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  • 51.
    Kubart, T.
    et al.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala Universitet, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Trinh, David Huy
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Liljeholm, L.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala Universitet, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nyberg, T.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala Universitet, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, S.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala Universitet, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Experiments and Modelling of Dual Reactive Magnetron Sputtering Using Two Reactive Gases2008Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 565-570Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive sputtering from two elemental targets, aluminium and zirconium, with the addition of two reactive gases, oxygen and nitrogen, is studied experimentally as well as theoretically. The complex behaviour of this process is observed and explained. It is shown that the addition of oxygen to a constant supply of nitrogen, significantly changes the relative content of aluminium with respect to zirconium in the film. Moreover, it is concluded that there is substantially more oxygen than nitrogen in the films even when the oxygen supply is significantly lower than the nitrogen supply. It is further shown that the addition of a certain minimum constant flow of nitrogen reduces, and eventually eliminates, the hysteresis with respect to the oxygen supply. It is concluded that the presented theoretical model for the involved reactions and mass balance during reactive sputtering of two targets in two reactive gases is in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and can be used to find optimum processing conditions for deposition of films of a desired composition.

  • 52.
    Landstrlom, L.
    et al.
    Landstrlöm, L., Ångström Laboratory, Department of Materials Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marton, Zs.
    Márton, Zs., Department of General Physics, University of Pécs, Ifjúság útja 6, H-7624 Pécs, Hungary.
    Arnold, N.
    Department of Applied Physics, Johannes Kepler University, A-4040 Linz, Austria.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Boman, M.
    Ångström Laboratory, Department of Materials Chemistry, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Heszler, P.
    Ångstrom Laboratory, Department of Solid State Physics, Uppsala University, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden, Research Group on Laser Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Box 406, Szeged H-6721, Hungary.
    In situ monitoring of size distributions and characterization of nanoparticles during W ablation in N2 atmosphere2003Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 94, nr 3, s. 2011-2017Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Amporphous WN0.3 nanoparticles were generated by pulsed excimer ablation of tungsten in a N2 ambient at atmospheric pressure. Size distributions and concentrations were monitored by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and condensation particle counter (CPC) with different laser parameters and sport sizes. It was found that the fast desorptive part for which a thermal process for material removal was ruled out and the 'real' ablation gave rise to different types of size distributions.

  • 53.
    Lauridsen, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Joelsson, T.
    Impact Coatings AB.
    Ljungcrantz, H.
    Impact Coatings AB.
    Öberg, Å.
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Lewin, E.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jansson, U.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Beckers, Manfred
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    High-rate deposition of amorphous and nanocomposite Ti-Si-C multifunctional coatings2010Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, nr 2, s. 299-305Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Amorphous (a) and nanocomposite Ti–Si–C coatings were deposited at rates up to 16 μm/h by direct current magnetron sputtering from a Ti3SiC2 compound target, using an industrial pilot-plant system, onto high-speed steel, Si, and SiO2 substrates as well as Ni-plated Cu cylinders, kept at a temperature of 200 or 270 °C. Electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses showed that TiC/a-C/a-SiC nanocomposites were formed consisting of textured TiC nanocrystallites (nc) embedded in a matrix of a-C and a-SiC. Elastic recoil detection analysis showed that coatings deposited at a target-to-substrate distance of 2 cm and an Ar pressure of 10 mTorr have a composition close to that of the Ti3SiC2 compound target, as explained by ballistic transport of the species. Increased target-to-substrate distance from 2 cm to 8 cm resulted in a higher carbon-to-titanium ratio in the coatings than for the Ti3SiC2 compound target, due to different gas-phase scattering properties between the sputtered species. The coating microstructure could be modified from nanocrystalline to predominantly amorphous by changing the pressure and target-to-substrate conditions to 4 mTorr and 2 cm, respectively. A decreased pressure from 10 mTorr to 4 or 2 mTorr at a target-to-substrate distance of 2 cm decreased the deposition rate up to a factor of ~7 as explained by resputtering and an increase in the plasma sheath thickness. The coatings exhibited electrical resistivity in the range 160–800 μΩ cm, contact resistance down to 0.8 mΩ at a contact force of 40 N, and nanoindentation hardness in the range of 6–38 GPa.

  • 54.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bonding Structures of ZrHx Thin Films by X-ray Spectroscopy2017Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, s. 25750-25758Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The variation in local atomic structure and chemical bonding of ZrHx (x=0.15, 0.30, 1.16) magnetron sputtered thin films are investigated by Zr K-edge (1s) X-ray absorption near-edge structure and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies. A chemical shift of the Zr K-edge towards higher energy with increasing hydrogen content is observed due to charge-transfer and an ionic or polar covalent bonding component between the Zr 4d and the H 1s states with increasing valency for Zr. We find an increase in the Zr-Zr bond distance with increasing hydrogen content from 3.160 Å in the hexagonal closest-packed metal (a-phase) to 3.395 Å in the understoichiometric d-ZrHx film (CaF2-type structure) with x=1.16 that largely resembles that of bulk d-ZrH2. For yet lower hydrogen contents, the structures are mixed a- and d-phases, while sufficient hydrogen loading (x>1) yields a pure δ-phase that is understoichiometric, but thermodynamically stable. The change in the hydrogen content and strain is discussed in relation to the corresponding change of bond lengths, hybridizations, and trends in electrical resistivity.

