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  • 551.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Napolitano, Nicola
    Tronci, Massimo
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Influences of Product/Service Combined Offers on Manufacturers2006In: International Conference on Service Systems Service Management 2006, Troyes, France, 2006, p. 715-719Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

      

  • 552.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Panshef, Veselin
    Darmstadt University of Technology.
    Dörsam, Edgar
    Darmstadt University of Technology.
    Addressing uncertainty of PSS for value-chain oriented service development2009In: Introduction to Product/Service-System Design / [ed] T. Sakao and M. Lindahl, London: Springer , 2009, 1, p. 136-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Services are becoming increasingly important in today’s manufacturing industry. As a result, it has become common for companies to provide a combination of services and products as an integrated offering. This chapter focuses on such business and development processes. It begins with a literature review which identifies uncertainty as a critical concept to be addressed properly in such business. Then, based on interviews with nine Swedish companies interested in the PSS offering business, it uncovers findings such as how companies lack a systematized tool to support their development process. In addition, there is a wish to have a tool for companies to address uncertainty. In response to this, and as a solution, this chapter recommends that firms utilize a simple tool addressing the uncertainty of customers’ business processes based on a model for “Process Service Channel”, so that a service provider can effectively generate business process-driven service bundles. Through a case in the printing industry, this chapter demonstrates the effectiveness of the tool. This tool has potential for value-oriented optimisation of production processes and for a strategic customisation of the customer’s business.

  • 553.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paulsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mizuyama, Hajime
    Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Inside a PSS Design Process: Insights through Protocol Analysis2011In: Proceedings Volume DS68-3IMPACTING SOCIETY THROUGH ENGINEERING DESIGN: VOLUME 3: DESIGN ORGANISATION AND MANAGEMENT / [ed] Culley, S.J.; Hicks, B.J.; McAloone, T.C.; Howard, T.J. & Cantemessa, M., Glasgow, Scotland: The Design Society, 2011, p. 365-376Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service Systems (PSS) has been addressed as an interesting research target in the engineering design community. Yet, an understanding of PSS design processes is scarce. Motivated by this gap, this paper aims to analyze, through a descriptive study, the details of the entire process of a PSS design case, and thus contribute to a better understanding of PSS design processes. To do so, an example of PSS design was conducted by three people working as a group using a modelling scheme called PSS Layer Method. Then, this design episode was analysed through protocol analysis. The results of the analysis include two reasonable hypotheses. First, PSS design follows a general process of problem solving. Second, it begins with need and value for a customer, addresses mainly lifecycle activities for solutions, and ends back with value. In addition, lifecycle activities might be given a central role within PSS design. However, it should be emphasized that the analysis of PSS design needs to be carried out further with more cases in order to create more robust knowledge.

  • 554.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Paulsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Müller, Patrick
    Division of Virtual Product Creation, Fraunhofer IPK Berlin, Germany.
    Integrated Evaluation of a PSS Business Case and a PSS Design Method –Application of the PSS Layer Method to an Industrial Drilling Solution2011In: Functional Thinking for Value Creation: Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig,Braunschweig Germany, May 5th - 6th, 2011 / [ed] J. Hesselbach, C. Herrmann, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, p. 153-158Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A multitude of PSS design methods has been published but industrial application is sparse. The paper introduces a new case of integrated product-service offerings in the construction business. Then, we apply the PSS Layer Method developed earlier to evaluate this method further on and to publish new experiences. We show that the method is a helpful tool to describe integrated offerings, thus product-service systems, holistically. Generalized findings on what industry is not addressing enough in PSS development will be given.

  • 555.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Sandström, Gunilla Ö
    Department of Machine Design The Royal Institute of Technology.
    Matzen, Detlef
    Section for Engineering Design and Product Development The Technical University of Denmark.
    Framing Design Research for Service Orientation through PSS Approaches2009In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038x, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 754-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - In order to respond to the industrial trend towards service design and delivery, research must address a vast area partially related to value creation, marketing and network theories. However, compared to the space to be explored, there is little insight available. Thus, this paper, as a first step, proposes a way to frame such research.

    Design/Methodology/Approach - An extensive literature review is performed of over 100 articles on PSS (Product/Service System) in general, service design, innovation, and business models in a broad view. Then, the analysis from the authors´ viewpoint is carried out to give a frame.

    Findings - The authors present three crucial dimensions for service-orientation research, i.e. an offer dimension representing products and services, a provider dimension, and a customer/user dimension. In addition, three research targets are proposed; PSS-offer modelling, PSS development, and PSS potential. Furthermore, several promising future research directions are identified. These include evaluating economic consequences or environmental benefits, establishing terminology, organizational issues, and developing methods and tools to support designers.

    Research limitations/implications - The boundaries to other research fields are getting blurry and many aspects of other professionalisms must be taken into account. Thus, there is especially need in future research to open towards other research areas.

    Practical implications - For practitians, the presented three dimensions are especially useful to explorer the possibilities of improving or innovating their business.

    Originality/value - The article presents a way of viewing research for service orientation, which contributes especially to further research in this area.

  • 556.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Shimomura, Y
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Applications of Service Engineering Methods and Tool to Industries2006In: Innovation in Life Cycle Engineering and Sustainable Development / [ed] Daniel Brissaud, Serge Tichkievitch and Peggy Zwolinski, Dordrect, The Netherlands: Springer Verlag , 2006, p. 65-83Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this book is the consideration of environmental issues in engineering process and product design. It presents a selection of 30 papers ensuing from the 12th CIRP International seminar on Life Cycle Engineering. This book is of interest to academics, students and practitioners, specializing in environmental issues in mechanical engineering, design and manufacturing. This volume is recommended as a reference textbook for all researchers in the field.

  • 557.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Tsuboi, Yasunori
    Pioneer.
    Proposal of Module for Self-Maintenance: Methods of Fault Diagnosis by Module and Design Support of System2009In: Journal of Japan Society of Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 0387-5024, Vol. 75, no 749, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A -self-maintenance- (SM) machine has been developed and validated. It is so promising, since it reduces the probability of serious damages from malfunction and automates maintenance processes. It has been even commercialized in real market of photo copiers, but the implementation was specifically designed for a photo copier. Thus, a generic functionality of SM that can be additionally put on various kinds of machines would be highly demanded. This paper proposes such generic module for SM. This is structured in a form of -cellular machine-, which consists of homogeneous -cells-, so that it can adapt to the target machine to be maintained and it is highly fault-tolerant itself. This can be designed independently of a target machine. The paper presents a fundamental way to structure and design those modules and the module-s algorithm of fault diagnosis. Those are verified in a design support system and fault simulation system on computer program.

  • 558.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Analysis of Integrated Product and Service Offerings from Current Perspectives of Providers and Customers2009In: Proceedings of the 1st CIRP IPS2 Conference: Industrial Product/Service Systems (IPS2), Cranfield: Cranfield University Press , 2009, p. 193-199Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the current status of how companies address IPSO (Integrated Product and Service Offerings)-typed business. It will consist of perspectives both from providers and customers mainly fromSweden and Germany. Especially, it selects how providing firms address uncertainty as one focal issue. As a result of interviews, factors from customers are the major source of uncertainty for an experiencedcompany, while services are the major for little experienced companies. In addition, there was found to be areasonable wish of providers to obtain a formalized way leading to quantitative management of uncertainty. On the other hand, customer incentives are not always clear. While some customers find the IPSO preferable from economic reasons other customers have the opposite recognition.

  • 559.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Essence of remanufacturing derived from analysis of practices and theories2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing has gained attention from the manufacturing industry, but still lacks scientific insights in the literature for remanufacturers’ success. The paper proposes a set of key factors that are important for successful remanufacturing. To do so, it first analyses remanufacturing practices in industry through the authors’ own interviews with practitioners, and derives key factors for successful remanufacturing. They are: 1) product and component value; 2) customer-oriented operation; 3) collection of cores; 4) correct information; and 5) personnel competence. The first two factors show Product/Service System theory is highly relevant to remanufacturing. Then, having those factors in mind, it analyses remanufacturing processes theoretically. The distinctive nature of remanufacturing underlying in the processes is found to have high variability, high uncertainty and, thus, high complexity. The obtained insights are eventually represented with a Fishbone diagram. The value of the paper lies in its insights, grounded in both practice and scientific theory.

