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  • 601.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    KTH - Royal Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using company-academia networks for improving Product/Service Systems at large companies2009In: Introduction to Product/Service-System Design / [ed] Sakao T. and Lindahl M., London: Springer , 2009, 1, p. 185-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many manufacturers are shifting focus for different reasons from being providers of mainly physical products, to providing increased services in their customer offerings. Traditionally, the focus at manufacturing companies has been more on product development than service development; this is one reason why it is important for PSS developers to meet others who understand this situation. This chapter describes challenges large PSS providers in Sweden are facing, and how these can be explored and discussed within a Product/Service System company-academia network setting. It is concluded that during the three first years of network meetings, this approach has been a success. In addition, the experiences gained from participation in this network have resulted in recommendations for PSS providers and researchers thinking of starting up similar networks and/or building ones already begun.

  • 602.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    Department of Machine Design, School of Industrial Technology and Management, Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Larsson, Tobias
    Division of Functional Product Development, University of Technology, Luleå.
    Challenges for Industrial Product/Service Systems: Experiences from a learning network of large companies2009In: Industrial product-service systems (IPS2) : proceedings of the 1st CIRP IPS² Conference, Cranfield, UK: Cranfield University Press , 2009, p. 298-304Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are a growing number of manufacturers that are using the approach of industrial product/service systems. This paper explores how manufacturers and university researchers have started a workshop series where important and topical product/service system issues are elucidated. The companies face many challenges in order to achieve a good product/service system business. Many challenges are related to changing different peoples’ mindset within the company and/or with external companies and customers. Having a learning network approach of dealing with these challenges has been perceived as a good manner of tackling the questions raised within the product/service system providing companies.

  • 603.
    Sundin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Östlin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    Department of Machine Design, School of Industrial Technology and Managemant, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Remanufacturing of Products used in Product Service System Offerings2008In: Manufacturing Systems and Technologies for the New Frontier / [ed] Mamoru Mitsuishi, Kanji Ueda, Fumihiko Kimura, London, UK: Springer London, 2008, 1, p. 537-542Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a product service system provider it is important to consider its benefits and drawbacks. Connecting the product service system with a remanufacturing system has a good potential of being economically and environmentally beneficial. This paper elucidates the case of three different remanufacturers and how their relation with their core provider affects their business. Products sold as a part of a product service system have great potential of being remanufactured in an efficient manner. This is for example due to large possibilities to plan the remanufacturing operations and to achieve pre-information about the cores coming in to the remanufacturing facilities.

  • 604.
    Sundkvist, Marie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Vigmo, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Services through the truck’s lifecycle: A case study of the utilization of Scania’s long-haulage trucks2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Scania is one of the leading manufacturing companies of long-haulage trucks, buses as well as industrial and marine engines. Offering services is becoming increasingly important for Scania, as well as for any other truck OEM company, to stay competitive. Today Scania offers several services connected to the company’s products. The current service portfolio targeting the long-haulage truck is mainly focused on meeting the needs of the first owner of the vehicle. However, the truck goes through different phases during its lifecycle, operating under varying conditions in different businesses. With this in mind, the study aimed at answering the following research questions:

    RQ1 - What are the characteristics of the phases that a long-haulage truck faces during its lifecycle?

    RQ2 - How do these phases relate to the nature of the customers’ businesses with their associated challenges, demands and needs?

    RQ3 - Based on the results of RQ1 and RQ2, what service areas could a long-haulage truck OEM offer their customers?

    In order to answer RQ1 and RQ2, an internal mapping including interviews with experienced Scania employees, was conducted. This was followed by an external mapping, in which hypotheses generated from the internal mapping were tested through interviews with owners of used long-haulage trucks as well as distributors. Based on the internal and external mapping, development of service areas targeting the later owners of the long-haulage truck’s lifecycle was carried out, including brainstorming sessions and workshops.

    The result of the study showed that the long-haulage truck’s life is characterized by differences in utilization and not by distinctive owners groups, the phases in the truck’s lifecycle are consequently use phases. When describing the characteristics of the use phases, two parameters primarily define the life of the truck. Firstly, with the truck’s increasing age, the utilization of the truck goes from focusing on logistics to moving things from A to B. Secondly, with increased age, the emphasis on advanced technology shifts to basic technology in regards of the truck’s physical condition as well as the owner’s need and desire for technology. Advanced technology is related to a utilization focus on logistics while basic technology goes hand in hand with moving things from A to B. In addition, the further away in the lifecycle, the focus on delivery precision, need of the business having high use frequency of the used truck, the demand for technically advanced functions, need for vehicle reliability and tendency to turn to OEM for R&M decreases. Furthermore, the further away in the lifecycle and from the starting point Europe, the driver’s level of loyalty towards the business, incentive to use technical devices in driver environment and focus on the driver’s working situation is reduced.

    Based on above description of the long-haulage truck’s life, a truck OEM company such as Scania can offer services related to R&M, the transition that occurs when the truck is sold or bought, safety and security aspects and driver convenience. The order the services areas are given in is the order the areas are considered to have the most offering potential.

    Recommendations for future work involve development of the services, which currently are suggestions. To ensure further successful development, additional studies, including quantitative on-site examinations of for example users outside Europe, needs to be carried out.

  • 605.
    Suresh, Shashidhar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Vijayakumar, Vinodhkumar
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Waste management in Botswana2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Waste is anything which is considered to be no longer useful to anyone. In reality, it actually possesses the ability to be the raw material for several other processes and applications. Improper handling of wastes could result in several environmental hazards such as air pollution, soil erosion, methane emissions, low birth rate and others. In developing countries, proper handling of wastes is one of the important topics to be focussed from an environmental perspective. This thesis aims to propose an improved waste collection system in Gaborone through investigating the current waste management practices in Gaborone from different perspectives. Several stakeholders were interviewed for gathering information related to the present waste legislations, waste collection, treatment, and disposal methods. A composition study was also conducted along with the other research teams in order to support the objective of this thesis. The results shows that the current waste management practices has certain flaws which the management has to overcome in order to avoid the environmental impacts caused by the waste generation in Gaborone. Basic Recycling and treatment facilities are absent in Gaborone. The local government do not have any updated plans for the proper handling of wastes. The obtained results are critically analysed to showcase the existing flaws in the waste management practices, and using the state of the art knowledge in waste management the research team suggests an improved waste collection system for Gaborone considering the economic and environmental conditions.

  • 606.
    Svensson, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Implikationer av förändrad avfallsinsamling.: En fallstudie i Stockholms innerstad.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att bemöta krav och rekommendationer som ställs på avfallsinsamlingen behöver den nuvarande manuella insamlingen förändras, eller bytas ut. Ett alternativ är att genomföra åtgärder så att en manuell insamling med avfallskärl placerade i soprum kan fortsätta och tömmas med hjälp av traditionella sopbilar. Ett andra alternativ är att ersätta den manuella insamlingen med en stationär sopsug. Denna rapporthar som syfte att undersöka implikationerna av en sådan förändring.