  • 55.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Electronic Structure of ß-Ta Films from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and First-principles Calculations2019Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 470, s. 607-612Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding of ß-Ta synthesized as a thin 001-oriented film (space group P 21m) is investigated by 4f core level and valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to α-Ta bulk. For the b-phase, the 4f7/2 peak is located at 21.91 eV and with the 4f5/2 at 23.81 eV which is 0.16 eV higher compared to the corresponding 4f peaks of the a-Ta reference. We suggest that this chemical shift originates from higher resistivity and tensile strain in the ß-Ta film. Furthermore, the 5d-5s states at the bottom of the valence band are shifted by 0.75 eV towards higher binding energy in ß-Ta compared to α-Ta. This is a consequence of the lower number of nearest neighbors with four in ß-Ta compared to eight in the α-Ta phase. The difference in the electronic structures, spectral line shapes of the valence band and the energy positions of the Ta 4f, 5p core-levels of b-Ta versus a-Ta are discussed in relation to calculated states of ß-Ta and α-Ta. In particular, the lower number of states at the Fermi level of ß-Ta (0.557 states/eV/atom) versus α-Ta (1.032 states/eV/atom) that according to Mott’s law should decrease the conductivity in metals and affect the stability by charge redistribution in the valence band. This is experimentally supported from resistivity measurements of the film yielding a value of ~170 µW cm in comparison to α-Ta bulk with a reported value of ~13.1 µW cm.

  • 56.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Palmquist, Jens-Petter
    Uppsala University.
    Mattesini, M.
    Uppsala University.
    Li, Sa
    Uppsala University.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wilhelmsson, Ola
    Uppsala University.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Electronic structure investigation of Ti3AlC2 , Ti3SiC2 , and Ti3GeC2 by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy2005Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 72, nr 24Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structures of epitaxially grown films of Ti3AlC2 , Ti3SiC2 , and Ti3GeC2 have been investigated by bulk-sensitive soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. The measured high-resolution Ti L , C K , Al L , Si L , and Ge M emission spectra are compared with ab initio density-functional theory including core-to-valence dipole matrix elements. A qualitative agreement between experiment and theory is obtained. A weak covalent Ti-Al bond is manifested by a pronounced shoulder in the Ti L emission of Ti3AlC2 . As Al is replaced with Si or Ge, the shoulder disappears. For the buried Al and Si layers, strongly hybridized spectral shapes are detected in Ti3AlC2 and Ti3SiC2 , respectively. As a result of relaxation of the crystal structure and the increased charge-transfer from Ti to C, the Ti-C bonding is strengthened. The differences between the electronic structures are discussed in relation to the bonding in the nanolaminates and the corresponding change of materials properties.

  • 57.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reactive magnetron sputtering of tungsten target in krypton/trimethylboron atmosphere2019Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, artikel-id 137384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    W-B-C films were deposited on Si(100) substrates held at elevated temperature by reactive sputtering from a W target in Kr/trimethylboron (TMB) plasmas. Quantitative analysis by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the films are W-rich between ~ 73 and ~ 93 at.% W. The highest metal content is detected in the film deposited with 1 sccm TMB. The C and B concentrations increase with increasing TMB flow to a maximum of ~18 and ~7 at.%, respectively, while the O content remains nearly constant at 2-3 at.%. Chemical bonding structure analysis performed after samples sputter-cleaning reveals C-W and B-W bonding and no detectable W-O bonds. During film growth with 5 sccm TMB and 500 o C or with 10 sccm TMB and 300-600 o C thin film X-ray diffraction shows the formation of cubic 100-oriented WC1-x with a possible solid solution of B. Lower flows and lower growth temperatures favor growth of W and W2C, respectively. Depositions at 700 and 800 o C result in the formation of WSi2 due to a reaction with the substrate. At 900 o C, XPS analysis shows ~96 at.% Si in the film due to Si interdiffusion. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal a fine-grained microstructure for the deposited WC1-x films. Nanoindentation gives hardness values in the range from ~23 to ~31 GPa and reduced elastic moduli between ~220 and 280 GPa in the films deposited at temperatures lower than 600 o C. At higher growth temperatures the hardness decreases by a factor of 3 to 4 following the formation of WSi2 at 700-800 o C and Si-rich surface at 900 o C.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2021-06-22 08:00
  • 58.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Compositional dependence of epitaxial Tin+1SiCn MAX-phase thin films grown from a Ti3SiC2 compound target2019Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, nr 2, artikel-id 021506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigate sputtering of a Ti3SiC2 compound target at temperatures ranging from RT (no applied external heating) to 970 °C as well as the influence of the sputtering power at 850 °C for the deposition of Ti3SiC2 films on Al2O3(0001) substrates. Elemental composition obtained from time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows an excess of carbon in all films, which is explained by differences in the angular distribution between C, Si, and Ti, where C scatters the least during sputtering. The oxygen content is 2.6 at. % in the film deposited at RT and decreases with increasing deposition temperature, showing that higher temperatures favor high purity films. Chemical bonding analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows C–Ti and Si–C bonding in the Ti3SiC2 films and Si–Si bonding in the Ti3SiC2 compound target. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phases Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 can be deposited from a Ti3SiC2 compound target at substrate temperatures above 850 °C and with the growth of TiC and the Nowotny phase Ti5Si3Cx at lower temperatures. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy shows epitaxial growth of Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 on TiC at 970 °C. Four-point probe resistivity measurements give values in the range ∼120 to ∼450 μΩ cm and with the lowest values obtained for films containing Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5.

