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  • 51.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Mraz, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schneider, J. M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Unintentional carbide formation evidenced during high-vacuum magnetron sputtering of transition metal nitride thin films2016Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 385, s. 356-359Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbide signatures are ubiquitous in the surface analyses of industrially sputter-deposited transition metal nitride thin films grown with carbon-less source materials in typical high-vacuum systems. We use high-energy-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy to reveal details of carbon temporal chemical state evolution, from carbide formed during film growth to adventitious carbon adsorbed upon contact with air. Using in-situ grown Al capping layers that protect the as-deposited transition metal nitride surfaces from oxidation, it is shown that the carbide forms during film growth rather than as a result of post deposition atmosphere exposure. The XPS signature of carbides is masked by the presence of adventitious carbon contamination, appearing as soon as samples are exposed to atmosphere, and eventually disappears after one week-long storage in lab atmosphere. The concentration of carbon assigned to carbide species varies from 0.28 at% for ZrN sample, to 0.25 and 0.11 at% for TiN and HfN, respectively. These findings are relevant for numerous applications, as unintentionally formed impurity phases may dramatically alter catalytic activity, charge transport and mechanical properties by offsetting the onset of thermally induced phase transitions. Therefore, the chemical state of C impurities in PVD-grown films should be carefully investigated. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 52.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Mraz, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schneider, J. M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Venting temperature determines surface chemistry of magnetron sputtered TiN films2016Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 108, nr 4, s. 041603-1-041603-5Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface properties of refractory ceramic transition metal nitride thin films grown by magnetron sputtering are essential for resistance towards oxidation necessary in all modern applications. Here, typically neglected factors, including exposure to residual process gases following the growth and the venting temperature T-v, each affecting the surface chemistry, are addressed. It is demonstrated for the TiN model materials system that T-v has a substantial effect on the composition and thickness-evolution of the reacted surface layer and should therefore be reported. The phenomena are also shown to have impact on the reliable surface characterization by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. (C) 2016 Author(s). All article content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License.

  • 53.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Mraz, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Ruess, H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hans, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schneider, J. M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Extended metastable Al solubility in cubic VAlN by metal-ion bombardment during pulsed magnetron sputtering: film stress vs subplantation2017Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 122, nr 2, artikel-id 025304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic ion-recoil mixing of near-film-surface atomic layers is commonly used to increase the metastable solubility limit x(max) in otherwise immiscible thin film systems during physical vapor deposition. Recently, Al subplantation achieved by irradiating the film growth surface with Al+ metal-ion flux was shown to result in an unprecedented x(max) for VAlN, far above values obtained with gas ion irradiation. However, it is reasonable to assume that ion irradiation necessary for subplantation also leads to a compressive stress sigma buildup. In order to separate the effects of Al+ bombardment on sigma and x(max), and realize low-stress high-x(max) nitride alloys, we grow metastable cubic V1-xAlxN (0.17 amp;lt;= x amp;lt;= 0.74) films using reactive magnetron sputtering under different ion irradiation conditions. Al and V targets are operated in Ar/N-2 discharges employing (i) conventional DC (Ar+, N-2(+)), (ii) hybrid High-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS)/DC processing with one type of metal ion present (Al+ or V+/V2+), and (iii) HIPIMS with concurrent Al+ and V+/V2+ fluxes. Comparison to the ab initio calculated Al solubility limit reveals that x(max) = 0.55 achieved with V+/V2+ irradiation is entirely accountable for by stress. In contrast, Al+ fluxes provide a substantial increase in x(max) to 0.63, which is 12% higher than that expected based on the stress-induced increase in metastable solubility. Correlative stress and atom probe tomography data confirm that the metastable Al solubility enhancement is enabled by Al+ subplantation. The here proposed processing strategy allows for growth of single-phase cubic nitride alloys with significantly increased Al concentrations embodying tremendous promise for substantial improvements in high temperature oxidation resistance and mitigates the risk of stress-induced adhesive or cohesive coating failure. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 54.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Mraz, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Schneider, J. M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Native target chemistry during reactive dc magnetron sputtering studied by ex-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy2017Ingår i: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 111, nr 2, artikel-id 021604Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis of native Ti target surface chemistry during magnetron sputtering in an Ar/N-2 atmosphere. To avoid air exposure, the target is capped immediately after sputtering with a few-nm-thick Al overlayers; hence, information about the chemical state of target elements as a function of N-2 partial pressure p(N2) is preserved. Contrary to previous reports, which assume stoichiometric TiN formation, we present direct evidence, based on core-level XPS spectra and TRIDYN simulations, that the target surface is covered by TiNx with x varying in a wide range, from 0.27 to 1.18, depending on p(N2). This has far-reaching consequences both for modelling of the reactive sputtering process and for everyday thin film growth where detailed knowledge of the target state is crucial. Published by AIP Publishing.

  • 55.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Mraz, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Schneider, J. M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Substantial difference in target surface chemistry between reactive dc and high power impulse magnetron sputtering2018Ingår i: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 51, nr 5, artikel-id 05LT01Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The nitride layer formed in the target race track during the deposition of stoichiometric TiN thin films is a factor 2.5 thicker for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), compared to conventional dc processing (DCMS). The phenomenon is explained using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the as-operated Ti target surface chemistry supported by sputter depth profiles, dynamic Monte Carlo simulations employing the TRIDYN code, and plasma chemical investigations by ion mass spectrometry. The target chemistry and the thickness of the nitride layer are found to be determined by the implantation of nitrogen ions, predominantly N+ and N-2(+) for HIPIMS and DCMS, respectively. Knowledge of this method-inherent difference enables robust processing of high quality functional coatings.

  • 56.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Mraz, Stanislav
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hans, Marcus
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schneider, Jochen M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Control over the Phase Formation in Metastable Transition Metal Nitride Thin Films by Tuning the Al+ Subplantation Depth2019Ingår i: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 9, nr 1, artikel-id 17Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of transition metal nitride based coatings deposited by magnetron sputtering, in a broad range of applications including wear-protective coatings on cutting tools and components in automotive engines, is determined by their phase content. The classical example is the precipitation of thermodynamically-favored wurtzite-AlN while alloying TiN with Al to obtain ternary single phase NaCl-structure films with improved high-temperature oxidation resistance. Here, we report on reactive high-power impulse and direct current magnetron co-sputtering (HiPIMS/DCMS) growth of Ti0.31Al0.69N and Zr0.48Al0.52N thin films. The Al concentrations are intentionally chosen to be higher than theoretically predicted solubility limits for the rock salt structure. The goal is to investigate the effect of the incident Al+ energy E-Al(+), controlled by varying the amplitude of the substrate bias applied synchronously with the Al+-rich portion of the ion flux from the Al-HiPIMS source, on the crystalline phase formation. For EAl+ amp;lt;= 60 eV, films contain predominantly the wurtzite phase. With increasing E-Al(+), and thus, the Al subplantation depth, the relative fraction of the NaCl structure increases and eventually for E-Al(+) amp;gt; 250 eV, Ti0.31Al0.69N and Zr0.48Al0.52N layers contain more than 95% of the rock salt phase. Thus, the separation of the film forming species in time and energy domains determines the phase formation of Ti0.31Al0.69N and Zr0.48Al0.52N layers and enables the growth of the cubic phase outside of the predicted Al concentration range. The new film growth concept can be applied to the entire family of multinary transition metal aluminum nitrides, where one of the metallic film constituents is available in the ionized form while the other arrives as neutral.

