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  • 51.
    Björnsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell Produktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindbäck, Jan Erik
    Saab Aerostructures.
    Johansen, Kerstin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Automated Removal of Prepreg Backing Paper - A Sticky Problem2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the SAE 2013, Aerotech Congress and Exhibition, 24th-26th September 2013, Montreal,Canada, 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated solutions for manufacturing composite products based on prepreg often imply Automatic Fiber Placement or Automatic Tape Laying. These systems are generally associated with huge investments. For certain manufacturing applications it is interesting to investigate alternatives to find simpler and less costly automation. One example of an automated system could be the use of a standard industrial robot to pick single prepreg plies from an automated cutting machine and stack them to form a plane laminate. This paper is based on a case illustrating a product from the aircraft manufacturing industry. The case will demonstrate a pick and place concept on a general level and illustrate challenges that must be solved. The challenge selected to be the main focus for this paper is an automated process for backing paper removal. A literature review of different gripping technologies reveals several interesting technologies, and the most promising are tested for backing paper removal. The tests show that an automated removal process can be designed by using standard vacuum grippers in combination with mechanical clamping grippers. In order to lift the backing paper with a vacuum gripper an initial separation between the backing paper and prepreg is needed. This separation is most easily mechanically induced by bending the material. The proposed solution for automatic backing paper removal can be integrated in a manufacturing cell for manufacturing of the studied product.

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  • 52. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Blissing, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Körsimulering och visualisering (SIM).
    Driving in Virtual Reality: Investigations in Effects of Latency and Level of Virtuality2016Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    When developing new active safety systems or improving existing systems, conducting performance evaluations is necessary. By performing these evaluations during early development stages, potential problems can be identified and mitigated before the system moves into the production phase.

    Testing active safety systems can be difficult since the characteristic scenarios may have complex interactions. Using real vehicles for performing these types of scenarios is difficult, expensive, and potentially dangerous. Alternative methods, such as using inflatable targets, scale models, computer simulations or driving simulators, also suffer from drawbacks. Consequently, using virtual reality as an alternative to the traditional methods has been proposed. In this case, a real vehicle is driven while wearing a head-mounted display that presents the scenario to the driver.

    This research aims to investigate the potential of such technology. Specifically, this work investigates how the chosen technology affects the driver. This investigation has been conducted through a literature review. A test platform was constructed, and two user studies using normal drivers were performed. The first study focused on the effects of visual time delays on driver behavior. This study revealed that lateral behavior changes with added time delays, whereas longitudinal behavior appears unaffected. The second study investigated how driver behavior is affected by different modes of virtuality. This study demonstrated that drivers perceived mixed reality as more difficult than virtual reality.

    The main contribution of this work is the detailed understanding of how time delays and different modes of virtuality affect drivers. This is important knowledge for selecting which scenarios are suitable for evaluation using virtual reality.

    Delarbeten
    1. Augmented and Mixed Reality as a tool for evaluation of Vehicle Active Safety Systems
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Augmented and Mixed Reality as a tool for evaluation of Vehicle Active Safety Systems
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation, Rome, Italy, 23-25 October, 2013, Aracne editrice, 2013Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the realism of driving simulators increases constantly, there is a potential issue with how representative the test is compared to a real life scenario. An alternative to simulators is to present a mixture of real and simulated environment to the driver and perform the scenario at a test track when driving a real vehicle. This enables an efficient way of testing that inherits many of the advantages of driving simulators as well as some of the advantages of physical testing in prototype vehicles. The present paper is a compilation of previous research in augmented reality in vehicle driving situations, focusing on technical limitations of Head-Mounted-Displays.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Aracne editrice, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Simulation, Driving (veh), Visual display, Test method
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Interaktionsteknik
    Forskningsämne
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 91 Road: Vehicle design and construction
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131619 (URN)978-8854864153 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    RSS2013 Road Safety and Simulation - International Conference. October 23-25, 2013. Rome, Italy
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-28 Skapad: 2016-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-09-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. A Technical Platform using Augmented Reality for Active Safety Testing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Technical Platform using Augmented Reality for Active Safety Testing
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference Proceedings / [ed] Dr. Essam Radwan, Dr. Mohamed Abdel-Aty, Orlando, USA: University of Central Florida , 2015, s. 793-803Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design of a video see-through augmented reality system for active safety testing. The development is explained in detail, with focus on the design considerations for the different subsystems. It is shown that it is possible to build a system using available commercial off-the-shelf components, while still maintaining the performance needed for the intended application. Accuracy and resolution requirements of the tracking systems are discussed along with measurement methods. We also examine how to use the hardware efficiently to minimize latency and a device to measure and quantify end-to-end latency has been developed.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Orlando, USA: University of Central Florida, 2015
    Nyckelord
    Active safety system, Test, Simulation, Design (overall design), Characteristics
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Interaktionsteknik
    Forskningsämne
    90 Road: Vehicles and vehicle technology, 911 Road: Components of the vehicle
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131620 (URN)9781495174452 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    2015 Road Safety & Simulation International Conference
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA, 2011-01819]
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-28 Skapad: 2016-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-09-28Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Effects of Visual Latency on Vehicle Driving Behavior
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effects of Visual Latency on Vehicle Driving Behavior
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: ACM Transactions on Applied Perception, ISSN 1544-3558, E-ISSN 1544-3965, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 5:1-5:12, artikel-id 5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Using mixed reality in vehicles provides a potential alternative to using driving simulators when studying driver-vehicle inter- action. However, virtual reality systems introduce latency in the visual system that may alter driving behavior, which, in turn, results in questionable validity. Previous studies have mainly focused on visual latency as a separate phenomenon. In this work, latency is studied from a task-dependent viewpoint to investigate how participants’ driving behavior changed with increased latency. In this study, the investigation was performed through experiments in which regular drivers were subjected to different levels of visual latency while performing a simple slalom driving task. The drivers’ performances were recorded and evaluated in both lateral and longitudinal directions along with self-assessment questionnaires regarding task performance and difficulty. All participants managed to complete the driving tasks successfully, even under high latency conditions, but were clearly affected by the increased visual latency. The results suggest that drivers compensate for longer latencies by steering more and increasing the safety margins but without reducing their speed.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2016
    Nyckelord
    Driving, Vision, Delay, Variability, Simulator (driving), Performance (road user)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Interaktionsteknik
    Forskningsämne
    80 Road: Traffic safety and accidents, 841 Road: Road user behaviour
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131621 (URN)10.1145/2971320 (DOI)
    Projekt
    Next Generation Test Methods for Active Safety Functions
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA, 2011-01819]
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-26 Skapad: 2016-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-21Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Driver behavior in mixed and virtual reality: a comparative study
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Driver behavior in mixed and virtual reality: a comparative study
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the DSC 2016 Europe / [ed] Andras Kemeny, Frédéric Mérienne, Florent Columbet, Stéphane Espié, Paris, France: Driving Simulation Association , 2016, s. 179-186Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comparative study of driving behavior when using different virtual reality modes. Test subjects were exposed to mixed, virtual, and real reality using a head mounted display capable of video see-through, while performing a simple driving task. The driving behavior was quantified in steering and acceleration/deceleration activities, divided into local and global components. There was a distinct effect of wearing a head mounted display, which affected all measured variables. Results show that average speed was the most significant difference between mixed and virtual reality, while the steering behavior was consistent between modes. All subjects but one were able to successfully complete the driving task, suggesting that virtual driving could be a potential complement to driving simulators.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Paris, France: Driving Simulation Association, 2016
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Interaktionsteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131622 (URN)
    Konferens
    Driving Simulator Conference, 7-9 sept, 2016. Paris, France
    Projekt
    Next Generation Test Methods for Active Safety Functions
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA, 2011-01819]TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-19 Skapad: 2016-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-09-28Bibliografiskt granskad
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    Driving in Virtual Reality: Investigations in Effects of Latency and Level of Virtuality
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    omslag
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    presentationsbild
  • 53.
    Blissing, Björn
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Bruzelius, Fredrik
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Fordonsteknik och simulering, FTS.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Augmented and Mixed Reality as a tool for evaluation of Vehicle Active Safety Systems2013Ingår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Road Safety and Simulation, Rome, Italy, 23-25 October, 2013, Aracne editrice, 2013Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though the realism of driving simulators increases constantly, there is a potential issue with how representative the test is compared to a real life scenario. An alternative to simulators is to present a mixture of real and simulated environment to the driver and perform the scenario at a test track when driving a real vehicle. This enables an efficient way of testing that inherits many of the advantages of driving simulators as well as some of the advantages of physical testing in prototype vehicles. The present paper is a compilation of previous research in augmented reality in vehicle driving situations, focusing on technical limitations of Head-Mounted-Displays.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 54.
    Blok, Dennis
    et al.
    Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Ruiter, Iemkje
    Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Industrial Design Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Operability of child-resistant caps: review of current solutions and alternative ideas2016Ingår i: Innovation, development and sustainability in packaging, 2016Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Child-safe or child-resistant caps come in a range of solutions, but the dominant solution is a closure which has to be pushed down and turned simultaneously. The idea is that young children have neither the strength nor the dexterity required for this operation. Safe use of such a packaging solution requires that the safety feature is restored to the same condition after re-closing the package. Practice shows however, that child-safe caps also present a challenge to elderly and people with reduced hand function. For them, child-resistant caps are hard to open, which causes the packs to be poorly reclosed (intentionally or unintentionally), or even left open, leading to incidents.   

    Current solutions are (partly) based on the force to be exerted, but this may not be the best approach. As part of a re-design process of this type of packaging, a theoretical ergonomic assessment was made, combined with a set of expert interviews of academics in the field of packaging ergonomics. It is concluded that the push-and-turn solution is based on physical ergonomic properties that insufficiently distinguish children and intended users. An alternative solution space is mapped and evaluated based on different working principles. An ideal safety cap should utilise a cognitive set of actions and physical ergonomic distinction between children and users with reduced hand function or strength. 

  • 55.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Oslo School of Architecture and Design.
    Persson, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Åberg, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Communication through Boundary Objects in Distributed Agile Teams2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Personal communication between User-Centered Design (UCD) specialists and developers is important for communicating user needs and design solutions in agile development. In distributed projects where opportunities for personal communication are limited, the design documentation is an important surrogate. This study has investigated the perceived effectiveness of boundary objects in a distributed agile team, and their role in communicating target user needs. Six in-depth interviews with UCD specialists showed that the boundary objects rarely communicate underlying needs of the users but rather focus on interaction with the system that is being developed. The used boundary objects also do not work as stand-alone deliverables; they need to be explained and elaborated. Making the boundary objects comprehensive enough to be stand-alone is seen as too time consuming and not worth the effort. For agile projects with distributed teams, this creates hand-over and follow-up problems.

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  • 56.
    Boberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Fredrikson, Tove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Child Comfort in Rear Seats of Cars: A seating comfort study of how to improve and evaluate older children’s perceived comfort when riding on a belt-positioning booster2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last couple of years several studies have been conducted to investigate how children move and position during car rides. This in order to map when, and for how long children sit in positions that are not safe as well as to identify the reason for these movements. One of the conclusions is that children do not always sit comfortable in today’s belt-positioning boosters and thereby they chose positions that are unwanted for safety reasons.

