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  • 51.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy policies for Swedish non-energy-intensive and small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries2011Ingår i: Energy Policy: Economic Effects, Security Aspects and Environmental Issues / [ed] Noah B.Jacobs, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, industrial energy end-use policy activity in Sweden has beenscarce, in particular towards small- and medium-sized industrial enterprises (SMEs) andnon-energy-intensive manufacturers. While the other Nordic states have takenconsiderable actions towards the industrial sector, Sweden has not. Rising electricityprices in Sweden and the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive(ESD), among other things, address the need for the Swedish authorities to design andadopt energy policies towards the non-energy-intensive and SME industrial sectors. Thischapter aims to explore this by discussing plausible policy solutions, based on currentresearch on barriers to energy efficiency and industrial energy programs. Initially, resultsfrom the three available Swedish studies on barriers to energy efficiency for these sectorsare outlined. Then, a few examples of successful and less successful actions towards theindustry and in particular SMEs are presented and finally, a discussion is held regardingplausible energy end-use polices, based on the presented research. In conclusion, a highlyuseful approach towards non-energy-intensive manufacturers and SMEs in particular is toprovide energy audits free of charge and involve the local authority energy consultants.

  • 52.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy Policy Options for Swedish Non-Energy-Intensive and Small- and Medium-Sized Manufacturing Industries2009Ingår i: Energy Policy: Economic Effects, Security Aspects and Environmental Issues / [ed] Noah B.Jacobs, Hauppauge NY: Nova Science Publishers , 2009, s. 1-340Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Since the early 1990s, industrial energy end-use policy activity in Sweden has been scarce, in particular towards small- and medium-sized industrial enterprises (SMEs) and non-energy-intensive manufacturers. While the other Nordic states have taken considerable actions towards the industrial sector, Sweden has not. Rising electricity prices in Sweden and the Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive (ESD), among other things, address the need for the Swedish authorities to design and adopt energy policies towards the non-energy-intensive and SME industrial sectors. This chapter aims to explore this by discussing plausible policy solutions, based on current research on barriers to energy efficiency and industrial energy programs. Initially, results from the three available Swedish studies on barriers to energy efficiency for these sectors are outlined. Then, a few examples of successful and less successful actions towards the industry and in particular SMEs are presented and finally, a discussion is held regarding plausible energy end-use polices, based on the presented research. In conclusion, a highly useful approach towards non-energy-intensive manufacturers and SMEs in particular is to provide energy audits free of charge and involve the local authority energy consultants.

  • 53.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy program evaluation2011Ingår i: Interdisciplinary energy system methodology: A compilation of research methods used in the Energy Systems Programme / [ed] Magnus Karlsson & Jenny Palm & Joakim Widén, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 54.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Questionnaires2011Ingår i: Interdisciplinary energy system methodology: A compilation of research methods used in the Energy Systems Programme / [ed] Magnus Karlsson & Jenny Palm & Joakim Widén, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 55. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Towards Increased Energy Efficiency in Swedish Industry: Barriers, Driving Forces & Policies2008Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Industriell energieffektivisering är ett av de viktigaste sätten att reducera hotet om en globaluppvärmning. En högre relativ elanvändning, i jämförelse med europeiska konkurrenter, tillsammans med stigande energikostnader beroende av stigande energipriser för den svenskaindustrin, riskerar leda till försämrad lönsamhet och försämrad konkurrenskraft. Det är såledesav stor vikt att främja energieffektivisering, exempelvis genom olika typer av styrmedel. Lönsamma energieffektiviseringsåtgärder genomförs emellertid inte alltid, till följd av olikahinder för energieffektivisering. För att kunna formulera precisa styrmedel är det därför avstor vikt att dessa hinder som förhindrar implementering av energieffektiviserande åtgärder,identifieras. Det är också av stor vikt att identifiera drivkrafterna. Syftet med denna avhandling är att analysera industriella energisystem och mera specifikt studera faktorer somfrämjar och förhindrar effektiv slutanvändning av energi i svensk industri.

    Resultaten visar att hotet om stigande energikostnader, exempelvis beträffande elektricitet,både för icke energiintensiv och för energiintensiv svensk tillverkningsindustri, kan reduceraskraftigt om energieffektiv teknik implementeras. Medan åtgärder i icke energiintensiv industrifrämst är relaterade till stödprocesser så visar sig åtgärderna i den studerade svenska energiintensiva gjuteriindustrin vara relaterade till både stöd- och produktionsprocesser.

    I fallstudierna beträffande hinder och drivkrafter visade sig de största hindren vara - med storavariationer mellan fallen - tekniska risker såsom risk för produktionsstörningar och avbrott; brist på tid/andra prioriteringar; brist på kapital; kostnader för produktionsstörningar; ickeenergirelaterade investeringar prioriteras högre; tekniken passar ej för företaget;svårigheter/kostnader att erhålla korrekt information beträffande energianvändningen av deninköpta utrustningen; och brist på budgetmedel. De största drivkrafterna var, utöver kostnadsminskningar till följd av minskad energianvändning, förekomsten av en långsiktigenergistrategi och en eldsjäl. Drivkrafterna varierade inte, till skillnad mot hindren, så mycketmellan de olika undersökta fallen.

    Beslutsstöd såsom exempelvis optimering har visat sig kunna ge ökad information vid störremer kapitalintensiva investeringar i energiintensiva små- och medelstora företag. Vidare har energianalyser visat sig vara ett effektivt sätt, i termer av besparad kWh per statligt insattkrona, att ge industrin information beträffande möjliga energieffektiviserande åtgärder.

    Resultat från avhandlingen indikerar att ett stöd gentemot icke energiintensiva och små och medelstora företag framförallt bör inkludera statligt finansierade energianalyser med denlokala energirådgivaren som en deltagande aktör.

    Delarbeten
    1. Reducing industrial energy costs through energy-efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market:: case study of a Swedish iron foundry
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Reducing industrial energy costs through energy-efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market:: case study of a Swedish iron foundry
    2005 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 81, nr 2, s. 115-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish industry, which has one of the lowest electricity prices in the European Union, will face higher electricity prices due to the Union’s electricity market liberalization. Rising electricity prices, together with a larger use of electricity than other European countries, pose a threat to industrial activity in Sweden. The Swedish foundry industry, with large proportions of energy costs in relation to the added value, is particularly sensitive to higher electricity costs. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of higher electricity prices on the Swedish iron-and steel foundry industry, quantify an energy efficiency potential for a medium-sized Swedish iron foundry resulting from a thorough industrial energy audit, and investigate what impact they have on the energy cost.

    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12508 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2004.07.006 (DOI)
    Anmärkning
    Original publication: Patrik Thollander, Magnus Karlsson, Mats Söderström, Dan Creutz, Reducing industrial energy costs through energy efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market - Case study of a Swedish iron foundry, 2005, Applied Energy, (81), 2, 115-126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2004.07.006. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Tillgänglig från: 2008-09-30 Skapad: 2008-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Industrial energy auditing: A key to competitive energy-efficient Swedish SMEs
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Industrial energy auditing: A key to competitive energy-efficient Swedish SMEs
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Efficiency Research Advances: Edited by David M. Bergmann / [ed] David M. Bergmann,Grant allan,Carla Balocco,Giovan Battista Andreani ,C. A. Cardona, Nova Science Publishers, Inc , 2007, s. 213-238Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is increased when an energy conversion device, such as a steam turbine, undergoes a technical change that enable it to produce more heat or electricity from the same amount of fuel. This contrasts with energy conservation and energy curtailment. The cumulative effect of energy efficiency can be enormous and significant in a country like the United States which uses so much more energy than it produces. This book brings together important research and analyses which put this critical issue in perspective

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2007
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier Övrig annan samhällsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12509 (URN)978-16-00-21880-4 (ISBN)160-02-1880-6 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2008-11-20 Skapad: 2008-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-02-09Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Barriers to and driving forces for energy efficiency in the non-energy-intensive manufacturing industry in Sweden
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 31, nr 12, s. 1836-1844Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry is facing tougher competition which increases the demand to implement cost-effective energy efficiency measures. However, studies have indicated that obvious cost-efficient measures are not always undertaken. This is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. The aim of this study is to investigate the existence and importance of different barriers to the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the Swedish non energy intensive manufacturing industry. Results from this study highlight a number of factors that inhibit the degree of implementation, such as the cost and risk associated with production disruptions, lack of time and other priorities, lack of sub-metering in larger organizations, etc. The study also finds a number of drivers, such as the existence of people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy at site level.

