia-Caurel, Enric
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Barsoum, Michel W
    Hug, Gilles
    Dielectric properties of Ti2AlC and Ti2AlN MAX phases: The conductivity anisotropy2008Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 104, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The optical properties of Ti2AlN and Ti2AlC were determined in the 2-80 eV energy range by electron energy loss spectroscopy and in the visible-ultraviolet range, from 1.6 to 5.5 eV, by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Both experimental techniques are angular resolved and in very good agreement over their overlapping energy range. We observe a dependence of the dielectric function as a function of the crystallographic orientation of the crystals. In particular, we notice a shift of the energy position of the plasmon absorption of Ti2AlC with respect to Ti2AlN. Moreover, a drastic change is also observed in the shape of the dielectric function as a function of the composition (or valence electron concentration). The dielectric functions are fitted to an empirical semiclassic Drude-Lorentz model to obtain physical parameters such as the relaxation times. These microscopic parameters are then used in a macroscopic model to yield the transport properties such as the static conductivity as function of the crystal orientation. Ti 2AlN is found to be a better conductor than Ti2AlC in all orientations, which is consistent with experimental measurements. A comparison of the electrical and optical properties of these two compounds is made in terms of different electronic properties and interband-intraband transitions deduced from our model. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  • 93. Hallstedt, J.
    et al.
    Blomqvist, M.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Radamson, H. H.
    The effect of carbon and germanium on phase transformation of nickel on Si1-x-yGexCy epitaxial layers2004Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 95, nr 5, s. 2397-2402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of germanium and carbon on the phase formation, strain relaxation and the occurrence of agglomeration of the Si1-x-yGe xCy epitaxial layers in Ni/SiGe(C) system were investigated. The defects formed by the reaction of Ni on SiGe(C) layers were investigated using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM). It was observed that NisiGe layers were crystalline and with strong growth orientation in the direction, but the thermal stability was decreased with increasing Ge amount due to agglomeration. It was also observed that at the interface of NiSiGe/SiGeC carbon was accumulated at low-temperature annealing which retarded the phase transformation and agglomeration of Ni/SiGeC systems.

  • 94.
    Hellgren, N
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Macak, K
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Broitman, E
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Johansson, MP
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Sundgren, JE
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Influence of plasma parameters on the growth and properties of magnetron sputtered CNx thin films2000Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 88, nr 1, s. 524-532Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon nitride CNx thin films were grown by unbalanced dc magnetron sputtering from a graphite target in a pure N-2 discharge, and with the substrate temperature T-s kept between 100 and 550 degrees C. A solenoid coil positioned in the vicinity of the substrate was used to support the magnetic field of the magnetron, so that the plasma could be increased near the substrate. By varying the coil current and gas pressure, the energy distribution and fluxes of N-2(+) ions and C neutrals could be varied independently of each other over a wide range. An array of Langmuir probes in the substrate position was used to monitor the radial ion flux distribution over the 75-mm-diam substrate, while the flux and energy distribution of neutrals was estimated through Monte Carlo simulations. The structure, surface roughness, and mechanical response of the films are found to be strongly dependent on the substrate temperature, and the fluxes and energies of the deposited particles. By controlling the process parameters, the film structure can thus be selected to be amorphous, graphite-like or fullerene-like. When depositing at 3 mTorr N-2 pressure, with T-s> 200 degrees C, a transition from a disordered graphite-like to a hard and elastic fullerene-like structure occurred when the ion flux was increased above similar to 0.5-1.0 mA/cm(2). The nitrogen-to-carbon concentration ratio in the films ranged from similar to 0.1 to 0.65, depending on substrate temperature and gas pressure. The nitrogen film concentration did, however, not change when varying the nitrogen ion-to-carbon atom flux ratios from similar to 1 to 20. (C) 2000 American Institute of Physics. [S0021-8979(00)00413-8].

