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  • 51.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Core level photoelectron spectroscopy studies of a √7 × √7 R19° reconstructed Au/4H-SiC(0 0 0 1¯) surface2005Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 585, nr 3, s. 163-169Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of surface and interface properties of thin Au layers deposited on SiC(0001¯) surfaces is reported. Two reconstructions were prepared, a Si-rich 2 × 2 and a C-rich 3 × 3 surface, before Au deposition and subsequent annealing at different temperatures. For the Si-rich 2 × 2 surface a stable v7 × v7 R19° reconstruction is obtained after Au deposition and annealing at temperatures between 400 and 850 °C. On this surface two surface shifted Si2p components are revealed and the Au4f spectra clearly indicate silicide formation. The variations in relative intensity for the different core level components with electron emission angle suggest: -formation of an ordered silicide layer on the surface, -excess Au ("bulk Au") to form a layer underneath the ordered silicide, -and silicide formation also at the interface between "bulk Au" and SiC. The "bulk Au" component is found to decrease rapidly with annealing temperature. This decrease is due to Au diffusion into the SiC sample as confirmed by annealing at similar temperatures of Au films deposited onto deliberately oxidized SiC(0001¯) surfaces. For the C-rich 3 × 3 surface the evolution of the core level spectra after Au deposition and annealing is shown to be distinctly different than for the Si-rich 2 × 2 and no new stable reconstruction is observed. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 52.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Johansson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Effects of nitrogenmonoxide on 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1)2003Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 530, nr 1-2, s. 17-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Effects induced by nitrogenmonoxide (NO) exposures on the v3 × v3 R30° reconstructed 4H-SiC(0 0 0 1) surface are reported. NO exposures from 0.3 to 1 × 106 L at a substrate temperature of 800 °C are investigated. Recorded Si2p spectra show three shifted components, besides the bulk SiC peak. These are assigned to originate from SiO2, N-Si-O and Si3N4/Si+1 (since we cannot distinguish between Si3N4 and an Si+1 oxidation state). It can be concluded that SiO2 does grow on top of N-Si-O and that Si3N4/Si+1 is located at the interface. Two N1s components are observed after NO exposures. A main one, located at around 398.05 eV, assigned to originate from Si3N4 and a weaker one suggested to correspond to N-Si-O bonding. The assignments are made using Si2p and N1s spectra collected after NH3 and O2 exposures under similar conditions. No graphite like carbon or carbon by-product at the interface can be detected after large NO or O2 exposures. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 53.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Johansson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Electronic structure study of reconstructed Au-SiC(0 0 0 1) surfaces2006Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 600, nr 2, s. 436-441Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A study of surface and interface properties of reconstructed Au-SiC(0 0 0 1) surfaces is reported. Two reconstructions were prepared on SiC(0 0 0 1), a v3 × v3R30° and a Si-rich 3 × 3, before Au deposition and subsequent annealing at different temperatures. For the Si-rich 3 × 3 surface the existence of three stable reconstructions 2v3 × 2v3R30°, 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 are revealed after deposition of Au layers, 4-8 Å thick, and annealing at progressively higher temperatures between 500 and 950 °C. For the 2v3 surface two surface shifted Si 2p components are revealed and the Au 4f spectra clearly indicate silicide formation. The variation in relative intensity for the different core level components with photon energy suggests formation of an ordered silicide layer with some excess Si on top. Similar core level spectra and variations in relative intensity with photon energy are obtained for the 3 × 3 and 5 × 5 phases but the amount of excess Si on top is observed to be smaller and an additional weak Si 2p component becomes discernable. For the v3 surface the evolution of the core level spectra after Au deposition and annealing is shown to be distinctly different than for the Si-rich 3 × 3 surface and only one stable reconstruction, a 3 × 3 phase, is observed at similar annealing temperatures. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 54.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Johansson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Letter: Interfacial investigation of in situ oxidation of 4H-SiC2001Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 472, nr 1-2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An in situ oxidation study of v3 × v3 R30° reconstructed 4H-SiC(001) surfaces is reported. An intermediate oxidation state (interpreted to be Si+1) is revealed in core level photoemission spectra recorded from the in situ prepared SiO2/4H-SiC samples. Oxidation was made at a pressure of ~10-3 Torr in flowing oxygen and at substrate temperatures from 600°C to 950°C. The highest oxidation rate was obtained at 800°C when ˜25 Å thick SiO2 layers were prepared. The surface related C 1s components observed on the clean reconstructed 4H-SiC(0001) surfaces were found to disappear after oxidation. No carbon or carbon containing by-product at the interface or in the oxide were possible to observe for the films grown.