  • 57.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Patscheider, J.
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Ektarawong, Annop
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Control of Ti1-xSixN nanostructure via tunable metal-ion momentum transfer during HIPIMS/DCMS co-deposition2015Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 280, s. 174-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ti1-xSixN (0 less than= x less than= 0.26) thin films are grown in mixed Ar/N-2 discharges using hybrid high-power pulsed and dc magnetron co-sputtering (HIPIMS/DCMS). In the first set of experiments, the Si target is powered in HIPIMS mode and the Ti target in DCMS; the positions of the targets are then switched for the second set. In both cases, the Si concentration in co-sputtered films, deposited at T-s = 500 degrees C, is controlled by adjusting the average DCMS target power. A pulsed substrate bias of -60 V is applied in synchronous with the HIPIMS pulse. Depending on the type of pulsed metal-ion irradiation incident at the growing film, Ti+/Ti2+ vs. Si+/Si2+, completely different nanostructures are obtained. Ti+/Ti2+ irradiation during Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS deposition leads to a phase-segregated nanocolumnar structure with TiN-rich grains encapsulated in a SiNz tissue phase, while Si+/Si2+ ion irradiation in the Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS mode results in the formation of Ti1-xSixN solid solutions with x less than= 024. Film properties, including hardness, modulus of elasticity, and residual stress exhibit a dramatic dependence on the choice of target powered by HIPIMS. Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS TiSiN nanocomposite films are superhard over a composition range of 0.04 less than= x less than= 0.26, which is significantly wider than previously reported. The hardness H of films with 0.13 less than= x less than= 0.26 is similar to 42 GPa; however, the compressive stress is also high, ranging from -6.7 to -8.5 GPa. Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS films are softer at H similar to 14 GPa with 0.03 less than= x less than= 0.24, and essentially stress-free (sigma similar to 0.5 GPa). Mass spectroscopy analyses at the substrate position reveal that the doubly-to-singly ionized metal-ion flux ratio during HIPIMS pulses is 0.05 for Si and 029 for Ti due to the difference between the second ionization potentials of Si and Ti vs. the first ionization potential of the sputtering gas. The average momentum transfer to the film growth surface per deposited atom per pulse less than p(d)greater than is similar to 20 x higher during Ti-HIPIMS/Si-DCMS, which results in significantly higher adatom mean-free paths (mfps) leading, in turn, to a phase-segregated nanocolumnar structure. In contrast, relatively low less than p(d)greater than values during Si-HIPIMS/Ti-DCMS provide near-surface mixing with lower adatom mfps to form Ti1-xSixN solid solutions over a very wide composition range with x up to 0.24. Relaxed lattice constants decrease linearly, in agreement with ab-initio calculations for random Ti1-xSixN alloys, with increasing x. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 58.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Al capping layers for non-destructive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of transition-metal nitride thin films2015Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 33, s. 05E101-1-05E101-9, artikel-id 05E101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) compositional analyses of materials that have been air exposed typically require ion etching in order to remove contaminated surface layers. However, the etching step can lead to changes in sample surface and near-surface compositions due to preferential elemental sputter ejection and forward recoil implantation; this is a particular problem for metal/gas compounds and alloys such as nitrides and oxides. Here, we use TiN as a model system and compare XPS analysis results from three sets of polycrystalline TiN/Si(001) films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering in a separate vacuum chamber. The films are either (a) air-exposed for ? 10 min prior to insertion into the ultra-high-vacuum (UHV) XPS system; (b) air-exposed and subject to ion etching, using different ion energies and beam incidence angles, in the XPS chamber prior to analysis; or (c) Al-capped in-situ in the deposition system prior to air-exposure and loading into the XPS instrument.We show that thin, 1.5-6.0 nm, Al capping layers provide effective barriers to oxidation and contamination of TiN surfaces, thus allowing non-destructive acquisition of high-resolution core-level spectra representative of clean samples, and, hence, correct bonding assignments. The Ti 2p and N 1s satellite features, which are sensitive to ion bombardment, exhibit high intensities comparable to those obtained from single-crystal TiN/MgO(001) films grown and analyzed in-situ in a UHV XPS system and there is no indication of Al/TiN interfacial reactions. XPS-determined N/Ti concentrations acquired from Al/TiN samples agree very well with Rutherford backscattering and elastic recoil analysis results while ion-etched air-exposed samples exhibit strong N loss due to preferential resputtering. The intensities and shapes of the Ti 2p and N 1s core level signals from Al/TiN/Si(001) samples do not change following long-term (up to 70 days) exposure to ambient conditions indicating that the thin Al capping layers provide stable surface passivation without spallation.

  • 59.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Natl Taiwan Univ Sci and Technol, Taiwan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Paradigm shift in thin-film growth by magnetron sputtering: From gas-ion to metal-ion irradiation of the growing film2019Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, nr 6, artikel-id 060801Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion refractory ceramic thin films grown at low temperatures by magnetron sputtering. However, in contrast to gas-ion bombardment, the effects of metal-ion irradiation on properties of refractory ceramic thin films have not been extensively studied due to (i) low metal-ion concentrations (a few percents) during standard direct-current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and (ii) difficulties in separating metal-ion from gas-ion fluxes. Recently, the situation has changed dramatically, thanks to the development of highpower impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), which provides highly-ionized metal-ion plasmas. In addition, careful choice of sputtering conditions allows exploitation of gas-rarefaction effects such that the charge state, energy, and momentum of metal ions incident at the growing film surface can be tuned. This is possible via the use of pulsed substrate bias, synchronized to the metal-ion-rich portion of each HiPIMS pulse. In this review, the authors begin by summarizing the results of time-resolved mass spectrometry analyses performed at the substrate position during HiPIMS and HiPIMS/DCMS cosputtering of transition-metal (TM) targets in Ar and Ar/N-2 atmospheres. Knowledge of the temporal evolution of metal- and gas-ion fluxes is essential for precise control of the incident metal-ion energy and for minimizing the role of gas-ion irradiation. Next, the authors review results on the growth of binary, pseudobinary, and pseudoternary TM nitride alloys by metal-ion-synchronized HiPIMS. In contrast to gas ions, a fraction of which are trapped at interstitial sites, metal ions are primarily incorporated at lattice sites resulting in much lower compressive stresses. In addition, the closer mass match with the film-forming species results in more efficient momentum transfer and provides the recoil density and energy necessary to eliminate film porosity at low deposition temperatures. Several novel film-growth pathways have been demonstrated: (i) nanostructured N-doped bcc-CrN0.05 films combining properties typically associated with both metals and ceramics, (ii) fully-dense, hard, and stress-free Ti0.39Al0.61N, (iii) single-phase cubic Ti1-xSixN with the highest reported SiN concentrations, (iv) unprecedented AlN supersaturation in single-phase NaCl-structure V1-xAlxN, and (v) a dramatic increase in the hardness, due to selective heavy-metal ion bombardment during growth, of dense Ti0.92Ta0.08N films deposited with no external heating. (C) 2019 Author(s).

  • 60.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Materials Science Department and Frederick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA; Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Strategy for tuning the average charge state of metal ions incident at the growing film during HIPIMS deposition2015Ingår i: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 116, s. 36-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and time-dependent mass spectrometry is used to determine the relative number density of singly- and multiply-charged metal-ion fluxes incident at the substrate during high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) as a function of the average noble-gas ionization potential. Ti is selected as the sputtering target since the microstructure, phase composition, properties, and stress-state of Ti-based ceramic thin films grown by HIPIMS are known to be strongly dependent on the charge state of Tin+ (n = 1, 2, …) ions incident at the film growth surface. We find that the flux of Tin+ with n > 2 is insignificant; thus, we measure the Ti2+/Ti+ integrated flux ratio JTi2+ =JTi+ at the substrate position as a function of the choice of noble gase Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, as well as Ne/Ar, Kr/Ar, and Xe/Ar mixtures – supporting the plasma. We demonstrate that by changing noble-gas mixtures, JTi2+ varies by more than two orders of magnitude with only a small change in JTi+ . This allows the ratio JTi2+ =JTi+ to be continuously tuned from less than 0.01 with Xe, which has a low first-ionization potential IP1, to 0.62 with Ne which has a high IP1. The value for Xe, IP1Xe= 12.16 eV, is larger than the first ionization potential of Ti, IP1Ti= 6.85 eV, but less than the second Ti ionization potential, IP2Ti= 13.62 eV. For Ne, however, IP1Ne= 21.63 eV is greater than both IP1Ti and IP2Ti. Therefore, the high-energy tail of the plasma-electron energy distribution can be systematically adjusted, allowing JTi2+/JTi+ to be controllably varied over a very wide range.

  • 61.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Primetzhofer, D.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reference binding energies of transition metal carbides by core-level x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy free from Ar+ etching artefacts2018Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 436, s. 102-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We report x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level binding energies (BEs) for the widely-applicable groups IVb-VIb transition metal carbides (TMCs) TiC, VC, CrC, ZrC, NbC, MoC, HfC, TaC, and WC. Thin film samples are grown in the same deposition system, by dc magnetron co-sputtering from graphite and respective elemental metal targets in Ar atmosphere. To remove surface contaminations resulting from exposure to air during sample transfer from the growth chamber into the XPS system, layers are either (i) Ar+ ion-etched or (ii) UHV-annealed in situ prior to XPS analyses. High resolution XPS spectra reveal that even gentle etching affects the shape of core level signals, as well as BE values, which are systematically offset by 0.2-0.5 eV towards lower BE. These destructive effects of Ar+ ion etch become more pronounced with increasing the metal atom mass due to an increasing carbon-to-metal sputter yield ratio. Systematic analysis reveals that for each row in the periodic table (3d, 4d, and 5d) C 1s BE increases from left to right indicative of a decreased charge transfer from TM to C atoms, hence bond weakening. Moreover, C 1s BE decreases linearly with increasing carbide/metal melting point ratio. Spectra reported here, acquired from a consistent set of samples in the same instrument, should serve as a reference for true deconvolution of complex XPS cases, including multinary carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 62.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Primetzhofer, D.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Core-level spectra and binding energies of transition metal nitrides by non-destructive x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy through capping layers2017Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 396, s. 347-358Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first measurements of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) core level binding energies (BE: s) for the widely-applicable group IVb-VIb polycrystalline transition metal nitrides (TMNs) TiN, VN, CrN, ZrN, NbN, MoN, HfN, TaN, and WN as well as AlN and SiN, which are common components in the TMN-based alloy systems. Nitride thin film samples were grown at 400.degrees C by reactive dc magnetron sputtering from elemental targets in Ar/ N-2 atmosphere. For XPS measurements, layers are either (i) Ar+ ion-etched to remove surface oxides resulting from the air exposure during sample transfer from the growth chamber into the XPS system, or (ii) in situ capped with a few nm thick Cr or W overlayers in the deposition system prior to air-exposure and loading into the XPS instrument. Film elemental composition and phase content is thoroughly characterized with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis (ToF(-) ERDA), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and x-ray diffraction. High energy resolution core level XPS spectra acquired with monochromatic Al K alpha radiation on the ISO-calibrated instrument reveal that even mild etching conditions result in the formation of a nitrogen-deficient surface layer that substantially affects the extracted binding energy values. These spectra-modifying effects of Ar+ ion bombardment increase with increasing the metal atom mass due to an increasing nitrogen-to-metal sputter yield ratio. The superior quality of the XPS spectra obtained in a non-destructive way from capped TMN films is evident from that numerous metal peaks, including Ti 2p, V 2p, Zr 3d, and Hf 4f, exhibit pronounced satellite features, in agreement with previously published spectra from layers grown and analyzed in situ. In addition, the N/ metal concentration ratios are found to be 25-90% higher than those obtained from the corresponding ion-etched surfaces, and in most cases agree very well with the RBS and ToF-E ERDA values. The N 1 s BE: s extracted from capped TMN films, thus characteristic of a native surface, show a systematic trend, which contrasts with the large BE spread of literature "reference" values. Hence, non-destructive core level XPS employing capping layers provides an opportunity to obtain high-quality spectra, characteristic of virgin in situ grown and analyzed TMN films, although with larger versatility, and allows for extracting core level BE values that are more reliable than those obtained from sputter-cleaned N-deficient surfaces. Results presented here, recorded from a consistent set of binary TMNs grown under the same conditions and analyzed in the same instrument, provide a useful reference for future XPS studies of multinary materials systems allowing for true deconvolution of complex core level spectra. (C) 2016 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.