  • 560.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How to Improve Remanufacturing?-A Systematic Analysis of Practices and Theories2019In: Journal of manufacturing science and engineering, ISSN 1087-1357, E-ISSN 1528-8935, Vol. 141, no 2, article id 021004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing has gained attention from industry, but the literature lacks the scientific comprehension to realize efficient remanufacturing. This hinders a company from commencing or improving remanufacturing efficiently. To fill this gap, the paper proposes a set of practical success factors for remanufacturing. To do so, it analyzes remanufacturing practices in industry through interviews with staff from remanufacturing companies with long experience. The practical success factors are found to be (1) addressing product and component value, (2) having a customer-oriented operation, (3) having an efficient core acquisition, (4) obtaining the correct information, and (5) having the right staff competence. Next, the paper further analyzes remanufacturing processes theoretically with both cause and effect analysis and means-ends analysis. Since the factors show that, among other things, the product/service system (PSS) is highly relevant to remanufacturing in multiple ways, theories on the PSS are partly utilized. As a result, the distinctive nature of remanufacturing underlying in the processes is found to have high variability, high uncertainty and, thus, also complexity. The obtained insights from practice and theory are found to support each other. In addition, a lishbone diagram for remanufacturing is proposed based on the analysis, including seven ms, adding two new ms (marketing and maintenance) on top of the traditional five ms (measurement, material, human, method, and machine) in order to improve customer value. The major contribution of the paper lies in its insights, which are grounded in both theory and practice.

  • 561.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    A methodology for designing services: modeling method, design method, CAD tool, and their industrial applications2009In: Introduction to Service Engineering / [ed] Gavriel Salvendy and Waldemar Karwowski, USA: John Wiley , 2009, 1, p. 268-293Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Servicification is a key toward sustainable business in the secondary industry. It is needless to say that services are sources of core value in the tertiary industry. Thus, this chapter addresses a critical issue for both of those industries, designing services. This chapter demonstrates the effectiveness of our service-design methodology to support service design processes through applications to two service examples in industries- real operation. Before that, a theory for the methodology is explained.

  • 562.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Taabodi, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Customer-oriented Method to Design Services: Empirical Studies with Two Investment machine Manufacturers2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge in practice on how to design offerings of services and products effectively and efficiently is demanded in manufacturing industries. This article discusses some empirical results obtained from designing services at two manufacturers. One study was achieved with a company who had implemented information-communication networks to their customers and adopted a structured method to design services. It demonstrates that the method worked for a realscaled problem to generate several effective solutions with input of approximately five person-months. This is contributed to largely by the technique addressing customer value through extension of Quality Function Deployment. Simultaneously, it is pointed out that special efforts are needed to prepare the ontology used to describe the model. From an on-going study with the other company, which has been technology-focused, some obstacles and difficulties are described as the first results. The method provides a base to generate and evaluate new service concepts and aligns product/service development processes to satisfy customer value in line with the Functional Product Innovation (FPI) concept.

  • 563.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wasserbaur, Raphael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabrice, Mathieux
    European Commission Joint Research Centre.
    A methodological approach for manufacturers to enhancevalue-in-use of service-based offerings considering three dimensions of sustainability2019In: CIRP annals, ISSN 0007-8506, E-ISSN 1726-0604, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 33-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To shift towards a sustainable society, lifecycle engineering methodologies addressing the social dimension need to be advanced. A new methodological approach is proposed for manufacturers to address the three dimensions of sustainability. This approach aims to enhance value-in-use of service-based offerings and supports designers with two social indicators and five generally applicable recommendations involving multiple product lives towards a circular economy. For validation, it was applied to the case of a manufacturer of washing machines for European consumer markets. Results show that the approach supports designers to incorporate the social dimension efficiently while improving resource efficiency.

  • 564.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    Department of Machine Design, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Uncovering benefits and risks of integrated product service offerings: Using a case of technology encapsulation2013In: Journal of Systems Science and Systems Engineering, ISSN 1004-3756, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 421-439Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this article is to uncover benefits and risks of Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO) in a systematic manner. To do so, it adopts an explorative longitudinal in-depth case study (development of an IPSO based on a new technology) and adds insights to the existing literature. The article first proposes a theoretical and generic framework termed the PCP (Provider — Customer — Product) triangle with associated information flow and uncertainty. Second, various types of benefits and risks are presented based on the framework. Among others, the benefit of keeping IPR (Intellectual Property Rights) with the provider and the risk of regulation change are new findings from the case study. In addition, the case study reveals that IPSO is regarded as a positive contributor to innovation. Applying the framework and classification of benefits and risks as norms to other cases has yet to be done for verification. However, the framework contributes scientifically to a better understanding of the benefits and risks of IPSO. In addition, this framework is advantageous with its easiness to understand, which contributes practically to the dissemination of IPSO insight to industry.

  • 565.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Song, Wenyan
    Beihang University, China.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Creating service modules for customising product/service systems by extending DSM2017In: CIRP annals, ISSN 0007-8506, E-ISSN 1726-0604, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 21-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Customising offerings effectively for customers’ needs and wants, yet maintaining the provider’s efficiency, is a challenging task. Modularisation is a key to achieve this, but insight on how to create modules for customising product/service systems (PSSs) is limited. This article proposes a new practical method that supports designers to create service modules by extending the DSM (Design Structure Matrix). The method has been applied to existing PSSs by an elevator manufacturer. It was found effective because it reduces complexity in customisation, and thus response time in service provision, as well as increases the chance of reusing previous designs.

  • 566.
    Sakr, D
    et al.
    Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, International Ph.D. Program on Cleaner Production, Cleaner Products, Industrial Ecology & Sustainability, The Netherlands.
    Baas, Leenard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    El-Haggar, S
    Energy & Environment, Mechanical Engineering Department, American University in Cairo, Egypt.
    Huisingh, D
    Sustainable Development, Institute for a Secure and Sustainable Environment, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA and Cleaner Production in International Off-Campus Ph.D. Programme on Cleaner Production, Cleaner Products, Industrial Ecology & Sustainability, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Critical success and limiting factors for eco-industrial parks: global trends and Egyptian context2011In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 1158-1169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend of clustering industries into regional estates or cities was adopted in the mid 1900s. At present, the number of industrial estates in the world is estimated to be between 12,000 and 20,000 (UNEP, 1997) and this trend is continuing to rise in both developed and developing countries. The implementation of the EIP concept continues to evolve especially with the environmental threats and impact on climate change that industries pose. However, there is not yet a fully developed EIP that is operating; although some successful examples of regional by-product exchanges are functioning (Lowe, 2001; Peck, 2002; Lowe et al., 1995: Chertow, 2000). Actually, a significant number of projects have failed or have abandoned the goal of becoming an EIP. Furthermore the current body of knowledge on industrial ecology is not sufficient to provide practical solutions to the obstacles facing EIPs. This paper is based upon the Ph.D. Doctoral thesis research of D. Sakr. It was prepared to examine means to improve the uptake of cleaner production andamp; industrial symbiosis in industrial areas in Middle East andamp; North Africa Region focusing on Egypt as a case study. An extensive literature review was performed on eco-industrial development projects experiences around the world, in order to identify the critical driving and limiting factors for EIPs. This paper summarizes the lessons learned from worldwide EIP experiences as a basis for the planning and implementation of future EIPs. The paper reflects as well upon the Egyptian context for the identified EIP success and limiting factors. The identified key success and limiting factors are: the creation of symbiotic relationship, information sharing and awareness, financial benefits, organizational structure, and legal and regulatory framework.