    The aim for the master thesis has thereby been to improve seating comfort for children while traveling safely in the rear seat of a car. The target group has been children in ages 5-11 years old with body height 110-145 cm, a Swedish population 50 percentile has been used for the extreme dimensions.

    The master thesis process is divided in three phases; Discovery, Development and Testing and Evaluation. In the Discovery phase information in the areas child safety, child methodology and comfort was gathered through literature study, interviews with experts, benchmarking and a focus group with parents. As a final step customer needs were formulated. In the Development phase a workshop with children was initially performed to complement the customer needs with inputs from the users. The customer needs were afterwards reformulated into a specification of requirements and five comfort hypotheses. Finally a prototype was developed, designed from the requirements with the purpose to validate the comfort hypotheses, using an anthropometric design method (Osvalder, et al., 2010). In the final phase, Testing and Evaluation, the prototype and reference belt-positioning boosters were evaluated by children in two user studies; one static study and one on road study, to evaluate comfort features and try out different seating comfort evaluation methods.

    The result is divided into child seating comfort characteristics and child seating comfort methodology guidelines. To assist future development of belt-positioning boosters, seven comfort features are defined to help children ride comfortable in a safe position in the car. Furthermore, 13 child methodology guidelines are formulated to help further seating comfort evaluation with children.

    Conclusively to make children sit comfortable and safe positioned in the car they should be seated in a belt-positioning booster with headrest, backrest, seat cushion and foot support, the supporting parts need to be perceived as soft around head, back and under the buttock and all parts need to be dimensioned for all children in the target group. The size of the belt-positioning booster and the combination of foam thickness, foam hardness and shape are the main factors for affecting the perceived seating comfort. Furthermore, children shall be included as both design partners and testers during the development of belt-positioning boosters. During the prototype development static comfort evaluation with children should be done repeatedly to verify measurements, shape and foam hardness. To evaluate comfort both static evaluation and on road evaluation should be performed since comfort varies over time. Data should be collected subjectively from children through quantitative methods, such as rating scales, and qualitative methods, such as general questions regarding comfort/discomfort experience. Video observations can identify children’s position during car rides. Different positions can be timed and together with subjective data reasons for repositioning can be identified.

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    Child Comfort in Rear Seats of Cars
  • 57.
    Bouilloux-Lafont, Antoine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Noya Pozo, Rubén
    Development of Acoustic Simulations using Parametric CAD Models in COMSOL2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With constantly changing regulations on emissions, heavy commercial vehicles manufacturershave to adapt for their products to preserve their quality while meetingthese new requirements. Over the past decades, noise emissions have become a greatconcern and new stricter laws demand companies to decrease their vehicle pass-bynoise target values.To address the requirements from different disciplines, Scania follows a simulationdriven design process to develop new concept models EATS. The collaboration amongengineers from different fields is thereby necessary in order to obtain higher performancesilencers. However, the pre-processing step in terms of acoustic simulationsis time-consuming, which can slow the concept development process.In this thesis, a new method was introduced to automate the pre-processing of silenceracoustic models and allow for design optimisation based on acoustic performanceresults. A common Scania product study case was provided to several theseswithin the NXD organisation. The collaboration among the master thesis workersaimed to demonstrate the benefits of KBE and MDO and how they can be integratedwithin Scania’s current concept development and product introduction processes.The performed work was divided in the following steps: data collection, methoddevelopment and concluding work. The first step consisted in gathering sufficientknowledge by conducting a thorough literature review and interviews. Then, an initialmethod was formulated and tested on a simplified silencer model. Once approvedand verified, the method was applied to the study case EATS.The study case showed that a complex product can have its acoustic pre-processingstep automated by ensuring a good connectivity among the required software anda correct denomination of the geometrical objects involved in the simulations. Themethod investigated how morphological optimisations can be performed at bothglobal and local levels to enhance the transmission loss of a silencer. Besides optimisingthe acoustic performance of the models, the method allowed the identificationof correlations and inter-dependencies among their design variables and ouput parameters.

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  • 58.
    Bruder, Robin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vibrationsdämpat maskinhus för skjutstativtruck2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En skjutstativtruck är en truck med hög acceleration och den aktuella modellen kan köras i hastigheter upp till 14 km/h. När trucken framförs på ojämna underlag, exempelvis slitna industrigolv, fortplantas vibrationer från underlaget genom chassit till maskinhuset. Dessa vibrationer orsakar spänningsökningar och slitage på delarna i maskinhuset och påverkar föraren negativt. För att förbättra miljön för föraren och truckens komponenter ska möjligheten till ett vibrationsdämpat maskinhus undersökas och ett koncept på en möjlig lösning genereras. För att validera att lösningen reducerar vibrationerna som fortplantas från chassit till maskinhuset konstrueras en förenklad prototyp.

    Projektet har delats upp i olika konceptfaser med enskilda mål. Efter att ett slutgiltigt koncept valts, utvecklas konceptet vidare tills alla ingående delar är modellerade eller valda och en detaljerad layout är specificerad med ritningsunderlag. Därefter påbörjas prototypkonstruktion och produktion.

    Det slutgiltiga konceptet använder tvådelade gummielement för att separera chassiplattan och maskinhuset. Hålbilden på chassiplattan måste ändras för att möta den modifiering som krävs för att konceptet ska kunna implementeras. För att fästa maskinhuset till gummielementen används liknande plåtar som i dagens konstruktion. Gummielementen är specificerade med en maximal belastning på 260 kg styck och på grund av de lyft som förekommer vid en del servicefall måste lyftlås implementeras till konstruktionen för att säkerställa att konstruktionen håller. Implementeringen av konceptet skulle innebära en viktökning med 1,845 kg vilket motsvarar 0,369 % av vikten av maskinhuset med föraren inkluderad. Inköpskostnaden för gummielementen är 525,8 kr/truck enligt den prismodell som finns idag.

    Testet av prototypen visar att konceptet har god förmåga att reducera vibrationer med frekvenser över 400 Hz vid körning utan hinder. När konceptet testas på ett hinder i form av ett plattjärn blir resultatet från mätningen otydligt och ingen generell slutsats kan dras.

    Arbetet efter examensarbetet bör gå vidare med noggrannare analyser av hållfasthet samt tester av en fullskalig prototyp och hur gummit i dämparna påverkas av tid och klimat innan konceptet kan tas i bruk.

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  • 59.
    Bäckman, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Kling, Josef
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Development of a Methodology for Efficient FEM Pre-processes to Aid Simulation-driven Design2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    With both tougher competition and legislations, companies always strive to improve their products while cutting unnecessary costs. This master’s thesis investigates if the after-treatment systems department at the heavy-duty vehicle company Scania CV AB in Södertälje, Sweden can improve their development process by implementing automated FEM pre-processes for welded sheet metal components. The research is based upon theory from various fields within product development, knowledge-based engineering, FEM and design optimization, contributing to an understating of what effects this project could have on the development process as a whole.

    Large parts of the pre-processes used at the department today were identified as repetitive and suitable for automation. Using a simplified CAD model of an after-treatment system as a case study, a methodology for more efficient FEM pre-processes was developed. The methodology includes changes to the workflow between the design engineer and the CAE engineer as well as a software that automatically meshes welded sheet metal products. First of all, the design engineer inserts lines representing the weld positions in the CAD model and exports the model to the CAE engineer. Hereafter, the CAE engineer simply selects necessary settings for the mesh and launches the developed software that automatically meshes the sheet metal components as well as identifies and meshes the welds.

    The technique used to mesh the welds in HyperMesh fails for certain weld characteristics, resulting in a robustness of 54 % of the total weld length for the worst case in the case study. These characteristics are welds crossing other welds, welds adjacent to a sharp corner and welds containing a sharp corner. By excluding these problem areas when defining the lines in CATIA, the robustness increases substantially to between 72 % and 88 % of the total weld length in the case study, where the exclusion zones represent 3 % of the total weld length.

    Based on the case study, the developed methodology could potentially shorten the iterative development process between the design and CAE engineer with a total of 25 %, while the CAE engineer’s tasks in the development process can be cut with up to 60 %. This allows for more time being focused on value-adding tasks, resulting in higher quality products and an increased profit for the company.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Development of a Methodology for Efficient FEM Pre-processes to Aid Simulation-driven Design
  • 60. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Methods for Early Model Validation: Applied on Simulation Models of Aircraft Vehicle Systems2013Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Simmuleringsmodeller av fysikaliska system, med eller utan reglerande mjukvara, har sedan lång tid tillbaka ett brett användningsområde inom flygindustrin. Tillämpningar finns inom allt från systemutveckling till produktverifiering och träning. Med de huvudsakliga drivkrafterna att reducera mängden fysisk provning samt att öka förutsättningarna till att fatta välgrundade modellbaserade designbeslut pågår en trend att ytterligare öka andelen modellering och simulering.

    Arbetet som presenteras i denna avhandling är fokuserat på utveckling av metodik för validering av simuleringsmodeller, vilket anses vara ett kritiskt område för att framgångsrikt minska mängden fysisk provning utan att äventyra säkerheten. Utveckling av metoder för att på ett säkert sätt minska mängden fysisk provning är speciellt intressant inom flygindustrin där varje fysiskt prov vanligen utgör en betydande kostnad. Utöver de stora kostnaderna kan det även vara svårt eller riskfyllt att genomföra fysisk provning. Specifikt är även de långa utvecklingscyklerna som innebär att man har långa perioder av osäkerhet under produktutvecklingen. Inom såväl industri som akademi ses verifiering, validering och osäkerhetsanalys av simuleringsmodeller som kritiska aktiviteter för en framgångsrik tillämpning av modellbaserad systemutveckling. Kvantifiering av osäkerheterna i ett simuleringsresultat kräver dock vanligen en betydande mängd säker information, och för industriella tillämpningar framstår tillgängliga metoder ofta som alltför detaljerade eller arbetskrävande. Totalt sett ger detta särskild anledning till forskning inom metodik för modellvalidering, med speciellt fokus på förenklade metoder för användning i tidiga utvecklingsfaser då tillgången på mätdata är knapp.

    Resultatet från arbetet inkluderar en metod som stöttar tidig modellvalidering. Metoden är avsedd att tillämpas vid brist på mätdata från aktuellt system, och möjliggör utnyttjande av osäkerhetsinformation från komponentnivå för bedömning av osäkerhet på modellnivå. Avsaknad av data för karaktärisering av parameterosäkerheter är även ett vanligt förekommande problem som till viss mån mildras genom användning av metoden. Ett koncept har utvecklats för att integrera osäkerhetsinformation hämtad från komponentvalidering direkt i en modells komponenter, vilket möjliggör en förenklad osäkerhetsanalys på modellnivå. Abstraktionsnivån vid osäkerhetsanalysen höjs på så sätt från parameternivå till komponentnivå. Metoden är implementerad i ett Modelica-baserat komponentbibliotek för modellering och simulering av grundflygplansystem, och har utvärderats i en industriell tillämpning i kombination med både deterministiska och probabilistiska tekniker. Resultatet från arbetet inkluderar även en industriellt tillämplig process för utveckling, validering och export av simuleringsmodeller, och begreppen virtuell provning och virtuell certifiering diskuteras.