    För att konkretisera syftet används tre frågeställningar:

    • Vilka aktörer kan påverka, och påverkas av, en förändrad insamling av hushållsavfall, och vilken relation har de till varandra?
    • Vad finns det för hot i aktörsnätverket och hur kan det utvecklas för att minska dem?
    • Hur påverkas den yttre miljön av en installation av sopsug i en befintlig stadsdel?

    Dessa tre frågeställningar utreds och besvaras med hjälp av en litteraturstudie, en intervjustudie och en fallstudie. För att kartlägga vilka aktörer som finns i avfallsinsamlingens nätverk används en metod som kallas Customer Value Chain Analysis och för att bedöma miljöpåverkan används metoden Livscykelanalys.

    De viktiga aktörer som identifieras för den framtida avfallsinsamlingens nätverket är hushåll, fastighetsägare, Stockholm Vatten Avfall AB(SVAB), Envac AB, kommunfullmäktige, allmänheten och branschorganisationer. De hot som finns i nätverket är dels vad som händer om entreprenörers renhållningspersonal börjar ställa hårdare krav på arbetsmiljön så att den nuvarande insamlingen stoppas, men även hushållens förmåga att göra rätt eftersom att kvalitén på avfallsinsamlingen till stor del hänger på att de gör rätt. Dessutom ses det som ett hot att fastighetsägarnas värdeskapande inte är helt klarlagt och det är osäkert om kommunfullmäktige ser värdet i en förändrad avfalls-insamling. Dessa hot kan bemötas genom att arbeta för ett mer konsekvent kravställande på arbetsmiljö, undersöka möjligheten för SVAB att ansvara för informationen till hushåll, tydliggöra alternativen för fastighetsägare och sprida kunskap till kommunfullmäktige.

    För att bedöma miljöpåverkan av en sopsug i innerstaden görs en fallstudie av ett område på Södermalm i Stockholm som kallas Norra Sofia. En livscykelanalys görs för ett års avfallsinsamling för de 9500 personer som bor i området. Tre miljöpåverkanskategorier undersöks; försurning, global uppvärmning och övergödning. Resultatet av livscykelanalysen visar att sopsugens bidrag till försurning och övergödning är mindre än den manuellas. Beräkningen av de två miljöpåverkans-kategorierna har inneburit stora förenklingar och det finns en stor osäkerhet i de resultaten. Miljöpåverkanskategorin global uppvärmning däremot har en större säkerhet i beräkningarna och resultatet för denna visar att en sopsug leder till ungefär lika stora utsläpp av växthusgaser som den alternativa manuella insamlingen.

  • 607.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Life-Cycle Considerations for Environmental Management of the Swedish Railway Infrastructure2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis has been to develop an approach for the scoping of environmental aspects regarding material use in the Swedish railway infrastructure in order to contribute to strategic environmental management. This is done through the development of a method based on the concepts of embodied energy and material flows, which is then tested for its robustness. Furthermore, a study has been made on which preconditions for life-cycle considerations there are for the manager of the Swedish railway infrastructure and how this relates to the actual environmental pressures from the product. The study has used the Swedish National Rail Authority, Banverket, as a case.

    First the environmental context was studied by an analysis of how the environmental pressure from material use compares to the operations phase and to other transport systems. Secondly, a scoping method for environmental pressure from material use in a large organization was developed and tests performed on its use and its robustness. Special focus was on the importance of materials transports and the environmental relevance of the energy indicator used. Finally, an organizational context was presented which showed the possibilities and hindrances to implementing life-cycle considerations in the environmental management of the Swedish railway infrastructure.

    It seems difficult to incorporate life-cycle considerations in an organization whose history is characterized by its work on solving specific local environmental issues. In addition, there seem to be limited pressures either from outside or inside the organization to adopt life-cycle environmental management. There is a need for clearer and more specific policy instruments governing many of the global environmental issues pertaining to upstream environmental pressures in order to make it easier for organizations to translate these into something useful in their environmental management. The departments with the most capacity to influence the environmental pressures from material use are demanding support and more knowledge about life-cycle considerations in order to set more relevant environmental requirements on the products.

    The perceived environmental advantage of the rail transport sector over road transports should not be taken for granted. The importance of the indirect environmental pressures for the rail infrastructure decreases this advantage, since its material-related energy use is almost entirely from non-renewable sources. Thus the rail transport sector needs to start decreasing the use of energy for production of railway infrastructure products or its reliance on nonrenewable energy sources for production.

    In order to start working with the environmental management of the railway products there is a need to adopt and introduce new perspectives. The approach developed in this thesis can be used to introduce these new perspectives, such as upstream environmental pressures, to the organization’s environmental management. It can also be employed to identify hot spots in the organization’s material use. Consequently, this new knowledge can be used in the design of new products, to set environmental demands in purchasing, and to focus further environmental analyses of the hot spots. It can also be used to broaden the perspectives in, for instance, environmental impact assessments, strategic environmental assessments and environmental reviews. The relative ease with which this indicator is collected and calculated can make it possible for the organization to include new environmental dimensions in their environmental management, which could otherwise be outside their expertise, budget or time frame.

    The scoping of environmental pressures, by using the approach presented in the thesis, pointed to three important railway infrastructure products. These are the products that Banverket needs to focus on first. One of the most important tasks in incorporating life-cycle considerations for products is to set environmental requirements when introducing new products to the material supply process. The requirements should already be present in the design phase of the products. Thus it is essential that the product developers get the support needed in finding relevant environmental criteria for the new product. One way to accomplish this is to employ an environmental coordinator with sufficient knowledge in the technical departments to work together with the design teams as an integral part of the design process.

    The overall environmental pressures from the railway transport system depend substantially on the upstream environmental pressures generated by the production of the infrastructure products. These pressures are totally dominated by three products. There is a large improvement potential in focusing the environmental management on these products by posing environmental requirements on their suppliers, in order to decrease the overall environmental pressures generated by the railway transport system.

    List of papers
    1. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure
    2006 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect environmental pressures from the material use of the transport infrastructure are often excluded in analysis of the transport sector. In this paper we analyze the energy and CO2 emissions from the rail and road transport sectors from both the traffic and the infrastructure. The analysis uses a cradle-to-gate methodology to calculate the environmental pressures and allocate them to different rail and road vehicles. The railway infrastructure is more energy intensive. Passenger buses use the least amount of energy among the passenger vehicles, but since the electrified trains in Sweden mostly use hydropower for electricity production, the latter has less CO2 emissions. Electrified freight trains are both more energy efficient and emit less CO2 compared to long-distance trucks. It is also interesting to note what would happen if the traffic in the road transport system were fuelled by renewable energy carriers instead of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide emissions from road transport would thereby decrease, making it reasonable to question the environmental advantage of the railway.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14491 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    2. Screening of environmental pressure from products in the Swedish railway infrastructure: Implications for Strategic Environmental Management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Screening of environmental pressure from products in the Swedish railway infrastructure: Implications for Strategic Environmental Management
    2007 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 248-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method to be used in environmental reviews as an initial tool for estimating upstream environmental pressures from material use in organisations dealing mostly with construction materials. Upstream environmental pressures are often omitted in environmental reviews from organisations and instead tend to be site specific, with a limited life-cycle perspective. This paper uses the Swedish National Rail Authority as a case to present the approach. An energy indicator is used to estimate the environmental pressure of material use.