  • 59.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    ­Chemical Bonding in Epitaxial ZrB2 Studied by X-ray Spectroscopy2018Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 649, s. 89-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical bonding in an epitaxial ZrB2 film is investigated by Zr K-edge (1s) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies and compared to the ZrB2 compound target from which the film was synthesized as well as a bulk α-Zr reference. Quantitative analysis of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy spectra reveals at the surface: ~5% O in the epitaxial ZrB2 film, ~19% O in the ZrB2 compound target and ~22% O in the bulk α-Zr reference after completed sputter cleaning. For the ZrB2 compound target, X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows weak but visible   11, 111, and 220 peaks from monoclinic ZrO2 together with peaks from ZrB2 and where the intensity distribution for the ZrB2 peaks show a randomly oriented target material.  For the bulk α-Zr reference no peaks from any crystalline oxide were visible in the diffractogram recorded from the 0001-oriented metal. The Zr K-edge absorption from the two ZrB2 samples demonstrate more pronounced oscillations for the epitaxial ZrB2 film than in the bulk ZrB2 attributed to the high atomic ordering within the columns of the film. The XANES exhibits no pre-peak due to lack of p-d hybridization in ZrB2, but with a chemical shift towards higher energy of 4 eV in the film and 6 eV for the bulk compared to α-Zr (17.993 keV) from the charge-transfer from Zr to B. The 2 eV larger shift in bulk ZrB2 material suggests higher oxygen content than in the epitaxial film, which is supported by XPS. In EXAFS, the modelled cell-edge in ZrB2 is slightly smaller in the thin film (a=3.165 Å, c=3.520 Å) in comparison to the bulk target material (a=3.175 Å, c=3.540 Å) while in hexagonal closest-packed metal (α-phase, a=3.254 Å, c=5.147 Å). The modelled coordination numbers show that the EXAFS spectra of the epitaxial ZrB2 film is highly anisotropic with strong in-plane contribution, while the bulk target material is more isotropic. The Zr-B distance in the film of 2.539 Å is in agreement with the calculated value from XRD data of 2.542 Å. This is slightly shorter compared to that in the ZrB2 compound target 2.599 Å, supporting the XANES results of a higher atomic order within the columns of the film compared to bulk ZrB2.

  • 60.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Wilhelmsson, Ola
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mattesini, Maurizio
    Departamento de Física de la Tierra, Astronomía y Astrofísica I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    Li, Sa
    Department of Physics, Uppsala University.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Department of Physics, Uppsala University.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Department of Physics, Uppsala University.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University.
    Anisotropy in the electronic structure of V2GeC investigated by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy and first-principles theory2008Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 78, nr 035117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Theanisotropy of the electronic structure of ternary nanolaminate V2GeC isinvestigated by bulk-sensitive soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. The measured polarization-dependentemission spectra of V L2,3, C K, Ge M1, and Ge M2,3 in V2GeCare compared with those from monocarbide VC and pure Ge.The experimental emission spectra are interpreted with calculated spectra usingab initio density-functional theory including dipole transition matrix elements. Differenttypes of covalent chemical bond regions are revealed: V 3d-C 2p bondingat −3.8  eV, Ge 4p-C 2p bonding at −6  eV, and Ge 4p-C 2s interaction mediatedvia the V 3d orbitals at −11  eV below the Fermi level.We find that the anisotropic effects are high for the4p valence states and the shallow 3d core levels ofGe, while relatively small anisotropy is detected for the V 3dstates. The macroscopic properties of the V2GeC nanolaminate result fromthe chemical bonds with the anisotropic pattern as shown inthis work.

  • 61.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Arrhenius-type temperature dependence of the chemical desorption processes active during deposition of fullerene-like carbon nitride thin films2004Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 569, nr 1-3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical desorption of carbon and nitrogen-containing species from the growth surface was investigated for the deposition of fullerene-like carbon nitride (FL CNx) thin solid films by reactive magnetron sputtering of a carbon target in a N2-containing atmosphere. The desorption of mainly C2N2 was suppressed by decreasing the substrate temperature for various N2 fractions in the discharge stepwise from 873 K down to cryogenic temperatures of 153 K. This approach enabled us to quantify the film-forming flux by determining the carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates by elastic recoil detection. The incorporation of both, carbon and nitrogen, was found to increase substantially at lower substrate temperatures, whereas this effect is most pronounced for the higher N 2 fractions. In turn, a modified Arrhenius-type rate equation was applied to extrapolate the total flux of the elements as well as their respective activation energies of desorption for the series at higher N 2 fractions. The reasonable fit indicates that the desorption process is mainly determined by the surface diffusion rate of adsorbed C xNy species as well as their structure and total number. The extrapolated fluxes of carbon and nitrogen atoms arriving as preformed species at the growth surface scaled strongly with the availability of N 2 in the discharge, while the obtained activation energies of 0.05-0.17 eV point towards a saturation of the process at elevated temperatures. Furthermore, the constant C/N ratio found in the film-forming flux leads to the notion that most of the nitrogen incorporated originates from preformed species instead of N atoms or ions. The FL structure evolution has to be seen as a sensitive interplay between the type and magnitude of preformed C xNy species in the deposition flux and the selectiveness of the preferential etching by means of the chemical desorption. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 62.
    Neidhardt, Jörg
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cryogenic deposition of carbon nitride thin solid films by reactive magnetron sputtering, Suppression of the chemical desorption processes2005Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 478, nr 1-2, s. 34-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanostructured fullerene-like carbon nitride (FL CNx) is commonly grown by reactive magnetron sputtering of carbon in a nitrogen-containing atmosphere. The film structure formation for this technique is presumably due to the existence of preformed molecular CxNy (x,y≤2) species in the deposition flux, which act as growth templates and enhance the selectivity of chemical desorption processes. In the present study, the extent of the desorption processes and the implications on the resulting film have been investigated in detail, addressing in particular the structure evolution and the origin of the incorporated nitrogen. This was studied by varying the N2-fraction in the discharge from 0 to 1 and the substrate temperature from 600 °C (873 K) down to minus 130 °C (143 K). The results show that the incorporation rate of carbon and nitrogen into the film increases substantially with an increased N2-content in the plasma and decreasing substrate temperature, thus indicating that the chemistry and magnitude of the arriving flux is substantially altered with the N2-fraction in the discharge. It is concluded that the chemically activated desorption in conjunction with the varying chemistry of the film-forming flux affects the sensitive structural balance, determined by incorporation and desorption of film forming CxNy (x,y≤2) species.