    Delarbeten
    1. Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Online Proceedings including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition (2012), AIAA , 2012Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a framework for development and validation of multipurpose simulation models. The presented methodology enables reuse of models in different applications with different purposes. The scope is simulation models representing physical environment, physical aircraft systems or subsystems, avionics equipment, and electronic hardware. The methodology has been developed by a small interdisciplinary team, with experience from Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of vehicle systems as well as development of simulators for verification and training. Special care has been taken to ensure usability of the workflow and method descriptions, mainly by means of 1) a user friendly format, easy to overview and update, 2) keeping the amount of text down, and 3) providing relevant examples, templates, and checklists. A simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of a military fighter aircraft, the Saab Gripen, is used as an example to guide the reader through the workflow of developing and validating multipurpose simulation models. The methods described in the paper can be used in both military and civil applications, and are not limited to the aircraft industry.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    AIAA, 2012
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74716 (URN)10.2514/6.2012-877 (DOI)
    Konferens
    50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, 9–12 January, 2012, Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center, 9-12 January, Nashville, Tennessee
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-02-06 Skapad: 2012-02-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-25
    2. Utilizing Uncertainty Information in Early Model Validation
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Utilizing Uncertainty Information in Early Model Validation
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference / [ed] AIAA, 2012Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a pragmatic approach enabling early model validation activities with a limited availability of system level measurement data. The method utilizes information obtained from the common practice of component validation to assess uncertainties on model top level. Focusing on industrial applicability, the method makes use of information normally available to engineers developing simulation models of existing or not yet existing systems. This is in contrast to the traditional sensitivity analysis requiring the user to quantify component parameter uncertainties – a task which, according to the authors’ experience, may be far from intuitive. As the proposed method enables uncertainties to be defined for a component’s outputs (characteristics) rather than its inputs (parameters), it is hereby termed output uncertainty. The method is primarily intended for use in large-scale mathematical 1-D dynamic simulation models of physical systems with or without control software, typically described by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) or Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE).It is shown that the method may result in a significant reduction in the number of uncertain parameters that require consideration in a simulation model. The uncertainty quantification of these parameters also becomes more intuitive. Since this implies a substantial improvement in the conditions of conducting sensitivity analysis or optimization on large-scale simulation models, the method facilitates early model validation. In contrast to sensitivity analysis with respect to a model’s original component parameters, which only covers one aspect of model uncertainty, the output uncertainty method enables assessment also of other kinds of uncertainties, such as uncertainties in underlying equations or uncertainties due to model simplifications. To increase the relevance of the method, a simulation model of a radar liquid cooling system is used as an industrial application example.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80110 (URN)10.2514/6.2012-4852 (DOI)978-162410182-3 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference 2012, 13-16 August, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-08-21 Skapad: 2012-08-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-01-15
    3. Evaluating Model Uncertainty Based on Probabilistic Analysis and Component Output Uncertainty Descriptions
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Evaluating Model Uncertainty Based on Probabilistic Analysis and Component Output Uncertainty Descriptions
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition: IMECE2012-85236 / [ed] ASME, 2012Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To support early model validation, this paper describes a method utilizing information obtained from the common practice component level validation to assess uncertainties on model top level. Initiated in previous research, a generic output uncertainty description component, intended for power-port based simulation models of physical systems, has been implemented in Modelica. A set of model components has been extended with the generic output uncertainty description, and the concept of using component level output uncertainty to assess model top level uncertainty has been applied on a simulation model of a radar liquid cooling system. The focus of this paper is on investigating the applicability of combining the output uncertainty method with probabilistic techniques, not only to provide upper and lower bounds on model uncertaintiesbut also to accompany the uncertainties with estimated probabilities.It is shown that the method may result in a significant improvement in the conditions for conducting an assessment of model uncertainties. The primary use of the method, in combination with either deterministic or probabilistic techniques, is in the early development phases when system level measurement data are scarce. The method may also be used to point out which model components contribute most to the uncertainty on model top level. Such information can be used to concentrate physical testing activities to areas where it is needed most. In this context, the method supports the concept of Virtual Testing.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85455 (URN)
    Konferens
    ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition, IMECE2012, 9-15 November, Houston, Texas, USA
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-11-19 Skapad: 2012-11-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-01-15Bibliografiskt granskad
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Methods for Early Model Validation: Applied on Simulation Models of Aircraft Vehicle Systems
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    omslag
  • 61.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Henric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models2012Ingår i: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Online Proceedings including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition (2012), AIAA , 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a framework for development and validation of multipurpose simulation models. The presented methodology enables reuse of models in different applications with different purposes. The scope is simulation models representing physical environment, physical aircraft systems or subsystems, avionics equipment, and electronic hardware. The methodology has been developed by a small interdisciplinary team, with experience from Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of vehicle systems as well as development of simulators for verification and training. Special care has been taken to ensure usability of the workflow and method descriptions, mainly by means of 1) a user friendly format, easy to overview and update, 2) keeping the amount of text down, and 3) providing relevant examples, templates, and checklists. A simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of a military fighter aircraft, the Saab Gripen, is used as an example to guide the reader through the workflow of developing and validating multipurpose simulation models. The methods described in the paper can be used in both military and civil applications, and are not limited to the aircraft industry.

  • 62.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluating Model Uncertainty Based on Probabilistic Analysis and Component Output Uncertainty Descriptions2012Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME 2012 International Mechanical Engineering Congress & Exposition: IMECE2012-85236 / [ed] ASME, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    To support early model validation, this paper describes a method utilizing information obtained from the common practice component level validation to assess uncertainties on model top level. Initiated in previous research, a generic output uncertainty description component, intended for power-port based simulation models of physical systems, has been implemented in Modelica. A set of model components has been extended with the generic output uncertainty description, and the concept of using component level output uncertainty to assess model top level uncertainty has been applied on a simulation model of a radar liquid cooling system. The focus of this paper is on investigating the applicability of combining the output uncertainty method with probabilistic techniques, not only to provide upper and lower bounds on model uncertaintiesbut also to accompany the uncertainties with estimated probabilities.It is shown that the method may result in a significant improvement in the conditions for conducting an assessment of model uncertainties. The primary use of the method, in combination with either deterministic or probabilistic techniques, is in the early development phases when system level measurement data are scarce. The method may also be used to point out which model components contribute most to the uncertainty on model top level. Such information can be used to concentrate physical testing activities to areas where it is needed most. In this context, the method supports the concept of Virtual Testing.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Evaluating Model Uncertainty Based on Probabilistic Analysis and Component Output Uncertainty Descriptions
  • 63.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Utilizing Uncertainty Information in Early Model Validation2012Ingår i: AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference / [ed] AIAA, 2012Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a pragmatic approach enabling early model validation activities with a limited availability of system level measurement data. The method utilizes information obtained from the common practice of component validation to assess uncertainties on model top level. Focusing on industrial applicability, the method makes use of information normally available to engineers developing simulation models of existing or not yet existing systems. This is in contrast to the traditional sensitivity analysis requiring the user to quantify component parameter uncertainties – a task which, according to the authors’ experience, may be far from intuitive. As the proposed method enables uncertainties to be defined for a component’s outputs (characteristics) rather than its inputs (parameters), it is hereby termed output uncertainty. The method is primarily intended for use in large-scale mathematical 1-D dynamic simulation models of physical systems with or without control software, typically described by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODE) or Differential Algebraic Equations (DAE).It is shown that the method may result in a significant reduction in the number of uncertain parameters that require consideration in a simulation model. The uncertainty quantification of these parameters also becomes more intuitive. Since this implies a substantial improvement in the conditions of conducting sensitivity analysis or optimization on large-scale simulation models, the method facilitates early model validation. In contrast to sensitivity analysis with respect to a model’s original component parameters, which only covers one aspect of model uncertainty, the output uncertainty method enables assessment also of other kinds of uncertainties, such as uncertainties in underlying equations or uncertainties due to model simplifications. To increase the relevance of the method, a simulation model of a radar liquid cooling system is used as an industrial application example.

  • 64.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Steinkellner, Sören
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Enabling Uncertainty Quantification of Large Aircraft System Simulation Models2013Ingår i: 4:th CEAS conference, 2013 / [ed] Tomas Melin, Petter Krus, Emil Vinterhav, Knut Övrebo, Linköping University Electronic Press , 2013Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common viewpoint in both academia and industry is that that Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VV&UQ) of simulation models are vital activities for a successful deployment of model-based system engineering. In the literature, there is no lack of advice regarding methods for VV&UQ. However, for industrial applications available methods for Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) often seem too detailed or tedious to even try. The consequence is that no UQ is performed, resulting in simulation models not being used to their full potential.

    In this paper, the effort required for UQ of a detailed aircraft vehicle system model is estimated. A number of methodological steps that aim to achieve a more feasible UQ are proposed. The paper is focused on 1‑D dynamic simulation models of physical systems with or without control software, typically described by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) or Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs). An application example of an aircraft vehicle system model is used for method evaluation.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Enabling Uncertainty Quantification of Large Aircraft System Simulation Models
  • 65.
    Castillo Ellström, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Andersson, Tomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    A Guideline for Conducting Form Analysis of Branded Products: The Development of a Design Guideline Framework for Product-Producing Companies in a Brand Management Context2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the research and development of a framework for creating design guidelines, aimed towards product-producing companies as a part of a brand extension strategy. The thesis answers two research questions:

    RQ1: What strategies could be used to analyze visual form and product design as a part of a brand extension strategy for a product-producing company?

    RQ2: How can an existing visual brand identity be utilized during the product development process and redefined for new product categories?

    The thesis is divided into a literature review and a case application of the presented theories on a real-world product development process. The literature review includes three central frameworks. Firstly, a theoretical framework including theories regarding brand management, product design and form, design syntactics and product architecture is introduced. The theoretical framework also includes product modularity which is specifically included for the case application. These theories are used to create a form analysis framework, which is the second element of the literature review. The third element of the literature review is a framework for how to create design guidelines, based on explicit and implicit design features. The design guideline framework is built from insights and theories found in literature used throughout the literature review.

    The case application focuses on the development of a new concept and design guidelines for a modular Autonomous Mobile Robot (AMR) for a case company. The case application utilizes the created theoretical frameworks for a real-world product development process. The created concept envisions the visual brand language of the case company, while also serving as the foundation for the design guideline development.

    The form analysis framework is used to understand product design and form on already existing products within a product category. A total of six analyses are introduced, all with their own respective focus on different fields of study and area of application. The form analysis framework investigates three areas of application: Internal and external factors as well as the existing product family of a company. Applying the form analysis framework to the case show that these methods are suitable for analyzing the visual form of products.