    In the studied building project, a small set of products contribute to a major part of the material use and the material-related energy use. The energy use is almost exclusively of nonrenewable energy carriers. The three most important products are all homogenous and non-complex, which makes the energy indicator well suited for the analysis. The organisation can use the results to focus on the most important products and also to see which parts of the organisation contribute to the material-related energy use. Rail traffic in Sweden is almost exclusively from non-fossil-based energy carriers. This highlights the importance of the infrastructure to the overall environmental pressure of the railway. Consequently, if road transport were to shift away from fossil fuels, railways earlier environmental advantages would diminish, since research suggests that railway infrastructure is more energy intensive than road infrastructure.

    Keywords
    Railway, Infrastructure, Material use, Environmental pressure, Screening
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14492 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.03.006 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    3. Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use as a single indicator or in a set of few indicators is often used in applied research in the building, transportation and energy sectors. However, the environmental relevance of energy indicators is seldom questioned. The relation between environmental relevance and energy indicators might seem obvious. Nevertheless, how this is obvious has not been thoroughly discussed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the environmental relevance of the energy indicator and discuss implications for its use. The approach is to express environmental pressure in different environmental impact categories and determine the contribution to these from energy use. Because not all impact categories are closely linked to energy indicators, the aim and context in which it is used must be apparent.

    Keywords
    Energy indicator; Environmental pressure; Environmental assessment; Energy system; Environmental management
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14493 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.01.004 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    4. The environmental importance of materials transports in developing infrastructure: Case of the Swedish Railway System
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The environmental importance of materials transports in developing infrastructure: Case of the Swedish Railway System
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14494 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    5. Life-cycle considerations for environmental management of an infrastructure manager
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life-cycle considerations for environmental management of an infrastructure manager
    2006 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14495 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
  • 608.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Scoping environmental pressure from material use for strategic environmental management : case of the Swedish National Rail Authority2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aim is to develop an approach for scoping of environmental aspects regarding the material use in a large organisation in order to contribute to a strategic environmental management. The study object is the Swedish National Rail Authority.

    The transport sector is closely linked to the environmental pressures caused by our society, consequently a lot of studies have been made regarding the contribution from different transport sectors. However, the bulk of these studies concerns only the transports and thus omits the environmental pressures from the material use needed to support these sectors, i.e. building and maintaining the infrastructure. The rail transport sector is generally conceived to be the most environmentally adapted land transport mode. However, this notion commonly only includes environmental pressures from the traffic phase.

    The method uses "material related energy use" and CO2-emissions as a proxy to environmental pressures from material use. Furthermore, the robustness of the method is tested by the use of scenarios and sensitivity analysis. In particular, the environmental relevance of the energy indicator is studied.

    The approach developed in this thesis can be used to introduce new perspectives, such as upstream environmental pressures, to an organisation's environmental management. It can be employed to identify hot spots in an organisation's material use. Consequently, this new knowledge can be used to influence the design of new products, to set environmental demands for purchasing and to focus further environmental analyses of the hot spots. The approach can also be used to broaden the perspectives in for instance environmental impact assessments, strategic environmental assessment and environmental reviews.

    In the studied rail building project, 3 products constituted 99.5 weight-% of the total material use. These products were steel rails, concrete ties and ballast materials. They share the common characteristics of being noncomplex, non-toxic and made out of very few materials.

    List of papers
    1. Screening of environmental pressure from products in the Swedish railway infrastructure: Implications for Strategic Environmental Management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Screening of environmental pressure from products in the Swedish railway infrastructure: Implications for Strategic Environmental Management
    2007 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 248-265Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method to be used in environmental reviews as an initial tool for estimating upstream environmental pressures from material use in organisations dealing mostly with construction materials. Upstream environmental pressures are often omitted in environmental reviews from organisations and instead tend to be site specific, with a limited life-cycle perspective. This paper uses the Swedish National Rail Authority as a case to present the approach. An energy indicator is used to estimate the environmental pressure of material use.

    In the studied building project, a small set of products contribute to a major part of the material use and the material-related energy use. The energy use is almost exclusively of nonrenewable energy carriers. The three most important products are all homogenous and non-complex, which makes the energy indicator well suited for the analysis. The organisation can use the results to focus on the most important products and also to see which parts of the organisation contribute to the material-related energy use. Rail traffic in Sweden is almost exclusively from non-fossil-based energy carriers. This highlights the importance of the infrastructure to the overall environmental pressure of the railway. Consequently, if road transport were to shift away from fossil fuels, railways earlier environmental advantages would diminish, since research suggests that railway infrastructure is more energy intensive than road infrastructure.

    Keywords
    Railway, Infrastructure, Material use, Environmental pressure, Screening
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14492 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.03.006 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    2. Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure
    2006 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect environmental pressures from the material use of the transport infrastructure are often excluded in analysis of the transport sector. In this paper we analyze the energy and CO2 emissions from the rail and road transport sectors from both the traffic and the infrastructure. The analysis uses a cradle-to-gate methodology to calculate the environmental pressures and allocate them to different rail and road vehicles. The railway infrastructure is more energy intensive. Passenger buses use the least amount of energy among the passenger vehicles, but since the electrified trains in Sweden mostly use hydropower for electricity production, the latter has less CO2 emissions. Electrified freight trains are both more energy efficient and emit less CO2 compared to long-distance trucks. It is also interesting to note what would happen if the traffic in the road transport system were fuelled by renewable energy carriers instead of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide emissions from road transport would thereby decrease, making it reasonable to question the environmental advantage of the railway.

    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14491 (URN)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
    3. Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.
    2006 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use as a single indicator or in a set of few indicators is often used in applied research in the building, transportation and energy sectors. However, the environmental relevance of energy indicators is seldom questioned. The relation between environmental relevance and energy indicators might seem obvious. Nevertheless, how this is obvious has not been thoroughly discussed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the environmental relevance of the energy indicator and discuss implications for its use. The approach is to express environmental pressure in different environmental impact categories and determine the contribution to these from energy use. Because not all impact categories are closely linked to energy indicators, the aim and context in which it is used must be apparent.