  • 63.
    Oberg, A.
    et al.
    ABB Corp Research.
    Kassman, A.
    Uppsala University.
    Andre, B.
    Uppsala University.
    Wiklund, U.
    Uppsala University.
    Lindquist, M.
    ABB Corp Research.
    Lewin, E.
    Uppsala University.
    Jansson, U.
    Uppsala University.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Joelsson, T.
    Impact Coatings AB.
    Ljungcrantz, H.
    Impact Coatings AB.
    Conductive nanocomposite ceramics as tribological and electrical contact materials2010Ingår i: European Physical Journal: Applied physics, ISSN 1286-0042, E-ISSN 1286-0050, Vol. 49, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Conductive ceramics have widespread use in many industrial applications. One important application for such materials is electrical contact technology. Over the last few years, a new class of nanocomposite ceramic thin film materials has been developed with contact coatings as one key objective. This family of materials has proven to combine the favorable contact properties of metals, such as low electrical and thermal resistivity, and high ductility, with those of ceramics such as low friction and wear rate, high chemical integrity and good high-temperature properties. Furthermore, it is also found that the tribological properties of such materials can be tailored by alloying thus creating a triboactive system. The technology is now industrialized, and a practical example of a contact system utilizing a nanocomposite coating for improved performance is given.

  • 64.
    Palmquist, Jens-Petter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Li, Sa
    Uppsala University, Department of Physics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wilhelmsson, Ola
    Uppsala University, Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Katsnelson, M. I.
    Uppsala University, Department of Physics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Börje
    Uppsala University, Department of Physics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ahuja, Rajeev
    Uppsala University, Department of Physics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Uppsala University, Department of Physics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mn+1AXn phases in the Ti-Si-C system studied by thin-film synthesis and ab initio calculations2004Ingår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 70, nr 16, s. 165401-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of Mn+1AXn layered compounds in the Ti-Si-C system were deposited on MgO(111) and Al2O3(0001) substrates held at 900°C using dc magnetron sputtering from elemental targets of Ti, Si, and C. We report on single-crystal and epitaxial deposition of Ti3SiC2 (the previously reported MAX phase in the Ti-Si-C system), a previously unknown MAX phase Ti4SiC3 and another type of structure having the stoichiometry of Ti5Si2C3 and Ti7Si2C5. The latter two structures can be viewed as an intergrowth of 2 and 3 or 3 and 4 M layers between each A layer. In addition, epitaxial films of Ti5Si3Cx were deposited and Ti5Si4 is also observed. First-principles calculations, based on density functional theory (DFT) of Tin+1SiCn for n=1,2,3,4 and the observed intergrown Ti5Si2C3 and Ti7Si2C5 structures show that the calculated difference in cohesive energy between the MAX phases reported here and competing phases (TiC, Ti3SiC2, TiSi2, and Ti5Si3) are very small. This suggests that the observed Ti5Si2C3 and Ti7Si2C5 structures at least should be considered as metastable phases. The calculations show that the energy required for insertion of a Si layer in the TiC matrix is independent of how close the Si layers are stacked. Hardness and electrical properties can be related to the number of Si layers per Ti layer. This opens up for designed thin film structures the possibility to tune properties.

  • 65.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Henry, Anne
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On the effect of water and oxygen in chemical vapor deposition of boron nitride2012Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 520, nr 18, s. 5889-5893Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth studies of sp(2)-hybridized boron nitride (BN) phases by thermal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) are presented; of particular interest is the presence of oxygen and water during growth. While Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy reveals the presence of B-N bonds and elemental analysis by elastic recoil detection analysis shows that the films are close to stoichiometric, although containing a few atomic percent oxygen and hydrogen, X-ray diffraction measurements show no indications for nucleation of any crystalline BN phases, despite change in N/B-ratio and/or process temperature. Thermodynamic modeling suggests that this is due to formation of strong B-O bonds already in the gas phase in the presence of water or oxygen during growth. This growth behavior is believed to be caused by an uncontrolled release of water and/or oxygen in the deposition chamber and highlights the sensitivity of the BN CVD process towards oxygen and water.

  • 66.
    Pozina, Galia
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trinh, David H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Collin, M.
    Sandvik Toolin AB.
    Reineck, I.
    Sandvik Tooling AB.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Phase identification in γ- and κ-alumina coatings by cathodoluminescence2009Ingår i: Scripta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6462, E-ISSN 1872-8456, Vol. 61, nr 4, s. 379-382Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) properties were studied for metastable γ- and κ-Al2O3 coatings for cutting tool inserts. The alumina films demonstrate a strong CL, with peak energies depending on the Al2O3 polymorphs. The phase transformation caused by heat treatment is shown to correlate with strong CL modification in the annealed coatings. Spatially resolved CL is found to be a powerful nondestructive technique for identification of different alumina phases on the microscopic level. The corresponding optical properties of γ- and κ-Al2O3 are discussed.

  • 67.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    ZrB2 thin films grown by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a compound target2012Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 526, s. 163-167Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrB2 thin films were grown on Si by high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) from a compound target in an industrial deposition system. By keeping a constant average power while modifying the HiPIMS pulse repetition frequency, the pulse peak current and thereby the degree of ionisation was varied. The films were characterised using X-ray diffraction techniques, scanning electron microscopy, time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis, and four-point probe measurements. It was found that the composition of the films matched closely that of the target material, and the films were low in contamination. The films were crystalline with a strong (000n) preferred orientation, and that the residual stress could be adjusted, from tensile to compressive, by increasing the degree of ionisation. The film morphology appeared dense, with a smooth surface, and the resistivity was found to range from 180 to 250 μΩcm with no clear dependence on frequency in the investigated parameter range.