    By examining the internal factors of the case company, such as analyzing existing products and prior design guidelines, a format for key design principles can be created. Based on these design principles and insights from the form analysis, the visual brand identity can be transferred to a new product category and described through redefined design guidelines. Findings show that certain design features, such as color and usage of logotype, are the most suitable for acting as identity carriers. Utilizing these can bring cohesiveness to a product portfolio. It can be concluded that the use of explicit and implicit design features is a viable way to holistically describe and articulate product design.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 66.
    Chu, Wanjun
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Design for Supporting Sustainable Behaviour Retention through Context Change2017Ingår i: Persuasive Technology: Development and implementation of personalized technologies to change attitudes and behaviours: 12th International Conference, PERSUASIVE 2017, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, April 4-6, 2017 Adjunct Proceedings / [ed] Peter W. de Vries, Thomas Van Rompay, Enschede,The Netherlands: Centre for eHealth & Wellbeing Research, Department of Psychology, Health and Technology, University of Twente , 2017, s. 72-73Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 67.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schütte, Simon
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ayas, E.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Kvalitetsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dahlgaard-Park, S. M.
    Institute of Service Managemnt, Lund University, Helsingborg, Sweden.
    Kansei/affective engineering design: A methodology for profound affection and attractive quality creation2008Ingår i: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 20, nr 4, s. 299-311Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of the paper is to present and discuss the Kansei engineering (KE) methodology, and to reflect on the future development of KE. The paper presents a model of the KE methodology and illustrates how this model was applied on a simple example which all may understand – design of a new chocolate bar.

    Design/methodology/approach – The research methodology is a combination of desk research (literature analysis), data collection, data analysis, reflections and model building.

    Findings – The paper suggests a structural model as a possible expanded framework for future Kansei/affective engineering research studies. According to the model profound affection is a result of the following six enabler factors: sensing experience; emotional experiences (Kansei); behavioural experiences/action; social experiences/interactions and relations; spiritual experiences/moral, ethics; intellectual experiences/cognition.

    Originality/value – The paper defines “Profound affection” as a very comprehensive state, which is a result of a combination of sensing, intellectual/cognitive, emotional, social, behavioural and spiritual experiences. “Profound affection” is not only a result of sensing or emotional experiences.

  • 68.
    De Koeijer, Bjorn
    et al.
    Top Institute Food and Nutrition, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    De Lange, Jos
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Desired, Perceived, and Achieved Sustainability: Trade-Offs in Strategic and Operational Packaging Development2017Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 9, nr 10, artikel-id 1923Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     The alignment of the strategic and the operational level of packaging development

    in relation to the integration of sustainability is not addressed extensively in current research.

    This paper aims to address this, by focusing on the decision-making interrelations of key actors

    (marketing and packaging development) within multidisciplinary product-packaging development

    teams. The research is conducted by means of a qualitative approach, consisting of semi-structured

    interviews with individual packaging development team members, complemented with a newly

    developed visualization tool. The research builds upon eight cases within brand owners, packaging

    material suppliers and packaging development consultants. The main findings of the study

    include the decision-making trade-offs between sustainability considerations and other project

    indicators, such as costs, time-to-market and technical challenges. These trade-offs are linked to

    the strategic and operational roles of key actors, and to internal and external factors influencing

    sustainable development processes. This research’s contribution is to address the alignment of the

    strategic and the operational levels of sustainable packaging development, in relation to (1) decision

    making and interrelations within multidisciplinary development teams; and (2) the relevance of

    development-influencing factors. This provides opportunities for further development of sustainable

    packaging models and tools, in order to align the strategic and operational level of development.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 69.
    de Koeijer, Bjorn
    et al.
    Top Institute Food and Nutr, Netherlands; University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Henseler, Jorg
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Realizing Product-Packaging Combinations in Circular Systems: Shaping the Research Agenda2017Ingår i: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 30, nr 8, s. 443-460Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have shown a shift in the focus of sustainable development from eco-efficiency (minimizing negative impacts) towards eco-effectiveness (optimizing positive impacts). Currently, a focus on circular models can be identified; Cradle to Cradle and circular economy are main examples of such models. However, the current number and variety of models and tools focusing on circular systems are limited with regard to packaging development. This paper explores packaging development models and tools in relation to circular systems, in order to identify the current status of the circularity focus. A range of identified models and tools is structured into two categories (generative and evaluative tools) which cover three types (protocols, diagrams and evaluations). This is in line with the distinction between early and later phases of development and the cumulative nature of environmental lock-in. Protocol-type models and tools come in different forms, such as principles, guidelines and checklists (e.g. Cradle to Cradle and DfE). Aside from these, eight diagram-type models are analysed, focusing on packaging development, sustainable development and sustainable packaging development. In contrast to generative design tools, evaluation-type models and tools (e.g. LCA) are most useful in the later stages of development processes. Resulting from the analysis of the models and tools, three types of integration - integrated product-packaging development, the cross-functional integration of actors and the front-end integration of sustainability considerations - are appropriate for the development of product-packaging combinations for circular systems. This leads to an agenda which shapes research directions towards achieving this development. (C) 2016 The Authors Packaging Technology and Science Published by John Wiley amp; Sons, Ltd.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 70.
    de Koning, jotte Ilbine Jozine Charlotte
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology.
    Crul, Marcel Rudolphus Maria
    Delft University of Technology.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Models of co-creation2016Ingår i: ServDes.2016 / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen and Francesco Grani, 2016, s. 266-278Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to give an overview of the existing models of co-creation and create metamodels

    from these existing ones. The existing models were found in academic and popular

    or business publications. A total of 50 models was analysed and clustered and used to create

    4 meta-models of co-creation. These meta-models depict the ‘joint space of co-creation’, ‘the

    co-creation spectrum’, ‘the co-creation types’ and ‘the co-creation steps’. They form a

    framework to classify existing research as well as define boundaries for upcoming projects.

    These meta-models should contribute to the clarity, understanding and application of cocreation.

  • 71.
    Derelöv, Micael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    An Approach to Verification and Evaluation of Early ConceptualDesign Solutions2002Ingår i: Proceeding of 7th International Design Conference - Design, Dubrovnik, 2002, s. 125-130Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eartly phases of the design process the evaluation and the following decision-making are based on limited amountof information, nevertheless the decision will determine the direction of the remaining design process. The objektivewith this paper is to present a way of representing the conceptual solutions, which facilitate an enhance utilisation of theavalible information. Based on the systems theory, a widening and more nuanced definition of the conception ofrelationship is being established, which implies an increased possibility of describing properties origin from theinteraction between elements. The proposed representation should be considered as a first step towards a moreelaborated methodology.

  • 72.
    Detterfelt, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Henriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Production – as seen in product development: A theoretical review of how established product development process models address the production system2018Ingår i: DS 91: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018: DESIGN IN THE ERA OF DIGITALIZATION / [ed] Ekströmer, Philip; Schütte, Simon and Ölvander, Johan, Scotland: The Design Society, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is a well-known fact that collaboration between design and production during product development is a critical success factor. Literature on product development have described many different product development processes (PDP), but engineering students are in general only taught one or a few of the existing models. Given this, it is interesting to investigate how established (and often used) PDP models address production and the development of the production system, since this could influence the presumptions of engineers in industry as well as academic researchers (who in general have been engineering students before pursuing an academic career). In this paper, the authors have reviewed seven established and commonly used (in mechanical engineering education and/or research) PDP models, with respect to how the models address the production system and its development. The models are reviewed with respect to what the PDP model describe as the content of the PDP, inclusion of the development of the production system in the model, the presentation of support tools for production related activities, the level of references or mentioning of production system development theories, the visibility of data transfer needs between product and production system development and the strategic role of production in product development. This analysis shows that production system development is mentioned less in more recent literature but is generally scarcely described. Design for manufacturing and design for assembly tools have been added to more recent literature, which might be a way of managing the decreased inclusion of production system development. Finally, an outline for future research efforts on the topic is presented.

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  • 73. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Eek, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    On Credibility Assessment in Aircraft System Simulation2016Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aeronautical industry is becoming increasingly reliant on Modeling and Simulation (M&S) for use throughout all system development phases, for system verification, and end-user training. To justify and to utilize the full potential of today’s model-based approach, the development of efficient and industrially applicable methods for credibility assessment of M&S efforts is a key challenge.

    This work addresses methods facilitating credibility assessment of simulation models and simulator applications used in aircraft system development. For models of individual aircraft subsystems, an uncertainty aggregation method is proposed that facilitates early model validation through approximate uncertainty quantification. The central idea is to integrate information obtained during component level validation directly into the component equations, and to utilize this information in model level uncertainty quantification.

    In addition to methods intended for models of individual subsystems, this work also proposes a method and an associated tool for credibility assessment of large-scale simulator applications. As a complement to traditional document-centric approaches, static and dynamic credibility information is here presented to end-users directly during simulation. This implies a support for detecting test plan deficiencies, or that a simulator configuration is not a suitable platform for the execution of a particular test. The credibility assessment tool has been implemented and evaluated in two large-scale system simulators for the Saab Gripen fighter aircraft. The work presented herein also includes an industrially applicable workflow for development, validation, and export of simulation models.

    Delarbeten
    1. Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Methodology for Development and Validation of Multipurpose Simulation Models
    2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: 50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Online Proceedings including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition (2012), AIAA , 2012Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a framework for development and validation of multipurpose simulation models. The presented methodology enables reuse of models in different applications with different purposes. The scope is simulation models representing physical environment, physical aircraft systems or subsystems, avionics equipment, and electronic hardware. The methodology has been developed by a small interdisciplinary team, with experience from Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of vehicle systems as well as development of simulators for verification and training. Special care has been taken to ensure usability of the workflow and method descriptions, mainly by means of 1) a user friendly format, easy to overview and update, 2) keeping the amount of text down, and 3) providing relevant examples, templates, and checklists. A simulation model of the Environmental Control System (ECS) of a military fighter aircraft, the Saab Gripen, is used as an example to guide the reader through the workflow of developing and validating multipurpose simulation models. The methods described in the paper can be used in both military and civil applications, and are not limited to the aircraft industry.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    AIAA, 2012
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74716 (URN)10.2514/6.2012-877 (DOI)
    Konferens
    50th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting Including the New Horizons Forum and Aerospace Exposition, 9–12 January, 2012, Gaylord Opryland Resort & Convention Center, 9-12 January, Nashville, Tennessee
    Tillgänglig från: 2012-02-06 Skapad: 2012-02-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-25
    2. Study of Industrially Applied Methods for Verification, Validation & Uncertainty Quantification of Simulator Models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Study of Industrially Applied Methods for Verification, Validation & Uncertainty Quantification of Simulator Models
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing, ISSN 1793-9623, E-ISSN 1793-9615, Vol. 6, nr 2, artikel-id 1550014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    To better utilize the potential of system simulation models and simulators, industrially applicable methods for Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification(VV&UQ) are crucial. This paper presents an exploratory case study of VV&UQ techniquesapplied on models integrated in aircraft system simulators at Saab Aeronauticsand in driving simulators at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute(VTI). Results show that a large number of Verification and Validation (V&V)techniques are applied, some of which are promising for further development and use insimulator credibility assessment. Regarding the application of UQ, a large gap betweenacademia and this part of industry has been identified, and simplified methods areneeded. The applicability of the NASA Credibility Assessment Scale (CAS) at the studied organizations is also evaluated and it can be concluded that the CAS is consideredto be a usable tool for achieving a uniform level of V&V for all models included in asimulator, although its implementation at the studied organizations requires tailoringand coordination.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    World Scientific, 2015
    Nyckelord
    Simulator credibility; simulation model; verification; validation; uncertainty quantification; V&V; VV&UQ; NASA Credibility Assessment Scale
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Produktionsteknik, arbetsvetenskap och ergonomi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115105 (URN)10.1142/S1793962315500142 (DOI)000365772300005 ()
    Projekt
    NFFP6 2013-01211
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA, NFFP6 2013-01211
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-03-09 Skapad: 2015-03-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-04
    3. Enabling Uncertainty Quantification of Large Aircraft System Simulation Models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Enabling Uncertainty Quantification of Large Aircraft System Simulation Models
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: 4:th CEAS conference, 2013 / [ed] Tomas Melin, Petter Krus, Emil Vinterhav, Knut Övrebo, Linköping University Electronic Press , 2013Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A common viewpoint in both academia and industry is that that Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification (VV&UQ) of simulation models are vital activities for a successful deployment of model-based system engineering. In the literature, there is no lack of advice regarding methods for VV&UQ. However, for industrial applications available methods for Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) often seem too detailed or tedious to even try. The consequence is that no UQ is performed, resulting in simulation models not being used to their full potential.