  • 567.
    Samuelsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Investigation of the Use of Ecodesign Methods and Tools in the Electrical and Electronics Industries of Thailand2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation strives to determine the level of ecodesign awareness as well as to map the use of methods and tools for this concept in the electrical and electronics industries of Thailand.

    The foundation of the thesis is eight semi-structured qualitative research interviews performed with various people at Thai organisations, an electronics manufacturer in Thailand, and experts from Swedish, Danish and Thai universities. The research method has yielded the following results:

    The level of ecodesign awareness within the country is low, and so is the general level of environmental knowledge. The concept of Life Cycle thinking is mostly unknown, and at best used only to parts of its full potential. The ecodesign education is limited to basic courses at university level and much of the problems with the use of methods and tools for ecodesign can be traced to the lack of ecodesign knowledge amongst its presumptive users. Respondents of this research suggests that the ecodesign knowledge and awareness is significantly higher amongst larger companies with foreign connections than it is amongst Small and Medium sized Enterprises of Thailand, which often have no such contacts.

    At present, efforts are being made to educate Thai companies in ecodesign through networking, seminars, workshops and student/expert internships. These endeavours have been arranged by various organizations with the aid from foreign experts and have resulted in successful ecodesign/redesign of products within Thailand.

    Stakeholder demands such as cost-down or legislation compliance demands are the main driving forces for ecodesign in Thailand, and very few attempts at ecodesign for the pure benefit of the environment are being made.

    Present trends suggest that the future of ecodesign in Thailand will include the finalisation of a Thai-RoHS directive and possibly further work on a Thai-WEEE directive as well.

    As for Life Cycle thinking, practices of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) are still basic, but some uses of such LCA tools as SimaPro and GaBi have been proven. Commercial LCA software licenses are considered expensive by most Thai companies and it has become common practice to utilize licenses bought by organisations instead of buying licenses for one’s own company. This results in high costs having to be carried by the organisations and diminishes investment possibilities in other ecodesign fields. At current, LCI data is being requested by companies and might lead to more work being made in this area in the future.

    In conclusion, more effort needs to be put into education on all levels and the application of educational methods and tools is advised.

     

  • 568.
    Scaglia, Anna-Giulia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Persson, Vickie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Indicators of Phase Transition within the Vehicle’s Lifecycle: A Case Study of Scania2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The total lifecycle of a vehicle contains many phases, from production to sales to first customer to second customer and so on until the end of life. Each one of these phases includes different activities in different business areas and under different conditions. This means that the customers´ needs will vary depending on which lifecycle phase the vehicle is in and the offered services have to be adapted to this. Therefore it is important for truck developing companies to know when a transition, from one lifecycle phase to another has occurred.

    This study is based on a case study provided by Scania, a company that develops trucks and busses. Delimitations were that the study would focus on connected long-haulage trucks that are in Europe under their first life cycle phase, that the developed services would be described on a conceptual level and not cover any economic aspects. With this in mind, the following research questions were created:

    RQ1) What defines a transition phase?

    RQ2) How can the long-haulage trucks’ usage pattern be used to identify a transition phase?

    RQ3) Which data is needed to identify a transition phase?

    RQ4) Based on the results of RQ2 and RQ3, how could the transition alert service be designed?

    RQ5) Which applications could the transitions alert service be used for?

    The study included a literature study covering product lifecycle theory, servicification, second-hand market, big data, telematics, intelligent vehicles and statistic hypothesis testing. Further, two truck drivers were observed in order to get better understanding of the transportation business and the truck driving activities. Two qualitative interview studies were made with hauliers, service salesmen, truck salesmen and distributors from Czech Republic, Denmark, Italy, Poland, Spain and Sweden.

    The results of the empirical studies were analysed and RQ1 could be answered. Transition phase is the period between two different vehicle owners and/or two different ways of utilizing the truck. The analysis also gave a good picture of how the trucks are used during their life and in the transition phases, which gave an idea about usage patterns that could answer RQ2. The answer was formulated as something named phase-DNA, composed by six parameters that should change during a transition phase: Geography, Route, Driver, Traffic Condition, Assignments and Services.

    Through a group brainstorming with experts in connected services, ideas of which data that could be used to describe each one of the parameters in the phase-DNA were found. These were sorted and evaluated until at least one data type for each parameter was set. The specific data types were chosen because they reflected their parameter well and because they were data that were accessible in order to conduct tests and validations. The final set of data types consisted of: Route Shape, Amount of Stops, Run Time, Idle Time, Distance Driven, Coasting, Driver ID, Average Speed, Fuel Consumption and Workshop History Data. This set of data types was used for the formulation of a hypothesis, that said that after a transition phase at least some of these data types should change. This was also the point where RQ3 was answered. II

    The hypothesis was analysed using an exploratory analysis by plotting all the data types over time and observing if a change could be seen close to the change of ownership. The result showed that Amount of Stops and Driver ID were the most indicative data types, these two were further analysed with a statistical hypothesis test and a visualisation method. The results were used to develop an algorithm that is able to give an indication if a transition phase has occurred. The algorithm searches for changes in the six data types: Driver ID, Amount of Stops, Run Time, Distance Driven, Idle Time and Route Shape.

    The results from the empirical studies were used to define requirements for the development of a service based on the information of phase transition called transition alert service (TAS), which is the answer to RQ4. Furthermore possible stakeholders that could be interested in the transition phase information were investigated together with an examination of their needs. TAS fulfils the five main needs identified from the stakeholders: ease start and cancellation of services, avoid unnecessary telecom expenses, avoid that information goes to the wrong customer, find new customers and customize services. In order to solve this, an algorithm detecting a transition phase was developed; it was done by searching for changes in the six data types: Driver ID, Amount of Stops, Run Time, Distance Driven, Idle Time and Route Shape.

    Moreover if the TAS information is combined with other information it could be used for creating new services. Through different idea generation workshops a large number of new ideas and concepts were generated, which became the answer to RQ5. In total eleven applications for the transition alert service were developed: nine connected to change in ownership and two connected to change in utilization. Additionally, one support service named "Vehicle History" that is based on collected historical TAS was created.

    Further, one total solution named "No Worries Second-Hand" was created that includes five of the developed services. This total solution offers the customer the perfectly suitable second-hand truck without having to spend time searching for it. It also consists of a contract saying that if the customer signs a R&M contract, the dealer will buy back the vehicle and offer a new used vehicle when the old one gets too old or used. TAS makes this total solution possible by giving the dealer access to information about the truck and through this predict phase transitions.

    In conclusion, the developed services and especially the combination of them into a total solution would, according to the authors, favour the transition from a product focused company to a total solution provider, and extend the knowledge about the second-hand market.

  • 569.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    et al.
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Mitsubishi Research Institute.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    A Design Process Model and A Computer tool for Service Design2007In: 2007 Proceedings of the ASME International Design Engineering Technical Conferences and Computers and Information in Engineering Conference, 2007, p. 929-941Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers at present face new circumstances in terms of consumer services and serious environmental problems. An effective way to deal with these circumstances may be to pursue qualitative satisfaction rather than quantitative sufficiency. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the effectiveness of Service Engineering, including the service design process model, to increase customer satisfaction. The redesign of services offered by a global warehouse manufacturer is used as an example of the application. Four redesign options, such as rapid delivery of components and a robust electrical system, were generated. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated by the application.

  • 570.
    Shu, L. H.
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Duflou, Joost
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Herrmann, Christoph
    Technical University of Carolo Wilhelmina Braunschweig, Germany.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan; Tokyo Metropolitan University, Japan.
    De Bock, Yannick
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium.
    Srivastava, Jayesh
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    Design for reduced resource consumption during the use phase of products2017In: CIRP annals, ISSN 0007-8506, E-ISSN 1726-0604, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 635-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much work on sustainable design has focused on product manufacture/assembly and end of life. Gains in products technical efficiency address the use phase, but how these products are used clearly affects resource consumption. This paper describes two main approaches to reduce resource consumption during product life. Firstly, interventions aim to change user behavior, through information and feedback, as well as physical product affordances abstracted from lead users to guide or steer users toward the desired behavior. Secondly, automatic adjustment of product systems performance levels based on personal user profiles and anticipated usage is implemented using artificial intelligence techniques. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of CIRP.