    Keywords
    Energy indicator; Environmental pressure; Environmental assessment; Energy system; Environmental management
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14493 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2005.01.004 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-05-22 Created: 2007-05-22 Last updated: 2019-06-13
  • 609.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Almgren, Tomas
    Collin, Per
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions From the Rail and Road Transport Systems: the Importance of Infrastructure2006Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The indirect environmental pressures from the material use of the transport infrastructure are often excluded in analysis of the transport sector. In this paper we analyze the energy and CO2 emissions from the rail and road transport sectors from both the traffic and the infrastructure. The analysis uses a cradle-to-gate methodology to calculate the environmental pressures and allocate them to different rail and road vehicles. The railway infrastructure is more energy intensive. Passenger buses use the least amount of energy among the passenger vehicles, but since the electrified trains in Sweden mostly use hydropower for electricity production, the latter has less CO2 emissions. Electrified freight trains are both more energy efficient and emit less CO2 compared to long-distance trucks. It is also interesting to note what would happen if the traffic in the road transport system were fuelled by renewable energy carriers instead of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide emissions from road transport would thereby decrease, making it reasonable to question the environmental advantage of the railway.

  • 610.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Life-cycle considerations for environmental management of an infrastructure manager2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 611.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Materials inventory and environmental analysis of the Swedish railway infrastructure2000In: Towards Sustainability in teh Built Environment,2000, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 612.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Screening of environmental pressure from products in the Swedish railway infrastructure: Implications for Strategic Environmental Management2007In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 248-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a method to be used in environmental reviews as an initial tool for estimating upstream environmental pressures from material use in organisations dealing mostly with construction materials. Upstream environmental pressures are often omitted in environmental reviews from organisations and instead tend to be site specific, with a limited life-cycle perspective. This paper uses the Swedish National Rail Authority as a case to present the approach. An energy indicator is used to estimate the environmental pressure of material use.

    In the studied building project, a small set of products contribute to a major part of the material use and the material-related energy use. The energy use is almost exclusively of nonrenewable energy carriers. The three most important products are all homogenous and non-complex, which makes the energy indicator well suited for the analysis. The organisation can use the results to focus on the most important products and also to see which parts of the organisation contribute to the material-related energy use. Rail traffic in Sweden is almost exclusively from non-fossil-based energy carriers. This highlights the importance of the infrastructure to the overall environmental pressure of the railway. Consequently, if road transport were to shift away from fossil fuels, railways earlier environmental advantages would diminish, since research suggests that railway infrastructure is more energy intensive than road infrastructure.

  • 613.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svärdh, Karin
    The environmental importance of materials transports in developing infrastructure: Case of the Swedish Railway System2006Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 614.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Introducing an approach to assess environmental pressures from integrated remediation and landfill mining2010In: Knowledge Collaboration & Learning for Sustainable Innovation, ERSCP-EMSU conference, Delft, The Netherlands, October 25-29, 2010, 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to introduce an approach for evaluating integrated remediation and landfill mining scenarios. Since completed projects with similar scope and goals mostly have been pilot studies or projects with little emphasis on resource extraction, there is very little real case data to access. Thus, scenarios for three different routes have been established: Remediation only; Remediation combined with resource extraction using a mobile separation plant; and finally Remediation combined with resource extraction using a large stationary separation plant. Furthermore, the approach uses Monte Carlo simulations to address the uncertainties attached to each of the different steps of the scenarios, such as separation efficiencies, transport distances and recycling benefits. The approach can be used to assess the probability of results for the different scenarios, as well to study the influences of major parameters. In the future, the approach will be broadened to include economic parameters, and a large effort will be put on validating and analyzing the model parameters and assumptions. For instance, there is a need to study the dependency between different parameters to see if they are positively correlated; otherwise, the uncertainty could be overestimated. Furthermore, scenario uncertainties need to be added and studied.

  • 615.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ivner, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Utvärdering av Norrköpings Klimatinvesteringsprogram, 2004-20082009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 616.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Potential of increased sorting efficiency for combustiblesin Sweden- Environmental and economic implications2009In: 2009 ISIE Conference: 5th International Conference on Industrial Ecology: Transition Towards Sustainability, 2009, p. 326-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "In Sweden a large share of municipal solid waste goes to incineration with electricity production

    and heat recovery. However many scientific studies suggest that some of the materials which are combusted could be recycled or reused instead. Most of these studies have focused on the waste from bins and bags collected from the households while little attention has been on the significant amount of bulky wastes which are collected at recycling centres in the Swedish municipalities.

    An analysis of the combustibles fraction from recycling centres in a Swedish municipality has

    been performed. Fractions which should or could be recycled reused or needs special treatment such as hazardous waste was collected from 15.4 tonnes of combustible waste collected at 3 different recycling centres. These results are then extrapolated together with known material fractions in municipal solid waste from bins and bags to study the environmental and economic potential of a better sorting of combustibles in Sweden. An analysis of the positive and negative effects of increased sorting for the incineration process is performed. These effects include lower ash quantities less stress on the filter systems a more homogenous fuel but also a decreased amount of combustibles. These effects together with a higher material recovery rate are used in the environmental and economic analyses which are based on a life cycle perspective."

  • 617.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Roth, Liselott
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mårtensson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental Relevance and Use of Energy Indicators in Environmental Management and Research.2006In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy use as a single indicator or in a set of few indicators is often used in applied research in the building, transportation and energy sectors. However, the environmental relevance of energy indicators is seldom questioned. The relation between environmental relevance and energy indicators might seem obvious. Nevertheless, how this is obvious has not been thoroughly discussed. The aim of this paper is to investigate the environmental relevance of the energy indicator and discuss implications for its use. The approach is to express environmental pressure in different environmental impact categories and determine the contribution to these from energy use. Because not all impact categories are closely linked to energy indicators, the aim and context in which it is used must be apparent.

  • 618.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Industrial Cleaning with ultra-clean water according to the Qlean-method – a case study of printed circuit boards2011In: : May 3-5, Lund, Sweden, 2011, p. 577-582Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry today uses many kinds of chemicals in its cleaning processes. The industrial cleaners often contain some sort of degreasing chemical to clean parts and components before the main processes, for instance assembly or surface treatment. These types of cleaning methods are often expensive and involve hazardous handling of chemicals in manufacturing, as well as in the transportation of hazardous waste. In addition, the cleaning processes often use a substantial amount of energy for cleaning.

    The aim of this paper is to explore how ultra-clean water cleaning, using a method called Qlean, can be applied in the manufacturing industry. In order to meet this aim, a case study was conducted at Flextronics, in Karlskrona, Sweden. The data for this research was collected through interviews and functional tests at different industries, which then was analysed further.

    The results from this research show that using solvent-free industrial cleaning with ultra-clean water is beneficial from the perspectives of quality, environment and business. The quality improvement derived from using solvent-free industrial cleaning in the case of cleaning printed circuit boards was the most important benefit.