    In this paper, the effort required for UQ of a detailed aircraft vehicle system model is estimated. A number of methodological steps that aim to achieve a more feasible UQ are proposed. The paper is focused on 1‑D dynamic simulation models of physical systems with or without control software, typically described by Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) or Differential Algebraic Equations (DAEs). An application example of an aircraft vehicle system model is used for method evaluation.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Model validation, uncertainty analysis, uncertainty quantification
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99838 (URN)978-91-7519-519-3 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    CEAS 2013 - International Conference of the European Aerospace Societies, 16-19 September 2013, Linköping, Sweden
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-10-21 Skapad: 2013-10-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-04-25Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. A Framework for Early and Approximate Uncertainty Quantification of Large System Simulation Models
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Framework for Early and Approximate Uncertainty Quantification of Large System Simulation Models
    2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 56th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 56), October, 7-9, 2015, Linköping University, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, s. 91-104Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is vital to ensure credibility in simulation results and to justify model-based design decisions – especially in early development phases when system level measurement data for traditional model validation purposes are scarce. Central UQ challenges in industrial applications are computational cost and availability of information and resources for uncertainty characterization. In an attempt to meet these challenges, this paper proposes a framework for early and approximate UQ intended for large simulation models of dynamical systems. A Modelica simulation model of an aircraft environmental control system including a liquid cooling circuit is used to evaluate the industrial applicability of the proposed framework.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015
    Serie
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 119
    Nyckelord
    Uncertainty quantification; aleatory uncertainty; epistemic uncertainty; model validation; aircraft system simulation models; Modelica
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Rymd- och flygteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122480 (URN)10.3384/ecp1511991 (DOI)9789176859001 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    The 56th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 56) 7-9 October 2015
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA, NFFP6 2013-01211
    Tillgänglig från: 2015-11-04 Skapad: 2015-11-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-25Bibliografiskt granskad
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  • 74.
    Eek, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronaut, Aircraft Vehicle Syst, Modeling and Simulat, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hallqvist, Robert
    Saab Aeronaut, Aircraft Vehicle Syst, Modeling and Simulat, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronaut, Aeronaut Engn and Weapons, SE-58188 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Concept for Credibility Assessment of Aircraft System Simulators2016Ingår i: JOURNAL OF AEROSPACE INFORMATION SYSTEMS, ISSN 1940-3151, Vol. 13, nr 6, s. 219-233Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient methodology for verification, validation, and credibility assessment of simulation models and simulator applications is an enabler for the aeronautical industrys increasing reliance on modeling and simulation in system design and verification and on training. As a complement to traditional document-centric approaches, this paper presents a method for credibility assessment of simulator applications, in which credibility information is presented to end users directly during simulation. The central idea is that each model in a simulator is extended with a metamodel describing different aspects of credibility. The metamodel includes a number of static credibility measures and a dynamic measure that may vary during simulation. The concept is implemented and tested in two system simulators for the Saab Gripen fighter aircraft. According to the evaluation, the concept facilitates an intuitive overview of model dependencies, as well as credibility information for individual models and for a simulator as a whole. This implies a support for detecting test plan deficiencies or that a simulator configuration is not a suitable platform for the execution of a particular test. Furthermore, model developers and end users are encouraged to reflect upon central credibility aspects like intended use, model fidelity, and test worthiness in their daily work.

  • 75.
    Eek, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Karlén, Johan
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A Framework for Early and Approximate Uncertainty Quantification of Large System Simulation Models2015Ingår i: Proceedings of the 56th Conference on Simulation and Modelling (SIMS 56), October, 7-9, 2015, Linköping University, Sweden, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, s. 91-104Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) is vital to ensure credibility in simulation results and to justify model-based design decisions – especially in early development phases when system level measurement data for traditional model validation purposes are scarce. Central UQ challenges in industrial applications are computational cost and availability of information and resources for uncertainty characterization. In an attempt to meet these challenges, this paper proposes a framework for early and approximate UQ intended for large simulation models of dynamical systems. A Modelica simulation model of an aircraft environmental control system including a liquid cooling circuit is used to evaluate the industrial applicability of the proposed framework.

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  • 76.
    Eek, Magnus
    et al.
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kharrazi, Sogol
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Gavel, Hampus
    Saab Aeronautics, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Study of Industrially Applied Methods for Verification, Validation & Uncertainty Quantification of Simulator Models2015Ingår i: International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing, ISSN 1793-9623, E-ISSN 1793-9615, Vol. 6, nr 2, artikel-id 1550014Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To better utilize the potential of system simulation models and simulators, industrially applicable methods for Verification, Validation and Uncertainty Quantification(VV&UQ) are crucial. This paper presents an exploratory case study of VV&UQ techniquesapplied on models integrated in aircraft system simulators at Saab Aeronauticsand in driving simulators at the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute(VTI). Results show that a large number of Verification and Validation (V&V)techniques are applied, some of which are promising for further development and use insimulator credibility assessment. Regarding the application of UQ, a large gap betweenacademia and this part of industry has been identified, and simplified methods areneeded. The applicability of the NASA Credibility Assessment Scale (CAS) at the studied organizations is also evaluated and it can be concluded that the CAS is consideredto be a usable tool for achieving a uniform level of V&V for all models included in asimulator, although its implementation at the studied organizations requires tailoringand coordination.

  • 77.
    Ekermann, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Konceptstudie för att korta bromssträckan hos personbilar i nödsituationer2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utifrån en problemställning formulerad av Trafikverkets skyltfond har produktutvecklingsföretaget Prodelox drivit ett projekt med syfte att testa kreativa idéer för att minska bromssträckan för personbilar i nödsituationer. Som en del i projektet har ett examensarbete genomförts vilket resulterat i denna rapport. Examensarbetet ämnar sammanställa en mängd idéer på alternativa metoder att bromsa bilar, för att sedan välja ut tre av dessa för praktiska tester. Idén med att korta bromssträckan grundar sig i trafiksäkerhetsarbetet i kombination med introduktionen av nya tekniska system som kan förutspå kollisioner. Om en kollision kan förutses är det av största intresse att kunna bromsa in bilen så mycket som möjligt innan detta sker för att minska skadorna och rädda liv. Ur ett förutsättningslöst perspektiv har kreativa idéer tagits fram. Rapporten tar dessutom upp och sammanfattar friktionsteorier och fordonsdynamiska aspekter att ta hänsyn till vid utvecklingsarbetet.

    Projektet följer en produktutvecklingsmetodik presenterad av Ulrich och Eppinger (2008) och omfattningen är utvecklingsfasens tidiga steg. Genom två iterationer utvecklas koncept genom framtagande av kravspecifikation, konceptgenerering, och konceptval. Idéer testas löpande genom fysiska såväl som virtuella prototyper under hela processen.

    Den första utvecklingsiterationen resulterar i 17 konceptidéer innefattande olika typer av bromsmetoder. Koncepten delas in i kategorierna ökad friktion, ökad normalkraft, spjärn mot asfalten, aerodynamik och magnetism. Tre koncept väljs ut och utvecklas vidare: Koncept Ankare, Gummiplatta och Avverkan.

    Utvecklingen av koncept Ankare resulterar i ett koncept där en infästning i asfalten sker i farten under bilen med hjälp av krutdrivna spikpistoler. Fästet förbinds med bilen med ett textilband kallat Tear Webbing. Det är två sydda remmar som producerar en konstant kraft då remmarna slits isär och sömmarna rivs upp. Bandet testas praktiskt och ger en bromseffekt på uppemot 1,5 g-krafter, medan de krutdrivna spikpistolerna inte kan testas i farten inom ramen för detta projekt.

    Koncept Gummiplatta bygger på att en stor gummiyta placerad under bilen trycks ner i marken och lyfter framvagnen på bilen. Olika gummibelägg testas med förhoppningen att hitta ett gummibelägg med goda friktionsegenskaper. Ökad area och optimerade materialegenskaper kan i teorin leda till bättre friktion. Konceptet testas på både vått och torrt väglag genom en konstruktion under testbilens framvagn. Fyra olika gummiprover jämförs med bilens vanliga bromsar. Endast ett gummi, naturgummi, presterar bättre än referensen i tester från 50 km/h, medan resten resulterar i längre bromssträcka. Vid tester från 100 km/h presterar samtliga gummiprover sämre än referensbromsningarna.

    Koncept Avverkan baseras på idén att en större kraft än friktionskraften kan fås ut om ett hårt material trycks ner i asfaltens yta och river upp densamma. Deformationerna av asfalten åstadkommer den bromsande kraften. I test av konceptet höll inte konstruktionen, men retardationen som utvecklades innan konstruktionen gav vika kom upp i 1,2 g-krafter, något som visar på att konceptet har kapacitet att korta bromssträckan.

    Som fortsättning på detta projekt föreslås flera vägar att gå. Koncepten Ankare och Avverkan visar på stor potential att korta bromssträckan och nya projekt med syfte att fortsatt utveckla och testa dessa koncept föreslås. Även andra projekt som ligger utanför syftet av denna rapport, så som en idé för att minska dubbdäcksanvändningen, föreslås för utredning i framtida studier.

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  • 78.
    Eklund, Adam
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Karner, Jesper
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Development of a Framework for Concept Selection and Design Automation: Utilizing hybrid modeling for indirect parametric control of subdivision surfaces2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Saab Aeronautics’ section Overall Design and Survivability develops early aircraft concepts and utilizes Computer Aided Design (CAD) to ensure the feasibility of principal- and critical characteristics. Saab has over the years developed several start models of aircrafts in CAD from pre-defined aircraft configurations, which are to some extent non-generic. When new configurations are to be explored, manual- and repetitive work is required if the new configuration cannot be attained solely through parametric modifications of a start model. The complexity of these CAD models also demands great knowledge of how aircraft components interact with each other to ensure compatibility. The project covered in this thesis was thus carried out to develop a more effective way for Saab to create and explore a larger design space. This by creating a framework that consists of a product configurator coupled with a library of generic CAD models.