  • 63.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhirkov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Control of the metal/gas ion ratio incident at the substrate plane during high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of transition metals in Ar2017Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 642, s. 36-40Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of materials systems with metal/gas-atom mass ratios m(Me)/m(g) near, or less than, unity presents a challenge for precise timing of synchronous substrate-bias pulses to select metal-ion irradiation of the film and, thus, reduce stress while increasing layer density during low-temperature growth. The problem stems from high gas-ion fluxes Fg+(t) at the substrate, which overlap with metal-ion fluxes FMe+(t). We use energy-and time-dependent mass spectrometry to analyze FMe+(t) and Fg+(t) for Group IVb transition-metal targets in Ar and show that the time-and energy-integrated metal/gas ion ratio NMe+/NAr+ at the substrate can be controlled over a wide range by adjusting the HiPIMS pulse length tau(ON), while maintaining the peak target current density J(T,peak) constant. The effect is a consequence of severe gas rarefaction which scales with J(T)(t). For Ti-HiPIMS, terminating the discharge at the maximum J(T)(t), corresponding to tau(ON) = 30 mu s, there is an essentially complete loss of Ar+ ion intensity, yielding NTi+/NAr+ similar to 60. With increasing tau(ON),J(T)(t) decreases and NTi+/NAr+ gradually decays, due to Ar refill, to similar to 1 with tau(ON) = 120 s. Time-resolved ion-energy distribution functions confirm that the degree of rarefaction depends on tau(ON): for shorter pulses, tau ONHTC/SUBTAG amp;lt; FORTITLEHTC_RETAIN 60 [rs, the original sputtered-atom Sigmund-Thompson energy distributions are preserved long after the HiPIMS pulse, which is in distinct contrast to longer pulses, tau(ON) amp;gt;= 60 mu s, for which the energy distributions collapse into narrow ther-malized peaks. Thus, optimizing the HiPIMS pulse width minimizes the gas-ion flux to the substrate independent of m(Me)/m(g).

  • 64.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhirkov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Gas rarefaction effects during high power pulsed magnetron sputtering of groups IVb and VIb transition metals in Ar2017Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, nr 6, artikel-id 060601Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors use energy- and time-dependent mass spectrometry to analyze the evolution of metal- and gas-ion fluxes incident at the substrate during high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of groups IVb and VIb transition-metal (TM) targets in Ar. For all TMs, the time-and energy-integrated metal/gas-ion ratio at the substrate plane NMe+/NAr+ increases with increasing peak target current density J(T,peak) due to rarefaction. In addition, NMe+/NAr+ exhibits a strong dependence on metal/gas-atom mass ratio m(Me)/m(g) and varies from similar to 1 for Ti (m(Ti)/m(Ar) = 1.20) to similar to 100 for W (m(W)/m(Ar) = 4.60), with J(T,peak) maintained constant at 1 A/cm(2). Time-resolved ion-energy distribution functions confirm that the degree of rarefaction scales with m(Me)/m(g): for heavier TMs, the original sputtered-atom Sigmund-Thompson energy distributions are preserved long after the HiPIMS pulse, which is in distinct contrast to lighter metals for which the energy distributions collapse into a narrow thermalized peak. Hence, precise timing of synchronous substrate-bias pulses, applied in order to reduce film stress while increasing densification, is critical for metal/gas combinations with m(Me)/m(g) near unity, while with m(Me)/m(g) amp;gt;amp;gt; 1, the width of the synchronous bias pulse is essentially controlled by the metal-ion time of flight. The good agreement between results obtained in an industrial system employing 440 cm(2) cathodes and a laboratory-scale system with a 20 cm(2) target is indicative of the fundamental nature of the phenomena. 

  • 65.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhirkov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Time evolution of ion fluxes incident at the substrate plane during reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering of groups IVb and VIb transition metals in Ar/N-22018Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 36, nr 2, artikel-id 020602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive transition-metal (TM) nitride film growth employing bias-synchronized high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) requires a detailed knowledge of the time evolution of metal-and gas-ion fluxes incident at the substrate plane in order to precisely tune momentum transfer and, hence, provide the recoil density and energy necessary to eliminate film porosity at low deposition temperatures without introducing significant film stress. Here, the authors use energy- and time-dependent mass spectrometry to analyze the evolution of metal-and gas-ion fluxes at the substrate plane during reactive HiPIMS sputtering of groups IVb and VIb TM targets in Ar/N-2 atmospheres. The time-and energy-integrated metal/gas ion ratio NMe+/Ng+ incident at the substrate is significantly lower for group IVb TMs (ranging from 0.2 for Ti to 0.9 for Hf), due to high N-2 reactivity which results in severely reduced target sputtering rates and, hence, decreased rarefaction. In contrast, for less reactive group VIb metals, sputtering rates are similar to those in pure Ar as a result of significant gas heating and high NMe+/Ng+ ratios, ranging from 2.3 for Cr to 98.1 for W. In both sets of experiments, the peak target current density is maintained constant at 1 A/cm(2). Within each TM group, NMe+/N(g+)scales with increasing metal-ion mass. For the group-VIb elements, sputtered-atom Sigmund-Thompson energy distributions are preserved long after the HiPIMS pulse, in contradistinction to group-IVb TMs for which the energy distributions collapse into narrow thermalized peaks. For all TMs, the N+ flux dominates that of N-2(+) ions, as the molecular ions are collisionally dissociated at the target, and N+ exhibits ion energy distribution functions resembling those of metal ions. The latter result implies that both N+ and Me+ species originate from the target. High-energy Ar+ tails, assigned to ionized reflected-Ar neutrals, are observed with heavier TM targets. Published by the AVS.

  • 66.
    Höglund, Carina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden.
    Zeitelhack, Karl
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Kudejova, Petra
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hall-Wilton, Richard
    European Spallat Source ESS AB, Sweden; Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Stability of (B4C)-B-10 thin films under neutron radiation2015Ingår i: Radiation Physics and Chemistry, ISSN 0969-806X, E-ISSN 1879-0895, Vol. 113, s. 14-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films of (B4C)-B-10 have shown to be very suitable as neutron-converting material in the next generation of neutron detectors, replacing the previous predominantly used He-3. In this contribution we show under realistic conditions that (B4C)-B-10 films are not damaged by the neutron irradiation and interactions, which they will be exposed to under many years in a neutron detector. 1 mu m thick (B4C)-B-10 thin films were deposited onto Al or Si substrates using dc magnetron sputtering. As-deposited films were exposed to a cold neutron beam with fluences of up to 1.1 x 10(14) cm(-2) and a mean wavelength of 6.9 angstrom. Both irradiated and as-deposited reference samples were characterized with time-of-flight elastic recoil detection analysis, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. We show that only 1.8 ppm of the B-10 atoms were consumed and that the film composition does not change by the neutron interaction within the measurement accuracy. The irradiation does not deteriorate the film adhesion and there is no indication that it results in increased residual stress values of the as-deposited films of 0.095 GPa. From what is visible with the naked eye and down to atomic level studies, no change from the irradiation could be found using the above-mentioned characterization techniques.

  • 67.
    Jönsson, Stina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Birgerson, J.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Osikowicz, Wojciech
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Denier van der Gon, A.W.
    Denier van der Gon, A.W., Faculty of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, Netherlands.
    Salaneck, William R
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The effects of solvents on the morphology and sheet resistance in poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT–PSS) films2003Ingår i: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 139, nr 1, s. 1-10Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Films of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)–polystyrenesulfonic acid (PEDOT–PSS), prepared by coating the aqueous PEDOT–PSS dispersion and by coating a mixture of the PEDOT–PSS dispersion and different solvents, have been studied using four-point probe conductivity measurements, atomic force microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity of thin films of the second type (further on called PEDOT–PSS–solvents) was increased by a factor of about 600 as compared to films of the first type (further on called PEDOT–PSS–pristine). Morphological and physical changes occur in the polymer film due to the presence of the solvent mixture, the most striking being that the ratio of PEDOT-to-PSS in the surface region of the films is increased by a factor of ∼2–3. This increase of PEDOT at the surface indicates that the thickness of the insulating PSS ‘shell’ that surrounds the conducting PEDOT–PSS grains is reduced. The (partial) reduction of the excess PSS layer that surrounds the conducting PEDOT–PSS grains is proposed to lead to an increased and improved connectivity between such grains in the film and hence a higher conductivity. When PEDOT–PSS–solvents receives a post-coating heat treatment, the increased PEDOT-to-PSS ratio at the surface is maintained or even slightly improved, as is the increase in electrical conductivity, even though spectroscopy show that the solvent molecules are removed. This suggests that screening or doping by the solvents throughout the film are not likely to be the key mechanisms for the improved conductivity and supports our proposed mechanism of improved conductivity through improved connectivity between the conducting grains.