  • 571.
    Simboli, Alberto
    et al.
    University G. dAnnunzio.
    Raggi, Andrea
    University G. dAnnunzio.
    Petti, Luigia
    University G. dAnnunzio.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Service/product engineering as a potential approach to value enhancement in supply chains2008In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1476-8917, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 325-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beginning with a historical analysis of the application of value chain models in production systems, this paper highlights the issue of efficiency in conventional design and providing products and services and proposes a multifunctional approach to minimise the wasted value within the supply chain. Service/Product Engineering (SPE), a new engineering discipline, is suggested as a potential approach to design and develop low-impact/lean systems of value. SPE proposes methods and tools that are capable of meeting the requirements of various primary receivers, as well as considering the environmental burdens of adopted solutions. A case study was carried out for the accommodation service provided by an Italian hotel company. One concrete redesign option is briefly presented which may simultaneously meet the requirements of guests and the environment. The preliminary results of the study suggest the applicability of the service modelling method for the actual service and its improvement. Copyright © 2008 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

  • 572.
    Sjögren, Leif
    et al.
    Motala kommun, Östergötland.
    Jonsson, Stefan
    Motala kommun, Östergötland.
    Hägglund, Marie
    Motala kommun, Östergötland.
    Malmén, Linda
    Länsstyrelsen Östergötland.
    Lindqvist, Jenny
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser från bebyggelse: Checklista för kommunal planering2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här checklistan har utvecklats inom ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Motala kommun och Länsstyrelsen Östergötland med finansiering från Energimyndigheten. Projektet initieradesmed utgångspunkt i Motalas energiplan och är nära kopplat till den regionala klimat-och energistrategin för Östergötland. Inom projektet har Linköpings universitet tagit fram en rapport om detaljplaners inverkan på växthusgasutsläpp, se nedan. Den här skriften bygger på universitetets rapport. För mer information, kontakta någon i projektgruppen.

    Checklistan är avsedd att kunna användas av alla kommuner som är intresserade av att tydligare föra in energi- och klimatfrågor i den fysiska planeringen. Störst fokus ligger på detaljplaner och listan är tänkt att kunna användas för att visa hur ett aktuellt planförslag kan bidra till minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser genom minskad energianvändning och ökad andel förnybar energi. Listan kan även användas för att jämföra två olika planförslag. Checklistan ska kunna användas som en del i miljöbedömningsprocessen, men även separat för planer som inte bedöms få en betydande miljöpåverkan och därmed saknar lagkrav om miljöbedömning.

    Den kommunala planeringen har en mycket viktig roll att spela i samhällets arbete för minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser. Den här checklistan riktar sig till politiker och tjänstemän som på olika sätt arbetar med fysisk planering i svenska kommuner. Med checklistan vill vi visa på hur planeringen och särskilt utformningen av en detaljplan påverkar utsläppen av växthusgaser. Listan är tänkt att kunna användas för att visa i vilken mån ett aktuellt planförslag kan bidra till minskade utsläpp av växthusgaser genom minskad energianvändning och ökad andel förnybar energi.

    Checklistan har utvecklats inom ett samarbetsprojekt mellan Motala kommun och Länsstyrelsen Östergötland med finansiering från Energimyndigheten. Skriften bygger på en rapport från Linköpingsuniversitet.

  • 573.
    Sonesson, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Checklista för bedömning av detaljplaners påverkan på växthusgasutsläpp2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här checklistan har utvecklats inom ramen för ett samverkansprojekt mellan Linköpings Universitet, Länsstyrelsen i Östergötland och Motala kommun. Projektet har finansierats av medel från Energimyndigheten. Under projektet har en referensgrupp funnits bestående av representanter från samtliga tre organisationer. De som har deltagit är: Leif Sjögren, Stefan Jonsson och Marie Hägglund (Motala Kommun); Linda Malmén och Jenny Lindqvist (Länsstyrelsen Östergötland) samt Mikael Sonesson och Jenny Ivner (Linköpings Universitet). Initiativet till projektet togs av Motala kommun tillsammans med Länsstyrelsen Östergötland som sedan anlitade Linköpings Universitet som konsult. Vi vill tacka Energimyndigheten som har finansierat detta projekt och gjort det möjligt att genomföra. Checklistan finns tillgänglig via www.ep.liu.se samt genom Länsstyrelsen och kommunen.

  • 574.
    Song, Wenyan
    et al.
    School of Economics and Management, Beihang University, Beijing, China.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A customization-oriented framework for design of sustainable product/service system2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 1672-1685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturers today are striving to offer high value-added Product/Service System (PSS) due to increasing competition and environmental pressure. PSS design activities face a variety of challenges such as a high level of customization as well as its resulting challenges, i.e., hidden requirements in product use phase, potential conflicts of design attributes, and internal complexity of service processes. However, existing insights for PSS customization are fragmented and insufficient to support manufacturers. Thus, it is necessary to develop a systematic and comprehensive support to solve those issues. In order to support PSS customization in early design phase, this paper proposes a design framework that involves a design process. The proposed design framework is module-based and thus flexible according to the user needs. In addition, it takes advantage of some existing methods. A case study of elevator PSS design shows the feasibility and potentials of the design framework and its associated design process to its broad usage in industry.

  • 575.
    Song, Wenyan
    et al.
    Beihang University, Beijing, China; Ministry of Education, Beijing, China.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Environmentally Conscious PSS Recommendation Method based on Users’ Vague Ratings: A Rough Multi-Criteria Approach2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 1592-1606Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturers are today striving to offer a large number of value-addedPSSs (Product-Service Systems). The increased number of PSS hinders potential buyers fromeffectively discovering the most suitable PSS to satisfy their personalized requirements. Toaccurately find the needed or wanted PSS with lower search costs, it is effective torecommend suitable PSS solutions to the right buyers. However, service, a component of PSS,brings more subjective and imprecise information in acquiring users' preferences due to e.g.their different experience and knowledge on services. Moreover, the interactions withinuser’s preferences are often omitted in previous methods, which may lead to inaccuraterecommendation results. Therefore, to solve these problems, an innovative method for PSSrecommendation is developed. This method explicitly takes into account the environmentalaspect of PSSs in question so that a method user can be guided to select an environmentallysuperior alternative. In addition, rough DEMATEL (Decision-Making and Trial EvaluationLaboratory) is proposed to manipulate the interactions of vague user preferences inmulti-criteria weight determination. Furthermore, a rough collaborative filtering approach isdeveloped to make PSS recommendation under vague environment. A case study of elevatorPSS recommendation shows the feasibility and potentials of the proposed approach.Theoretically, the new method can produce more reasonable PSS recommendation results byconsidering the interdependencies between different recommendation criteria. In marketingpractice, the method can suggest proposals of new offerings to customers in a proactivemanner.

  • 576.
    Song, Wenyan
    et al.
    School of Economics and Management, Beihang University, China.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Service conflict identification and resolution for design of product-service offerings2016In: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 98, p. 91-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturers today are striving to provide high value-addedproduct-service offerings (PSO) to their customers. PSO has heterogonous structureand various requirements, which may lead to technical attributes' conflicts during thedesign process. The conflicts will lead to the difficulty of concept generation, increaseof service delivery failure, and eventually the decrease of customer satisfaction.However, the conflicts in PSO design areas are more intangible and harder toformulate. Moreover, those conflicts are often resolved with trial and error methods inad hoc processes, which largely depend on the designer’s intuition. Thus, in this paper,the authors propose a systematic method to identify PSO design conflicts and resolvethem. The proposed method is based on the approach of service function andattributes analysis, group decision making with unbalanced linguistic label set andTRIZ methodology. In addition, a case study of design conflict identification andresolution for elevator service reveals the feasibility and potentials of the proposedmethod.