  • 55.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik.
    Johansson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Metastable oxygen adsorption on SiC(0 0 0 1)-v3 × v3 R30°2002Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 519, nr 1-2, s. 73-78Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Initial oxygen adsorption at different temperatures on the SiC(0 0 0 1)- v3 × v3 R30° surface has been studied using photoemission. Oxygen exposures with the sample at 800 °C results in formation of stable oxides. However, after small exposures (0.1-10 L) with the sample at room temperature or cooled to ˜100 K additional structures appear in the O 1s spectrum that are identified to originate from metastable oxygen. Similar additional structures were recently revealed on Si(111)-7 × 7 and suggested to originate from adsorption of metastable molecular oxygen in an ins-paul configuration. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 56.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Johansson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Oxidation studies of 4H-SiC(0001) and (0001)2002Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 505, nr 1-3, s. 358-366Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a photoemission study of Si- and C-terminated 4H SiC surfaces after different oxygen exposures are presented and discussed. The surfaces were oxidized gradually from 1 to 1.2 x 10(6) L at both room temperature and at 800 degreesC. Recorded Si 2p and C 1s spectra show at both temperatures only two oxidations states, Si1- and Si4- for the Si-terminated surface and Si2+ and Si4+ for the C-terminated surface, For the Si-terminated surface, no carbon containing by-product can be detected at the interface or at the surface after the largest exposure investigated. For the C-terminated surface, oxygen exposures are shown to affect the surface related carbon components quite strongly and the Si2+ oxidation state is interpreted to originate from a mixture of Si-O-C bonding, The surface/interface related carbon decreases dramatically after the largest exposure investigated but is not eliminated as on the Si-terminated surface. For the latter, a clean and well ordered root3 surface is shown to be possible to re-create by in situ heating even after the largest oxygen exposures made. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 57.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Osiecki, Jacek
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Johansson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial.
    Zakharov, A A
    Lund University.
    Substrate orientation: A way towards higher quality monolayer graphene growth on 6H-SiC(0001)2009Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 603, nr 15, s. L87-L90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of substrate orientation on the morphology of graphene growth on 6H-SiC(0 0 0 1) was investigated using low-energy electron and scanning tunneling microscopy (LEEM and STM). Large area monolayer graphene was successfully furnace-grown on these substrates. Larger terrace widths and smaller step heights were obtained on substrates with a smaller mis-orientation from on-axis (0.03 degrees) than on those with a larger (0.25 degrees). Two different types of a carbon atom networks, honeycomb and three-for-six arrangement, were atomically resolved in the graphene monolayer. These findings are of relevance for various potential applications based on graphene-SiC structures.

  • 58.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zakharov, A. A.
    MAX-lab, Lund University.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Studies of Li intercalation of hydrogenated graphene on SiC(0001)2012Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 606, nr 3-4, s. 401-406Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of Li deposition on hydrogenated bilayer graphene on SiC(0001) samples, i.e. on quasi-freestanding bilayer graphene samples, are studied using low energy electron microscopy, micro-low-energy electron diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy. After deposition, some Li atoms form islands on the surface creating defects that are observed to disappear after annealing. Some other Li atoms are found to penetrate through the bilayer graphene sample and into the interface where H already resides. This is revealed by the existence of shifted components, related to H–SiC and Li–SiC bonding, in recorded core level spectra. The Dirac point is found to exhibit a rigid shift to about 1.25 eV below the Fermi level, indicating strong electron doping of the graphene by the deposited Li. After annealing the sample at 300–400 °C formation of LiH at the interface is suggested from the observed change of the dipole layer at the interface. Annealing at 600 °C or higher removes both Li and H from the sample and a monolayer graphene sample is re-established. The Li thus promotes the removal of H from the interface at a considerably lower temperature than after pure H intercalation.

  • 59.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Leif I
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rb and Cs deposition on epitaxial graphene grown on 6H-SiC(0001)2011Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 605, nr 21-22, s. 1918-1922Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial graphene grown on the silicon-terminated SiC(0001) is doped by alkali metals deposited on the surface. The synchrotron radiation based photoelectron spectroscopy results presented reveal that Rb and Cs deposited on monolayer graphene samples, grown on the silicon-terminated SiC(0001), gives rise to n-type doping, i.e. electron transfer from the metal to the graphene layer. The Dirac point of the single pi-cone is found to shift downwards away from the Fermi level by ca. 1.0 eV after alkali metal depositions. The adsorbed Rb and Cs atoms do initially disrupt the bonds in the graphene layer but after heating the bonds appear to be recreated when the alkali metal coverage start to decrease due to thermal desorption. None of these two alkali metals do intercalate into the graphene and buffer layer after depositing at room temperature or after heating. This is contrary to the case of Li where intercalation occurred directly after deposition.