  • 68.
    Kaushik, Priya Darshni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Aziz, Anver
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Siddiqui, Azher M.
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Molekylär fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.
    Interuniv Accelerator Centre, India.
    Avasthi, D. K.
    Interuniv Accelerator Centre, India; Amity Institute Nanotechnol, India.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Modifications in structural, optical and electrical properties of epitaxial graphene on SiC due to 100 MeV silver ion irradiation2018Ingår i: Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, ISSN 1369-8001, E-ISSN 1873-4081, Vol. 74, s. 122-128Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Epitaxial graphene (EG) on silicon carbide (SiC) is a combination of two robust materials that are excellent candidates for post silicon electronics. In this work, we systematically investigate structural changes in SiC substrate as well as graphene on SiC and explore the potential for controlled applications due to 100 MeV silver swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation. Raman spectroscopy showed fluence dependent decrease in intensity of first and second order modes of SiC, along with decrease in Relative Raman Intensity upon ion irradiation. Similarly, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) showed fluence dependent decrease in Si-C bond intensity with presence of C = O, Si-O-Si, Si-Si and C-H bond showing introduction of vacancy, substitutional and sp(3) defects in both graphene and SiC. C1s spectra in XPS shows decrease in C = C graphitic peak and increase in interfacial layer following ion irradiation. Reduction in monolayer coverage of graphene after ion irradiation was observed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Further, UV-Visible spectroscopy showed increase in absorbance of EG on SiC at increasing fluence. I-V characterization showed fluence dependent increase in resistance from 62.9 O in pristine sample to 480.1 Omega in sample irradiated at 6.6 x 10(12) ions/cm(2) fluence. The current study demonstrates how SHI irradiation can be used to tailor optoelectronic applicability of EG on SiC.

  • 69.
    Kaushik, Priya Darshni
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Rodner, Marius
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lakshmi, G. B. V. S.
    Jawaharlal Nehru Univ, India.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Sensor- och aktuatorsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Solanki, Pratima
    Jawaharlal Nehru Univ, India.
    Aziz, Anver
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Siddiqui, Azher M.
    Jamia Millia Islamia, India.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Syväjärvi, Mikael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yazdi, Gholamreza
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene using ion implantation for sensing and optical applications2020Ingår i: Carbon, ISSN 0008-6223, E-ISSN 1873-3891, Vol. 157, s. 169-184Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface functionalization has been shown to allow tailoring of graphene lattice thus making it suitable for different applications like sensing, supercapacitance devices, drug delivery system and memory devices. In this work, surface functionalization of epitaxial graphene on SiC (EG/SiC) was done by ion beam technology (30 keV Ag- ions at fluences ranging from 5 x 10(12) ions/cm(2) to 5 x 10(14) ions/cm(2)), which is one of the most precise techniques for introducing modifications in materials. Atomic force microscopy showed presence of nanostructures in ion implanted samples and Photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that these are probably silicon oxy carbide. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) showed decoupling of buffer layer from SiC substrate at many places in ion implanted samples. Further, HRTEM and Raman spectroscopy showed amorphization of both graphene and SiC at highest fluence. Fluence dependent increase in absorbance and resistance was observed. Gas sensors fabricated on pristine and ion implanted samples were able to respond to low concentration (50 ppb) of NO2 and NH3 gases. Detecting NH3 gas at low concentration further provides a simple platform for fabricating highly sensitive urea biosensor. We observed response inversion with increasing fluence along with presence of an optimal fluence, which maximized gas sensitivity of EG/SiC. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 70.
    Khatibi, Ali
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sjolen, J.
    SECO Tools AB, Sweden .
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Structural and mechanical properties of Cr-Al-O-N thin films grown by cathodic arc deposition2012Ingår i: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 60, nr 19, s. 6494-6507Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Coatings of (CrxAl1-x)(delta)(O1-yNy)(xi) with 0.33 less than= x less than= 0.96, 0 less than= y less than= 1 and 0.63 less than= delta/xi less than= 1.30 were deposited using cathodic arc evaporation in N-2/O-2 reactive gas mixtures on 50 V negatively biased WC-10 wt.% Co substrates from different Cr and Al alloys with three different Cr/Al compositional ratios. For N-2 less than 63% of the total gas, ternary (Cr,Al)(2)O-3 films containing less than1 at.% of N forms; as determined by elastic recoil detection analysis. Increasing the N-2 fraction to 75% and above results in formation of quaternary oxynitride films. Phase analyses of the films by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show the predominance of cubic Cr-Al-N and cubic-(Cr,Al)(2)O-3 solid solutions and secondary hexagonal alpha-(Cr,Al)(2)O-3 solid solution. High Cr and Al contents result in films with higher roughness, while high N and O contents result in smoother surfaces. Nanoindentation hardness measurements showed that Al-rich oxide or nitride films have hardness values of 24-28 GPa, whereas the oxynitride films have a hardness of similar to 30 GPa, regardless of the Cr and Al contents. Metal cutting performance tests showed that the good wear properties are mainly correlated to the oxygen-rich coatings, regardless of the cubic or corundum fractions.

  • 71.
    Kindlund, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Martinez de Olgoz, Leyre
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. University of Barcelona, Spain.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    V0.5Mo0.5Nx/MgO(001): Composition, nanostructure, and mechanical properties as a function of film growth temperature2017Ingår i: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 126, s. 194-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    V(0.5)Mo(0.5)Nx/MgO(001) alloys with the B1-NaCI structure are grown by ultra-high-vacuum reactive magnetron sputter deposition in 5 mTorr mixed Ar/N-2 atmospheres at temperatures T-s between 100 and 900 degrees C. Alloy films grown at T-s amp;lt;= 500 degrees C are polycrystalline with a strong 002 preferred orientation; layers grown at T-s amp;gt;= 700 degrees C are epitaxial single-crystals. The N/Metal composition ratio x ranges from 1.02 +/- 0.05 with T-s = 100-500 degrees C to 0.94 +/- 0.05 at 700 degrees C to 0.64 +/- 0.05 at T-s = 900 degrees C. N loss at higher growth temperatures leads to a corresponding decrease in the relaxed lattice parameter a(0) from 4.212 A with x = 1.02 to 4.175 angstrom at x = 0.94 to 4.120 angstrom with x = 0.64. V(0.5)Mo(0.5)Nx nanoindentation hardnesses H and elastic moduli E increase with increasing T-s, from 17 +/- 3 and 323 +/- 30 GPa at 100 degrees C to 26 +/- 1 and 370 +/- 10 GPa at 900 degrees C. Both polycrystalline and single-crystal V(0.5)Mo(0.5)Nx films exhibit higher toughnesses than that of the parent binary compound VN. V(0.5)Mo(0.5)Nx films deposited at higher Ts also exhibit enhanced wear resistance. Valence-band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses reveal an increased volume density of shear-sensitive d-t(2g) d-t(2g) metallic states for V(0.5)Mo(0.5)Nx compared to VN and the density of these orbitals increases with increasing deposition temperature, i.e., with increasing N-vacancy concentration.(C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 72.
    Kindlund, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Martínez-de-Olcoz, L.
    Grupo de Capas Finas e Ingeniería de Superficies, Facultad de Física. Universidad de Barcelona. Dep. Física Aplicada y Óptica, Barcelona, Spain.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Department of Materials Science and the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Greene, Joseph
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Department of Materials Science and the Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    V0.5Mo0.5Nx/MgO(001) layers grown at 100-900 °C: composition, nanostructure, and mechanical properties2014Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    V0.5Mo0.5Nx/MgO(001) alloys with the B1-NaCl structure are grown by ultra-highvacuum reactive magnetron sputter deposition in 5 mTorr mixed Ar/N2 atmospheres at temperatures Ts which are varied from 100 and 900 °C. Alloy films grown at Ts ≤ 500 °C are polycrystalline with a strong 002 texture; layers grown at Ts ≤ 700 °C are epitaxial single-crystals. The N/Me ratio x ranges from 0.64±0.05 with Ts = 900 °C to 0.94±0.05 at 700 °C to 1.02±0.05 with Ts = 500 to 100 °C. The N loss at higher growth temperatures leads to a corresponding decrease in the relaxed lattice parameter ao from 4.212 Å with x = 1.02 to 4.175 Å with x = 0.94 to 4.121 Å with x = 0.64. V0.5Mo0.5Nx nanoindentation hardnesses H and elastic moduli E increase with increasing Ts from 17±3 GPa and 274±31 GPa at 100 °C to 26±1 GPa and 303±10 GPa at 900 °C. Films deposited at higher Ts also exhibit enhanced wear resistance. Scanning electron micrographs of nanoindents performed in single-crystal V0.5Mo0.5Nx films and films deposited at 100 and 300 °C reveal no evidence of cracking; instead they exhibit material pile-up around the indents characteristic of plastic flow in ductile materials. Valence band x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses show an enhanced volume density of the shear sensitive d-t2g – d-t2g metallic states in V0.5Mo0.5Nx compared to VN and the density of these orbitals increases with increasing deposition temperature, i.e., the metallic  states become more populated with the introduction of N vacancies.