    The product configurator that was created is the Saab Tradespace Analyzer & Reconfigurator (STAR), which takes compatibility relationships into consideration to facilitate concept selection. The STAR also provides a dynamic design space calculation to indicate how close the user is to a final concept selection. Two generic CAD models were created, a fuselage model and an air inlet model. A skeleton model was also created in order to reduce model dependencies and to control the main geometry of the aircraft product. In addition to these, an already existing wing model was implemented to form the library of generic CAD models. The framework coupling the STAR with the CAD library utilizes design automation to allow automatic CAD model generation of a concept that has been selected within the STAR.

    It was concluded through extrapolation that the created framework would allow Saab to create and explore a larger design space in a more effective way than what is done today, provided the library of CAD models were to contain the same number of components as today’s start models.

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  • 79. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Ekströmer, Philip
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A first sketch of Computer Aided Ideation: Exploring CAD tools as externalization media in design ideation2019Licentiatavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools have changed the way designers work in most parts of the design process, designers still mostly use pen-and-paper sketching when generating design ideas. Previous studies exploring the use of CAD tools for design ideation have concluded that the tools available at the time did not support reflective conversation, serendipitous interpretation and creativity, making them unsuited for design ideation. However, many of these studies used tools now considered obsolete, implying that the conclusions might no longer be valid. With the variety and capabilities of current CAD tools, there is an opportunity for a new exploration of CAD tools in design ideation.

    The aim of this licentiate thesis was to explore the use of CAD tools as externalization media in design ideation, what effect this has on the ideation process and how CAD tools might support design ideation. To this end, the thesis explored the use of CAD tools in design ideation in four studies. The first study consisted of a literature review on the strengths and weaknesses of sketches and CAD tools and a focus group discussion with three design experts. The second study compared master theses to explore how design representations used in the design process affect the breadth of design space exploration. The third study was a case study with two cases featuring the use of game engines and Virtual Reality for automotive lighting design and the fourth study compared the workflow in VR-sketching and pen-and- paper sketching.

    The results of the studies in this thesis suggest that the notion that CAD tools are not useful for design ideation is no longer true. Based on expert evaluations and case studies, this thesis concludes that there are several opportunities for the use of CAD tools in design ideation. This is certainly true in design fields where it is difficult to make sketches. The potential strengths of using CAD tools for design ideation includes the ability to design in full scale and the ability to perform instantaneous transform operations, such as scaling and deforming. However, the ability to instantly undo in CAD tools has been identified as both a potential strength and potential a weakness for design ideation. While being able to rapidly undo mistakes could be beneficial to the ideation process, achieving a faster workflow with less time redoing and more time working on creating, this might also result in fewer opportunities for reinterpretation.

    The conclusions in this thesis provide arguments for the use of CAD tools in design ideation, which could lead to new ways of generating, working with and thinking about design ideas. The findings also act as a stepping stone for further studies in the area of Computer Aided Ideation.

    Delarbeten
    1. Ah, I see what you didn't mean
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ah, I see what you didn't mean
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: The Design Journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 22, s. 1883-1897Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that Computer Aided Design ( CAD) tools are unsuitable for design ideation as they are said to not support serendipitous interpretation, playfulness and creativity. However, this notion is based on anecdotal evidence and research that was done using CAD tools now considered obsolete. This study therefore aims to provide insights on the use of currently available CAD tools for design ideation. This was done by having three experts evaluate the use of pen- and- paper sketches and four different CAD tools for design ideation and discuss the results. The results from this study suggest that CAD tools have the potential to support serendipity and provide an environment for creativity and playfulness. There are several opportunities for the use of CAD tools in design ideation. This is certainly true in design fields where it is notoriously hard to make sketches, such as in lighting design.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Creativity; ambiguity; serendipity; happy accidents; re-interpretation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Design
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158597 (URN)10.1080/14606925.2019.1595031 (DOI)000470072200129 ()
    Konferens
    12th International Conference of the European-Academy-of-Design (EAD) - Running with Scissors
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-07-03 Skapad: 2019-07-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-03-25
    2. In search of lost materiality; the case for physical modelling in Industrial Design Engineering education
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>In search of lost materiality; the case for physical modelling in Industrial Design Engineering education
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th - 17th August / [ed] Philip Ekströmer, Johan Ölvander and Simon Schütte, 2018Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the recent years, Industrial Design Engineering students at Linköping University have

    frequently been observed to go directly from sketches into CAD, without making simple sketch

    models for evaluation in the early stages of their design process. This workflow gives them less

    information in their decision-making process and they lose the materiality of physical models,

    which is an aspect that many designers and researchers consider crucial for the development of

    form. This discussion paper explores whether this is an increasing trend and if so how it affects

    the breadth of design space exploration. In total, 25 master theses, covering a period of nine

    years, on Design and Product Development from Linköping University have been analysed.

    The design representations used and the diversity of the ideas across the product development

    process were visualized in graphs. This mapping supports our preliminary observation that the

    use of physical models is declining and suggests this decline correlates to a narrower

    exploration of the design space.

    Nyckelord
    Education, ideation, materiality, low fidelity prototypes, creativity
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Design
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153120 (URN)978-91-7685-185-2 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    Norddesign 2018
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-11-28 Skapad: 2018-11-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-18
    3. Shedding Light on Game Engines and Virtual Reality for Design Ideation
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Shedding Light on Game Engines and Virtual Reality for Design Ideation
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design, Cambridge University Press , 2019, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 2003-2010Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While pen-and-paper sketches is generally considered the best tool for design ideation, there are certain areas of design where the ideas being generated do not easily lend themselves to sketching. This study reports on two cases that explores the use of game engines in combination with Virtual Reality (VR) to visualize lighting in the automotive industry. In the first case, the exterior lights of a car were visualized using Unreal Engine 4 and evaluated using research through design and expert interviews. In the second case, Unreal Engine VR Editor was used to explore ideation and concept development of interior lighting in long haulage trucks. The insights from the cases suggest that game engines and VR can be used to quickly develop and display ideas, concepts and scenarios in the early phases of the lighting design process. These strengths suggest that game engines and VR also have the potential to support design ideation for other types of design.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Cambridge University Press, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Unreal Engine, Conceptual design, Product modelling/models, Creativity
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Interaktionsteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162023 (URN)10.1017/dsi.2019.206 (DOI)
    Konferens
    International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED19, 5-8 August 2019, elft, The Netherlands
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-11-18 Skapad: 2019-11-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-11-18
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    A first sketch of Computer Aided Ideation: Exploring CAD tools as externalization media in design ideation
    Ladda ner (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 80.
    Ekströmer, Philip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Kull Karlsson, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Aqwary Triton: Design och utveckling av en modulär dykdator2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna masteruppsats beskriver utvecklingen av ett koncept på en modulär dykdator med tillhörande trådlös sändare. Arbetet har utförts för Aqwary AB i samarbete med Prodelox AB. Målet med arbetet var att skapa utseendemodeller av dykdatorn och sändaren och resultatet kommer att fungera som grund för Aqwarys nästa generations dykdator.

    Arbetet har följt en process baserad på Ulrich och Eppingers produktutvecklingsprocess. De data som legat till grund för utvecklingsarbetet har tagits fram genom kvalitativa användarundersökningar och simuleringar. Vid utvecklingen av konceptet användes brainstorming för generering av idéer, skisser och skissmodeller för utvärdering, samt fokusgrupp och urvalsmatris för koncepturval. Resultatet är Aqwary Triton en dykdator som, genom att placeras i olika skal, kan användas som handledsburen, handhållen eller som konsolenhet. För att interagera med dykdatorn används knappar som är integrerade i skalen

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Aqwary Triton: Design och utveckling av en modulär dykdator
  • 81.
    Ekströmer, Philip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nåbo, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Pavlasevic, Vanja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklöf, David
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    CHALLENGING BRIEFS; LEARNING THROUGH CLIENT AND DESIGNER ROLES IN FRESHMEN DESIGN EDUCATION2017Ingår i: BUILDING COMMUNITY: DESIGN EDUCATION FOR A SUSTAINABLE FUTURE, DESIGN SOC , 2017, s. 400-404Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper details an exploratory study of a design brief exchange method, using freshmen students in the beginner course Introduction to Design and Product Development at Linkoping University as a case. In design projects for clients, the design brief, irrespective of whether it is an explicit document or not, is generally seen as a critical step towards successful outcomes. From a design didactical perspective, it is a relevant question how to empower design students to engage with client-drafted briefs. In the proposed design brief exchange method, a student group drafts a design brief which they hand to a second group, while receiving a brief from a third. Every group thus performs both a client and designer role. A study was conducted on twelve student groups of 6-7 students each to investigate if and how the proposed method supports teaching students to cope with ambiguity. The students were, at several times during the course, prompted by staff to reflect on the brief they drafted in the role of clients as well as the brief received in their role as designers. Reflections were based on a set of questions and written in their project journal used for documentation in the course. Students and examiners reflections suggests that this is a promising approach to engage students in questioning client-drafted briefs and handle the ambiguity of design challenges.

  • 82.
    Ekströmer, Philip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ah, I see what you didn't mean2019Ingår i: The Design Journal, ISSN 1460-6925, E-ISSN 1756-3062, Vol. 22, s. 1883-1897Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that Computer Aided Design ( CAD) tools are unsuitable for design ideation as they are said to not support serendipitous interpretation, playfulness and creativity. However, this notion is based on anecdotal evidence and research that was done using CAD tools now considered obsolete. This study therefore aims to provide insights on the use of currently available CAD tools for design ideation. This was done by having three experts evaluate the use of pen- and- paper sketches and four different CAD tools for design ideation and discuss the results. The results from this study suggest that CAD tools have the potential to support serendipity and provide an environment for creativity and playfulness. There are several opportunities for the use of CAD tools in design ideation. This is certainly true in design fields where it is notoriously hard to make sketches, such as in lighting design.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 83.
    Ekströmer, Philip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköping university.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    “Ah, I see what you didn’t mean”: Exploring Computer Aided Design tools for design ideation2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often claimed that Computer Aided Design (CAD) tools are unsuitable for design ideation as they are said to not support serendipitous interpretation, playfulness and creativity. However, this notion is based on anecdotal evidence and research that was done using CAD tools now considered obsolete. This study therefore aims to provide insights on the use of currently available CAD tools for design ideation. This was done by having three experts evaluate the use of pen-and-paper sketches and four different CAD tools for design ideation and discuss the results. The results from this study suggest that CAD tools have the potential to support serendipity and provide an environment for creativity and playfulness. There are several opportunities for the use of CAD tools in design ideation. This is certainly true in design fields where it is notoriously hard to make sketches, such as in lighting design.

  • 84.
    Ekströmer, Philip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    In search of lost materiality; the case for physical modelling in Industrial Design Engineering education2018Ingår i: Proceedings of NordDesign 2018, Linköping, Sweden, 14th - 17th August / [ed] Philip Ekströmer, Johan Ölvander and Simon Schütte, 2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the recent years, Industrial Design Engineering students at Linköping University have

    frequently been observed to go directly from sketches into CAD, without making simple sketch

    models for evaluation in the early stages of their design process. This workflow gives them less

    information in their decision-making process and they lose the materiality of physical models,

    which is an aspect that many designers and researchers consider crucial for the development of

    form. This discussion paper explores whether this is an increasing trend and if so how it affects

    the breadth of design space exploration. In total, 25 master theses, covering a period of nine

    years, on Design and Product Development from Linköping University have been analysed.