  • 577.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project2009In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 833-850Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the evaluation of a pilot project where four decision-making tools are applied in a municipal energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. The tested tools are a citizens’ panel, a combination of external scenarios and backcasting, and life cycle assessment and qualitative checklists for environmental assessment. The presented results are based on two focus group discussions with the participants from the project: one with the municipal workgroup and one with the researchers that were responsible for the application of the decision-making tools. The results show that energy planning is a process of learning and dialogue, and workshop methodology was found to be favourable for open dialogue. This test also shows that public involvement can contribute substantially to the visionary work and suggestions of actions and strategies. Another conclusion is that energy planning needs to be iterative, even in the scoping. This test also shows that there is a need for simplified tools that include environmental assessment and broad system boundaries in local energy planning.

  • 578.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal Energy Planning: Scope and Method Development2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities are required to produce a municipal energy plan for their energy supply and use. Whether energy planning is suitable to manage local energy systems, however, is subject to debate. This thesis maps municipal energy planning: the scopes of energy plans and whether goals stated in energy plans are fulfilled. It also presents a pilot project with the implementation of an energy planning process where four different decision-making tools were applied: a Citizen’s panel, scenario techniques and quantitative and qualitative environmental assessments. The results from the mapping of energy planning and the experiences from the pilot project are then the bases for a discussion about the effectiveness of energy planning.

    The thesis is based on six papers; five scientific papers and one working paper. The first three papers contribute to mapping municipal energy planning in terms of expressed volition (goals, measures and strategies in the energy plans), whether goals are fulfilled and the extent of environmental analyses and assessments in the plans. The three subsequent papers present the implementation and evaluations of the energy planning process in the pilot project.

    The scopes of the studied energy plans have varied over time and have been adaptive to external factors such as contemporary energy policies and international trends. Environmental analyses and assessments were more commonly occurring in the energy plans adopted between 2006 and 2008 compared to those adopted between 1995 and 1998. The environmental analyses and assessments were however less comprehensive in the newer energy plans. Most positive development, in terms of fulfilled goals, took place for issues within the power of the local authority, for example district heating expansion and energy efficiency measures in public buildings. Experiences from the pilot project showed that decision-making tools can contribute to a broader scope of energy planning, more comprehensive environmental assessments and legitimacy.

    Based on the research findings possibilities for more effective energy planning are discussed. Effectiveness is discussed in terms of scope and legitimacy and how a broad scope and legitimacy are affected by the use of decision-making tools. It is concluded that energy planning has potential for being an effective tool for strategic energy work at the local level. The use of decision-making tools can also contribute to learning as well as legitimacy to energy planning.

    List of papers
    1. Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
    2003 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 76, no 1-3, p. 179-187 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past three decades, Swedish energy policy has evolved in three major stages—oil reduction, phase-out of nuclear energy, renewable energy—each with a different focus. Since 1977, Swedish law has required municipalities to develop an energy plan that addresses the supply, distribution, and use of energy. Whether such plans have contributed to the development of local energy-systems has been a subject for debate. This paper is based on a study of 12 municipal energy-plans that attempted to control and develop local energy-systems in southern Sweden. The analysis examines how municipalities promote oil reduction, efficient energy use, and the use of renewable energy. The plans varied in planning processes, contents, and level of ambition. The results of the study show that the contents of the plans follow the national energy-policies with respect to reduction of oil use, improved energy efficiency, and increased use of renewable energy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2003
    Keywords
    Energy-planning, National energy, Municipal energy, Environmental impact, Strategies
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13852 (URN)10.1016/S0306-2619(03)00062-X (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2009-06-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Volition and Environmental Assessment in Swedish Municipal Energy Plans
    2009 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There are several policy instruments for managing energy systems at the local level, for municipal energy planning, which is a means for local authorities to manage the local energy system. This article analyses the municipal Energy Planning which has been required by Swedish law since 1997. Recent energy plans are compared with earlier plans. The aim is to see if recent energy plans are different and if the observed differences can be explained by the impact of external factors, for example other policy instruments.

    The results show that the both the scope of expressed volition and environmental assessments have changed substantially between the two sets of energy plans studied. Newer energy plans include more goals for transports and information, but fewer goals for environmental aspects. Environmental assessments are more commonly occurring in the newer plans, but focus to large extent on emissions of carbon dioxide and climate change. It is concluded that these differences can largely be explained by a rather weak legislation, which allows external factors to influence the energy planning process. It is further concluded that it is important to include environmental assessments in the energy planning process to avoid problem shifting. Such assessments must include more environmental consequences than simply the emissions of carbon dioxide.

    Keywords
    Energy planning, environmental assessment, energy policy
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17121 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-08-12 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2016-02-17Bibliographically approved
    3. New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment
    Show others...
    2010 (English)In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 105-120Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the development and implementation of an energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. This is a unique full scale test of the application of a number of tools for local planning and environmental assessments. The experiment is based on well-known theoretical knowledge and planning legislation as a “standard of good practice,” and involves a combination of analytical and procedural tools intended to aid decision-making: external scenarios, a citizens’ panel, life cycle analyses and qualitative environmental assessment. The implementation of the energy planning process illustrates that it is important to appoint a municipal work group to lead the process and be the driving force throughout the process. Furthermore, the application of this combination of tools suggests that they contribute substantially to the quality of the energy planning process, but that it is complicated to combine several different decision-making tools. The planning model needs further simplification before it can be used as a standard of good practice by practitioners.

    Keywords
    Energy planning, decision-making tools, local authority, LCA, scenarios
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17122 (URN)10.1080/13549830903527639 (DOI)
    Note
    This is an electronic version of an article published in: Jenny Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Anna Björklund, Karl-Henrik Dreborg, Jessica Johansson, Per Wiklund and Hans Wiklund, New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment, 2010, Local Environment, (15), 2, 105-120. Local Environment is available online at informaworldTM: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13549830903527639 Copyright: Taylor & Francis http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.asp Available from: 2009-03-06 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project
    2009 (English)In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 833-850Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents the evaluation of a pilot project where four decision-making tools are applied in a municipal energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. The tested tools are a citizens’ panel, a combination of external scenarios and backcasting, and life cycle assessment and qualitative checklists for environmental assessment. The presented results are based on two focus group discussions with the participants from the project: one with the municipal workgroup and one with the researchers that were responsible for the application of the decision-making tools. The results show that energy planning is a process of learning and dialogue, and workshop methodology was found to be favourable for open dialogue. This test also shows that public involvement can contribute substantially to the visionary work and suggestions of actions and strategies. Another conclusion is that energy planning needs to be iterative, even in the scoping. This test also shows that there is a need for simplified tools that include environmental assessment and broad system boundaries in local energy planning.

    Keywords
    Energy planning, local authority, LCA, scenarios, participation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17123 (URN)10.1080/13549830903160613 (DOI)
    Note

    In the list of papers is the title of the article: Energy Planning with Novel Planning Tools - Experiences from an Energy Planning Project This is an electronic version of an article published in: Jenny Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Energy planning with decision-making tools: Experiences from an energy-planning project, 2009, Local Environment, (14), 9, 833-850. Local Environment is available online at informaworldTM: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13549830903160613 Copyright: Taylor & Francis http://www.tandf.co.uk/journals/default.asp

    Available from: 2009-03-06 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
    5. Do decision-making tools lead to better energy planning?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do decision-making tools lead to better energy planning?
    2009 (English)Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article evaluates the effectiveness of decision-making tools originally designed for environmental issues in an energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. The tested tools include a citizen’s panel, a combination of external scenarios and backcasting, life cycle assessment, and qualitative checklists for environmental assessment. This study concludes that the tools contributed to a broader scope, more comprehensive environmental assessments, and better legitimacy of the energy planning.