  • 73.
    Lai, Chung-Chuan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tucker, Mark
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Synthesis and characterization of Zr2Al3C4 thin films2015Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 595, s. 142-147Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zr2Al3C4 is an inherently nanolaminated carbide where layers of ZrC alternate with layers of Al3C2. Characterization of bulk samples has shown it has improved damage tolerance and oxidation resistance compared to its binary counterpart ZrC. Though a potential candidate for coatings applied for use in harsh environments, thin films of Zr2Al3C4 have not been reported. We have synthesized epitaxial Zr2Al3C4 thin films by pulsed cathodic arc deposition from three elemental cathodes, and have studied the effect of incident atomic flux ratio, deposition temperature, and choice of substrate on material quality. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that Zr2Al3C4 of the highest structural quality was obtained for growth on 4 H-SiC(001) substrate at 800 degrees C. Also, suppression of competing phases could be achieved on alpha-Al2O3(001) at elevated substrate temperatures. Very similar growth behavior to that of the well-known M(n+1)AX(n) phases - Al supersaturation, binary carbide intergrowth and high sensitivity to choice of substrate - indicates a strong connection between the two families of materials, despite their differences in structure and in chemistry. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 74.
    Landälv, Ludvig
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Gothelid, Emmanuelle
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ahlgren, Mats
    Sandvik Coromant AB, Sweden.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Influence of Si doping and O-2 flow on arc-deposited (Al,Cr)(2)O-3 coatings2019Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, nr 6, artikel-id 061516Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    (Al,Cr)(2)O-3 coatings with Al/( Al + Cr) = 0.5 or Al = 70 at. %, doped with 0, 5, or 10 at. % Si, were deposited on hard metal and Si(100) substrates to elucidate the influence of Si on the resulting coatings. The chemical analysis of the coatings showed between 3.3 and 7.4 at. % metal fraction Si incorporated into all studied coatings depending on cathode Si composition. The incorporated Si content does not change significantly with different oxygen flows covering a wide range of deposition conditions from low to high O-2 flow during growth. The addition of Si promotes the metastable B1-like cubic structure over the thermodynamically stable corundum structure. The hardness determined by nanoindentation of the as-deposited coatings is slightly reduced upon Si incorporation as well as upon increased Al content. Si is found enriched in droplets but can also be found at a lower content, evenly spread, without visible segregation at the similar to 5 nm scale, in the actual oxide coating. The positive effect of improved cathode erosion upon Si incorporation has to be balanced against the promotion of the metastable B1-like structure, having lower room temperature hardness and inferior thermal stability compared to the corundum structure. Published by the AVS.

  • 75.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tureson, Nina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stilkerich, Nina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effect of impurities on morphology, growth mode, and thermoelectric properties of (111) and (001) epitaxial-like ScN films2019Ingår i: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 52, nr 3, artikel-id 035302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ScN is an emerging semiconductor with an indirect bandgap. It has attracted attention for its thermoelectric properties, use as seed layers, and for alloys for piezoelectric application. ScN and other transition metal nitride semiconductors used for their interesting electrical properties are sensitive to contaminants, such as oxygen or fluorine. In this present article, the influence of depositions conditions on the amount of oxygen contaminants incorporated in ScN films were investigated and their effects on the electrical properties (electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient) were studied. Epitaxial-like films of thickness 125 +/- 5 nm to 155 +/- 5 nm were deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering on c-plane Al-2, O-3(111) and r-plane Al2O3 at substrate temperatures ranging from 700 degrees C to 950 degrees C. The amount of oxygen contaminants in the film, dissolved into ScN or as an oxide, was related to the adatom mobility during growth, which is affected by the deposition temperature and the presence of twin domain growth. The lowest values of electrical resistivity of 50 mu Omega cm were obtained on ScN(1 1 1)/ MgO(111) and on ScN(001)/r-plane Al2O3 grown at 950 degrees C with no twin domains and the lowest amount of oxygen contaminant. At the best, the films exhibited an electrical resistivity of 50 mu Omega cm with Seebeck coefficient values maintained at -40 mu V K-1, thus a power factor estimated at 3.2 x 10(-3) W m(-1) K-2 (at room temperature).

  • 76.
    Lee, Jyh-Wei
    et al.
    Ming Chi University of Technology, Taiwan.
    He, Ju-Liang
    Feng Chia University, Taiwan.
    Chang, Kao-Shuo
    National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan.
    Chang, Yin-Yu
    National Formosa University, Taiwan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Editorial Material: Preface: The Biennial TACT International Thin Films Conference (TACT 2013) in SURFACE and COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, vol 259, issue , pp 113-1142014Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 259, s. 113-114Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 77.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Electronic Structure of ß-Ta Films from X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and First-principles Calculations2019Ingår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 470, s. 607-612Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic structure and chemical bonding of ß-Ta synthesized as a thin 001-oriented film (space group P 21m) is investigated by 4f core level and valence band X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to α-Ta bulk. For the b-phase, the 4f7/2 peak is located at 21.91 eV and with the 4f5/2 at 23.81 eV which is 0.16 eV higher compared to the corresponding 4f peaks of the a-Ta reference. We suggest that this chemical shift originates from higher resistivity and tensile strain in the ß-Ta film. Furthermore, the 5d-5s states at the bottom of the valence band are shifted by 0.75 eV towards higher binding energy in ß-Ta compared to α-Ta. This is a consequence of the lower number of nearest neighbors with four in ß-Ta compared to eight in the α-Ta phase. The difference in the electronic structures, spectral line shapes of the valence band and the energy positions of the Ta 4f, 5p core-levels of b-Ta versus a-Ta are discussed in relation to calculated states of ß-Ta and α-Ta. In particular, the lower number of states at the Fermi level of ß-Ta (0.557 states/eV/atom) versus α-Ta (1.032 states/eV/atom) that according to Mott’s law should decrease the conductivity in metals and affect the stability by charge redistribution in the valence band. This is experimentally supported from resistivity measurements of the film yielding a value of ~170 µW cm in comparison to α-Ta bulk with a reported value of ~13.1 µW cm.

  • 78.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reactive magnetron sputtering of tungsten target in krypton/trimethylboron atmosphere2019Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, artikel-id 137384Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    W-B-C films were deposited on Si(100) substrates held at elevated temperature by reactive sputtering from a W target in Kr/trimethylboron (TMB) plasmas. Quantitative analysis by Xray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) shows that the films are W-rich between ~ 73 and ~ 93 at.% W. The highest metal content is detected in the film deposited with 1 sccm TMB. The C and B concentrations increase with increasing TMB flow to a maximum of ~18 and ~7 at.%, respectively, while the O content remains nearly constant at 2-3 at.%. Chemical bonding structure analysis performed after samples sputter-cleaning reveals C-W and B-W bonding and no detectable W-O bonds. During film growth with 5 sccm TMB and 500 o C or with 10 sccm TMB and 300-600 o C thin film X-ray diffraction shows the formation of cubic 100-oriented WC1-x with a possible solid solution of B. Lower flows and lower growth temperatures favor growth of W and W2C, respectively. Depositions at 700 and 800 o C result in the formation of WSi2 due to a reaction with the substrate. At 900 o C, XPS analysis shows ~96 at.% Si in the film due to Si interdiffusion. Scanning electron microscopy images reveal a fine-grained microstructure for the deposited WC1-x films. Nanoindentation gives hardness values in the range from ~23 to ~31 GPa and reduced elastic moduli between ~220 and 280 GPa in the films deposited at temperatures lower than 600 o C. At higher growth temperatures the hardness decreases by a factor of 3 to 4 following the formation of WSi2 at 700-800 o C and Si-rich surface at 900 o C.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2021-06-22 08:00
  • 79.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eriksson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Samuelsson, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Compositional dependence of epitaxial Tin+1SiCn MAX-phase thin films grown from a Ti3SiC2 compound target2019Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 37, nr 2, artikel-id 021506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigate sputtering of a Ti3SiC2 compound target at temperatures ranging from RT (no applied external heating) to 970 °C as well as the influence of the sputtering power at 850 °C for the deposition of Ti3SiC2 films on Al2O3(0001) substrates. Elemental composition obtained from time-of-flight energy elastic recoil detection analysis shows an excess of carbon in all films, which is explained by differences in the angular distribution between C, Si, and Ti, where C scatters the least during sputtering. The oxygen content is 2.6 at. % in the film deposited at RT and decreases with increasing deposition temperature, showing that higher temperatures favor high purity films. Chemical bonding analysis by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows C–Ti and Si–C bonding in the Ti3SiC2 films and Si–Si bonding in the Ti3SiC2 compound target. X-ray diffraction reveals that the phases Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 can be deposited from a Ti3SiC2 compound target at substrate temperatures above 850 °C and with the growth of TiC and the Nowotny phase Ti5Si3Cx at lower temperatures. High-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy shows epitaxial growth of Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5 on TiC at 970 °C. Four-point probe resistivity measurements give values in the range ∼120 to ∼450 μΩ cm and with the lowest values obtained for films containing Ti3SiC2, Ti4SiC3, and Ti7Si2C5.