    The design representations used and the diversity of the ideas across the product development

    process were visualized in graphs. This mapping supports our preliminary observation that the

    use of physical models is declining and suggests this decline correlates to a narrower

    exploration of the design space.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    In search of lost materiality; the case for physical modelling in Industrial Design Engineering education
  • 85.
    Ekströmer, Philip
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wever, Renee
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Jönsson, Johan
    Shedding Light on Game Engines and Virtual Reality for Design Ideation2019Ingår i: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design, Cambridge University Press , 2019, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 2003-2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While pen-and-paper sketches is generally considered the best tool for design ideation, there are certain areas of design where the ideas being generated do not easily lend themselves to sketching. This study reports on two cases that explores the use of game engines in combination with Virtual Reality (VR) to visualize lighting in the automotive industry. In the first case, the exterior lights of a car were visualized using Unreal Engine 4 and evaluated using research through design and expert interviews. In the second case, Unreal Engine VR Editor was used to explore ideation and concept development of interior lighting in long haulage trucks. The insights from the cases suggest that game engines and VR can be used to quickly develop and display ideas, concepts and scenarios in the early phases of the lighting design process. These strengths suggest that game engines and VR also have the potential to support design ideation for other types of design.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 86.
    Engberg, Christer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Nordman, Kristoffer
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Mobil försäljningsenhet: En produktutvecklingsprocess2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Galna Glassen är ett företag som säljer glass på ett sätt som är unikt i Sverige. Idén går ut på att kunden själv får komponera sin egen favoritglass genom att dels välja smak på kulglassen och dels välja innehåll. Tillbehören är ett tjugotal till antalet och kan vara alltifrån kakor till godisbitar till bär. Då kunden valt glassmak och ett eller flera tillbehör bakas dessa ihop till en glasskula, och detta görs på en kyld granitskiva som är en patenterad lösning.

    Företaget lyckades väldigt bra under sommaren 2010 då det startade i Västerås och satsade då på expansion till andra städer. Dessutom ville de även utforska möjligheten lönsamheten med en mobil enhet som är tänkt ska placeras ut tillfälligt på festivaler och evenemang.

    Examensarbetet går ut på att utveckla Galna Glassens mobila försäljningsenhet. Projektet är en produktutvecklingsprocess som till huvudsak använder Hubkas teorier. Processen börjar med en problemnedbrytning och en konstruktionskriterielista. Därefter görs en funktionsanalys med bland annat ett funktions-/medelträd och en morfologisk matris. Funktionsanalysen öppnar dörrarna för att skapa ett antal möjliga koncept och efter gallring väljs ett slutligt koncept. Detta koncept utvecklas och utvärderas, och komponenter väljs och placeras ut. Efter att konceptet har fått en grov preliminär layout i enklare form, tas den vidare till nästa fas och får en slutlig layout i form av en CAD-modell.

    Rapporten är uppbyggd av tre huvuddelar: inledande del, rapportdel och avslutande del. Rapportdelen består huvudsakligen av en problemdel som i sig utgörs av fem olika faser där hela produktutvecklingsprocessen är genomförd.

    Uppdragsgivaren vill ha en enkel lösning som inte kostar för mycket att producera och det medförde att resultatet blev en till det yttre karakterisktisk försäljningsvagn. Däremot är öppningsmetoden tämligen unik och insidan är gjord så att den uppfyller de krav och önskemål som är givna. Resultatet presenteras med en CAD-modell.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 87.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimisation of Structure Borne Noise and Fluid Borne Noise from Fluid Power Pumps and Motors2009Ingår i: Proc. of the 11th Scandinavian Fluid Power Conference, 2009Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Structure borne noise in a machine rises from piston force and bending moments among others. This noise arises directly from the pump shell. In this study, a transfer function methodology is employed for mapping simulated internal pump dynamics, such as piston forces and bending moments, on to structure borne noise. Using these transfer functions, it is possible to predict how, for instance, changed valve plate timing affects simulated piston forces and bending moments and in turn how that will affect audible noise. Hence, it is possible to design an objective function that directly reflects audible noise. The transfer functions are experimentally obtained and are valid for a specific machine shell and to some minor extent the room’s acoustical properties. Also, fluid borne noise is important to consider when designing a quiet machine. Fluid borne noise arises mainly from flow pulsation created inside the machine.

    Simulation of the internal pump dynamics, and optimisations, are carried out using a pump model developed in the simulation tool HOPSAN. The design application is a hydraulic machine of bent axis type with seven pistons. The theory outlined and the method proposed in the paper can also be applied to other types of hydraulic machines. The paper shows how both structure borne noise and fluid borne noise can be considered using multi-objective optimisation. The paper shows how different noise reduction features affect the sound pressure level and the flow pulsation. The paper also compare the pump and motor case.

  • 88.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Flow pulsation reduction for variable displacement motors using cross-angle2007Ingår i: Power Transmission and Motion Control (PTMC 2007) / [ed] D. N. Johnston, and A. Plummer, Essex: Hadleys Ltd , 2007, s. 103-116Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers using the cross-angle in variable displacement hydraulic machines. The cross-angle is a fixed displacement angle around the axis perpendicular to the normal displacement direction. The cross-angle changes the angles to the pistons top and bottom dead centres as a function of the fraction of displacement in such a way that the valve plate timing is varied and different pre-compression and decompression angles are obtained. A non-gradient optimisation technique, the Complex method, is used together with a comprehensive simulation model in order to find the optimal cross-angle for a variable displacement hydraulic motor. The paper shows that the cross-angle can be used to reduce noise in variable displacement motors. One issue that makes the motor application more difficult is the increased dependence between outlet and inlet flow ripple which is not found in pump applications. Furthermore, the paper discusses how to use the cross-angle for machines which can work both as a motor and a pump.

  • 89.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On optimal design of hydrostatic machines2008Ingår i: Proceedings of the 6th International Fluid Power Conference, IFK, Vol WS, 2008, s. 273-286Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Noise is a well known challenge for hydraulic systems and hydrostatic machines is one of the largest noise contributors in a hydraulic system. The noise from the machine originates from flow pulsations in the discharge and suction ports, as well as pulsations in piston forces and bending moments. To the design a quite hydraulic machine is a difficult task where many different objectives need to be considered. This paper presents a generic method for how optimization based on simulation models could be used to design quieter hydraulic machines. In order to stay competitive on a global market an efficient product development process is essential for all manufacturing industries. By using simulation-s tools in the design process, the product can be analysed before the actual product is manufactured. Furthermore, in order to find an optimal design of the machine with respect to noise, a comprehensive dynamic simulation model is needed. The model contains all important noise contributors. In the paper, the simulation models are used together with a non-gradient optimization method in order to find the best possible design. A vital part when using optimization to support design is always to formulate the objective function. As mentioned above, noise is generated from different sources and all these sources need to be considered when the objective function is formulated. For example a design that minimizes flow pulsations in the suction port will surely perform badly in some other objective. Therefore noise minimization could be looked upon as a typical multi-objective optimization problem. It is also not evident how the different objective should be ranked because the observed noise level is strongly depending on the system in which the machine is to be used. The paper also considers whether the objective function should be formulated in time or frequency domain. Traditionally, simulation of machine performance is conducted in the time domain, but the human ear hears noise in the frequency domain and perceives high and low frequencies differently. Furthermore, transformation from piston forces into emitted noise is much higher at high-frequency content than low-frequency content. This makes it natural to formulate the objective function in frequency domain, which raises the question of how the different harmonic should be ranked. In the paper a number of different approaches to formulate the objective function is presented and evaluated. The objectives considered are flow pulsation in both discharge and suction ports, as well as pulsation in piston forces and bending moments. Furthermore, the objectives are studied in both time and frequency domain. The design application is a variable hydraulic machine of bent axis type with nine pistons, which is operated both as a pump and a motor. However, the methods presented in the paper could be applied to other types of hydraulic machines as well. 

  • 90.
    Ericson, Liselott
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmberg, Jan-Ove
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluid och mekanisk systemteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Andreas
    Pump and motor division Parker Hannifin AB.
    Prediction and Optimisation of Audible Noise from Fluid Power Machines2009Ingår i: The Seventh International Conference on Fluid Power Transmission and Control, Hangzhou, Beijing: Beijing World Publishing Corporation , 2009, s. 911-918Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a transfer function methodology is employed for mapping simulated internal pump dynamics, such as piston forces and bending moments, on to audible noise. Using these transfer functions, it is possible to predict how, for instance, changed valve plate timing affects simulated piston forces and bending moments and in turn how that will affect audible noise. Hence, it is possible to design an objective function that directly reflects audible noise. The transfer functions are experimentally obtained and are valid for a specific machine shell and to some minor extent the room’s acoustical properties. Simulation of the internal pump dynamics, and optimisations, are carried out using a pump model developed in the simulation tool HOPSAN. The design application is a fixed hydraulic machine of bent axis type with seven pistons. The theory outlined and the method proposed in the paper can also be applied to other types of hydraulic machines. The paper shows how different noise reduction features affect the sound pressure level and also motor mode compared to pump mode.

  • 91.
    Eriksson, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Hessel Lundberg, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Sidostöd hos gaffeltruckar: En kartläggning av befintliga typer av sidostöd samt vidareutveckling av dessa2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är utfört i samarbete med en tillverkare av gaffeltruckar och har fokuserat på en komponent kallad sidostöd som har i uppgift att ta emot de krafter som kan uppkomma i sidled i en gaffeltrucks stativ. Denna rapport är resultatet av en omfattande förstudie och ett produktutvecklingsarbete. Den förstudie som gjorts innehöll en kartläggning och utvärdering av de befintliga sidostöden hos företaget och resulterade i att två sorters rullande sidostöd och sex varianter av glidande sidostöd kunde identifieras. Den största utmaningen för företagets sidostöd bedömdes vara justeringsmöjligheten då det bör vara både enkelt att justera stöden samt att justeringen måste vara stabil. I övrigt innehöll studien bland annat en konkurrentstudie, analys av konstruktioner hos andra produktkategorier samt beräkningar på sidokrafternas storlek. Under utvecklingsarbetet som presenteras i denna rapport har förbättringsförslag i form av ett nytt koncept tagits fram. Det nya konceptet är utvecklat för att kunna ersätta flera av de befintliga typerna av sidostöd och lättare kunna justeras utan att förmågan att ta upp sidokrafter försämras.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 92.
    Eriksson, Frida
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Märta
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Interface Development for Semi-Autonomous Trucks: Visual and Auditory Feedback2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicles are becoming increasingly autonomous, as automotive industries are investing in innovative technology. Therefore the technology becomes more available and affordable, making it possible for Toyota Material Handling Europe (TMHE) to introduce automated features in their trucks. Vehicles that have a forward collision warning system, and thus are partly autonomous, are involved in less accidents than those without. In manufacturing industries there is currently a problem with truck collisions and an automated solution might be a suitable way to prevent these. When implementing an automation device, human machine interaction and user-friendliness are aspects to keep in mind during the development.