  • 60.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Osiecki, Jacek
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Zakharov, A A
    Lund University.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Leif I
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hydrogen intercalation of graphene grown on 6H-SiC(0001)2011Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 605, nr 17-18, s. 1662-1668Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic hydrogen exposures on a monolayer graphene grown on the SiC(0001) surface are shown to result in hydrogen intercalation. The hydrogen intercalation induces a transformation of the monolayer graphene and the carbon buffer layer to bi-layer graphene without a buffer layer. The STM, LEED, and core-level photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal that hydrogen atoms can go underneath the graphene and the carbon buffer layer and bond to Si atoms at the substrate interface. This transforms the buffer layer into a second graphene layer. Hydrogen exposure results initially in the formation of bi-layer graphene islands on the surface. With larger atomic hydrogen exposures, the islands grow in size and merge until the surface is fully covered with bi-layer graphene. A (root 3 x root 3)R30 degrees periodicity is observed on the bi-layer areas. ARPES and energy filtered XPEEM investigations of the electron band structure confirm that after hydrogenation the single pi-band characteristic of monolayer graphene is replaced by two pi-bands that represent bi-layer graphene. Annealing an intercalated sample, representing bi-layer graphene, to a temperature of 850 degrees C. or higher, re-establishes the monolayer graphene with a buffer layer on SiC(0001).

  • 61.
    Xia, Chao
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Watcharinyanon, Somsakul
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zakharov, A A.
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Johansson, Leif I.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Virojanadara, Chariya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Detailed studies of Na intercalation on furnace-grown graphene on 6H-SiC(0001)2013Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 613, s. 88-94Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects induced by Na deposited on furnace grown graphene on SiC(0001) and after subsequent annealing are investigated using LEEM, mu-LEED, mu-PES and XPEEM. Intercalation in between carbon layers and at the interface is observed to occur both on the 1 ML and 2 ML areas directly after Na deposition. Annealing at a temperature around 100 degrees C is found to strongly promote Na intercalation. Exposure to the electron beam or the focused synchrotron radiation in the LEEM/XPEEM is also found to promote the intercalation, which is confirmed to begin at domain boundaries between the 1 ML and 2 ML areas, and also as stripe/streak-like features on the 1 ML areas. The XPEEM data show Na adsorption on the surface and intercalation at the interface to be quite non-uniform. When annealing at higher temperatures Na starts to de-intercalate and leave the sample, but Na is still detectable on the sample after annealing at 240 degrees C.

  • 62.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Jemander, S.T.
    Lin, N.
    Hansson, Göran
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Origin of 3 × 3 diffraction on the Sn1-xSix/Si(1 1 1) v3 × v3 surface2003Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 531, nr 1, s. 21-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An evolution of an apparent 3 × 3 low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) pattern has been observed for the Sn1-xSix/Si(1 1 1) v3 × v3 surface alloy. The origin of this additional diffraction has been investigated in detail by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The 3 × 3 diffraction, which appears after annealing, is associated with the arrangement of the Sn and substitutional Si atoms in the surface layer, forming many local structures such as honeycombs, hexagons, and atomic lines. As revealed by Fourier-transforms of the STM-images, these local structures are the origins of the 3 × 3 diffraction and a weak 23×3 streaky background superposed on the 3 × 3 LEED pattern. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 63.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Sakamoto, K.
    Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 266-8522, Japan.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Surface electronic structures of Au-induced reconstructions on the Ag/Ge(1 1 1) v3 × v3 surface2003Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 532-535, s. 934-939Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A small amount of Au atoms deposited at room temperature transforms the Ag/Ge(1 1 1)v3 × v3 surface into a v 39 × v39 surface. The presence of the Au atoms leads to downward shifts and modifications of the surface state bands compared to the initial v3 × v3 surface. Further deposition of Au on the v39 × v39 surface changes it into a 6 × 6 periodicity. At the same time the surface electronic structure changes from a metallic to a semiconducting phase with a gap of around 0.2 eV with respect to the Fermi-level. Finally, the 6 × 6 phase transforms into a new 2v3 × 2v3 phase when more Au is added, and the surface switches back to a metallic state. © 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 64.
    Zhang, Hanmin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Uhrberg, Roger
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Yt- och Halvledarfysik.
    Scanning tunneling microscopy study of Ag/Ge(1 1 1): Observation of surface reconstruction transformations2003Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 546, nr 2-3, s. L789-L796Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The 6×6 and v39×v39 phases of Ag/Ge(1 1 1) have been studied by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Surface atomic structures of the 6×6 and the v39×v39 phase are proposed in terms of additional Ag adatoms on top of a v3×v3 layer described by the honeycomb-chain-trimer (HCT) model. By varying the STM tip bias, the reconstruction can be changed reversibly between the v39×v39 and the 6×6 phase. Besides the switching between two different phases, it is also possible to flip the domain orientation of the v39×v39 phase. The mechanisms of the reconstruction transformation have been discussed in terms of the role of the STM tip. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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