  • 619.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Björkman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Potentials of Using Solvent-free Industrial Cleaning in Swedish Manufacturing Industry.2009In: Joint Actions on Climate Change, 8-10 June, 2009, Aalborg, Denmark, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The manufacturing industry today uses different kinds of chemicals in its cleaning processes. The industrial cleaners often contain some sort of degreasing chemical to clean parts and components before for instance surface treatment processes. These types of cleaning methods imply expensive and dangerous handling of chemicals in the manufacturing process, as well as in the transportation of hazardous waste. Furthermore, the cleaning processes also uses a substanstial amount of energy for cleaning.

    “Ultra-clean water” is relatively new way of cleaning without the use of chemicals. The method has proven successful, for example, in the cleaning of building exteriors, transformer stations, and tunnels. The procedure has been to spray with low-pressure, thus better salvaging the paint yet removing dirt, oil and debris from surfaces such as walls. Successful projects, for example, include the cleaning of the above mentioned building exteriors and tunnel walls at and Södra Länken tunnel system in. The aim of this paper is to explore the potentials of how “ultra-clean” water cleaning can be used in the manufacturing industry. The overall goals of the project are to reduce manufacturers’ use of chemicals, and also the amount of emissions to landfills. Another goal with the project is to reduce the environmental effects on the manufacturing site, the amount of chemical emissions during manufacturing and the amount of chemical transports from the facility. Furthermore this innovation have a potential to improve the working environment within the industry and at the same time reduce the energy consumption used for cleaning. Two case studies will be presented in which environmental performance of a prototype of the solvent-free cleaning technology is compared with existing technologies. The first case is dealing with cleaning of circuit-boards with special attention to flux material residues. Furthermore the second case focuses on surface treatment industry and focuses more on the ability to clean oily and/or fatty surfaces.

    To summarize, this research project have a large economic and environmental potential in its unique constellation of university research and manufacturing company involvement. At this moment the potentials are preliminary but shows a lot of promise for the future.

  • 620.
    Svensson, Niclas
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Assembly technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McLaren, Jake
    Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, UK.
    Jackson, Tim
    Centre for Environmental Strategy,University of Surrey, UK.
    Material and Energy flow Analysis of Paper consumption in the United Kingdom2002In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 5 3, p. 89-105Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 621.
    Syberg, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Livscykelkostnadsanalys för beläggningar i containerterminaler: en förstudie för bättre beslutsunderlag vid investeringar i terminalytor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Pontarius AB har tillsammans med Göteborgs Hamn AB identifierat behovet av en utvecklad holistisk modell för bedömning av investeringar i terminalytor. För detta har en första ansats gjorts med den interna livscykelkostnadsanalysmodellen Total Cost of Ownership and Operations (TCOO). Livscykelkostnadsanalys (LCCA) är ett verktyg för att handskas med ett projekts totala kostnader vid investeringsbeslut och bedömning av alternativ. Generella livscykelkostnads-modeller är svåra att ta fram, varför istället utförliga modeller vanligen skapas för specifika områden. För vägbeläggningar, och tillviss del flygplatsbeläggningar, finns utförliga sådana metoder, men för beläggningar i containerterminaler saknas det.

    För att fortsätta utveckling mot en bättre bedömningsmodell för terminalytor syftade studien till att identifiera kostnadsparametrar som sett ur ett livscykelperspektiv påverkar kostnaderna för containerhamnterminalytor. Utifrån dessa analyserades sedan livscykelkostnadsmodellen Total Cost of Ownership and Operations. Stor vikt lades i litteratursökning kring livscykelkostnads-analyser och kostnadsparametrar för containerterminaler. Vidare genomfördes även en intervjustudie mot Göteborgs Hamn, samt granskning av företagsdokument för att studera TCOO-modellen.

    Modeller för livscykelkostnadsanalyser för beläggningar på vägar och flygplatser visades till stor del även kunna appliceras på beläggningar i containerterminaler. Ägarkostnaderna, dvs. designkostnad, konstruktionskostnad, underhållskostnad, och restvärde, för de olika typerna av beläggning är lika. Vid driften av en containerterminal uppstår kostnader relaterade till beläggningen genom ojämnheter i ytan vilket ökar truckkostnaderna och även kan leda till långsammare godshantering. Produktiviteten är en viktig faktor för containerterminaler där faktorer som begränsar produktiviteten och kapaciteten kan leda till inkomstförluster. Vid avstängning av ytor för underhåll så påverkas produktionen stort och extra kostnader uppstår.

    Modellen Total Cost of Ownership and Operations jämfördes mot de identifierade parametrarna i litteraturstudien. Utvecklingspotential med Pontarius modell identifierades vara att följa en mer strukturerad process likt livscykelkostnadsanalysmodeller för vägar och flygplatser, samt en noggrannare identifiering och hantering av operationella kostnader i containerterminalen.

  • 622.
    Taabodi, Amir
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Implementing an Integrated Product Service Offering Design Method for Complex Products and Systems2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, manufacturing firms have shown increasing interest to shift from selling physical products to providing solutions for customer needs. Several concepts, such as the Integrated Product Service Offering (IPSO), have been developed to support these companies.

    This thesis sheds additional light on aspects and consequences of applying the SPIPS (Solution Provider through Integrated Product Service development), an IPSO design method for a Complex Product Systems (CoPS) provider through a case study. The thesis reveals that a CoPS provider could benefit by applying the SPIPS method in terms of improving the environmental performance of CoPS, creating synergy between the SPIPS method and other managerial systems (e.g. Customer Value Management (CVM) and Research & Development (R&D) management) and service-related knowledge integration in the product development process.

    The SPIPS method can contribute to the environmental performance of CoPS to a wide extent. In the design phase, the most influential phase, the IPSO design method can provide different options to address the environmental performance of CoPS. In the use phase, with the highest environmental impact, the SPIPS method can facilitate the design of different services which could outperform existing technological solutions for changing physical products in terms of contribution to the environmental performance of CoPS.

    Furthermore, the SPIPS method can support CVM through developing analytical trees for customer values. Through evaluating the correlation between design parameters and finding the most important ones, designers can focus on the “hot spot” and managers can assign resources in an effective and efficient way. The customer-centric feature of the IPSO concept can also contribute to CVM in terms of improving the process of evaluating customer value, and by providing customized offerings to meet customer needs.

    In addition, based on the SPIPS method a process is developed to prioritize R&D projects with regard to provider value and customer value. Provider value and customer value, which are not always the same, are used as drivers for R&D project prioritization. The value-based Quality Function Deployment (QFD) is used to overcome the difficulty of systematically relating R&D projects with customer value. The value-based QFD improves the process of service-related knowledge integration in the design phase of product development, and provides designers with the opportunity to investigate the total effect of each R&D project on customer value over the product life cycle.