    The thesis concerns how autonomous features can assist the truck driver, and how to provide the driver with intuitive feedback. The purpose was to ensure the drivers’ and surrounding personnel’s safety as well as increase the productivity. Research was performed regarding in what situation an assisting device is needed and how to communicate information in an intuitive manner to help the driver in this situation. A conceptual interface was developed that allows communication between the driver and a future all-knowing system, that tracks all objects and personnel in a warehouse.

    The drivers have had a central role in the process. The observations were performed in the TMHE warehouse to identify situations. The most perilous and frequent situation was when drivers need to focus both in the fork and drive wheel directions simultaneously. This either puts the surroundings or the driver in danger. A conceptual interface was developed to help the driver in this situation. This resulted in a concept implementable in both current and future trucks, to harmonise the solution and ensure a safe warehouse environment. A lo-fi prototype was constructed and evaluated iteratively with drivers to ensure the quality and usability of the concept.

    The resulting feedback solution consists of sounds from speakers mounted in the headrest and a display interface with warning symbols. The sounds are directional to notify the driver if the danger is to the left or right behind his back. If the danger is only semi-close, the driver receives a warning, but if it is very close, the truck is stopped autonomously. The symbols appear on the display simultaneously as the sounds are heard, to provide further feedback. Additionally, an Autonomous Positioning feature has been developed, that consists of symbols and buttons on the display interface, as well as an alert sound from the display to indicate the system’s activation and deactivation. Safety is enhanced since neither personnel nor trucks are in risk of collision when implementing the concept. As the concept helps the driver position the truck effortlessly towards the pallet the productivity is also improved. 

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    fulltext
  • 93.
    Eriksson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    On-Board Data Aquisition System: Conceptual Design of an Airdrop Tracking System2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is, on behalf of Saab AB, a pre-study of possible on-board solutions for position measuring during store separation tests aimed for the test and evaluation of JAS 39 Gripen. The purpose is to replace the present ground-based system in order to achieve more effective trials regarding time and economy.

    Three different concept development methodologies were investigated in order to find the most suitable one for this thesis. Those were merged into one adapted methodology containing the following phases; \textit{Planning}, \textit{Function Analysis}, \textit{Concept Generation} and \textit{Concept Evaluation}.

    The work progressed as the methodology states, and the highest amount of work was dedicated to the Planning phase. The requirements and desiderata for the system were produced with an agile process, resulting in the Construction Specification List that eventually became the basis for the Concept Generation phase.

    Knowledge about the technical theory needed to solve the problem was obtained in parallel with the Function Analysis and Concept Generation. The most adaptable techniques to measure position were found out to be with the use of the Global Positioning System (GPS) or Inertial Navigation System (INS).

    After an extensive work with the Concept Generation in parallel with a continuously updated Construction Specification List, three concepts were developed. One concept is based on GPS, the second one on INS and the third one is a combination of GPS and INS. All three concepts shares the same telemetry system and casing, which fulfills the requirement of simple installation and possibility to install in different stores.

    In the final phase, Concept Evaluation, a comparison between the concepts was performed. Advantages and disadvantages was listed and the fulfillment of requirements was investigated. All three concepts were handed over to Saab in order to let them decide which concept(s) to further develop.

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  • 94.
    Eriksson, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Utvärdering och vidareutveckling av undervattensfarkost2012Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet utvärderar undervattensfarkosten Stursk som byggts av studenter på Linköpings universitet och förbättrar sedan ett flertal komponenter på farkosten, samt lämnar förslag på framtida förbättringar.

    Rapporten behandlar motorkapslingen, lyftpunkterna, strömbrytaren, elektroniken, tryckskrovet, varvtalsmätning, tryckgivare och viktigast av allt, granskar farkostens manövreringsförmåga närmare.

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    fulltext
  • 95.
    Eriksson, Oskar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Flexibel mätning av växelhus med koordinatmätmaskin2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Getrag All Wheel Drive AB utvecklar, tillverkar och levererar fyrhjulsdriftssystem till fordonsindustrin. Företaget tillverkar systemets huvudkomponenter, vilka är en slut- och vinkelväxel som sitter placerade mellan bak- och framhjul.

    Idag mäts de ingående komponenterna samt växelhusen i monteringsflödet. För att skapa en mer flexibel monteringsbana, vill företaget se om det går att utföra mätningarna med annan teknik, samt om det då går att minska antalet mätstationer i flödet. Genom detta hoppas företaget på minskad kapitalinsats vid förändringar i design eller vid införande av en ny modell.

    Hela arbetet grundade sig i meningen: ”Minimering av mätning vid montering av PTU och RDU”, vilket höll öppet för egna idéer om både uppgift och utförande. När monteringsflödet hade analyserats tillräckligt, skapades en uppgift för examensarbetet. Av de mätstationer som finns i monteringsflödet, sågs en ha extra stor potential på grund av typbundenhet och därmed låg grad av flexibilitet.

    Under det inledande arbetet framkom det att företaget har haft en variant av en koordinatmätmaskin i en tidigare helautomatiserad montering av växellådor. Eftersom tekniken rent teoretiskt bör kunna uppfylla mätningens krav och dessutom skapa en hög grad av flexibilitet, inriktades arbetet mot denna teknik.

    Målet med examensarbetet blev att utvärdera om det vore tekniskt och tidmässigt möjligt att mäta vinkel- och slutväxelhus med hjälp av en koordinatmätmaskin. Det sekundera målet med uppgiften var att se om tekniken gör det möjligt att flytta den aktuella mätstationen från monteringsflödet.

    Examensarbetet ledde fram till följande slutsatser:

    • En koordinatmätmaskin klarar av de hårda toleranskraven, samtidigt som den är tillräckligt snabb för att kunna stå direkt ute i monteringsbanor med den största årsvolymen.
    • Utöver själva husmätningen ger en koordinatmätmaskin stora möjligheter till automatiserad kontroll av husens totala geometri.
    • Koordinatmätmaskinen Leitz SIRIO SX är det bästa valet för företaget.
    • För ökad kontroll över bearbetningen bör en koordinatmätmaskin placeras vid denna, med möjlighet till direkt feedback och kraftigt minskade omställningstider.
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  • 96.
    Eroglu, Nisha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    CEP‐baserat samarbetemed Linköpings universitet: Sammanställning, analys och slutsats av intervjustudie med företag2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The following report presents the result of an interview-based investigation with the aim to further explore the CDIO Enabling Platform (CEP) potential from Linköping university’sand companies point of view.CEP, which is a model for integrated learning, is a result of research within engineering didactics and product development at the Department of Economic and Industrial Development Linköping university. The model includes a physical “learning platform”, in the form of areal or fictive product, where several courses can meet and integrate during the course of a semester. In connection with the CEP model the opportunity to involve external companies has arisen and thereby the chance to introduce real-life scenarios considerably earlier in the engineering education. In order to further explore in what way companies can be apart of the CEP platform a series of interviews have been carried out. The results of these interviews show that there are companies with an interest in working withLinköping university regarding a CEP-based collaboration. At the present time six companies and höga kustens industrigrupp, which represents fourteen companies, have expressed their interest in working with Linköping university when a CEP platform is fully developed.The interview results have also been the foundation of a set of recommendations for further work with the CEP platform and guidelines to consider when shaping a future offer to companies regarding a CEP-based collaboration.

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  • 97.
    Feng, Xiaolong
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Bo
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Evaluation and Optimization of Industrial Robot Families Using Different Kinematic Measures2010Ingår i: ASME 2009 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference: Volume 7: 33rd Mechanisms and Robotics Conference, Parts A and B, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2010, Vol. 7, nr PART B, s. 1047-1057Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, overall manipulability measure and stroke of workspace are proposed and evaluated as design criteria for optimal kinematics design of a family of industrial robots. The object of study is a 6 degree of freedom serial robot manipulator where individual family members (robots) share arms from a common platform. The paper presents a formal mathematical framework where the product family design problem is stated as an optimization problem and where optimization is used to find an optimal product family. The paper illustrates how the proposed kinematic design criteria may be used to support the optimal kinematics design of a family of industrial robots, and it also visualizes the tradeoff between the size of the common platform and the kinematics performance of individual robots. Copyright © 2009 by ASME.

  • 98.
    Feng, Xiaolong
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Sander- Tavalley, S.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Cycle-based Robot Drive Train Optimization Utilizing SVD Analysis2008Ingår i: ASME Design Automation Conference,2007, Las Vegas: ASME , 2008, s. 903-910Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing a drive train for an industrial robot is a demanding task where a set of design variables need to be determined so that optimal performance is obtained for a wide range of different duty cycles. The paper presents a method where singular value decomposition (SVD) is used to reduce the design variable set. The application is a six degree of freedom serial manipulator, with nine drive train parameters for each axis and the objective is to minimize the cycle time on 122 representative design cycles without decreasing the expected lifetime of the robot. The optimization is based on a simulation model of the robot and conducted on a reduced set of the initial duty cycles and with the design variables suggested by the SVD analysis. The obtained design reduces the cycle time with 1.6% on the original design cycles without decreasing the life time of the robot.

  • 99.
    Feng, Xiaolong
    et al.
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Wäppling, Daniel
    ABB Robotics, Västerås, Sweden.
    Andersson, Hans
    ABB Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Ölvander, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tarkian, Mehdi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Multi-Objective Optimization in Industrial Robotic Cell Design2010Ingår i: ASME 2010 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference: Volume 1: 36th Design Automation Conference, Parts A and B, The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) , 2010, Vol. 1, s. 815-823Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    It has become a common practice to conduct simulation-based design of industrial robotic cells, where Mechatronic system model of an industrial robot is used to accurately predict robot performance characteristics like cycle time, critical component lifetime, and energy efficiency. However, current robot programming systems do not usually provide functionality for finding the optimal design of robotic cells. Robot cell designers therefore still face significant challenge to manually search in design space for achieving optimal robot cell design in consideration of productivity measured by the cycle time, lifetime, and energy efficiency. In addition, robot cell designers experience even more challenge to consider the trade-offs between cycle time and lifetime as well as cycle time and energy efficiency. In this work, utilization of multi-objective optimization to optimal design of the work cell of an industrial robot is investigated. Solution space and Pareto front are obtained and used to demonstrate the trade-offs between cycle-time and critical component lifetime as well as cycle-time and energy efficiency of an industrial robot. Two types of multi-objective optimization have been investigated and benchmarked using optimal design problem of robotic work cells: 1) single-objective optimization constructed using Weighted Compromise Programming (WCP) of multiple objectives and 2) Pareto front optimization using multi-objective generic algorithm (MOGA-II). Of the industrial robotics significance, a combined design optimization problem is investigated, where design space consisting of design variables defining robot task placement and robot drive-train are simultaneously searched. Optimization efficiency and interesting trade-offs have been explored and successful results demonstrated.

  • 100.
    Ferdeen, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Underhållsplanering & genomförande på ScandBook2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt gick ut på att utföra ett möjligt underhållsschema för ScandBook i Falun. Innan dess hade akuta reparationer skett då en del lager gått sönder utan föraning på transportlinan. Genom undersökningar som värmekamera, mätklocka, okulärbesiktning m.m. kunde ett beslut fattas om huruvida detta gick att genomföra. Det behövde inte innebära reparationer utan även utbyte av lager, bultar, upphägningar m.m.

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    Underhållsplanering & genomförande på ScandBook
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