    Nyckelord
    Energy efficiency, Barriers, Driving forces, Industry
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12510 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2005.10.010 (DOI)
    Anmärkning
    Original publication: P. Rohdin and P. Thollander, Barriers to and Driving Forces for Energy Efficiency in the Non-Energy Intensive Manufacturing Industry in Sweden, 2006, Energy, (31), 12, 1836-1844. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2005.10.010. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Tillgänglig från: 2008-09-30 Skapad: 2008-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 1, s. 672-677Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-efficient energy conservation measures are not always implemented, explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates the existence of different barriers to and driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the energy intensive Swedish foundry industry. The overall results from a questionnaire show that limited access to capital constitutes by far the largest barrier to energy efficiency according to the respondents. A comparison between group-owned and privately owned foundries shows that, except for limited access to capital, they face different high-ranked barriers. While barriers within group owned companies are more related to organizational problems, barriers within private foundries are more related to information problems. This study also found that energy consultants or other actors working with energy issues in foundries are of major importance in overcoming the largest barriers, as the foundries consider them trustworthy. They may thus help the foundries overcome organizational problems such as lack of sub-metering and lack of budget funds by quantifying potential energy efficiency investments. The two, by far, most important drivers were found to be people with real ambition and long-term energy strategies.

    Nyckelord
    Barriers, Drivers, Industrial energy efficiency
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12511 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.010 (DOI)
    Anmärkning
    Original publication: Patrik Rohdin, Patrik Thollander, Petter Solding, Barriers to and drivers for energy efficiency in the Swedish foundry industry, 2006, Energy Policy, (35), 1, 672-677. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2006.01.010. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Tillgänglig från: 2008-09-30 Skapad: 2008-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    5. Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs
    2007 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 11, s. 5774-5783 Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2007
    Nyckelord
    Energy efficiency, Energy audits, Industrial energy programmes
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12512 (URN)10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.013 (DOI)
    Anmärkning
    Original publication: Patrik Thollander, Maria Danestig and Patrik Rohdin, Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency - Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs, 2007, Energy Policy, (35), 11, 5774-5783. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2007.06.013. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/Tillgänglig från: 2008-09-30 Skapad: 2008-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    6. An energy-efficient Swedish pulp and paper industry: exploring barriers to and driving forces for cost-effective energy efficiency investments
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>An energy-efficient Swedish pulp and paper industry: exploring barriers to and driving forces for cost-effective energy efficiency investments
    2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 21-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, which is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates whether this holds for the Swedish pulp and paper industry, and if so, investigates the barriers inhibiting and the driving forces stressing cost-effective energy efficiency investments. By so, this case study covers about 2% of the EU-25 industrial end-use of energy. The overall results from a questionnaire show that there is an energy efficiency gap in the sector and that the largest barriers were technical risks such as risk of production disruptions, cost of production disruption/hassle/inconvenience, technology inappropriate at the mill, lack of time and other priorities, lack of access to capital, and slim organization. As regards the driving forces for energy efficiency, the highest ranked driving forces were cost reductions resulting from lower energy use, people with real ambition, long-term energy strategy, the threat of rising energy prices, the electricity certificate system, the PFE. The results show that many of the barriers and driving forces were not solely market-related, e.g., lack of time or other priorities, slim organization, other priorities for capital investments, lack of staff awareness, and long decision chains indicate that firm-specific barriers plays an important role. These barriers may not be overcome by market-related public policy instruments but is rather a consequence of how the energy issue is organized within the firms. The second and the third largest driving forces, people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy further support this.

    Nyckelord
    Energy efficiency, Pulp and paper industry, Barriers, Driving forces, Energy policies
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12513 (URN)10.1007/s12053-007-9001-7 (DOI)
    Anmärkning
    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com: Patrik Thollander and Mikael Ottosson, An energy efficient Swedish pulp and paper industry – exploring barriers to and driving forces for cost-effective energy efficiency investments, 2007, Energy Efficiency, (1), 1, 21-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12053-007-9001-7. Copyright: Springer-Verlag, www.springerlink.com Tillgänglig från: 2008-09-30 Skapad: 2008-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-05-15Bibliografiskt granskad
    7. Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, nr 4, s. 433-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry’s investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces – which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2009
    Nyckelord
    Energy efficiency, Foundry industry, Investment decision support, Optimization
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12514 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.08.012 (DOI)000263490400005 ()
    Anmärkning

    Original publication: Patrik Thollander, Nawzad Mardan and Magnus Karlsson, Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing, 2009, Applied Energy, (86), 4, 433-440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.08.012. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/

    Tillgänglig från: 2008-09-30 Skapad: 2008-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-12Bibliografiskt granskad
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  • 56.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecnico di Milano, Milan, Italy.
    Beyond barriers – A case study on driving forces for improved energy efficiency in the foundry industries in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden2013Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 111, s. 636-643Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy management plays an important role in the transformation of industrial energy systems towards improved energy efficiency and increased sustainability. This paper aims to study driving forces for improved energy efficiency in some European energy-intensive foundry industries. The investigation has been conducted as a multiple case study involving 65 foundries located in Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, and Sweden. The most relevant perceived driving forces were found to be financially related, followed by organizational driving forces. Nevertheless, some differences can be appreciated according to the firm’s size and country. Almost half of the studied foundries lack a long-term energy strategy, about one-fourth stated that they have used Energy Performance Contracting (EPC), and only approximately one in ten foundries have used Third Party Financing (TPF). Among the studied foundries, three out of five have conducted an energy audit. On average, the energy saving potential according to the respondents is stated to be 7.5%. In conclusion, energy management in the European foundry industry, despite increasing energy prices and extensive energy policy actions taken by the EU, still seems to have great improvement potential, calling for future research and policy actions in the field.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 57.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Danestig, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy policies for increased industrial energy efficiency: Evaluation of a local energy programme for manufacturing SMEs2007Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 35, nr 11, s. 5774-5783 Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The most extensive action targeting the adoption of energy efficiency measures in small- and medium-sized manufacturing industries in Sweden over the past 15 years was project Highland. This paper presents an evaluation of the first part of this local industrial energy programme, which shows an adoption rate of more than 40% when both measures that have already been implemented and measures that are planned to be implemented are included. A comparison between this programme and another major ongoing programme for the Swedish energy-intensive industry indicates that the approach used in project Highland aimed at small- and medium-sized industries is an effective way to increase energy efficiency in the Swedish industry. The major barriers to energy efficiency among the firms were related to the low priority of the energy efficiency issue.

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    FULLTEXT02
  • 58.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Malardalen University.
    An energy efficiency program for Swedish industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises2010Ingår i: JOURNAL OF CLEANER PRODUCTION, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 18, nr 13, s. 1339-1346Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy programs such as energy audit programs and long-term agreements (LTAs) are one of the most common means of promoting energy efficiency in industry. As a result of the European Energy End-Use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive from 2006, the Swedish Government Bill proposed a national energy program towards industrial small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) using more than 500 MWh energy annually. The aim of this paper is to present the structure and design of the program, adopted in 2010, the logics in brief behind the structure, as well as an ex-ante evaluation of the programs cost-effectiveness. The paper is aimed towards the part of the program involving industry, i.e. not the part involving companies within service and sales etc. The proposed design primarily includes a subsidized energy audit with some minor LTA-elements, such as the need to report results from the energy audit, to present a plan over which measures to conduct, and after three years present which measures that were implemented. The ex-ante evaluation of the program shows a cost-effectiveness of 0.25-0.50 Eurocents/kWh, yielding savings of about 700-1 400 GWh annually.