    List of papers
    1. Customer-oriented Method to Design Services: Empirical Studies with Two Investment machine Manufacturers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customer-oriented Method to Design Services: Empirical Studies with Two Investment machine Manufacturers
    2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge in practice on how to design offerings of services and products effectively and efficiently is demanded in manufacturing industries. This article discusses some empirical results obtained from designing services at two manufacturers. One study was achieved with a company who had implemented information-communication networks to their customers and adopted a structured method to design services. It demonstrates that the method worked for a realscaled problem to generate several effective solutions with input of approximately five person-months. This is contributed to largely by the technique addressing customer value through extension of Quality Function Deployment. Simultaneously, it is pointed out that special efforts are needed to prepare the ontology used to describe the model. From an on-going study with the other company, which has been technology-focused, some obstacles and difficulties are described as the first results. The method provides a base to generate and evaluate new service concepts and aligns product/service development processes to satisfy customer value in line with the Functional Product Innovation (FPI) concept.

    Keywords
    Servicification of manufacturers; customer value; remote service; service activity; physical product; Product/Service System; Integrated Product Service Engineering; Quality Function Deployment; technology-focus
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106784 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-05-22 Created: 2014-05-22 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
    2. Integrating PSS Design Methods with Systems for Customer Value Management and Customer Satisfaction Management
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating PSS Design Methods with Systems for Customer Value Management and Customer Satisfaction Management
    2011 (English)In: Functional Thinking for Value Creation: Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig,Braunschweig Germany, May 5th - 6th, 2011 / [ed] J. Hesselbach, C. Herrmann, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag , 2011, p. 99-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers today are increasingly focusing on services and concepts such as Product Service Systems (PSS) and Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE) have been getting more attention. On the other hand, there are various existing methods/systems in companies. Some aim at managing customer value or/and customer satisfaction. Based on some empirical results obtained from an attempt to design PSS at a manufacturer in Sweden Customer Received Value (CRV) is defined as an index to integrate Customer Value Management (CVM) and Customer Satisfaction Management (CSM). The results reveal the benefits of using PSS as an approach to manage CVM and CSM.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2011
    Keywords
    Implementation, empirical study
    National Category
    Other Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71132 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-19689-8 (DOI)978-3-642-19688-1 (ISBN)
    Note

    The DOI link goes to the book.

    Available from: 2011-09-30 Created: 2011-09-30 Last updated: 2015-06-02Bibliographically approved
    3. Incorporation of Product/Service System Concept in R&D for Complex Products and Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incorporation of Product/Service System Concept in R&D for Complex Products and Systems
    2014 (English)In: Serviceology for Services: Selected papers of the 1st International Conference of Serviceology, Part IV / [ed] Masaaki Mochimaru, Kanji Ueda and Takeshi Takenaka, Tokyo, Japan: Springer-Verlag Tokyo Inc., 2014, p. 117-124Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of complex products and systems (CoPS), a provider faces a constant challenge in choosing the most suitable R&D projects, and not only to fulfil customer value, but also to improve provider value. This paper presents a method to deal with this challenge using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a framework and a design method for the Product/Service System concept. In the proposed method, customer value and provider value are used as two drivers for R&D project selection. Based on an empirical result, the paper describes how the proposed procedure systematically supports the company’s R&D project selection.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Tokyo, Japan: Springer-Verlag Tokyo Inc., 2014
    Keywords
    Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), R&D project prioritization, Product Service System (PSS)
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102336 (URN)10.1007/978-4-431-54816-4_13 (DOI)978-4-431-54815-7 (ISBN)978-4-431-54816-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ICServ 2013, The 1st International Conference on Serviceology, Tokyo, Japan, October 16-18 2013.
    Available from: 2013-12-05 Created: 2013-12-05 Last updated: 2016-02-19Bibliographically approved
  • 623.
    Taabodi, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating PSS Design Methods with Systems for Customer Value Management and Customer Satisfaction Management2011In: Functional Thinking for Value Creation: Proceedings of the 3rd CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product Service Systems, Technische Universität Braunschweig,Braunschweig Germany, May 5th - 6th, 2011 / [ed] J. Hesselbach, C. Herrmann, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag , 2011, p. 99-104Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manufacturers today are increasingly focusing on services and concepts such as Product Service Systems (PSS) and Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE) have been getting more attention. On the other hand, there are various existing methods/systems in companies. Some aim at managing customer value or/and customer satisfaction. Based on some empirical results obtained from an attempt to design PSS at a manufacturer in Sweden Customer Received Value (CRV) is defined as an index to integrate Customer Value Management (CVM) and Customer Satisfaction Management (CSM). The results reveal the benefits of using PSS as an approach to manage CVM and CSM.

  • 624.
    Taabodi, Amir
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Incorporation of Product/Service System Concept in R&D for Complex Products and Systems2014In: Serviceology for Services: Selected papers of the 1st International Conference of Serviceology, Part IV / [ed] Masaaki Mochimaru, Kanji Ueda and Takeshi Takenaka, Tokyo, Japan: Springer-Verlag Tokyo Inc., 2014, p. 117-124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of complex products and systems (CoPS), a provider faces a constant challenge in choosing the most suitable R&D projects, and not only to fulfil customer value, but also to improve provider value. This paper presents a method to deal with this challenge using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) as a framework and a design method for the Product/Service System concept. In the proposed method, customer value and provider value are used as two drivers for R&D project selection. Based on an empirical result, the paper describes how the proposed procedure systematically supports the company’s R&D project selection.

  • 625.
    Tanha, Ariana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zarate, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Landfill Mining: Prospecting metal in Gärstad landfill2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All processes in society produce waste. In nature, the waste is normally used as a resource for another process, but in human societies waste is often discarded. These discarded materials end up in places for depositing waste known as landfills. The increase in population, and humans’ tendency to improve their quality of life, has led to an increase in consumption of material. More material consumption means generating more waste, and more waste means bigger landfills. The increasing size of landfills has brought some other issues, such as increased land use and higher environmental impact. However in these landfills a lot of valuable materials are discarded and the concept of landfill mining (LFM) has been proposed in order to solve these issues and use landfills as a possible source of materials. Landfill mining is not yet a common practice, and the first barrier for this is the uncertainty of the amount and value of materials within landfills.

    The purpose of this study is to prospect the amount of metals in one specific landfill, in this case Gärstad landfill in Linköping, Sweden.  This is a first step to show the feasibility of landfill mining as an alternative way of extracting materials. The study is limited only to metals because they are one of the most important resources in today’s society.

    The theoretical background of the study is based on material flow analysis (MFA). Two approaches are used to study the materials in the landfill. The first is top-down which studies the flows of materials and the second is bottom-up which studies the stocks of material in the landfill. Based on these approaches the method was developed. First the system boundaries in time and space were defined. Then the amount of waste in landfill was estimated from the two mentioned approaches. In the end the metal content of the waste was estimated. Some criteria are also defined to compare the accessibility of the metals in the landfill.

    The results of this study show that there is a considerable amount of metals in the landfill, and that ash deposits resulting from incineration are the most interesting source of metals; with iron, aluminium, copper and zinc being the most abundant. The results are presented by type of waste, area of the landfill and accessibility in order to identify the hotspots.