    Keywords
    Tools, decision-making, energy planning, local authority
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17124 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-06-16 Created: 2009-03-06 Last updated: 2010-06-16Bibliographically approved
  • 579.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Plan and Reality: Municipal Energy Plans and Development of Local Energy Systems2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish municipalities are required to produce a municipal energy plan for energy supply and use. Whether energy planning is suitable to manage local energy systems, however, is subject to debate. This thesis explores municipal energy planning and development of local energy systems after energy plans were adopted to examine whether energy planning is effective. The effectiveness of energy planning is studied on two levels: in terms of whether goals in energy plans were implemented, and whether energy planning contributes to fulfilling national energy policy goals.

    The research is based on three studies. In the first, the scope of twelve municipal energy plans from a Swedish region was assessed. In the second study, goals and visions in seven energy plans were analysed and compared to the development of the local energy systems. The third case involved Kungälv municipality, where the implementation of goals in its energy plan was studied more thoroughly. Scopes and goals in the energy plans were analysed from three perspectives: the environment, energy efficiency and the systems level. Goals and development were also analysed from an actor’s perspective.

    The results show that the scopes of the studied energy plans have narrow systems boundaries, and that the environmental analyses presented in the plans are very basic. Energy planning was found to have been fairly effective in terms of fulfilment of goals in energy plans. Most positive developments are for goals on a relatively low systems level when the local authority owns the issue, for example district heating expansion and energy efficiency measures in public buildings. When it comes to contributing to national energy policy goals, results vary; use of biomass has increased, but selfsufficiency in electricity supply has increased only slightly. The most favourable development when it comes to energy-related emissions is the reduction of carbon dioxide.

    Based on shortcomings identified in the studied energy plans and implementation, possibilities to increase the effectiveness and widen the scope of energy planning are discussed. Improvements are discussed in terms of urban planning as well as participative planning, and with respect to the environmental assessment of plans. If energy issues are included in urban planning and a participatory planning approach is used, this could facilitate the implementation of energy plans. Including environmental assessment could facilitate wide scopes and more relevant goals. It is also proposed that the EU framework for environmental assessment of plans and programmes (2001/42/EC) can be used for energy planning, since it includes a comprehensive approach, public participation, and environmental assessment.

    List of papers
    1. Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems
    2003 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 76, no 1-3, p. 179-187 Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past three decades, Swedish energy policy has evolved in three major stages—oil reduction, phase-out of nuclear energy, renewable energy—each with a different focus. Since 1977, Swedish law has required municipalities to develop an energy plan that addresses the supply, distribution, and use of energy. Whether such plans have contributed to the development of local energy-systems has been a subject for debate. This paper is based on a study of 12 municipal energy-plans that attempted to control and develop local energy-systems in southern Sweden. The analysis examines how municipalities promote oil reduction, efficient energy use, and the use of renewable energy. The plans varied in planning processes, contents, and level of ambition. The results of the study show that the contents of the plans follow the national energy-policies with respect to reduction of oil use, improved energy efficiency, and increased use of renewable energy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2003
    Keywords
    Energy-planning, National energy, Municipal energy, Environmental impact, Strategies
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13852 (URN)10.1016/S0306-2619(03)00062-X (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2009-06-04Bibliographically approved
    2. Municipal Energy Planning and Energy Efficiency
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal Energy Planning and Energy Efficiency
    2003 (English)In: Proceedings of the 2002 ACEEE Summer study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, USA, 2003Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13853 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30 Last updated: 2009-03-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Municipal energy planning: An effective tool for managing local energy systems?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Municipal energy planning: An effective tool for managing local energy systems?
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13854 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-05-30 Created: 2006-05-30
  • 580.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björklund, Anna
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Dreborg, Karl-Henrik
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jessica
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Per
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Hans
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    New Tools in Local Energy Planning: Experimenting with Scenarios, Public Participation and Environmental Assessment2010In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 105-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the development and implementation of an energy planning process in a Swedish municipality. This is a unique full scale test of the application of a number of tools for local planning and environmental assessments. The experiment is based on well-known theoretical knowledge and planning legislation as a “standard of good practice,” and involves a combination of analytical and procedural tools intended to aid decision-making: external scenarios, a citizens’ panel, life cycle analyses and qualitative environmental assessment. The implementation of the energy planning process illustrates that it is important to appoint a municipal work group to lead the process and be the driving force throughout the process. Furthermore, the application of this combination of tools suggests that they contribute substantially to the quality of the energy planning process, but that it is complicated to combine several different decision-making tools. The planning model needs further simplification before it can be used as a standard of good practice by practitioners.

  • 581.
    Stenlund (Nilsson Ivner), Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal energy planning: An effective tool for managing local energy systems?2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 582.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal Energy Planning and Development of Local Energy Systems2003In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, Vol. 76, no 1-3, p. 179-187 Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past three decades, Swedish energy policy has evolved in three major stages—oil reduction, phase-out of nuclear energy, renewable energy—each with a different focus. Since 1977, Swedish law has required municipalities to develop an energy plan that addresses the supply, distribution, and use of energy. Whether such plans have contributed to the development of local energy-systems has been a subject for debate. This paper is based on a study of 12 municipal energy-plans that attempted to control and develop local energy-systems in southern Sweden. The analysis examines how municipalities promote oil reduction, efficient energy use, and the use of renewable energy. The plans varied in planning processes, contents, and level of ambition. The results of the study show that the contents of the plans follow the national energy-policies with respect to reduction of oil use, improved energy efficiency, and increased use of renewable energy.

  • 583.
    Stenlund Nilsson Ivner, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Municipal Energy Planning and Energy Efficiency2003In: Proceedings of the 2002 ACEEE Summer study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Pacific Grove, CA, USA, 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 584.
    Strachan, P.A.
    et al.
    The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen Business School, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, United Kingdom.
    Lal, D.
    The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen Business School, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, United Kingdom.
    von Malmborg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    The evolving UK wind energy industry: Critical policy and management aspects of the emerging research agenda2006In: European Environment, ISSN 0961-0405, E-ISSN 1099-0976, Vol. 16, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, renewable energy - and in particular wind power - has come to the fore of both international and UK national environmental policy debates. In addition to helping to meet its Kyoto obligations, the British Government has indicated its desire For a much larger slice of the international wind energy market, and has consequently developed a national strategy to stimulate a more vibrant UK wind energy industry. With this in mind, the British Government's Climate Change Programme (DETR, 2000) and more recent Energy White Paper (DTI, 2003) outline the UK energy strategy for the coming two decades, with wind power featuring as a core component. This article critically considers the prospects for the development of a wind energy industry in the UK and introduces five strategic opportunities and five strategic barriers in this evolving segment of the energy market. The article concludes with recommendations to enhance public acceptance of wind energy and four important areas for future research are outlined. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

  • 585.
    Ståhle, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Henriksson, Linnea
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Using Blue Mussels as a Tool for Mitigating Eutrophication in the Baltic Sea2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is a consequence of excess nutrients in the water which leads to increased algaegrowth, reduced water transparency and hypoxic bottoms. This is the biggest environmental problemfor the Baltic Sea which recently has resulted in stricter legislations and other initiatives to help theBaltic Sea to recover. However, the actions to reduce the nutrient input to the Baltic Sea have so farmainly been land-based. These actions seem to not be enough since the eutrophication continues tobe a problem for the Baltic Sea. Farming blue mussels has shown to have a mitigating effect on theeutrophication and could thus be a complementary action. Blue mussels are filter-feeding specieswhich means that they filter water for food and thus eat phytoplankton and accumulate nutrients atthe same time. When the blue mussels are removed from the sea, so is the nutrients accumulated inthe mussels, resulting in a mitigation of nutrients and thereby the eutrophication. Due to the brackishwater with the low salinity in the Baltic Sea, the blue mussels farmed there do not grow bigger thanaround 3 cm. This means that the mussels are not suitable for human food production and theharvested mussels need to be used for something else, even though the farming itself is anenvironmental action. Three possible mussel products from valorisation of the Baltic Sea blue musselshave been identified; producing mussel meal, biogas or compost.Region Östergötland is involved in a project, Baltic Blue Growth, with the main objective to study howto use mussel farming as an environmental measure and which of the three valorisation options is themost beneficial from an environmental perspective. This study is a part of their investigation to reachtheir goal and will study their mussel farm in St. Anna and the three valorisation options from anenvironmental perspective. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the net nutrient reduction froma mussel farm in the Baltic Sea in combination with the contribution to climate change. This is donefrom a life cycle perspective to include the valorisation of the mussels into the different productsmussel meal, biogas or compost. For this, an existing farm in the archipelago of St. Anna, Östergötland,Sweden is studied. The main results show that there is a nutrient reduction from the mussel farm andthis is not majorly affected regardless of which valorisation option that is chosen. However, the musselfarm does have an impact on climate change and the magnitude of the impact varies for the threevalorisation options. The results of the sensitivity analysis show that the result from the life cycle canbe improved with future improvements of the mussel farm and transportation. The nutrient reductioncan become larger and the impact on the climate change can be reduced. Outside the result from thelife cycle analysis it is discussed that there are other future improvement possibilities in the productionof the mussel products, which would impact the result. The mussel farm and the mussel products alsohave other positive impacts that is not included in the life cycle analysis but discussed in the study,such as increased water transparency, recycling of nutrients and reduction of over fishing. However,the mussel farm could also have negative impacts, such as emissions of microplastics and locallyincreased sedimentation which affect the hypoxia. Those are discussed in this study but the probabilityand possible impact of them are not fully investigated and need further research.