  • 68.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lewin, Erik
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wälivaara, Bengt
    Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-582 16 Linköping, Sweden.
    Ljungcrantz, Henrik
    Impact Coatings AB, Westmansgatan 29, SE-582 16 Linköping, Sweden.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Growth of TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite films by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering under industrial conditions2012Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, nr 8-9, s. 2396-2402Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Titanium carbide (TiC) films were deposited employing high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) in an Ar-C2H2 atmosphere of various compositions. Analysis of the structural, bonding and compositional characteristics revealed that the deposited films are nanocomposites; either hydrogenated amorphous carbon and TiC (TiC/a-C:H), or Titanium and TiC (Ti/TiC) depending on the C/Ti ratio of the films. It was found that TiC/a-C:H films grown by HiPIMS were dense, and within a certain C2H2 flow range (4-15 sccm) showed little changes in C/Ti ratio, which also saturated towards 1. The HiPIMS grown films also exhibited the tendency to form smaller fractions of amorphous C matrix, and incorporate smaller amounts of oxygen contaminants, as compared to films grown by DCMS. The TiC/a-C:H films exhibited resistivity and hardness values of 4-8×102 μΩcm and 20-27 GPa, respectively when deposited by HiPIMS. The corresponding values for films grown by DCMS at the same deposition rate as HiPIMS were >10×102 μΩcm and ~6-10 GPa respectively, likely due to abundant formation of free C and porosity, allowing oxygen contaminations.

  • 69.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elofsson, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnfält, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Theoretical and experimental study of metastable solid solutions and phase stability within the immiscible Ag-Mo binary system2016Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, nr 9, s. 095303-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metastable solid solutions are phases that are synthesized far from thermodynamic equilibrium and offer a versatile route to design materials with tailor-made functionalities. One of the most investigated classes of metastable solid solutions with widespread technological implications is vapor deposited ternary transition metal ceramic thin films (i.e., nitrides, carbides, and borides). The vapor-based synthesis of these ceramic phases involves complex and difficult to control chemical interactions of the vapor species with the growing film surface, which often makes the fundamental understanding of the composition-properties relations a challenging task. Hence, in the present study, we investigate the phase stability within an immiscible binary thin film system that offers a simpler synthesis chemistry, i.e., the Ag-Mo system. We employ magnetron co-sputtering to grow Ag1-xMox thin films over the entire composition range along with x-ray probes to investigate the films structure and bonding properties. Concurrently, we use density functional theory calculations to predict phase stability and determine the effect of chemical composition on the lattice volume and the electronic properties of Ag-Mo solid solutions. Our combined theoretical and experimental data show that Mo-rich films (x >= similar to 0.54) form bcc Mo-Ag metastable solid solutions. Furthermore, for Ag-rich compositions (x <= similar to 0.21), our data can be interpreted as Mo not being dissolved in the Ag fcc lattice. All in all, our data show an asymmetry with regards to the mutual solubility of Ag and Mo in the two crystal structures, i.e., Ag has a larger propensity for dissolving in the bcc-Mo lattice as compared to Mo in the fcc-Ag lattice. We explain these findings in light of isostructural short-range clustering that induces energy difference between the two (fcc and bcc) metastable phases. We also suggest that the phase stability can be explained by the larger atomic mobility of Ag atoms as compared to that of Mo. The mechanisms suggested herein may be of relevance for explaining phase stability data in a number of metastable alloys, such as ternary transition metal-aluminum-nitride systems. (C) 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 70.
    Scabarozi, T.H.
    et al.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, United States.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Meehan, T.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, United States.
    Finkel, P.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, United States.
    Barsoum, M.W.
    Department of Materials Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States.
    Hettinger, J.D.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, United States.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Lofland, S.E.
    Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, United States.
    Weak electronic anisotropy in the layered nanolaminate Ti 2 GeC2008Ingår i: Solid State Communications, ISSN 0038-1098, E-ISSN 1879-2766, Vol. 146, nr 11-12, s. 498-501Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We have investigated the anisotropy in electronic transport of the layered ternary Ti2GeC by comparing the results of measurements on c-axis oriented epitaxial thin-film and polycrystalline bulk samples. The electrical conductivities, Hall coefficients, and magnetoresistances were analyzed within a multi-band framework. An adequate description of the magnetotransport data on the film with the highest mobility required the use of the explicit field-dependent conductivity tensor with three conduction bands. The analysis indicated that n ˜ p, although with n ˜ 3.5 × 1027 m- 3. The ratio of the a- to c-axis conductivities is small and contrary to theoretical predictions. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 71.
    Serban, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Junaid, Muhammad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Persson, Per Ola Åke
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy of High-Quality GaN Nanorods on Functional and Cost-Effective Templates/Substrates2017Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 10, nr 9, artikel-id 1322Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate the versatility of magnetron sputter epitaxy by achieving high-quality GaN nanorods on different substrate/template combinations, specifically Si, SiC, TiN/Si, ZrB2/Si, ZrB2/SiC, Mo, and Ti. Growth temperature was optimized on Si, TiN/Si, and ZrB2/Si, resulting in increased nanorod aspect ratio with temperature. All nanorods exhibit high purity and quality, proved by the strong bandedge emission recorded with cathodoluminescence spectroscopy at room temperature as well as transmission electron microscopy. These substrates/templates are affordable compared to many conventional substrates, and the direct deposition onto them eliminates cumbersome post-processing steps in device fabrication. Thus, magnetron sputter epitaxy offers an attractive alternative for simple and affordable fabrication in optoelectronic device technology.