    Later it is discussed that the method is cheap and fast but highly depends on previous data and available information. Also the metal content of the landfill is compared with natural ores. In the end the metal content of the landfill is evaluated and estimated to be around 3 billion SEK. It shows that aluminium, titanium and copper have the highest value money wise.

    As conclusion it was shown material flow analysis is a valid way to prospect landfills. But further cost-benefit analysis must be carried out to determine if landfill mining is justifiable. Also some recommendations are proposed to Tekniska Verken in order to facilitate future studies. The first is to develop a systematic way for landfilling different kind of waste and document them. Second is to include metals which have economic potential in the regular sampling from landfill.

  • 626.
    Taye, Mesfin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    E-waste management in Botswana2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electr(on)ic equipments possess parts and components with high economic value and environmental peril which prompts a potential need to assess the EEE’s management at EoL. E-waste management in developing countries is one of the least revised environmental topics. In recent times however the subject is getting research limelight from scholars. This study aims at enhancing the existing e-waste management practice in Gaborone, Botswana through systematic investigation of the current circulation, usage, handling and management of W(EEEs). Several stakeholders in the solid waste management system were interviewed and also an in situ (on the landfill) waste composition study was conducted in line with the aims and objectives of the research. The study finds that WEEEs do not have exclusively designed management structure in Gaborone and they rather flow source to sink usually blended with the general waste derived from the entire socio-economic activity. Waste composition study conducted on the landfill indicates a very low percentage composition (less than 1%) of WEEEs in the junk corresponding to 1.9 kg/capita/year. Substantial amount of obsolete EEEs rather seem to linger in the socio-economic system until a capable tapping mechanism is installed. An integrated e-waste management system cored around public sensitisation and the novel phenomenon of Enhanced landfill mining which simultaneously offers time to consult developed countries for expertise on sustainable WEEE management is proposed. The impetus to close the linear flow of electr(on)ic materials remain with the government and a range of stakeholders/interest groups who seek to gain economic advantages and also trim down environmental implications from the circulating and landfilled W(EEEs). 

  • 627. Taye, Mesfin
    et al.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    E-waste in Gaborone, Botswana – assessing the generation, handling practices, and strategies for improvement2014In: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-waste includes components with economic and environmental importance, thus the need for their sound end-of-life management. This study provides fundamentals regarding the amounts, flows, and handling practices of e-waste in Gaborone, Botswana. A number of relevant stakeholder organisations were interviewed and an in situ waste composition study was conducted. The concentration of e-waste arriving at the municipal landfill is less than 1 weight per cent, corresponding to about 1.9 kg/capita/year, far less compared to the estimated 8 weight per cent for European Union countries. However, obsolete electr(on)ics are in urban storages primarily due to a lack of tapping mechanisms. Among several inadequacies of the current handling practices is the absence of an e-waste management framework. Improvement routes discussed include public sensitisation and engagement, capacity building, and future exploitation of potentially suitable end-of-life treatment options including the novel phenomenon of enhanced landfill mining.

  • 628.
    Taye, Mesfin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mattias, Lindahl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    E-waste in Gaborone, Botswana – assessing the generation, handling practices, and strategies for improvement2013In: 28th International Conference on Solid Waste Technology and Management, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    E-waste includes components with economic and environmental importance, thus the need for their sound end-of-life management. This study provides fundamentals regarding the amounts, flows, and handling practices of e-waste in Gaborone, Botswana. A number of relevant stakeholder organisations were interviewed and an in situ waste composition study was conducted. The concentration of e-waste arriving at the municipal landfill is less than 1 weight per cent, corresponding to about 1.9 kg/capita/year, far less compared to the estimated 8 weight per cent for European Union countries. However, obsolete electr(on)ics are in urban storages primarily due to a lack of tapping mechanisms. Among several inadequacies of the current handling practices is the absence of an e-waste management framework. Improvement routes discussed include public sensitisation and engagement, capacity building, and future exploitation of potentially suitable end-of-life treatment options including the novel phenomenon of enhanced landfill mining.

  • 629.
    Thollander, Patrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Palm, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy services in industry – an interdisciplinary approach with engineering and social science aspects2010In: IIndustrial Product-Service Systems (IPS²): Proceedings of the 2nd CIRP IPS² Conference / [ed] Sakao, T., Larsson, T., Lindahl, M., Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2010, p. 51-56Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large potential for energy efficiency exists in industry but the adoption of energy efficiency measures is often inhibited by various barriers. Different means to overcome these barriers and promote energy efficiency in industry exist; one of the most promising being energy services. Earlier research shows that while many barriers could be overcome by energy services; the industry’s ranking and adoption of energy services are very low. By applying an interdisciplinary approach using barrier theory; socio-technical regimes; and IPSE (Integrated Product Service Engineering) to energy services in industry; the aim of this paper is to i) theoretically explain why there is a considerable discrepancy between the potential for energy services in industry and their adoption; and ii); partly based on i) and by applying an interdisciplinary approach; attempt to explore ways of reaching a satisfactory level of energy services in industry.

  • 630.
    Tsuritani, Yuji
    et al.
    The University of Tokyo.
    Shimada, Satoshi
    The University of Tokyo.
    Hara, Tatsunori
    The University of Tokyo.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ota, Jun
    The University of Tokyo.
    A Method to Evaluate Design Solutions towards Improving Efficiency of a Family of Product/Service Systems2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 631.
    Tyskeng Bruhn-Tysk, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Environmental impact assessment: a tool for sustainable development? A case study of biofuelled energy plants in Sweden2002In: Environmental Impact Assessment Review, ISSN 0195-9255, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 129-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Properly performed, environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a useful tool for promoting sustainable development because it includes many components that can help facilitate intragenerational and intergenerational equity. In a case study, environmental impact statements (EISs) for Swedish biofuelled energy plants are analysed to see whether they include components vital to meet intra- and intergenerational equity, such as assessing local and global impacts, use of resources, public influence on project development, and alternative project design. The analysis shows that the environmental aspects of sustainable development on a local level are only partly met by EIA. However, global effects and effects on the management of natural resources are not assessed, excluding aspects that may affect future generations. Based on this, and since no concerns for sustainable development on a societal level were found, it is concluded that EIA practice in Sweden may not, to a full extent, serve as a tool to promote sustainable development

  • 632.
    Tyskeng Bruhn-Tysk, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    System boundaries in environmental impact statements for biofuelled energy plants in Sweden1999In: Environmental Assessment in the Nordic Countries – Experience and Prospects: Proceedings from the 3rd Nordic EIA/SEA Conference, Karlskrona, Sweden 22nd-23rd November, 1999, p. 31-38Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 633.
    Tyskeng Bruhn-Tysk, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The aspect of natural resources in environmental impact statements for Swedish Bioenergy Plants2002In: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 67-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Swedish environmental legislation, an environmental impact assessment (EIA) has to be made when planning energy plants. The EIA has to include the effects of the proposed project on natural resource management; however, a review of the environ-mental impact statements for proposed energy plants reveals that the scope of the assessment seldom includes this aspect. This may be due to several reasons, such as the scope of the legal requirements, which do not include sustainable resource extraction but focus on local issues linked to the energy plant. In order to widen the scope of EIAs to include the management of natural resources, it is suggested that other tools for environmental systems understanding such as life-cycle assessment (LCA) and material flow analysis (MFA) can improve the basis for decision-making by providing ways to map resource flows of proposed projects and by including environmental aspects not connected with the energy plant itself.