  • 586.
    Sun, Huibin
    et al.
    Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, PR China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Zhan
    Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, PR China.
    Configuring use-oriented aero-engine overhaul service with multi-objective optimization for environmental sustainability2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, p. S94-S106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a typical sustainable product-service system, the aero-engine overhaul service aims to recover the functionality to fulfil certain flight hours and thrust requirements. How to configure the overhaul service with various sub-services is a key issue in industry. In this paper, a use-oriented aero-engine overhaul service configuration approach is proposed with two methods: overhaul service configuration and part repair service configuration. The overhaul service configuration method decomposes the overhaul service into various sub-services and creates a hierarchical service tree model, taking the cost and energy consumption into consideration. Based on the sub-service filtering and selection rule, the bill of exchange service comes with the bill of discard service. The part repair service configuration method matches each part repair procedure service with a proper service provider. Some non-dominated bills of repair services are obtained by minimizing the repair service cost, finishing time deviation and energy consumption. Considering the multi-objective character of the overhaul service configuration problem, these two methods result in some Pareto solutions to fulfil the service requirements. Through implementing the approach as a prototype, a case study is shown to illustrate the use-oriented aero-engine overhaul service configuration approach and verify its feasibility. A bridge between the flight hours and thrust requirements and the overhaul service configuration results is built when the cost and energy consumption are minimized. The study contributes to the shift of aero-engine overhaul services from the add-on services to sustainable use-oriented product-service systems.

  • 587.
    Sundberg, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jämförande kostnadsanalys av retur- och engångsemaballage2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyzes disposable packaging and returnable packaging with the methods life cycle analysis and life cycle costs analysis. These two different packaging are analyzed through the company Clas Ohlson’s packaging-flow. To get a picture of how the flow works, a visit at the company and email contact have been done with Clas Ohlson to get relevant information

    Today Clas Ohlson has a big flow of articles to the stores without larger variations in the demand, with the exception of autumn, which is when customers start shopping for Christmas. Clas Ohlson’s articles are placed on a pallet and are wrapped into plastic-film for protection and to make sure that nothing will be stolen. In this report Plastic-film is compared to the company Nycopac AB’s product Nyco Sleeve. In Sweden Posten takes care of Clas Ohlson’s transports and is the company’s third party-logistics provider.

    Nyco Sleeve is a type of pallet box, which is placed on a pallet with the possibility to place three units upon each other. The pallet box is possible to fold, which makes it doable to place pallet boxes upon each other in reverse transportation.

    Our Life cycle costs analysis shows that Nyco Sleeve is profitable compared to continue using plastic-film as secondary packaging. Nyco Sleeve demands a larger investment, almost seven times larger than the price for plastic-film but the expenses will be recovered relatively fast because of decreasing transportation costs. Posten’s pricing depends on each pallet place that is used which means that Nyco Sleeve’s higher weight does not affect the price. The total costs decreases because Nyco Sleeve increases the fill ratio on each pallet place, which results that less pallet places need to be used in the transport. If Nyco Sleeve is used the total pallet places decrease from about 116 000 to about 93 000 pallets considering 2012s flow. Due to decreasing costs each year, the pay-off-method shows that the investment reaches break even in about 0.7 years

    The life cycle analysis that examines the environmental impact of the packaging shows the same trend as the life cycle cost analysis, it is the transport that has the decisive influence on the environment. Important to note is that the transportations from Clas Ohlson’s warehouse to stores and the reverse transports stand for the largest carbon dioxide emissions and not the transportations from production or to waste disposal. The production phase’s emission is also important especially for Nyco Sleeve, which causes large amounts of emission compared to the plastic film. Decreasing transportations and that it is possible to reuse Nyco Sleeve even out the differences between the two packaging types when it comes to emission in production. The life cycle analysis’ scenario analysis shows that Nyco Sleeve environmental impact reaches break even after about two years compared to break even for the economic costs in 0.7 years. If only one loop is investigated the calculations show that Nyco Sleeve has larger environmental impact then plastic film but over time and when several loops are considered Nyco Sleeves carbon dioxide emission is economized. 

  • 588.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Engkvist, Inga-Lill
    Division of Ergonomics, School of Technology and Health, Royal Institute of Technology, Huddinge.
    Improving the layout of recycling centres by use of lean production principles2011In: WASTE MANAGEMENT, ISSN 0956-053X, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 1121-1132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been increased focus on recycling in Sweden during recent years. This focus can be attributed to external environmental factors such as tougher legislation, but also to the potential gains for raw materials suppliers. Recycling centres are important components in the Swedish total recycling system. Recycling centres are manned facilities for waste collection where visitors can bring, sort and discard worn products as well as large-sized, hazardous, and electrical waste. The aim of this paper was to identify and describe the main flows and layout types at Swedish recycling centres. The aim was also to adapt and apply production theory for designing and managing recycling centre operations. More specifically, this means using lean production principles to help develop guidelines for recycling centre design and efficient control. Empirical data for this research was primarily collected through interviews and questionnaires among both visitors and employees at 16 Swedish recycling centres. Furthermore, adapted observation protocols have been used in order to explore visitor activities. There was also close collaboration with a local recycling centre company, which shared their layout experiences with the researchers in this project. The recycling centres studied had a variety of problems such as queues of visitors, overloading of material and improper sorting. The study shows that in order to decrease the problems, the recycling centres should be designed and managed according to lean production principles, i.e. through choosing more suitable layout choices with visible and linear flows, providing better visitor information, and providing suitable technical equipment. Improvements can be achieved through proper planning of the layout and control of the flow of vehicles, with the result of increased efficiency and capacity, shorter visits, and cleaner waste fractions. The benefits of a lean production mindset include increased visitor capacity, waste flexibility, improved sorting quality, shorter time for visits and improved working conditions.

  • 589.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Integrerade produkt- och tjänsteerbjudanden ur ett konstruktionsperspektiv2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 590.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Rethinking Product Design for Remanufacturing to Facilitate Integrated Product Service Offerings2008In: IEEE International Symposium on Electronics and the Environment IEEE-08,2008, IEEE , 2008, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of manufacturers have started to sell their products through integrated product service offerings. These offerings can preferably be connected to remanufacturing systems. In order to achieve a successful remanufacturing process, there must be an efficient take-back system - and preferably good product designs. In this paper, we have highlighted the design for remanufacturing aspects found in our research with remanufacturing companies.