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  • 59.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Glad, Wiktoria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Exploring Transactional Analysis in Relation to Post-Graduate Supervision—A Balancing Process2014Ingår i: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 5, nr 4, s. 185-196Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The PhD student supervision process is an important process, and the need for PhD students, who often form the backbone of the research community, to receive professional, inspiring and efficient supervision cannot be understated. This paper explores the benefits and values of Transactional Analysis (TA) as a way to further understand and work with PhD supervision. Using TA and the legitimacy ladder applied on PhD education, a modified model for increased understanding of the PhD student supervision process is presented, and is then related to empirical findings from a questionnaire among PhD students. The model shows for example the need for the supervisor to balance his or her role towards the PhD student, and suggests that professional PhD student supervision means moving from a Parent to Child relationship between the supervisor and the PhD student, towards a more mature Adult to Adult relationship.

  • 60.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Combining the EU ETS and EU Energy End-Use Policies: A Policy Proposal Achieving Faster EU CO2 Emission Reductions2012Ingår i: Clean Energy: Resources, Production and Developments / [ed] Alden M Harris, Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, s. 455-461Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies indicate that even cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not always undertaken which emphasizes the need for effective energy end-use policy instruments to be adopted. In order to reduce market barriers and imperfections, the European Union has adopted energy end-use policies such as the European Energy Enduse Efficiency and Energy Services Directive (ESD). The EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is yet another policy instrument aimed towards energy suppliers. The EU ETS will most likely lead to increased energy prices, which, according to economic theory, will increase the implementation of cost-efficient energy efficiency measures. However, and as argued in this chapter, energy end-use measures that are undertaken within the EU will not necessarily lead to reduced emissions of CO2 as the level of CO2 emissions has been fixed within the trading parts of the economy, through the EU ETS. The aim of this chapter is to present a policy concept which combines the current top-down approach based on mainstream economic theory of decreasing the cap, and a bottom-up approach based on engineering-economic models. For example, CO2 emission reductions coming from implemented energy end-use efficiency measures through each Member State’s energy end-use policies proposed in its NEEAP (National Energy Efficiency Action Plan) is suggested to lead to continuous withdrawal of EUAs. The most prominent advantage of such a concept is faster CO2 emission reductions, even during an EU ETS period, as the number of available EUAs is withdrawn continuously when demand-side actors outside of the EU ETS invest in energy efficient technologies.

  • 61.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gustafsson, Stig-Inge
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Combining the EU ETS and EU Energy End-Use Policies: A Policy Proposal Achieving Faster EU CO2 Emission Reductions2011Ingår i: International Journal of Energy, Environment, and Economics, ISSN 1054-853X, Vol. 19, nr 6, s. 717-724Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous studies indicate that even cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not always undertaken which emphasizes the need for effective energy end-use policy instruments to be adopted. In order to reduce market barriers and imperfections, the European Union has adopted energy end-use policies such as the European Energy End-use Efficiency and Energy Services Directive (ESD). The EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) is yet another policy instrument aimed towards energy suppliers. The EU ETS will most likely lead to increased energy prices, which, according to economic theory, will increase the implementation of cost-efficient energy efficiency measures. However, and as argued in this chapter, energy end-use measures that are undertaken within the EU will not necessarily lead to reduced emissions of CO2 as the level of CO2 emissions has been fixed within the trading parts of the economy, through the EU ETS. The aim of this chapter is to present a policy concept which combines the current top-down approach based on mainstream economic theory of decreasing the cap, and a bottom-up approach based on engineering-economic models. For example, CO2 emission reductions coming from implemented energy end-use efficiency measures through each Member State’s energy end-use policies proposed in its NEEAP (National Energy Efficiency Action Plan) is suggested to lead to continuous withdrawal of EUAs. The most prominent advantage of such a concept is faster CO2 emission reductions, even during an EU ETS period, as the number of available EUAs is withdrawn continuously when demand-side actors outside of the EU ETS invest in energy efficient technologies.

  • 62.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    Tranås Energi AB.
    Energieffektivisering: Energikartläggning, energiledning och styrmedel2019 (uppl. 1:1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Effektiv energianvändning i svensk tillverkningsindustri är en nyckelfaktor för att svenska företag, branscher och industrin som helhet även fortsättningsvis ska vara konkurrenskraftiga på en global marknad med knappare resurser. Denna bok är ett led i den riktningen.



    Boken är uppdelad i tre delar: Del I har sin utgångspunkt i energi­effektiviseringsgapet och fokuserar på energikartläggning och energieffektivisering av företag, framför allt ur ett tekniskt perspektiv. Del II har sin utgångspunkt i energiledningsgapet och fokuserar på energiledning samt hinder och incitament för energieffektivisering i svensk tillverkningsindustri. Del III har sin utgångspunkt i styrmedelsgapet och inriktas mot styrmedel för energieffektivisering och hur dessa kan designas, implementeras och utvärderas. 


    De två första delarna riktar sig framför allt till studenter vid svenska läro­­säten samt till energi- och miljöansvariga, teknikkonsulter, kommunala tillsynstjänstemän och andra offentliga aktörer vid exempelvis regionala energikontor. Del III riktar sig i första hand till aktörer som administrerar och ansvarar för styrmedel på nationell, regional och lokal nivå. Denna del kan även vara till nytta för koncerner som vill ta ett helhetsgrepp på energifrågan samt till företag som vill minska energianvändningens negativa miljöpåverkan i hela värdekedjan, inklusive underleverantörer.

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  • 63.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Creutz, Dan
    Swedish Foundry Association, Jönköping.
    Reducing industrial energy costs through energy-efficiency measures in a liberalized European electricity market:: case study of a Swedish iron foundry2005Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 81, nr 2, s. 115-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish industry, which has one of the lowest electricity prices in the European Union, will face higher electricity prices due to the Union’s electricity market liberalization. Rising electricity prices, together with a larger use of electricity than other European countries, pose a threat to industrial activity in Sweden. The Swedish foundry industry, with large proportions of energy costs in relation to the added value, is particularly sensitive to higher electricity costs. The aim of this paper is to study the effect of higher electricity prices on the Swedish iron-and steel foundry industry, quantify an energy efficiency potential for a medium-sized Swedish iron foundry resulting from a thorough industrial energy audit, and investigate what impact they have on the energy cost.