  • 72.
    Sonestedt, Marie
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Frodelius, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palmquist, Jens-Petter
    Kanthal AB.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Stiller, Krystyna
    Chalmers.
    Microstructure of high velocity oxy-fuel sprayed Ti2AlC coatings2010Ingår i: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 45, nr 10, s. 2760-2769Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure formation and phase transformations in Ti2AlC-rich coatings deposited by High Velocity Oxy-fuel spraying of Maxthal 211(A (R)) powders is presented. High resolution electron microscopy analysis, using both scanning and transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectrometry and energy filtering, combined with X-ray diffraction reveals that the coatings consist of Ti2AlC grains surrounded by regions of very small TiC grains embedded in Ti (x) Al (y) . The composition of the Ti (x) Al (y) depends on its surrounding and varies with size and distribution of the adjacent TiC grains. Impact of spray parameters on coating microstructure is also discussed. Two spray parameters were varied; powder size distribution and flame power. They were found to greatly affect the coating microstructure. Increasing powder size and decreasing flame power increase the amount of Ti2AlC, but produces thinner coatings with lower cohesion. Larger powder size will also decrease oxygen incorporation.

  • 73.
    Sundqvist, J.
    et al.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hogberg, H.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Harsta, A.
    Hårsta, A., Department of Materials Chemistry, Uppsala University, Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Atomic layer deposition of Ta2O5 using the TaI 5 and O2 precursor combination2003Ingår i: Chemical Vapor Deposition, ISSN 0948-1907, E-ISSN 1521-3862, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 245-248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of tantalum oxide have been deposited on Si(100) substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD) employing the TaI5 and O 2 precursor combination. Growth was studied in the temperature region 400 to 700°C. The resulting films were found to be iodine-free above 450°C, and consisted of the polycrystalline orthorhombic ß-Ta 2O5 phase. The growth rate was found to be strongly dependent on the deposition temperature, reaching a maximum of 0.17 nm cycle-1 at 600°C.

  • 74.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Magnetron sputtering of epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111)2014Ingår i: Physica Status Solidi (a), ISSN 1862-6319, Vol. 211, nr 3, s. 636-640Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial ZrB2 thin films were deposited at a temperature of 900 °C on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(111) substrates by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 source at high rate ~80 nm/min. The films were analyzed by thin film X-ray diffraction including pole figure measurements and reciprocal space mapping as well as high resolution electron microscopy.

  • 75.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Nyberg, Tomas
    Department of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hard and elastic epitaxial ZrB2 thin films on Al2O3(0001) substrates deposited by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target2016Ingår i: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 111, s. 166-172Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) exhibits high hardness and high melting point, which is beneficial for applications in for e.g. metal cutting. However, there is limited data on the mechanical properties of ZrB2 films and no data on epitaxial films. In this study, ZrB2(0001) thin films, with thicknesses up to 1.2 μm, have been deposited on Al2O3(0001) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy show that the films grow epitaxially with two domain types exhibiting different in-plane epitaxial relationships to the substrate. The out-of-plane epitaxial relationship was determined to ZrB2(0001)|Al2O3(0001) and the in-plane relationships of the two domains to ZrB2[100]‖Al2O3[100] and ZrB2[110]‖Al2O3[100]. Mechanical properties of the films, evaluated by nanoindentation, showed that all films exhibit hardness values above 45 GPa, a reduced Young's modulus in the range 350–400 GPa, and a high elastic recovery of 70% at an applied load of 9000 μN.

  • 76.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stoichiometric, epitaxial ZrB2 thin films with low oxygen-content deposited by magnetron sputtering from a compound target: Effects of deposition temperature and sputtering power2015Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 430, s. 55-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) thin films have been deposited on 4H-SiC(0001) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. The effect of deposition temperature (500-900 degrees C) and sputtering power (100-400 W) on the composition and structure of the films have been investigated. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal that high sputtering power values and high deposition temperatures are favorable to enhance the crystalline order of the epitaxial 0001 oriented films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the composition of the films is near-stoichiometric for all deposition temperatures and for high sputtering power values of 300 W and 400 W, whereas under-stoichiometric films arc obtained when applying 100 W or 200 W. Decreasing the deposition temperature, or in particular the sputtering power, result in higher C and O impurity levels. The resistivity of the films was evaluated by four-point-probe measurements and found to scale with the amount of O impurities in the films. The lowest resistivity value obtained is 130 mu Omega cm, which makes the ZrB2 films interesting as an electrical contact material. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 77.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Li, Xun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    ZrB2 thin films deposited on GaN(0001) by magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 target2016Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 453, s. 71-76Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrB2 films were deposited on 900 °C-preheated or non-preheated GaN(0001) surfaces by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy revealed a 0001 fiber textured ZrB2 film growth following the formation of a ~2 nm thick amorphous BN layer onto the GaN(0001) at a substrate temperature of 900 °C. The amorphous BN layer remains when the substrate temperature is lowered to 500 °C or when the preheating step is removed from the process and results in the growth of polycrystalline ZrB2 films. The ZrB2 growth phenomena on GaN(0001) is compared to on 4H-SiC(0001), Si(111), and Al2O3(0001) substrates, which yield epitaxial film growth. The decomposition of the GaN surface during vacuum processing during BN interfacial layer formation is found to impede epitaxial growth of ZrB2.

  • 78.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Direct current magnetron sputtered ZrB2 thin films on 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100)2014Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 550, s. 285-290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ZrB2 thin films have been synthesized using direct current magnetron sputtering from a ZrB2 compound target onto 4H-SiC(0001) and Si(100) substrates kept at different temperatures (no heating, 400 °C, and 550 °C), and substrate bias voltage (-20 V to -80 V). Time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows that all the films are near stoichiometric and have a low degree of contaminants, with O being the most abundant (< 1 at.%). The films are crystalline, and their crystallographic orientation changes from 0001 to a more random orientation with increased deposition temperature. X-ray diffraction pole figures and selected area electron diffraction patterns of the films deposited without heating reveal a fiber-texture growth. Four point probe measurements show typical resistivity values of the films ranging from ~95 to 200 μΩcm, decreasing with increased growth temperature and substrate bias.