  • 591.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Comstock, Mica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Department of System Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Achieving mass customisation through servicification2009In: International Journal of Internet Manufacturing and Services, ISSN 1751-6048, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 56-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies face many challenges today, one of theseis how to successfully meet increasingly diverse customer needs. This could beachieved through customisation. This paper elucidates how mass customisation could be enabled by companies adding more services to their customised products. This ‘servicification’ of products is made available by integratedproduct service engineering. This paper also describes how products and services can be developed in coherence through an integrated product service engineering approach. Furthermore, a software supporting this approach along with customisation named Service Explorer is described. This paper presents acase study of a forklift truck manufacturer called Toyota Material Handling Group (TMHG). TMHG customise their product/service offerings and by doing so they can offer its customers increased value than only selling standard forklift trucks. TMHG has managed to create successful customised offerings for its customers. However, with a more integrated development, TMHG could become even more successful.

  • 592.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Comstock, Mica
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Assembly technology.
    Shimomura, Yoshiki
    Tokyo Metropolitan University.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Mitsubishi Research Institute.
    Integrated Product and Service Engineering Enabling Mass Customization2007In: International Conference on Production Research,2007, 2007, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturing companies face many challenges today. One of these is how to successfully meet increasingly diverse customer needs. This paper elucidates, from several perspectives, how mass customization could be enabled using integrated product and service engineering. BT Products AB (BT) produces forklift trucks in Sweden that are customized and sold through various kinds of product offerings, which are also customer-tailored. By doing so, BT can offer their customers increased value through customized product service offerings. This paper shows, through a case study at BT, how the customization issues are tackled by the company. Though the development of products and services is conducted in separate organizations at BT, the company has managed to create successful customized offerings for its customers. However, with a more integrated development BT could become even more successful in its customer offerings.

  • 593.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ijomah, Winifred
    DMEM, Faculty of Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.
    Product design for product/service systems: Design experiences from Swedish industry2009In: Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, ISSN 1741-038X, E-ISSN 1758-7786, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 723-753Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to elucidate how Swedish industry has adapted theirproducts for product/service systems (PSS).Design/methodology/approach – Three case study companies that manufacture forklift trucks,soil compactors and household appliances are studied. Interviews with company staff are conducted aswell as product analyses in laboratorial environment. The theory is based mainly on previous PSS,design and remanufacturing research.Findings – A key factor when developing products for PSS is to design the product from a life-cycleperspective, considering all the product’s life-cycle phases, namely manufacturing, use, maintenanceand end-of-life treatment. Many of the design improvements deal with the accessibility of parts andcomponents during maintenance and remanufacturing operations, and several of them could reducethe need and cost for maintenance, repair and remanufacturing.Research limitations/implications – Uncovering any additional product requirements needed fora successful PSS not addressed in this paper. For example, it could be interesting to explore whichproduct data could be collected during use in order to improve the products’ different life stages.Practical implications – The findings in this paper illustrate and describe many industrialimplications for engineering designers to consider when developing PSS.Originality/value – The novelty of this paper is aimed for designers to study how they can adapttheir future products used in PSS in a more beneficial way than in traditional product design. Thepaper shows ideas and general guidelines to follow which have been scarcely published.

  • 594.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental and Economic Benefits of Industrial Product/Service Systems2010In: Industrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²): Proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference / [ed] Tomohiko Sakao, Tobias Larsson & Mattias Lindahl, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, p. 91-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased competition and new customer requirements make manufacturers to strive towards selling industrialproduct/service systems. Product/service systems have derived partly from environmental research and development.However, it is still not clear how much can be earned in environmental and economic concerns.This paper aims to explore the economic and environmental benefits of product/service systems from a life-cycle perspectivein comparison to traditional selling approaches. To fulfill this aim, four case studies were performed at four product/servicesystem providers in Sweden. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews, telephone interviews and dataprovided by the product/service system providers. A comparison life-cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted betweentraditional scenarios and product/service system scenarios. In addition, a life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis was conducted. Tosummarize, in all four cases the product/service system scenarios had environmental and economic advantages incomparison to their traditional selling scenarios.

  • 595.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Innovation Potentials of Using Solvent-free Industrial Cleaning in Swedish Manufacturing Industry2008In: Proceedings of Sustainable Innovation 08 - Future products, technologies and industries: 13th International Conference part of the ‘Towards Sustainable Product Design’ series of conferences, 27-28 October 2008, Malmö, Sweden, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this research collaboration project between SMEs and academia a new way of cleaning machine parts have been developed. The cleaning company Servicestaden and researchers at Linköping University have discovered new ways of cleaning without the use of solvents. In the research project called ‘Solvent-Free Industrial Cleaning’ (SOFIQ) it has been found that cleaning with the SOFIQ-technology is more environmentally sound than with traditional cleaning techniques. However, there is a major challenge to keep up the pace of cleaning within manufacturing since it often have high demands of short lead times. This is a challenge that will be constraining the use of the method.

  • 596.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hammarstedt, Petra
    Qlean Scandinavia AB.
    Solvent-free Industrial Cleaning of Printed Circuit Boards2009In: Proceedings of EcoDesign 2009, Sapporo, Japan, 2009, p. 823-828Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry today uses different kinds of chemicals in its cleaning processes. The industrial cleaners often contain some sort of degreasing chemical to clean parts and components before for instance sur-face treatment processes. These types of cleaning meth-ods imply expensive and dangerous handling of chemi-cals in the manufacturing process, as well as in the transportation of hazardous waste. Furthermore, the cleaning processes also use a substantial amount of en-ergy for cleaning.The aim of this paper is to explore the potential of how ultra-clean water cleaning can be used in the manufac-turing industry. In order to meet the aim, a case study was conducted at a electronic manufacturer. The data for this research was collected mainly through interviews, but also by industrial study visits.The results from this research show that using solvent-free industrial cleaning with ultra-clean water is benefi-cial from the perspectives of quality, environment and business. The quality improvement is the most important benefit that the electronic manufacturer can see by using solvent-free industrial cleaning for their printed circuit boards.

  • 597.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology .
    Tyskeng, Sara
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Inverse Manufacturing at Electrolux or Recycling at Local Facilities? -A Comparison from Environmental and Economic Perspectives2003In: EcoDesign,2003, 2003, p. 348-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 598.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    From Component to System Solution Supplier: Strategic Warranty Management as a Key to Efficient Integrated Product/Service Engineering2009In: Proceedings of 42nd CIRP Conference on Manufacturing Systems, 2009, p. Paper No.-46Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As hardening competition in industry pushes manufacturing companies to deliver increased customer value, communication with the customer during the use-phase becomes paramount. This paper investigates whether warranty management could be a method for improved integrated product/service engineering (IPSE) as a firm moves from component to system solution supplier. The research methodology applied was a multiple case study, with four suppliers as focal firms, where buyer-supplier relationships were investigated from a supplier perspective. Results show that advanced warranty reporting, implemented as a strategic tool, can be a key to efficient IPSE.

  • 599.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    From Component to System Solution Supplier: Strategic Warranty Management as a Key to Efficient Integrated Product/Service Engineering2010In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As hardening competition in industry pushes manufacturing companies to deliver increased customervalue, communication with the customer during the use phase becomes paramount. This paperinvestigates whether warranty management could be a strategic tool for improved integrated product/service engineering (IPSE) as a firm moves from component to system solution supplier. The researchmethodology appliedwas amultiple case study, with four suppliers as focal firms, where buyer–supplierrelationships were investigated from a supplier perspective. Results show that advanced warrantymanagement, implemented as a strategic tool, can be a key to efficient IPSE.

  • 600.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lommatzch, Nils
    Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany.
    Selling Warranty Services instead of Supplying Components2009In: Proceedings of the QUIS 11: Moving Forward with Service Quality, 2009, p. 664-673Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers in the industrial world today seek to deliver customer value through products and services, in contrast to a product or market focus. In this paper we investigate whether warranty management can be a method for improved integrated product service offerings when a firm moves from component to system solution supplier. Based on the results of a case study of a component manufacturer in Sweden, advanced warranty reporting implemented as a strategic tool can be a solution. In addition, procedures required for users (e.g. online portals) that follow a ten-year guarantee can be a tool for conscious, strategic warranty management.

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