  • 80.
    Magnuson, Martin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    ­Chemical Bonding in Epitaxial ZrB2 Studied by X-ray Spectroscopy2018Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 649, s. 89-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chemical bonding in an epitaxial ZrB2 film is investigated by Zr K-edge (1s) X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies and compared to the ZrB2 compound target from which the film was synthesized as well as a bulk α-Zr reference. Quantitative analysis of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy spectra reveals at the surface: ~5% O in the epitaxial ZrB2 film, ~19% O in the ZrB2 compound target and ~22% O in the bulk α-Zr reference after completed sputter cleaning. For the ZrB2 compound target, X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows weak but visible   11, 111, and 220 peaks from monoclinic ZrO2 together with peaks from ZrB2 and where the intensity distribution for the ZrB2 peaks show a randomly oriented target material.  For the bulk α-Zr reference no peaks from any crystalline oxide were visible in the diffractogram recorded from the 0001-oriented metal. The Zr K-edge absorption from the two ZrB2 samples demonstrate more pronounced oscillations for the epitaxial ZrB2 film than in the bulk ZrB2 attributed to the high atomic ordering within the columns of the film. The XANES exhibits no pre-peak due to lack of p-d hybridization in ZrB2, but with a chemical shift towards higher energy of 4 eV in the film and 6 eV for the bulk compared to α-Zr (17.993 keV) from the charge-transfer from Zr to B. The 2 eV larger shift in bulk ZrB2 material suggests higher oxygen content than in the epitaxial film, which is supported by XPS. In EXAFS, the modelled cell-edge in ZrB2 is slightly smaller in the thin film (a=3.165 Å, c=3.520 Å) in comparison to the bulk target material (a=3.175 Å, c=3.540 Å) while in hexagonal closest-packed metal (α-phase, a=3.254 Å, c=5.147 Å). The modelled coordination numbers show that the EXAFS spectra of the epitaxial ZrB2 film is highly anisotropic with strong in-plane contribution, while the bulk target material is more isotropic. The Zr-B distance in the film of 2.539 Å is in agreement with the calculated value from XRD data of 2.542 Å. This is slightly shorter compared to that in the ZrB2 compound target 2.599 Å, supporting the XANES results of a higher atomic order within the columns of the film compared to bulk ZrB2.

  • 81.
    Muehlbacher, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Leoben, Austria.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sartory, Bernhard
    Mat Centre Leoben Forsch GmbH, Austria.
    Mendez-Martin, Francisca
    University of Leoben, Austria.
    Schalk, Nina
    University of Leoben, Austria.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mitterer, Christian
    University of Leoben, Austria.
    TiN diffusion barrier failure by the formation of Cu3Si investigated by electron microscopy and atom probe tomography2016Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, ISSN 1071-1023, E-ISSN 1520-8567, Vol. 34, nr 2, s. 022202-1-022202-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors investigate the interdiffusion damage of Cu/TiN stacks deposited on Si(001) substrates by low-temperature unbalanced direct current magnetron sputtering. Pristine and diffusion-annealed samples are examined by x-ray diffraction, four-point-probe resistivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and atom probe tomography. Two relevant diffusion processes are identified. The local diffusion of Cu through defects and grain boundaries in the TiN layer leads to the formation of the eta -Cu3Si phase at the barrier/substrate interface. Three-dimensional reconstructions obtained by atom probe tomography additionally reveal the outward diffusion of Si atoms from the substrate through the TiN bulk toward the Cu top layer, eventually also resulting in the formation of a discontinuous Cu3Si surface layer. (C) 2016 American Vacuum Society.

  • 82.
    Music, Denis
    et al.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Schmidt, Paul
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Acad Sci, Hungary.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Geyer, Richard W.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Hans, Marcus
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Electrical resistivity modulation of thermoelectric iron based nanocomposites2018Ingår i: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 157, s. 384-390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Iron oxides are promising thermoelectrics, but their high electrical resistivity impedes broader applications. In this work, we have studied Fe oxides with metallic contributions. Pt and Ir additions are also considered to enhance the valence electron concentration and further modify the transport properties. Based on density functional theory explorations, Fe based clusters (Fe-3, Fe-4, and Fe3Pt) are suggested to act as nucleation sites for metallic crystallites, while O leads to formation of an amorphous matrix. This has been validated by transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of sputter-grown Fe-Pt-Ir-O thin films. Densely packed bcc Fe grains, approx. 2-3 nm in diameter, are embedded in an amorphous Fe-O matrix in the as-grown state. The Seebeck coefficient reaches even -411 mu V K-1 and the electrical resistivity is up to 5 orders of magnitude lower than that of previously reported literature data on Fe oxides. We suggest that this peculiarity of our films is due to finite states localized at the Fermi level in these nanocomposites.

  • 83.
    Mühlbacher, Marlene
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sartory, Bernhard
    Mat Ctr Leoben Forsch GmbH, Austria.
    Schalk, Nina
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Petrov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA; Univ Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mitterer, Christian
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Enhanced Ti0.84Ta0.16N diffusion barriers, grown by a hybrid sputtering technique with no substrate heating, between Si(001) wafers and Cu overlayers2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 5360Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We compare the performance of conventional DC magnetron sputter-deposited (DCMS) TiN diffusion barriers between Cu overlayers and Si(001) substrates with Ti0.84Ta0.16N barriers grown by hybrid DCMS/high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) with substrate bias synchronized to the metal-rich portion of each pulse. DCMS power is applied to a Ti target, and HiPIMS applied to Ta. No external substrate heating is used in either the DCMS or hybrid DCMS/HiPIMS process in order to meet future industrial thermal-budget requirements. Barrier efficiency in inhibiting Cu diffusion into Si(001) while annealing for 1 hour at temperatures between 700 and 900 degrees C is investigated using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, four-point-probe sheet resistance measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy profiling. Ti0.84Ta0.16N barriers are shown to prevent large-scale Cu diffusion at temperatures up to 900 degrees C, while conventional TiN barriers fail at amp;lt;= 700 degrees C. The improved performance of the Ti0.84Ta0.16N barrier is due to film densification resulting from HiPIMS pulsed irradiation of the growing film with synchronized Ta ions. The heavy ion bombardment dynamically enhances near-surface atomic mixing during barrier-layer deposition.

  • 84.
    Nyberg, T.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Berg, S.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    A simple model for non-saturated reactive sputtering processes2019Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 688, artikel-id 137413Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive sputtering processes are quite complex processes and therefore difficult to understand in detail. However, a number of attempts to clearify the behaviour of reactive sputtering of oxides and nitrides have been made. Several process modelling results for such processes have been published that reasonable well mirrors the actual experimental findings. All of these models indicate that the processes normally exhibit hysteresis effects and that the oxides/nitrides will saturate at the stoichiometric compound values. We therefore call these processes saturated reactive sputtering processes. Carrying out reactive sputtering in a hydrocarbon gas like CH4 instead of in oxygen or nitrogen cannot be described with the previously suggested models for oxide or nitride formations. Decomposition of the CH4 molecule in the plasma may result both in carbide formation with the target metal as well as plasma deposited carbon. Depending on the supply of the CH4 the deposited film composition may vary from 0 to 100% of carbon. In the extreme case of very high supply of CH4 a pure carbon film will be deposited. We expect that similar behaviour will be found when carrying out reactive sputtering in other solid material containing gases like e.g. silane or diborane. We have chosen to call such processes non-saturated reactive sputtering processes. In order to understand the behaviour of non-saturated reactive sputtering processes we have developed a new model that enables the user to find the response to individual processing parameters and thus obtain a tool for process optimization. In order to limit the number of parameters our model is outlined for reactive sputtering of Ti in a mixture of argon and CH4. In this article we report that the simulation results reasonable well correlate with our experimental findings.

  • 85.
    Petrov, Ivan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Hall, Allen
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Mei, Antonio B.
    University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Nedfors, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhirkov, Igor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reed, Amber
    Mat and Mfg Directorate, OH 45431 USA.
    Howe, Brandon
    Mat and Mfg Directorate, OH 45431 USA.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greene, Joseph E
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA; University of Illinois, IL 61801 USA.
    Controlling the boron-to-titanium ratio in magnetron-sputter-deposited TiBx thin films2017Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, nr 5, artikel-id 050601Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetron sputter-deposited TiBx films grown from TiB2 targets are typically highly overstoichiometric with x ranging from 3.5 to 2.4 due to differences in Ti and B preferential ejection angles and gasphase scattering during transport between the target and the substrate. The authors show that the use of highly magnetically unbalanced magnetron sputtering leads to selective ionization of sputter-ejected Ti atoms which are steered via an external magnetic field to the film, thus establishing control of the B/Ti ratio with the ability to obtain stoichiometric TiB2 films over a wide range in Ar sputtering pressures. (C) 2017 American Vacuum Society.