  • 79.
    Trinh, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Back, K
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Pozina, Galia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Materiefysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Blomqvist, H
    Sandvik Tooling AB.
    Selinder, T
    Sandvik Tooling AB.
    Collin, M
    Sandvik Tooling AB.
    Reineck, I
    Sandvik Tooling AB.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg , Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Phase transformation in kappa- and gamma-Al2O3 coatings on cutting tool inserts2009Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 203, nr 12, s. 1682-1688Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The phase transformation in as-deposited, metastable kappa- and gamma-alumina coatings on cutting inserts has been studied by a combination of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and cathodoluminescence. In the case of kappa-alumina, mechanical forces during metal cutting lower the transformation temperature of the metastable phases to the thermodynamically stable alpha-alumina phase from 1050 degrees C to 930 degrees C. This is the reason why that coating has a similar performance during metal cutting when compared to the stable ce-alumina phase. The transformation temperature in gamma-alumina coated cutting tools is found to be as low as 950-975 degrees C. Cathodoluminescence (CL) has been demonstrated as a possible method for differentiation between the various alumina phases. Specifically, both kappa- and gamma-alumina films have revealed a strong room temperature CL with different peak energies depending on the phase. CL of the metastable alumina coatings annealed at the transformation temperatures corresponds to the stable alpha-alumina phase.

  • 80.
    Trinh, David Huy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Mass-spectrometry of the positive-ion flux during radio-frequency sputter deposition of alumina-zirconia nanocompositesManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The flux of positive ions during radio-frequency magnetron sputter deposition of zirconium oxide and aluminium oxide has been studied by mass-spectrometry. Deposition from single ceramic and metallic targets as well as the combined process containing two targets has been investigated. The ratio of metal-oxide clusters to purely metallic ions in the plasma was measured. For metallic targets, this ratio increased for increasing pressure, while for ceramic targets the ratio remained constant at a level lower than that for the metallic targets. The increase in the proportion of clusters when comparing between sputtering from metallic and ceramic targets is linked to the formation of stoichiometric films in the former case. The amount of oxygen ions in the plasma available for the formation of the film was also studied and found to be reduced when sputtering two targets instead of one, increasing the likelihood of the formation of oxygen deficient films. The positive ion energy distributions for metallic ions in the aluminium and zirconium oxide systems and the dependence of plasma potential on the total pressure are also reported.

  • 81.
    Trinh, David Huy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Jon M.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Collin, M.
    Sandvik Tooling, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reineck, I.
    Sandvik Tooling, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helmersson, Ulf
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Plasma och beläggningsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Radio frequency dual magnetron sputtering deposition and characterization of nanocomposite Al2O3-ZrO2 thin films2006Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 309-316Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio frequency magnetron sputtering from oxide targets has been used to synthesize crystalline alumina–zirconia nanocomposites at a relatively low temperature of 450  °C. Films of different compositions have been deposited ranging from pure zirconia to pure alumina, the compositions being measured with Rutherford backscattering and elastic recoil detection analysis. X-ray diffraction studies show the presence of the monoclinic zirconia phase in pure zirconia films. Addition of alumina into the film results in the growth of the cubic zirconia phase and amorphous alumina. No crystalline alumina was detected in either the composite or the pure alumina film. The microstructure of the films as studied by high resolution electron microscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy shows a columnar growth mode in both the pure zirconia and nanocomposite films, but reveals differences in the intracolumnar structure. For the nanocomposite small equiaxed grains, ~5  nm in size, are found at the base of the columns at the interface with the substrate. An amorphous tissue of alumina was present between the small crystallites in the case of the nanocomposite.

  • 82.
    Trinh, David Huy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kubart, T.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyberg, T.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ottosson, M.
    Department of Solid State Electronics, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    DC Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of Nanocomposite Alumina - Zirconia Thin Films2008Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, nr 23, s. 8352-8358Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mixed aluminium oxide-zirconium oxide thin solid films have been synthesized at ~300 °C by reactive DC magnetron sputtering from two targets. Partial pressure control of the oxygen gas ensured stoichiometric films without compromising the deposition rate. The composition of the films ranged from pure alumina to pure zirconia as measured by XRay Photoelectron Spectroscopy. Microstructural characterisation showed that the pure zirconium oxide films nucleated initially as the tetragonal zirconia phase, while the 100/010/001 textured monoclinic zirconia phase grew under steady state conditions with a columnar structure. Addition of aluminium to ~3 at.% caused the formation of tetragonal zirconia in the films, while further additions led to an amorphous structure as governed by the alumina under the present kinetic limitations.

  • 83.
    Trinh, David Huy
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ottosson, M.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Collin, M.
    Sandvik Tooling, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reineck, I.
    Sandvik Tooling, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nanocomposite Al2O3-ZrO2 thin films grown by reactive dual radio-frequency magnetron sputtering2008Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 516, nr 15, s. 4977-4982Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Crystalline alumina–zirconia nanocomposites have been synthesized at 450 °C and 750 °C with reactive magnetron sputtering using radio-frequency power supplies. The composition of the films ranged from pure alumina to pure zirconia as measured by ion beam techniques. Microstructural characterization showed the presence of monoclinic zirconia in the pure zirconia films and γ-alumina in the pure alumina films while the nanocomposites contained either an amorphous compound, γ-alumina, cubic zirconia or a mixture of these. The grain size was 5 nm for the nanocomposite compared to larger grains in the pure oxide films. Electron energy loss spectroscopy showed a clear progression from the pure alumina to the pure zirconia.