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    FULLTEXT02
  • 64.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kimura, Osamu
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Wakabayashi, Masayo
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A review of industrial energy and climate policies in Japan and Sweden with emphasis towards SMEs2015Ingår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 50, s. 504-512Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The threat of increased global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels stresses decision-makers to formulate and adopt policies towards different sectors of the economy. In light of the great earthquake in Japan 2011, energy efficiency also plays an important role in meeting the challenge of power supply shortage. Energy policies towards industry are of particular importance as a major part of the energy in the economy is used in industrial production. The number of papers investigating and presenting experience from energy end-use policies are scarce. Furthermore, for those present, they often only include a very brief analysis. From a public point of view, evaluations of energy programs are of major importance to measure the performance of the programs. From an energy policy designer point of view, it is of major importance to not only see the cost-effectiveness of the policy but also to understand the fundamental mechanisms for the success or failure of an industrial energy program, in order to learn how to improve future programs. The aim of this paper is to present a review of energy end-use policy instrument in Japan and Sweden towards the industrial sector from 1990 to 2014, with special emphasis on industrial SMEs. From the results presented some general-conclusions can be made, (1) results show that the cost-effectiveness differs substantially between the evaluated programs, and (2) that from a governmental point of view, subsidies towards energy audit programs seem like the most cost-effective policy. In addition to this (3) the results from the review also stress the importance of a clear strategy for every energy program on how the program is going to be evaluated, ex-ante or ex-post, and how the performance of the program is to be measured. This structure should be included from the start of the program. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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    fulltext
  • 65.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Nawzad, Mardan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimization as investment decision supportin a Swedish medium-sized iron foundry: a move beyond traditional energy auditing2009Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 86, nr 4, s. 433-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased globalisation, industries are facing greater competition that is pressing companies into decreasing their expenses in order to increase their profits. As regards Swedish industry, it has been faced with substantial increases in energy prices in recent years. Barriers to energy efficiency such as imperfect information inhibit investments in energy efficiency measures, energy audits being one means of reducing barriers and overcoming imperfect information. However, an evaluation of such energy audits in Sweden reveals that it is chiefly low-cost measures that are undertaken as a result of an audit. Moreover, these audits often tend to focus on support processes such as ventilation, lighting, air compressors etc., while measures impacting production processes are often not as extensively covered, which underlines the need for further support in addition to energy audits. Decision support is practised in a variety of different disciplines such as optimization and simulation and the aim of this paper is to explore whether investment decision support practices may be used successfully towards small and medium-sized manufacturers in Sweden when complex production-related investment decisions are taken. The optimization results from the different cases, involving a foundry’s investment in a new melting unit, indicate that with no electricity price fluctuations over the day, the investment seems sound as it lowers the overall energy costs. However, with fluctuating electricity prices, there are no large differences in energy costs between the option of retaining the existing five melting furnaces at the foundry and investing in a twin furnace and removing the holding furnaces – which was the initial investment plan for the foundry in the study. It would not have been possible to achieve this outcome without the use of investment decision support such as MIND. One of the main conclusions in this paper is that investment decision support, when strategic investment decisions are to be taken, may be a means of emphasising energy efficiency for energy-intensive SMEs beyond the level of traditional energy auditing.

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    FULLTEXT02
  • 66.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    An energy-efficient Swedish pulp and paper industry: exploring barriers to and driving forces for cost-effective energy efficiency investments2008Ingår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 21-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the need for increased industrial energy efficiency, studies indicate that cost-effective energy efficiency measures are not always implemented, which is explained by the existence of barriers to energy efficiency. This paper investigates whether this holds for the Swedish pulp and paper industry, and if so, investigates the barriers inhibiting and the driving forces stressing cost-effective energy efficiency investments. By so, this case study covers about 2% of the EU-25 industrial end-use of energy. The overall results from a questionnaire show that there is an energy efficiency gap in the sector and that the largest barriers were technical risks such as risk of production disruptions, cost of production disruption/hassle/inconvenience, technology inappropriate at the mill, lack of time and other priorities, lack of access to capital, and slim organization. As regards the driving forces for energy efficiency, the highest ranked driving forces were cost reductions resulting from lower energy use, people with real ambition, long-term energy strategy, the threat of rising energy prices, the electricity certificate system, the PFE. The results show that many of the barriers and driving forces were not solely market-related, e.g., lack of time or other priorities, slim organization, other priorities for capital investments, lack of staff awareness, and long decision chains indicate that firm-specific barriers plays an important role. These barriers may not be overcome by market-related public policy instruments but is rather a consequence of how the energy issue is organized within the firms. The second and the third largest driving forces, people with real ambition and a long-term energy strategy further support this.

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    FULLTEXT03
  • 67.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Företagsekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Drivkrafter för industrins energianvändning - En litteraturstudie2012Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att ge en överblick av kunskapsläget beträffande vilka faktorersom påverkar industrins energianvändning. Syftet kan delas upp i fyra temaområden:Energipriser och råvaror, Ekonomisk utveckling, Skatter och styrmedel,samt Energieffektivisering. Inom ramen för dessa fyra teman omfattar studien fyraunderkategorier: industrin generellt inklusive internationell forskning inom fältet,svensk industri, järn- och stålindustrin generellt inklusive internationell forskninginom fältet, samt svensk järn- och stålindustri.Den huvudsakliga metoden för uppdragets genomförande har varit en litteraturstudie,där vetenskapliga artiklar i internationella tidsskrifter granskats. För att säkrahög vetenskaplig kvalité har endast ISI-rankade vetenskapliga artiklar valts ut förläsning. Totalt omfattas studien av cirka 240 vetenskapliga artiklar mellan åren 2000till 2012. Initialt granskades artiklarna utifrån titel, och nyckelord, och typ av tidsskrift,för att avgränsa icke relevanta artiklar. Därefter valdes cirka 100 artiklar utför en djupare granskning av primärt artiklarnas sammanfattningar. Totalt valdesutifrån detta cirka 50 artiklar ut för genomläsning och kritisk granskning. Av dessaansågs 30 vara av så stor relevans att de beskrivs mer utförligt i underliggande rapport,se tabell 1. Notera att en artikel kan återfinnas under flera kategorier.I kapitel 8 presenteras en sammanfattning av de studerande artiklarna. Beträffandefaktorer som påverkar svensk järn- och stålindustris energianvändning kan noterasatt inga träffar erhölls enligt studiens sökkriterier och endast två artiklar återfannsbland internationell järn- och stålindustri. Detta accentuerar vikten av framtidaforskning inom området.

  • 68.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Energy management practices in Swedish energy-intensive industries2010Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 18, nr 12, s. 1125-1133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies point out a large (untapped) potential for energy efficiency in industry through the adoption of energy management practices. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyze energy management practices in two different Swedish energy-intensive industries: the pulp and paper industry and the foundry industry. The results show that one third of the studied mills and about two fifths of the studied foundries do not allocate energy costs by means of sub-metering, which probably contributes to reinforce the split incentive problem. Moreover, about one fifth of the mills and about half of the foundries lack a long-term energy strategy. The results also show that only about 40% and 25% respectively of the studied mills and foundries may be categorized as successful when it comes to energy management practices. If energy management is not fully prioritized even in energy-intensive industries - such as the studied foundry and pulp- and paper industry it will, in all probability, not be prioritized in less energy-intensive industrial sectors or countries either, indicating a large untapped potential in regard to cleaner, more environmentally sound, production in the industrial sector.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 69.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Energy related outsourcing: - The case of ESCOs in the Swedish pulp and paper industry2011Ingår i: First International Technology Management Conference, IEEE , 2011, s. 329-337Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy efficiency is stated as a major means of reducing the threat of increased global warming, caused by human use of fossil fuels. Energy service companies (ESCOs) have been expected to play an important role in promoting energy efficiency in different sectors of the economy, including industry. Energy related outsourcing in the complex energy intensive pulp and paper industry, with a continuous production process, represents one of the more challenging types of industrial outsourcing. This paper studies the role of ESCOs as a method to promote energy efficiency in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. A questionnaire was used, complemented by in-depth interviews with mill executives in order to gain more knowledge of the issue. The main conclusion from this paper is that the utilization of ESCOs in the pulp and paper industry is higher in activities with a lower level of energy integration in the production process, and on the contrary, the utilization of ESCOs is lower with a higher level of energy integration in the production process. Since the PPI is a mature industry with a globally well-known and well-spread technique, results from this paper, may plausibly be generalized for PPIs in other countries as well.

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    fulltext
  • 70.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ottosson, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Exploring energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: Volume 32009Ingår i: Act! Innovate! Deliver! Reducing energy demand sustainably / [ed] Christel Broussous and Corisande Jover, eceee , 2009, s. 1051-1058Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish pulp- and paper industry is a considerable user of energy, accounting for about 50 percent of the Swedish industrial energy use and 2 percent of the EU-25 industrial energy use. Its high energy use makes this industry particularly important in terms of energy efficiency. Previous research has emphasised the need for companies’ to have well functioning energy management practices in order to increase energy efficiency. This paper describes and analyses energy management practices in the Swedish pulp and paper industry. A questionnaire was sent out to the person in charge of the energy issue at all Swedish mills and 40 replies were received, a response frequency of 68 percent. The results show that the energy issue has been given increasingly higher priority over the past 10 years. However, in spite of this, overall results from the questionnaire show that there is still potential for improving energy management in the studied industry. More than 20 percent of the studied mills lack a long-term energy strategy, and less than half of the studied mills have an energy strategy covering at least five years. These results indicate that the implementation of a long-term energy strategy in this energy intensive industry, in combination with other means, could be of utmost importance for increasing energy efficiency. In conclusion, based on the research results presented in this paper, a different energy policy design for the industry seems to be needed, which could be very fruitful if it focuses on establishing more efficient energy management practices and includes all energy carriers. Moreove, the fact that more than 20 percent of the studied mills lack a long-term energy strategy and the fact that the Swedish EMS standard does not require such a strategy to be formulated indicates the need for further studies regarding a plausible inclusion of a long-term energy strategy in the EMS standard.