  • 86.
    Sarakinos, Kostas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Elofsson, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanodesign. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnfält, Daniel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Max Planck Institute Eisenforsch GmbH, Germany.
    Theoretical and experimental study of metastable solid solutions and phase stability within the immiscible Ag-Mo binary system2016Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, nr 9, s. 095303-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Metastable solid solutions are phases that are synthesized far from thermodynamic equilibrium and offer a versatile route to design materials with tailor-made functionalities. One of the most investigated classes of metastable solid solutions with widespread technological implications is vapor deposited ternary transition metal ceramic thin films (i.e., nitrides, carbides, and borides). The vapor-based synthesis of these ceramic phases involves complex and difficult to control chemical interactions of the vapor species with the growing film surface, which often makes the fundamental understanding of the composition-properties relations a challenging task. Hence, in the present study, we investigate the phase stability within an immiscible binary thin film system that offers a simpler synthesis chemistry, i.e., the Ag-Mo system. We employ magnetron co-sputtering to grow Ag1-xMox thin films over the entire composition range along with x-ray probes to investigate the films structure and bonding properties. Concurrently, we use density functional theory calculations to predict phase stability and determine the effect of chemical composition on the lattice volume and the electronic properties of Ag-Mo solid solutions. Our combined theoretical and experimental data show that Mo-rich films (x >= similar to 0.54) form bcc Mo-Ag metastable solid solutions. Furthermore, for Ag-rich compositions (x <= similar to 0.21), our data can be interpreted as Mo not being dissolved in the Ag fcc lattice. All in all, our data show an asymmetry with regards to the mutual solubility of Ag and Mo in the two crystal structures, i.e., Ag has a larger propensity for dissolving in the bcc-Mo lattice as compared to Mo in the fcc-Ag lattice. We explain these findings in light of isostructural short-range clustering that induces energy difference between the two (fcc and bcc) metastable phases. We also suggest that the phase stability can be explained by the larger atomic mobility of Ag atoms as compared to that of Mo. The mechanisms suggested herein may be of relevance for explaining phase stability data in a number of metastable alloys, such as ternary transition metal-aluminum-nitride systems. (C) 2016 AIP Publishing LLC.

  • 87.
    Schmidt, Susann
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Czigany, Zs
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary .
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ion mass spectrometry investigations of the discharge during reactive high power pulsed and direct current magnetron sputtering of carbon in Ar and Ar/N-22012Ingår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 112, nr 1, s. 013305-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ion mass spectrometry was used to investigate discharges formed during high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) and direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) of a graphite target in Ar and Ar/N-2 ambient. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) were recorded in time-averaged and time-resolved mode for Ar+, C+, N-2(+), N+, and CxNy+ ions. An increase of N-2 in the sputter gas (keeping the deposition pressure, pulse width, pulse frequency, and pulse energy constant) results for the HiPIMS discharge in a significant increase in C+, N+, and CN+ ion energies. Ar+, N-2(+), and C2N+ ion energies, in turn, did not considerably vary with the changes in working gas composition. The HiPIMS process showed higher ion energies and fluxes, particularly for C+ ions, compared to DCMS. The time evolution of the plasma species was analyzed for HiPIMS and revealed the sequential arrival of working gas ions, ions ejected from the target, and later during the pulse-on time molecular ions, in particular CN+ and C2N+. The formation of fullerene-like structured CNx thin films for both modes of magnetron sputtering is explained by ion mass-spectrometry results and demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy as well as diffraction.

  • 88.
    Schmidt, Susann
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Influence of inert gases on the reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering process of carbon-nitride thin films2013Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 011503-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of inert gases (Ne, Ar, Kr) on the sputter process of carbon and carbon-nitride (CNx) thin films was studied using reactive high power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). Thin solid films were synthesized in an industrial deposition chamber from a graphite target. The peak target current during HiPIMS processing was found to decrease with increasing inert gas mass. Time averaged and time resolved ion mass spectroscopy showed that the addition of nitrogen, as reactive gas, resulted in less energetic ion species for processes employing Ne, whereas the opposite was noticed when Ar or Kr were employed as inert gas. Processes in nonreactive ambient showed generally lower total ion fluxes for the three different inert gases. As soon as N-2 was introduced into the process, the deposition rates for Ne and Ar-containing processes increased significantly. The reactive Kr-process, in contrast, showed slightly lower deposition rates than the nonreactive. The resulting thin films were characterized regarding their bonding and microstructure by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Reactively deposited CNx thin films in Ar and Kr ambient exhibited an ordering toward a fullerene-like structure, whereas carbon and CNx films deposited in Ne atmosphere were found to be amorphous. This is attributed to an elevated amount of highly energetic particles observed during ion mass spectrometry and indicated by high peak target currents in Ne-containing processes. These results are discussed with respect to the current understanding of the structural evolution of a-C and CNx thin films.

  • 89.
    Schmidt, Susann
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Czigany, Zsolt
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary.
    Wissting, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A comparative study of direct current magnetron sputtering and high power impulse magnetron sputtering processes for CNX thin film growth with different inert gases2016Ingår i: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 64, s. 13-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges of carbon in different inert gas mixtures (N-2/Ne, N-2/Ar, and N-2/Kr) were investigated for the growth of carbon-nitride (CNX) thin films. Ion mass spectrometry showed that energies of abundant plasma cations are governed by the inert gas and the N-2-to-inert gas flow ratios. The population of ion species depends on the sputter mode; HiPIMS yields approximately ten times higher flux ratios of ions originating from the target to process gas ions than DCMS. Exceptional are discharges in Ne with N-2-to-Ne flow ratios <20%. Here, cation energies and the amount of target ions are highest without influence on the sputter mode. CNX thin films were deposited in 14% N-2/inert gas mixtures at substrate temperatures of 110 degrees C and 430 degrees C. The film properties show a correlation to the substrate temperature, the applied inert gas and sputter mode. The mechanical performance of the films is mainly governed by their morphology and composition, but not by their microstructure. Amorphous and fullerene-like CN0.14 films exhibiting a hardness of similar to 15 GPa and an elastic recovery of similar to 90% were deposited at 110 degrees C in reactive Kr atmosphere by DCMS and HiPIMS.

  • 90.
    Schmidt, Susann
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Czigány, Zs
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    The Influence of Inert Gases on the a-C and CNx Thin Film Deposition: A Comparison between DCMS and HiPIMS ProcessesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    DCMS and HiPIMS discharges of C in Ne, Ar, and Kr as well as their reactive counterparts (N2/Ne, N2/Ar, and N2/Kr) were investigated for the growth of carbon and carbon-nitride (CNx) thin films. The thin films were synthesized in an industrial deposition chamber from a pure graphite target. Time averaged plasma mass spectroscopy showed that the energies of the most abundant plasma cations depend on the inert gas and the amount of N2 in the sputter gas rather than the sputter modes. The ion species population in the plasma, on the other hand, was found to depend heavily on the sputter mode; HiPIMS processes yield approximately ten times higher flux ratios of ions originating from the target to ions originating from the process gas. Exceptional cases are the discharges in Ne or N2/Ne mixtures containing up to 20% N2. Here, no influence of the sputter mode on cation energies and population was found. CNx and a-C thin films deposited in 14% N2/inert gas mixture and pure inert gas, respectively, were characterized regarding the chemical composition, chemical bonding and microstructure as well as their mechanical properties using elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy in combination with selected area electron diffraction, and nanoindentation, respectively. The thin film characteristics showed strong correlations to the energies of abundant plasma cations (namely C+, Ar+, Ar++, Ne+,22Ne+, Ne++, 82Kr+, 84Kr+, 86Kr+, Kr++, N+, N2+, CN+ as well as C2N2+)and cation population of the corresponding deposition process. High amounts of C bond in sp3 hybridization state were found for thin films sputtered in Ne, accounting for their elevated hardness and amorphous microstructure. With increasing inert gas atomic number the a-C and CNx thin films show an increasingly distinct near range ordered microstructural evolution. This effect is more pronounced for HiPIMS processes and accompanied by a lowered hardness, but elevated elastic properties.

  • 91.
    Schmidt, Susann
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Goyenola, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gueorguiev Ivanov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Czigany, Zs
    Hungarian Academic Science, Hungary .
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of CFx thin films in mixed Ar/C4F4 and Ar/C4F8 discharges2013Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 542, s. 21-30Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering processes of carbon in argon/tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and argon/octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8) have been characterized. Amorphous carbon fluoride (CFx) films were synthesized at deposition pressure and substrate temperature of 400 mPa and 110 degrees C, respectively. The CFx film composition was controlled in the range of 0.15 andlt; x andlt; 0.35 by varying the partial pressure of the F-containing gases from 0 mPa to 110 mPa. The reactive plasma was studied employing time averaged positive ion mass spectrometry and the resulting thin films were characterized regarding their composition, chemical bonding and microstructure as well as mechanical properties by elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and water droplet contact angle measurements, respectively. The experimental results were compared to results obtained by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. The modeling of the most abundant precursor fragment from the dissociation of CF4 and C4F8 provided their relative stability, abundance, and reactivity, thus permitting to evaluate the role of each precursor during film growth. Positive ion mass spectrometry of both fluorine plasmas shows an abundance of CF+, C+, CF2+, and CF3+ (in this order) as corroborated by first-principles calculations. Only CF3+ exceeded the Ar+ signal in a CF4 plasma. Two deposition regimes are found depending on the partial pressure of the fluorine-containing reactive gas, where films with fluorine contents below 24 at.% exhibit a graphitic nature, whereas a polymeric structure applies to films with fluorine contents exceeding 27 at.%. Moreover, abundant precursors in the plasma are correlated to the mechanical response of the different CFx thin films. The decreasing hardness with increasing fluorine content can be attributed to the abundance of CF3+ precursor species, weakening the carbon matrix.