  • 84.
    Trinh, David
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Collin, Marianne
    Reineck, Ingrid
    Coated Insert2006Patent (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 85.
    Van De Keere, Isabel
    et al.
    Vrije University Brussels.
    Svedhem, Sofia
    Chalmers.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vereecken, Jean
    Vrije University Brussels.
    Kasemo, Bengt
    Chalmers.
    Hubin, Annick
    Vrije University Brussels.
    In Situ Control of the Oxide Layer on Thermally Evaporated Titanium and Lysozyme Adsorption by Means of Electrochemical Quartz with Dissipation2009Ingår i: ACS APPLIED MATERIALS and INTERFACES, ISSN 1944-8244, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 301-310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Electrochemical (EC) quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (ECQCM-D) is a new and powerful technique for the in situ study of adsorption phenomena. e.g., as a function of the potential of the substrate. When titanium Ti) is employed as the substrate, its oxidation behavior needs to be taken into account. Ti is always covered with a native oxide layer that can grow by, e.g., thermal oxidation or under anodic polarization. For biomolecular adsorption studies on oxidized Ti under applied potential, a stable oxide layer is desired in order to be able to distinguish the adsorption studies on oxidized Ti under applied potenital, a stable oxide layer is desired in order to be able to distinguish the adsorption phenomena and the oxide growth. Therefore, the oxidation of thermally evaporated Ti films was investigated in phosphate buffered saline by means of ECOCM-d, using a specially designed EC flow cell Upon stepping the potential applied to Ti up to 2.6 V vs standard hydrogen electrode (SHE), a fast increase of the mass was observed initially for each potential step evolving slowly to an asymptotic mass change after several hours. The oxide layer thickness increased as a quasi-linear function of the oxidation potential for potential up to 1.8 V vs SHE. The composition of the oxide layer was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) it was mainly composed of TiO2 with a small percentage of suboxides (TiO and Ti2O3) primarily at the inner metal/oxide interface. The amount composed of TiO2, with a small percentage of suboxides TiO and Ti2O3 decreased with increasing oxidation potential. For each oxidation potential the calculated thickness obtained from ECQCM-D correlated well with the thickness obtained by XPS depth profiling. A procedure to prepare Ti samples with a stable oxide layer was successfully established for investigations on the influence of an electric field on the adsorption of biomolecules. As such, the effect of an applied potential on the adsorption behavior of lysozyme on oxidized Ti was investigated. It was observed that the adsorption of lysozyme on oxidized Ti was not influnced by the applied potential.

  • 86. Wilhelmsson, O.
    et al.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Jansson, U.
    Structural, electrical and mechanical characterization of magnetron-sputtered V-Ge-C thin films2008Ingår i: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 56, nr 11, s. 2563-2569Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    V2GeC MAX-phase thin films were deposited by DC magnetron sputter epitaxy in the temperature range 450-850 °C. The MAX-phase nucleates directly on (0 0 0 l)-oriented sapphire-wafer substrates without the need for a seed layer. The films contain, however, a small fraction of binary vanadium carbide (VCx) inclusions. X-ray diffraction analysis furthermore shows that these inclusions partly consist of the ordered superstructure V8C7. The amount of Ge in the films decreases at higher temperatures, which can be attributed to Ge evaporation. At temperatures below 450 °C the films consist of polycrystalline Ge and an X-ray amorphous carbide phase attributed to VCx or V2C. No MAX-phase was observed in this temperature region. The electrical and mechanical properties of the films were characterized. © 2008 Acta Materialia Inc.

  • 87.
    Wilhelmsson, O.
    et al.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Palmquist, J.-P.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Lewin, E.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Emmerlich, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Persson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Li, S.
    Ahuja, R.
    Uppsala University, Dept. of Physics, The Ångström Laboratory, P.O. Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eriksson, O.
    Uppsala University, Dept. of Physics, The Ångström Laboratory, P.O. Box 530, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Jansson, U.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 538, SE-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Deposition and characterization of ternary thin films within the Ti-Al-C system by DC magnetron sputtering2006Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 291, nr 1, s. 290-300Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of ternary compounds within the Ti-Al-C system was studied by magnetron sputtering for thin-film deposition and first-principles calculations for phase stability. As-deposited films were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The hardness and Young's moduli of the material were studied by nanoindentation. Epitaxial and phase-pure films of Mn+1AXn phases Ti3AlC2 and Ti2AlC as well as the perovskite phase Ti3AlC were deposited on Al2O3(00l) wafers kept at temperatures between 800 and 900 °C. The only ternary phases observed at low temperatures (300 °C) were Ti3AlC and cubic (Ti,Al)C, the latter can be described as a metastable solid solution of Al in TiC similar to the more studied (Ti,Al)N system. The difficulties to form MAX phases at low substrate temperatures were attributed of requirement for a sufficient diffusivity to partition the elements corresponding to the relatively complex crystal structures with long c-axes. While MAX-phase synthesis at 800 °C is significantly lower than contemporary bulk sintering processes, a reduction of the substrate temperature towards 300 °C in the present thin-film deposition experiments resulted in stacking sequence variations and the intergrowth of (Ti,Al)C. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 88.
    Wilhelmsson, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Materials Chemistry, the Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Giuliani, Finn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Department of Materials Chemistry, the Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Intrusion-type deformation in epitaxial Ti3SiC2/TiCx nanolaminates2007Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 91, nr 12, s. 123124-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the deformation of epitaxial Ti3 Si C2 (0001) Ti Cx (111) (x∼0.67) nanolaminates deposited by magnetron sputtering. Nanoindentation and transmission electron microscopy show that the Ti3 Si C2 layers deform via basal plane slip and intrusion into the TiC layers, suppressing kink-band and pile-up deformation behaviors analogous with monolithic Ti3 Si C2. This remarkable response to indentation is due to persistent slip in the TiC layers and prevention of gross slip throughout the nanolaminate by the interleaving Ti3 Si C2 layers. Hardness and Young's modulus were measured as ∼15 and ∼240 GPa, respectively.

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