  • 71.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Improving Energy Efficiency in Industrial Energy Systems: An Interdisciplinary Perspective on Barriers, Energy Audits, Energy Management, Policies, and Programs2013 (uppl. 1)Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue.

    Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discusses how “cross-pollinating” perspectives and theories from the social and engineering sciences can enhance our understanding of barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programmes as they pertain to improved energy efficiency in industry.

    Apart from classical technical approaches from engineering sciences, Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems couples a sociotechnical perspective to increased energy efficiency in industry, showing that industrial energy efficiency can be expected to be shaped by social and commercial processes and built on knowledge, routines, institutions, and methods established in networks. The book can be read by researchers and policy-makers, as well as scholars and practicians in the field.

  • 72.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Gavle, Sweden.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Industrial Energy Management Decision Making for Improved Energy Efficiency: Strategic System Perspectives and Situated Action in Combination2015Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 5694-5703Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved industrial energy efficiency is a cornerstone in climate change mitigation. Research results suggest that there is still major untapped potential for improved industrial energy efficiency. The major model used to explain the discrepancy between optimal level of energy efficiency and the current level is the barrier model, e.g., different barriers to energy efficiency inhibit adoption of cost-effective measures. The measures outlined in research and policy action plans are almost exclusively technology-oriented, but great potential for energy efficiency improvements is also found in operational measures. Both technology and operational measures are combined in successful energy management practices. Most research in the field of energy management is grounded in engineering science, and theoretical models on how energy management in industry is carried out are scarce. One way to further develop and improve energy management, both theoretically as well as practically, is to explore how a socio-technical perspective can contribute to this understanding. In this article we will further elaborate this potential of cross-pollinating these fields. The aim of this paper is to relate energy management to two theoretical models, situated action and transaction analysis. We conclude that the current model for energy management systems, the input-output model, is insufficient for understanding in-house industrial energy management practices. By the incorporation of situated action and transaction analysis to the currently used input-output model, an enhanced understanding of the complexity of energy management is gained. It is not possible to find a single energy management solution suitable for any industrial company, but rather the idea is to find a reflexive model that can be adjusted from time to time. An idea for such a reflexive model would contain the structural elements from energy management models with consideration for decisions being situated and impossible to predict.

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    fulltext
  • 73.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palm, Jenny
    IIIEE, International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Mekanisk värmeteori och strömningslära. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Energy Efficiency as a Wicked Problem2019Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 6, artikel-id 1569Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Together with increased shares of renewable energy supply, improved energy efficiency is the foremost means of mitigating climate change. However, the energy efficiency potential is far from being realized, which is commonly explained by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. Initially mentioned by Churchman, the term “wicked problems” became established in the 1970s, meaning a kind of problem that has a resistance to resolution because of incomplete, contradictory, or changing requirements. In the academic literature, wicked problems have later served as a critical model in the understanding of various challenges related to society, such as for example climate change mitigation. This aim of this paper is to analyze how the perspective of wicked problems can contribute to an enhanced understanding of improved energy efficiency. The paper draws examples from the manufacturing sector. Results indicate that standalone technology improvements as well as energy management and energy policy programs giving emphasis to standalone technology improvements may not represent a stronger form of a wicked problem as such. Rather, it seems to be the actual decision-making process involving values among the decision makers as well as the level of needed knowledge involved in decision-making that give rise to the “wickedness”. The analysis shows that wicked problems arise in socio-technical settings involving several components such as technology, systems, institutions, and people, which make post-normal science a needed approach.

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    Energy Efficiency as a Wicked Problem
  • 74.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Categorizing Barriers to Energy Efficiency: An Interdisciplinary Perspective2010Ingår i: Energy Efficiency / [ed] Jenny Palm, Kroatien: Sciyo , 2010, s. 49-62Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this book, energy consumption in the household sector is examined. Barriers to and enablers of energy efficiency in households in relation to governmental policy formulation, the implementation and appropriation of technology are discussed. This represents a shift away from the conventional focus on energy supply toward a focus on energy use in everyday life. This shift is urgently needed, since households, policy makers, housing companies, and researchers need deeper knowledge of how energy facilitates necessary functions in people's daily lives. New paths must be developed to smart and climate-friendly energy use that continue to facilitate those lives. This book discusses the existing opportunities to improve energy efficiency, by starting to implement existing knowledge as well as energy efficient technology and solutions.

  • 75.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy services in industry – an interdisciplinary approach with engineering and social science aspects2010Ingår i: IIndustrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²): Proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference / [ed] Sakao, T., Larsson, T., Lindahl, M., Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, s. 51-56Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A large potential for energy efficiency exists in industry but the adoption of energy efficiency measures is often inhibited by various barriers. Different means to overcome these barriers and promote energy efficiency in industry exist; one of the most promising being energy services. Earlier research shows that while many barriers could be overcome by energy services; the industry’s ranking and adoption of energy services are very low. By applying an interdisciplinary approach using barrier theory; socio-technical regimes; and IPSE (Integrated Product Service Engineering) to energy services in industry; the aim of this paper is to i) theoretically explain why there is a considerable discrepancy between the potential for energy services in industry and their adoption; and ii); partly based on i) and by applying an interdisciplinary approach; attempt to explore ways of reaching a satisfactory level of energy services in industry.

  • 76.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Industrial energy auditing: A key to competitive energy-efficient Swedish SMEs2007Ingår i: Energy Efficiency Research Advances: Edited by David M. Bergmann / [ed] David M. Bergmann,Grant allan,Carla Balocco,Giovan Battista Andreani ,C. A. Cardona, Nova Science Publishers, Inc , 2007, s. 213-238Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is increased when an energy conversion device, such as a steam turbine, undergoes a technical change that enable it to produce more heat or electricity from the same amount of fuel. This contrasts with energy conservation and energy curtailment. The cumulative effect of energy efficiency can be enormous and significant in a country like the United States which uses so much more energy than it produces. This book brings together important research and analyses which put this critical issue in perspective