  • 95.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Nguyen, Tien Son
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Metastable defects in 6H-SiC: Experiments and modeling2002Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 91, nr 3, s. 1324-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 96.
    Hemmingsson, Carl
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Son, Nguyen Tien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kordina, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bergman, Peder
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindström, J.L.
    National Defense Research Institute.
    Savage, S.
    Industrial Microelectronics Center.
    Nordell, N.
    Industrial Microelectronics Center.
    Deep-Level Defects in Electron-irradiated 4H SiC Epitaxial Layers1997Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 81, nr 9, s. 6155-6159Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep level defects in electron-irradiated 4H SiC epitaxial layers grown by chemical vapor deposition were studied using deep level transient spectroscopy. The measurements performed on electron-irradiated p+n junctions in the temperature range 100–750 K revealed several electron traps and one hole trap with thermal ionization energies ranging from 0.35 to 1.65 eV. Most of these defects were already observed at a dose of irradiation as low as ≈5×1013 cm-2. Dose dependence and annealing behavior of the defects were investigated. For two of these electron traps, the electron capture cross section was measured. From the temperature dependence studies, the capture cross section of these two defects are shown to be temperature independent. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.

  • 97.
    Henry, Anne
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Forsberg, U.
    Okmetic AB, Hans Meijers väg 2, SE-583 30 Link¨ping, Sweden.
    Janson, M.S.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Solid State Electronics, P.O. Box E229, SE-164 40 Kista-Stockholm, Sweden.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    The 3838 Å photoluminescence line in 4H-SiC2003Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 94, nr 5, s. 2901-2906Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a study of the origins of the peak near 3838 Å observed in the photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of 4H-SiC was reported. A band was observed for 6H material, displaced in energy position by the band-gap difference between the two polytypes. The recombination leading to the PL line was associated with an isoelectronic complex defect.

  • 98.
    Hugosson, H.W.
    et al.
    Applied Materials Physics, Department of Materials Science, Royal Institute of Technology, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden, Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics, Uppsala University, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Algren, M.
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rodmar, M.
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Selinder, T.I.
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Theory of the effects of substitutions on the phase stabilities of Ti1-xAlxN2003Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 93, nr 8, s. 4505-4511Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The theory of the effects of substitutions on the phase stabilities of Ti1-xAlxN was discussed. The substitution that increased the thermal stability of the NaCl structure of Ti1-xAlxN at high Al content was elaborated. Some possible avenues for such stabilization were presented and the substitution with nonmetal C and Si, and metal V, Cr and Mn was found to be most promising.

  • 99.
    Hunold, Oliver
    et al.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Chen, Yen-Ting
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Music, Denis
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Primetzhofer, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Moritz Baben; Achenbach, Jan-Ole
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Keuter, Philipp
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Schneider, Jochen M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Correlative theoretical and experimental investigation of the formation of AIYB(14) and competing phases2016Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, nr 8, s. 085307-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase formation in the boron-rich section of the Al-Y-B system has been explored by a correlative theoretical and experimental research approach. The structure of coatings deposited via high power pulsed magnetron sputtering from a compound target was studied using elastic recoil detection analysis, electron energy loss spectroscopy spectrum imaging, as well as X-ray and electron diffraction data. The formation of AlYB14 together with the (Y,Al)B-6 impurity phase, containing 1.8 at. % less B than AlYB14, was observed at a growth temperature of 800 degrees C and hence 600 degrees C below the bulk synthesis temperature. Based on quantum mechanical calculations, we infer that minute compositional variations within the film may be responsible for the formation of both icosahedrally bonded AlYB14 and cubic (Y,Al)B-6 phases. These findings are relevant for synthesis attempts of all boron rich icosahedrally bonded compounds with the space group: Imma that form ternary phases at similar compositions. (C) 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 100.
    Hussain, I
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Soomro, Muhammad Yousuf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bano, Nargis
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nur, Omer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Interface trap characterization and electrical properties of Au-ZnO nanorod Schottky diodes by conductance and capacitance methods2012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 112, nr 6, s. 064506-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Schottky diodes with Au/ZnO nanorod (NR)/n-SiC configurations have been fabricated and their interface traps and electrical properties have been investigated by current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V), capacitance-frequency (C-f), and conductance-frequency (G(p)/omega-omega) measurements. Detailed and systematic analysis of the frequency-dependent capacitance and conductance measurements was performed to extract the information about the interface trap states. The discrepancy between the high barrier height values obtained from the I-V and the C-V measurements was also analyzed. The higher capacitance at low frequencies was attributed to excess capacitance as a result of interface states in equilibrium in the ZnO that can follow the alternating current signal. The energy of the interface states (E-ss) with respect to the valence band at the ZnO NR surface was also calculated. The densities of interface states obtained from the conductance and capacitance methods agreed well with each other and this confirm that the observed capacitance and conductance are caused by the same physical processes, i.e., recombination-generation in the interface states. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics.

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