  • 92.
    Schmidt, Susann
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Goyenola, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gueorguiev, Gueorgui Kostov
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik.
    Ivanov, Ivan Gueorguiev
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Czigány, Zs
    Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Reactive High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering of CFx Thin Films in Mixed Ar/CF4 and Ar/C4F8 DischargesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) processes of C in Ar/tetrafluoromethane CF4 and Ar/octafluorocyclobutane (c-C4F8) have been characterized. Amorphous carbon fluoride (CFx) films were synthesized at deposition pressure and substrate temperature of 400 mPa and 110 oC, respectively. The CFx film composition was controlled in the range of 0.15 < x < 0.35 by varying the partial pressure of the F-containing gases from 0 mPa to 110 mPa. The reactive plasma was studied employing time averaged positive ion mass spectrometry and the resulting thin films were characterized regarding their composition, chemical bonding and microstructure as well as mechanical properties by elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and water droplet contact angle measurements, respectively. The experimental results were compared to results obtained by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory.

    The modeling of the most abundant precursor fragment from the dissociation of CF4 and C4F8 provided their relative stability, abundance, and reactivity, thus permitting to evaluate the role of each precursor during film growth. Positive ion mass spectrometry of both F plasmas show an abundance of CF+, C+, CF⁺₂, and CF⁺₃ (in this order) as corroborated by first-principles calculations. Only CF⁺₃ exceeded the Ar+ signal in a CF4 plasma. Two deposition regimes are found depending on the partial pressure of the F-containing reactive gas, where films with fluorine contents below 24 at% exhibit a graphitic nature, whereas a polymeric structure applies to films with fluorine contents exceeding 27 at%. Moreover, abundant precursors in the plasma are correlated to the mechanical response of the different CFx thin films. The decreasing hardness with increasing F content can be attributed to the abundance of CF⁺₃ precursor species, weakening the C matrix.

  • 93.
    Schmidt, Susann
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Goyenola, Cecilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kostov Gueorguiev, Gueorgui
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Czigany, Zs
    Hungarian Academic Science.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Gueorguiev Ivanov, Ivan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    CF(x) thin solid films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering: Synthesis and characterization2011Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, nr 4, s. 646-653Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fluorine containing amorphous carbon films (CF(x), 0.16 andlt;= x andlt;= 0.35) have been synthesized by reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) in an Ar/CF(4) atmosphere. The fluorine content of the films was controlled by varying the CF(4) partial pressure from 0 mPa to 110 mPa at a constant deposition pressure of 400 mPa and a substrate temperature of 110 degrees C. The films were characterized regarding their composition, chemical bonding and microstructure as well as mechanical properties by applying elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and nanoindentation. First-principles calculations were carried out to predict and explain F-containing carbon thin film synthesis and properties. By geometry optimizations and cohesive energy calculations the relative stability of precursor species including C(2), F(2) and radicals, resulting from dissociation of CF4, were established. Furthermore, structural defects, arising from the incorporation of F atoms in a graphene-like network, were evaluated. All as-deposited CF(x) films are amorphous. Results from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy indicate a graphitic nature of CF(x) films with x andlt;= 0.23 and a polymeric structure for films with x andgt;= 0.26. Nanoindentation reveals hardnesses between similar to 1 GPa and similar to 16 GPa and an elastic recovery of up to 98%.

  • 94.
    Tengdelius, Lina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Forsberg, Urban
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Janzén, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Halvledarmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Högberg, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stoichiometric, epitaxial ZrB2 thin films with low oxygen-content deposited by magnetron sputtering from a compound target: Effects of deposition temperature and sputtering power2015Ingår i: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 430, s. 55-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Zirconium diboride (ZrB2) thin films have been deposited on 4H-SiC(0001) substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering from a compound target. The effect of deposition temperature (500-900 degrees C) and sputtering power (100-400 W) on the composition and structure of the films have been investigated. Electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal that high sputtering power values and high deposition temperatures are favorable to enhance the crystalline order of the epitaxial 0001 oriented films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy shows that the composition of the films is near-stoichiometric for all deposition temperatures and for high sputtering power values of 300 W and 400 W, whereas under-stoichiometric films arc obtained when applying 100 W or 200 W. Decreasing the deposition temperature, or in particular the sputtering power, result in higher C and O impurity levels. The resistivity of the films was evaluated by four-point-probe measurements and found to scale with the amount of O impurities in the films. The lowest resistivity value obtained is 130 mu Omega cm, which makes the ZrB2 films interesting as an electrical contact material. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 95.
    Tureson, Nina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Marteau, Marc
    Univ Poitiers, France.
    Cabioch, Thierry
    Univ Poitiers, France.
    Van Nong, Ngo
    Tech Univ Denmark, Denmark.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Fournier, Daniele
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Singh, Niraj
    Indian Inst Technol Mandi, India.
    Soni, Ajay
    Indian Inst Technol Mandi, India.
    Belliard, Laurent
    Sorbonne Univ, France.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Le Febvrier, Arnaud
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effect of ion-implantation-induced defects and Mg dopants on the thermoelectric properties of ScN2018Ingår i: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 98, nr 20, artikel-id 205307Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For applications in energy harvesting and environmentally friendly cooling, and for power sources in remote or portable applications, it is desired to enhance the efficiency of thermoelectric materials. One strategy consists of reducing the thermal conductivity while increasing or retaining the thermoelectric power factor. An approach to achieve this is doping to enhance the Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, while simultaneously introducing defects in the materials to increase phonon scattering. Here, we use Mg ion implantation to induce defects in epitaxial ScN (111) films. The films were implanted with Mg+ ions with different concentration profiles along the thickness of the film, incorporating 0.35 to 2.2 at. % of Mg in ScN. Implantation at high temperature (600 degrees C), with few defects due to the temperature, does not substantially affect the thermal conductivity compared to a reference ScN. Samples implanted at room temperature, in contrast, exhibited a reduction of the thermal conductivity by a factor of 3. The sample doped with 2.2 at. % of Mg also showed an increased power factor after implantation. This paper thus shows the effect of ion-induced defects on thermal conductivity of ScN films. High-temperature implantation allows the defects to be annealed out during implantation, while the defects are retained for room-temperature implanted samples, allowing for a drastic reduction in thermal conductivity.

  • 96.
    Zavaleyev, V.
    et al.
    Koszalin University of Technology, Poland .
    Walkowicz, J.
    Koszalin University of Technology, Poland .
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Effect of substrate temperature on properties of diamond-like films deposited by combined DC impulse vacuum-arc method2013Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 236, s. 444-449Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    DLC thin films have been deposited using a combined DC and high power impulse vacuum-arc process. Hardness and adhesion of the obtained films deposited at different substrate temperature were studied using nanohardness testing and the scratch tester REVETEST (R). The bonding structure of as-deposited films was analyzed by Raman scattering and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that the substrate temperature is one of the main parameters influencing the sp(3)-to-sp(2) ratio of carbon atom bonds in the coatings, which in turn affects the films mechanical properties. XRD analysis shows that a CrxCy interfacial layer forms at 280 degrees C. which reduces the adhesion properties of the DLC coatings. High quality DLC coatings are obtained by control of the specimen temperature below 280 degrees C using a sensor that is in direct contact with the substrate.

  • 97.
    Zhu, Jianqiang
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eriksson, Anders O.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ghafoor, Naureen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Rosén, Johanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Microstructure evolution of Ti3SiC2 compound cathodes during reactive cathodic arc evaporation2011Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 29, nr 3, s. 031601-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The microstructure evolution and compositional variation of Ti3SiC2 cathode surfaces during reactive cathodic arc evaporation are presented for different process conditions. The results show that phase decomposition takes place in the near-surface region, resulting in a 5-50 mu m thick converted layer that is affected by the presence of nitrogen in the deposition chamber. This layer consists of two different sublayers, i.e., 1-20 mu m thick top layer with a melted and resolidified microstructure, followed by a 4-30 mu m thick transition layer with a decomposed microstructure. The converted layer contains a polycrystalline TiCx phase and trace quantities of Si-rich domains with Ti5Si3(C) at their interface. The arc discharge causes Si redistribution in the two regions of the layer, whose Si/(Ti+Si) ratio is higher in the top region and lower in the transition region compared to the virgin material.

  • 98.
    Zhu, Jianqiang
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson Jöesaar, Mats P.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Polcik, Peter
    PLANSEE Composite Materials GmbH.
    Jensen, Jens
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Influence of Ti-Si cathode grain size on the cathodic arc process and resulting Ti-Si-N coatings2013Ingår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 235, nr 25, s. 637-647Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the Ti-Si cathode grain size on cathodic arc processes and resulting Ti-Si-N coating synthesis has been studied. 63 mm Ti-Si cathodes containing 20-25 at % Si with four dedicated grain size of ~8 µm, ~20 µm, ~110 µm, and ~600 µm were fabricated via spark plasma sintering or hot isostatic pressing. They were evaporated in 2 Pa nitrogen atmosphere in an industrial-scale arc deposition system and the Ti-Si-N coatings were grown at 50 A, 70 A, and 90 A arc current. The composition and microstructure of the virgin and worn cathode surfaces as well as the resulting coatings were characterized using optical and electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and nanoindentation. The results show that the existence of multiple phases with different work function values directly influences the cathode spot ignition behavior and also the arc movement and appearance. Specifically, there is a preferential erosion of the Ti5Si3-phase grains. By increasing the grain size of the virgin cathode, the preferential erosion is enhanced, such that the cathode surface morphology roughens substantially after 600 Ah arc discharging. The deposition rate of the Ti-Si-N coating is increased with decreasing grain size of the evaporated Ti-Si cathodes. The composition, droplet density, and droplet shape of the coatings are influenced by the arc movement, which is also shown to depend on the cathode grain size.

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