  • 77.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cornelis, Erwin
    VITO NV, Belgium.
    Kimura, Osamu
    Central Research Institute Elect Power Ind, Japan.
    Trianni, Andrea
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecn Milan, Italy.
    Morales, Ines
    IAT, Spain.
    Pablo Jimenez Navarro, Juan
    IAT, Spain.
    International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities2015Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 104, s. 282-296Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector is important to study in terms of improved energy efficiency, being one of the major energy-using sectors and responsible for a major share of CO2 emissions. The energy end-use (EEU) in the industrial sector is complex in general as processes are intertwined and interrelated. Moreover, bottom-up data of EEU on an aggregated level is scarce. Data for total energy supply like electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas exists but bottom-up data of what processes these energy carriers are used in, and moreover, where the major potential for implementation of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) exists, is less prevalent. This holds in particular for industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This makes policy formulation and design for industry a great challenge. Knowledge on where and how energy is used, as well as where opportunities for improvement exist, may provide good support for developing the most effective policies. Therefore, the aim of this study has been to present and compare available bottom-up energy data for industrial SMEs in four countries, namely Belgium, Italy, Japan and Sweden. Results show that the existence and quality of bottom-up EEU data differs largely between the countries and the development of a general taxonomy of structuring EEU data as well as EEMs is needed. Without the development of such a general taxonomy, the deployment level of EEMs and carbon dioxide emission reductions is unlikely to ever reach its full potential as knowledge is missing on how large the potential is, in which processes the major potential is found, how far industry has reached in terms of deployment levels, and in which areas future energy policies are needed. In conclusion, this paper of EEU and EEM in industrial SMEs addresses the high importance of future research in creating a harmonized data categorization, as this will greatly support the transition towards sustainable industrial energy systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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  • 78.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Case study research2011Ingår i: Interdisciplinary energy system methodology: A compilation of research methods used in the Energy Systems Programme / [ed] Magnus Karlsson & Jenny Palm, Linköping: Linköpings universitet , 2011, s. 12-15Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    A case study is a frequently used concept, but depending on tradition the term may have different meanings. In the design of a case study, one of the most important determinants, apart from the choice of studying multiple or single cases, is the maximization of construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability. The preparation for doing a case study include, for example, the prior skills of the investigator, the training and preparation for the specific case study, the development of a case study protocol, and the screening of candidate case studies. Six main sources of information could be used when conducting case study research: documentation, archival records, interviews (including questionnaires), direct observations, participant observations, and physical artifacts. Case study research is particularly advantageous when “how” or “why” questions are asked about a current set of events over which the researcher has minor or no control. The method is particularly beneficial when studying a complex phenomenon involving one or both of these two questions. If the studied system or case is complex but does not involve the aforementioned questions, or if the study involves a lower degree of complexity, other methods may be more advantageous. Case study research has been a widely used approach when studying energy systems from various perspectives, including Swedish research studying efficient district heating supply, industrial energy efficiency and ventilation, energy systems analysis, and industrial symbiosis.

  • 79.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Programs involving Energy Audits – Results from Sweden2010Ingår i: Energy Program Evaluation Conference (IEPEC) 2010, 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy programs including energy audits are cited as one of the most promising means to increase energy efficiency and reduce GHG emissions. From a public point of view, the cost-effectiveness of an energy efficiency program is of major importance if a program is to be considered or not. The aim of this paper is to outline results from the two largest Swedish energy efficiency programs, project Highland and the PFE (Program for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry), in terms of the program’s cost-effectiveness, in order to answer the research question where public money towards energy end-use programs should be placed from a cost-effectiveness point of view. Project Highland, involved small- and medium-sized industrial and service and sales enterprises, and the PFE involved electricity-intensive industries. Results indicate that the cost-effectiveness differs substantially between the two programs, and that the most cost-effective sector to target is small- and medium sized and non-energy-intensive companies using energy audits. The next most cost effective programs are LTAs (Long-Term Agreements) towards energy-intensive companies and, followed by energy audits towards small- and medium-sized and non energy-intensive service and sales companies. Analytic generalization of the paper’s results indicates that a clean-cut energy audit program towards small- and medium-sized and non-energy-intensive industries is more cost-effective than an LTA towards energy-intensive industries.

  • 80.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A standardized energy audit tool for improved energy efficiency in industrial SMEs2012Ingår i: eceee 2012 Industrial Summer Study: Conference proceedings, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2012, Vol. 2, s. 659-668Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in industrial energy systems is for example of outmost importace as a mean to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and reduce energy costs. The energy efficiency potential in European industry is stated by the European Commission to be 25 percent, where the majority of the measures are found in pumps, fans and lighting. Despite extensive attention given to energy efficiency, research states that a majority of avaliable cost-efficient energy efficiency measures are not implemented due to the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency, in particular information-related barriers. Energy audits, and energy audit programs, are one of the most widespread and used instruments to overcome barriers to energy efficiency and promoting energy efficiency in industry. In particular when it is related to generic technologies and industrial small- and medium-sized enterprizes. Despite the importance of energy audits, and the fact that a large number of energy audit programs are in operation in the EU and across the world, there is a considerable lack of so called energy audit tools, i.e. a standardized tool to conduct the actual energy audit. The aim of this paper is to present an energy audit tool for industrial SMEs. The tool is based on more than three decades of research and teaching in the area of energy audting in industry, covering more than 300 energy audits, primarly conducted in Sweden. The developed tool uses unit process categorization, which enables energy auditors and energy program administrators to conduct energy audits in a standardized way.

  • 81.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    On the formation of energy policies towards 2020: Challenges in the Swedish industrial and building sectors2012Ingår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 42, s. 461-467Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of global climate change due to increased emissions of greenhouse gases emissions which in turn is a consequence of in particular, the use of fossil fuels, has made EU decision makers to act decisively, e.g. the EU 2020 primary energy target of reducing primary energy use with 20% from 2005 to 2020. The aim of this paper is to present major challenges related to the development and formation of energy policies towards the Swedish industrial and building sector in order to fulfill the EU 2020 primary energy target. This paper is approaching the presented challenges by introducing the theory of Asymmetric Energy Policy Shocks (AEPSs), and addresses some key challenges which are of particular relevance for the fulfilment of the EU 2020 primary energy target for Member States like Sweden which from an energy end-use perspective substantially differs from the EU-25s energy end-use structure. In conclusion, overcoming AEPSs, and moving towards a more Long-Term Energy Policy Approach (LTEPA) will be of key importance for individual Member States, if the 2020 primary energy target is to be fulfilled.

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  • 82.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Energy in Swedish industry 2020 – current status, policy instruments, and policy implications2013Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 51, s. 109-117Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The EU has established so-called 20–20–20 targets, which in relation to energy mean that each Member State shall improve energy intensity levels by 3.3% annually, leading to a reduced primary energy use of 20% by the year 2020, calculated from a projected level based on the primary energy use in 2005. Sweden has established a less ambitious target of 1.7% annual energy intensity improvement through 2020. The aim of this paper is to evaluate, ex-ante, the EU 2020 primary energy target for the Swedish industrial sector. An applied backcasting methodology is used. The assessment made in this paper is that actions that lead to between 31.6 and 33.2 TWh/year reductions in energy end-use are needed if the EU target is to be achieved. Results from this paper shows that the current energy policy instruments are not sufficient to the EU or Swedish targets. Estimations in this paper are that a primary energy target of about 22.3 TWh/year is reasonable. The paper concludes by presenting a roadmap on how the Swedish 2020 target can be achieved through: i) energy management; ii) energy-efficient technology; and iii) energy supply measures, with an approximate cost of 280–300 MEUR or 75–80 kWh per public EUR. Three major additional policy measures are needed compared with the current policy: including all energy carriers, not just electricity, in the Swedish long-term agreements program PFE; setting up networks; and making it possible for third parties, i.e., industry, to deliver excess heat into the monopolized Swedish district heating grids.

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    fulltext
  • 83.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosenqvist, Jakob
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Solding, Petter
    Rahimi, Maral
    Rahimi Ardkapan, Siamak
    In-depth evaluation of energy management in a Swedish iron foundry2010Ingår i: In Proceedings of Energitinget 2010, 2010, s. 1-12Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency in industry could be promoted in various ways, energy management being one of the most promising tools. Apart from reduced energy use and costs, energy management has large opportunities for reducing environmental impact. However, research in this field is scarce, both as regards theoretical approaches and empirical studies like in-depth evaluation, underlining the importance of research in this field. The aim of this paper is to present results from an in-depth evaluation conducted in 2009-2010 of the extensive energy management practices undertaken by the Swedish pump manufacturers, ITT Water & Wasterwater. The company has received the Swedish Foundry Association’s energy prize and is considered the most energy efficient foundry in Sweden. The paper is unique as it presents new knowledge on how such in-depth evaluation could be conducted. Results indicate that the IT-based energy management system together with extensive implementation of energy efficiency measures have increased energy efficiency at the foundry by more than 27% for electricity and 68% for district heating.

  • 84.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rohdin, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Moshfegh, Bahram
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    EUs 2020-mål avseende primärenergi: En studie av effekterna för svensk industri2010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hotet om globala klimatförändringar till följd av ökade utsläpp av växthusgaser som i sin tur är en följd av framförallt användningen av fossila bränslen för energitillförsel, har fått beslutsfattare inom EU att agera kraftfullt. År 2006 kom EU med det så kallade energitjänstedirektivet (ESD) som syftar till att minska slutenergianvändningen med 9 procent fram till 2016. Utöver direktivet har EU fastställt de så kallade 2020-målen som i relation till energi innebär att Sverige ska effektivisera primärenergianvändningen med 20 procent fram till år 2020 beräknad utifrån en projicierad nivå baserad på 2005-års primärenergianvändning. Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka effekten, i form av minskad energianvändning, som EUs 2020-mål beträffande primärenergi medför för svensk industri.

    Arbetet avgränsas till att omfatta primärenergimålet för 2020 och dess implikationer för den svenska industrisektorn. I relation till detta antagande bör det nämnas att åtgärder i industrin inte nödvändigtvis behöver vara det mest kostnadseffektiva sättet att uppfylla målet på eftersom styrmedel mot t.ex. transportsektorn kan ha högre kostnadseffektivitet. Det bör alltså noteras att en bedömning av energiintensiteten på sektorsnivå kan bli missvisande.

    Resultatet från denna studie visar att om 2020-målet avseende primärenergi ska kunna uppnås kommer det att leda till kraftiga förändringar av användning och tillförsel av energi i svensk industri. De två styrmedel avseende energieffektivisering som inbegripits i bedömningen, PFE och energikartläggningschecken, räcker inte för att målet ska nås. Bedömningen som görs i denna rapport är att insatser som leder till cirka 35,0 TWh/år minskad slutenergianvändning måste komma till stånd för att målet ska uppnås. Om effekterna av PFE och energikartläggningscheckarna räknas bort från denna siffra erhålls något lägre siffror, 31,9-33,6 TWh/år. För att kunna uppnå sådana väsentliga besparingar är bedömningen att ett antal nya styrmedel måste utvecklas som främjar en effektivare primärenergianvändning. Det är denna utveckling som avgör om Sverige kommer att kunna nå det högt satta 2020-målet.

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    EUs 2020-mål avseende primärenergi : En studie av effekterna för svensk industri
  • 85.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem.
    Solding, Petter
    Dept. of Production, Energy and Environment Swedish Institute of Casting Tec hnology.
    Increased energy efficiency an a Swedish iron foundry through use of discrete event simulation2006Ingår i: The 2006 Winter Simulation Conference,2006, 2006, s. 1971-Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 86.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Vägen till framgångsrika värmesamarbeten - en fallstudie2009Rapport (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 87.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Trygg, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Analyzing variables for district heating collaborations between energy utilities and industries2010Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 35, nr 9, s. 3649-3656Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One vital means of raising energy efficiency is to introduce district heating in industry. The aim of this paper is to study factors which promote and inhibit district heating collaborations between industries and utilities. The human factors involved showed to affect district heating collaborations more than anything else does. Particularly risk, imperfect and asymmetric information, credibility and trust, inertia and values are adequate variables when explaining the establishment or failure of industry-energy utility collaborations, while heterogeneity, access to capital and hidden costs appear to be of lower importance. A key conclusion from this study is that in an industry-energy utility collaboration, it is essential to nurture the business relationship. In summary, successful collaboration depends more on the individuals and organizations involved in the relationship between the two parties than on the technology used in the collaboration.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 88.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Solding, Petter
    n/a.
     ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN INDUSTRIAL SMES2009Ingår i:  5TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY IN INDUSTRY, 2009, s. 1-9Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 89.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Tyrberg, M
    Drivkrafter för energieffektivisering i små- och medelstora industriföretag2008Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

         

  • 90.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Zubizarreta Jiménez, Rogelio
    Morales, Inés
    Kimura, Osamu
    Cornelis, Erwin
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The design and structure of effective energy end-use policies and programs towards industrial SMEs2014Ingår i: eceee Industrial Summer Study Proceedings, 2014Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The issue of climate change due to, in particular anthropogenic emissions of CO2 is driving decision-makers to make decisions towards more efficient use of energy. Improved industrial energy efficiency is stated to have a key role in the transition into more carbon-neutral energy systems. In most countries, industrial SMEs represent more than 95 % of the number of companies. Thus, the sector is apart from using energy, a major driver in the Economy in regard to innovations, and GDP growth, investments and export etc. The aim of this paper is to present results of an international study within International Energy Agency Industrial Energy Technologies and Systems) concerning the design and structure of effective energy end-use policies towards industrial SMEs in the countries Belgium, Japan, Spain and Sweden. The major method used was workshops, and literature studies, mainly country-specific reports and documents, mostly written in that countries native language.Results from this paper states that for medium-sized and energy-intensive industrial SMEs it is emphasized that Energy Conservation Law/Long-Term Agreements (LTA)/Voluntary Agreement (VA) are strong energy end-use policies followed by energy audit programs, preferably but not necessarily located regionally or locally. Energy networks, preferably locally or regionally anchored, are also policies suggested to be considered for medium-sized and energy-intensive industrial SMEs followed by investment subsidies mainly for investments in production-related technologies, benchmarking, and finally sector guidelines.For small-sized and non-energy-intensive industrial SMEs it is emphasized that energy audit program, preferably locally or regionally anchored, followed by energy networks, preferably locally or regionally anchored, are strong energy end-use policies followed investment subsidies, benchmarking, and finally sector guidelines.

  • 91.
    Trianni, Andrea
    et al.
    Politecnico di Milano, Dept. Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering,, Italy.
    Cagno, Enrico
    Politecnico di Milano, Dept. Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering, Milan, Italy.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Backlund, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Barriers to industrial energy efficiency in foundries: a European comparison2013Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 40, s. 161-176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    According to recent studies, the 20% European improvement in energy efficiency will not be achieved with current trends, even with the adoption of present policies to reduce primary energy use. This is due to the existence of several barriers that hinder the adoption of the energy-efficient technologies and practices. A relevant contribution to improved energy efficiency could come from the industrial sector, due to its relevance on total energy use. This study therefore addresses barriers within the European foundry industry, a major industrial energy user and a strategic player for the European economy. The research investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at 65 foundries, several of them small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), highlighting the critical problems and difficulties by evaluating the socio-technical frameworks against which the barriers have been categorized. Findings show that the greatest perceived barriers are the perception of the lack of resources to be devoted to improving energy efficiency, and the existence of other priorities such as the importance of guaranteeing business continuity. The study has also performed a preliminary analysis of the factors that might affect the perception of barriers. In particular, looking at size, smaller enterprises show a greater perception of the barriers than larger ones, mainly due to several organizational issues, but with effect on behavioural ones, that tend to downgrade energy efficiency to a peripheral issue. The study has also highlighted differences by type of alloy characterizing foundries, taken as proxy of the process complexity. Indeed, enterprises with simpler production processes tend to perceive higher barriers to energy efficiency, showing the need to identify effective means to promote energy efficiency among those enterprises. Moreover, the analysis has pointed out that performing energy audits brings more awareness to the enterprises, highlighting the effective existing difficulties in improving their energy efficiency. This result seems to be relevant since it shows the need for the research to analyze the awareness to energy efficiency in greater depth and develop the most effective policies to increase it at industrial level. Finally when looking at the country in which foundries operate, German enterprises tend to suffer from the barriers far less than the average, whilst a totally different behaviour can be observed for Swedish ones. These preliminary findings open the research to investigate in greater depth the factors leading to a different perception of barriers, and also the domestic policies that have led to those results. Moreover, the study opens to investigate which means, i.e. drivers, might be more effectively exploited at European level to promote industrial energy efficiency.

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  • 92.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Difs, Kristina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svensson, Inger-Lise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Optimala fjärrvärmesystem i symbios med industri och samhälle: för ett hållbart energisystem2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Med ökad medvetenhet om den pågående klimatförändringen är det av central betydelse att hitta åtgärder som leder till en omställning mot hållbara energisystem och ett hållbart samhälle. Fjärrvärme har en viktig roll i energiförsörjningen eftersom den ger möjlighet att ta tillvara värmeresurser som annars kan vara svåra att utnyttja, som exempelvis spillvärme från industrier och förbränning av avfall. Fjärrvärmesystemen möjliggör också elproduktion i kraftvärmeverk, med betydligt högre totalverkningsgrad än vid separat el- respektive värmeproduktion. Ett led i omställning mot hållbarhet är därför förändring av energisystemet mot en ökad användning av fjärrvärme och minskad användning av el genom dels effektiviseringar och dels via konverteringar från olja och el till fjärrvärme. Våra svenska fjärrvärmesystem är väl utbyggda och utgör en viktig resurs i detta arbete. Den pågående klimatförändringen kommer med största trolighet att medföra förändrat uttagsmönster för både värme- och kylbehov. Med ett varmare klimat minskar behovet av värme samtidigt som efterfrågan på kyla ökar. Förändrade uttagsmönster för fjärrvärme och kyla, ökad konkurrens och tydligare medvetenhet om den pågående klimatförändringen medför att fjärrvärmen står inför nya utmaningar där utveckling av nya affärer och nya marknader blir allt viktigare. Idag används fjärrvärmen främst för uppvärmning och tappvarmvatten vilket medför att utnyttjningstiden för fjärrvärme till stor del är utomhustemperaturberoende. För att minska utomhustemperaturberoendet och på så sätt få en lastkurva för fjärrvärme som är mer ”fyrkantig” i sin utformning krävs ett fjärrvärmebehov som är mer jämnt fördelat under året. Ett jämnare effektuttag över året leder till bättre utnyttjningstid och driftförhållande för baslastanläggningarna vilket är gynnsamt speciellt i ett kraftvärmesystem eftersom det möjliggör utökad elproduktion. Flera studier har visat hur utnyttjningstid och värmelasten är de faktorer som påverkar lönsamheten mest för ett biobränsleeldat kraftvärmeverk. Syftet med föreliggande projekt är att visa hur fjärrvärmesystemen kan bidra till resurssnåla energisystem med minskad klimatpåverkan. Men hjälp av systemstudier av olika fall lyfter projektet fram exempel där industrier och energileverantörer kan samarbeta kring fjärrvärmerelaterade åtgärder och hur detta leder till hållbara fjärrvärmesystem. Åtgärder som studerats är ökad användning av fjärrvärme inom industriella processer, absorptionskyla samt introduktion av bioenergikombinat i fjärrvärmesystem. För att få kunskap om hur dessa idéer kan gå från att vara potentiellt lönsamma åtgärder till att bli faktiska genomförda projekt, analyseras även vilka faktorer som driver fram ett värmesamarbete mellan en industri och ett energibolag. Resultatet från projektet visar att det finns stora potentialer att öka användningen av fjärrvärme inom industriella processer, från 100 GWh till 300 GWh för de 41 industrier belägna i 6 olika kommuner som analyserats. Konverteringen till ökad fjärrvärmeanvändning påverkar lastkurvan så att utnyttjningstiden ökar, vilket ger en bättre utnyttjandegrad av fjärrvärmeanläggningarna i systemet. På samma sätt är absorptionskyla för att möta ökat kylbehov en åtgärd som leder till mer uthålliga energisystem. När fjärrvärmedrivna absorptionskylmaskiner introduceras i Örebros energisystem minskar de globala emissionerna av CO2 samtidigt som systemkostnaden reduceras. Ett ökat framtida kylbehov i Örebro i samband med högre elpriser medför att absorptions kyla ersätter både frikyla och kompressionskyla med en optimal andel kyla från absorptionskylmaskiner på över 60 % och ökad ekonomisk lönsamhet med ca 6 MSEK per år. Ytterligare en åtgärd som bidrar till omställning mot minskad klimatpåverkan är investering i bioenergikombinat. Introduktionen av storskalig förgasning i Linköpings fjärrvärmesystem har en potential till en signifikant minskning av globala CO2-utsläpp jämfört med om endast konventionell biokraftvärme beaktas. Reduktionspotentialen varierar beroende på vilken typ av förgasning som investeras i. Intervjuer och enkätstudier i syftet att analysera hur dessa värmerelaterade åtgärder kan gå från potentiella åtgärder till att bli verkliga lönsamma projekt visade att finns ett antal högt rankade framgångsfaktorer som inte är främst ekonomiska utan snarare inomorganisatoriska eller individrelaterade till sin karaktär. Styrmedel är högt rankat, i synnerhet av industrin. En parameter som också visat sig utgöra en katalysator i flera samarbeten har varit att ett universitet varit involverat och byggt optimeringsmodeller över energisystemet på orten. Fjärrvärmesystemen har en viktig roll i den övergripande omställningen av våra energisystem mot ökad grad av hållbarhet. Med ökad medvetenhet om den pågående klimatförändringen är det av central betydelse att hitta åtgärder som främjar och påskyndar en sådan omställning. I detta arbete lyfts flera åtgärder fram som visar hur fjärrvärmesystem på ett tydligt sätt kan bidra till både minskad klimatpåverkan och ekonomiska vinster. Ökad fjärrvärme i industriella processer, absorptionskyla för att möta ökat kylbehov och bioenergikombinat är exempel på åtgärder som leder till utformning av optimala fjärrvärmesystem för ett hållbart samhälle. Detta arbete har också visat vad som krävs för att dessa värmerelaterade åtgärder mellan industrier och energileverantörer ska bli verkliga lönsamma samarbeten. Genom att identifiera dessa åtgärder kan vi på ett tydligt sätt visa på fjärrvärmens unika möjligheter att bli en ännu mer central aktör i den nödvändiga och mycket viktiga omställningen mot hållbarhet.

  • 93.
    Trygg, Louise
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Broman, Göran
    Blekinge tekniska högskola.
    Evaluation of Industrial Energy Audits in SMEs2010Ingår i: In Proceedings of the International Energy Program Evaluation Conference (IEPEC) 2010, Paris, France., 2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    If conducted properly, energy audits in industry are a powerful tool to overcome market imperfections and support the implementation of cost-effective energy efficiency measures. Internationally, energy audit programs in industry have proven to be successful. Up until now Sweden has not provided low-cost energy audits to Swedish industry on a national scale. However, on a regional scale, energy audits in industries have been performed in five Swedish municipalities. The aim of this paper is to evaluate, ex-post, the implementation of cost-efficient energy efficiency measures in these five municipalities and also to outline the major barriers to implementation. Results show that the degree of implementation differs widely between industries due to several factors, e.g., a perceived lack of time for energy efficiency, competing priorities for capital investments and long decision-chains.

  • 94.
    Wentemi Apeaning, Raphael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Thollander, Patrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Barriers to and driving forces for industrial energy efficiency improvements in African industries: a case study of Ghana's largest industrial area2013Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 53, s. 204-213Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Barriers to industrial energy efficiency improvements in developing countries are more pronounced due to the existence of factors like weak energy policy frameworks, financial constraints, weak information systems and many more. This study is an explorative and qualitative research aimed at enhancing the knowledge of industrial energy efficiency and management strategies in Ghana, by investigating the barriers to and the driving forces for the implementation of energy efficiency measures in Ghana's largest industrial area. Results from the study revealed that energy is poorly managed in the various industries and that there is an energy efficiency gap resulting from the low implementation of energy efficiency measures. In addition, the study revealed that the most important factors impeding the implementation of cost effective energy efficiency technologies in the firms are principally economic (or market) barriers like “lack of budget funding” and “access to capital”. The study also shows that these economic barriers are linked to the lack of adequate government framework for industrial energy efficiency. The study also revealed that market factors related to “cost reductions resulting from lowered energy use” and “threats of rising energy prices” are the most important drivers for implementing energy efficiency measures or technologies.

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