  • 634.
    Umair, Shakila
    et al.
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - Fms, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Sustainable Communications (CESC), Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Potting, José
    Division of Environmental Strategies Research - Fms, Royal Institute of Technology KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Informal electronic waste recycling in Pakistan2016In: The Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management, ISSN 1088-1697, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 222-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is growing dramatically all over the world. The fast growth and diffusion of ICTs, their early obsolescence and short life have made electronic waste (e-waste) to the fastest growing waste stream in the world. This waste stream is valuable and highly toxic at the same time, and therefore it requires proper handling. Most e-waste currently ends up in developing countries, like Pakistan, where it is usually recycled informally. Informal recycling involves crude processes, which harm the environment and have severe impacts on the health of recycling workers. This paper analyses the e-waste flows and the informal recycling system in Pakistan, and related governance challenges. Based on field studies in three major cities in Pakistan, we investigate why the e-waste flows keep entering the country, the routes through which they end up in the informal recycling, the actual recycling processes, and identify the various stakeholders and their roles. The analysis illustrates the poor governance that results from weak enforcement of legislation, the complexities emerging with numerous stakeholders, the profitability of informal recycling, little concern for the health damaging exposure for workers from poorest and most vulnerable people in society, and the lack of awareness of the hazards involved. The paper highlights how this business is a market driven entity without priority for proper e-waste handling, which is also hampered by lacking characteristics of good governance, which make it a challenge to control this business.

  • 635.
    Uppenberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Botniabanan AB.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kotake, Malin
    Banverket.
    PRODUCT CATEGORY RULES(PCR)for preparing anEnvironmental Product Declaration (EPD)forInterurban railway transport services of passengersUN CPC 6421,Railway transport services of freightUN CPC 6512andRailwaysUN CPC 532122009Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 636.
    Vaquero Iglesias, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ecodesign Practices at Companies in the Agricultural Machinery Sector2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental related aspects are becoming more and more a daily basis in the product design process of many companies around the world. Demand from the society, customers and environmental policies at national, European, or even worldwide levels are the main driving forces that are changing the way companies design their products to a new and more environmentally friendly process which can create green products reducing their impacts during all their life. The research studies these ecodesign practices in the particular case of companies in the agricultural machinery sector. The actual situation in the design process of companies, their experience with ecodesign and the hindrances faced are the main topics of this research.

    The study is based on face-to-face interview (1 company from Sweden) and online questionnaires (2 companies from Italy). Moreover, an exhaustive literature review has been conducted; this information obtained from diverse scientific papers, journals from institutions like the European Commission and many other reliable sources, is used to complete and contrast with the situation founded in the interviewed companies.

    Results from the study reveal that, in the agricultural machinery sector, ecodesign is not used frequently. There are little environmental demands from customers and there is a vast number of environmental regulations that can confuse companies about which regulations do they have to apply; this is the reason why companies can perceive that they do not have to apply environmental aspects in their designs. Moreover, some SMEs from this sector do not have the inner capacity to keep up with environmental policies, which can be a serious problem because of the new regulations that are being proposed at European level. Furthermore, it has been detected a possible deficiency in the way governments, EU, trade associations, and universities interact with companies. SMEs demand more economic help and more knowledge from governments and EU, and the collaboration and exchange of information between companies and universities should be improved.

  • 637.
    von Malmborg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Conditions for regional public-private partnerships for sustainable development - Swedish perspectives2003In: European Environment, ISSN 0961-0405, E-ISSN 1099-0976, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 133-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a study of public-private collaboration in partnerships for integrated environmental management and business development in two Swedish regions, this paper aims to elucidate the conditions for collaboration on sustainability issues amongst different local and regional actors. From interviews with local and regional public administration officers and with CEOs of several SMEs, it was found that public-private collaboration related to sustainable development does exist and takes place in many different ways. In common, however, local or regional authorities initiate them all, indicating an asymmetric interest in public-private partnerships. In relation to the interest asymmetry, which could also be seen as an expression of asymmetric power-dependence relations between SMEs and public authorities, with SMEs as the stronger part, a limited knowledge among SMEs about their role in larger contexts and different understandings of sustainable development among the regional actors, the major obstacle for public-private collaboration seems to be the limited confidence in local and regional authorities among SMEs. In all, there seems to be a need for further discussion in the regions and local communities on views of and potential ways towards sustainable development, which also includes the articulation of the roles of different actors. © 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

  • 638.
    von Malmborg, Fredrik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Stimulating learning and innovation in networks for regional sustainable development: the role of local authorities2007In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, no 17, p. 1730-1741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inter-organizational collaboration in networks and partnerships is supposed to promote the potential for learning and innovation needed for environmental transformation and sustainable development. This paper aims at exploring the roles of local authorities (LAs) in actor-networks related to regional sustainable development, and examining their potential in stimulating learning and innovation related to sustainable development. From empirical case studies it is suggested that LAs can act as 'teachers' or 'tutors' in the networks. From further analysis, drawing also from literature on partnerships, innovation management, socio-technical change, and educational science, it is proposed that in the short run both the 'teacher' and 'tutor' approach would promote incremental innovation rather than the radical system innovations needed for sustainable development. However, there is potential for stimulating more long-term, radical change if the LA takes on the role of a 'teacher'. This approach may favour close collaboration in long-lived, multi-actor networks with potential to (i) serve as forum for continuous dialogue on sustainable development at a community level, (ii) stimulate experimentation and learning needed for system innovations, and (iii) provide a basis for strategic niche management for development and testing of new technologies. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 639.
    von Malmborg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Forsberg, A.
    Carl Bro Stockholm Konsult AB, P.O. Box 9611, Stockholm SE-117 91, Sweden.
    Choice of energy data in environmental assessment of the built environment2003In: Journal of Environmental Assessment Policy and Management, ISSN 1464-3332, E-ISSN 1757-5605, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 83-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle oriented methods are increasingly used for environmental assessments (EAs) of the built environment. However, many assumptions are made in such assessments, potentially influencing the results and making the assessment more ambiguous. To increase the reliability of EAs, consequences of the assumptions made have to be better understood. Since energy use in the operation and maintenance phase is an important factor decisive for the overall environmental performance of a building, the purpose of this study is to investigate how the selection of heat and electricity mix affects the assessed environmental performance of buildings. It also aims to suggest how to choose heat and electricity data in EAs of the built environment in general. Applying four different modes of electricity production and two different modes of heat production in a case study of three different buildings with different technical solutions for heat and electricity supply, the study show that choices of heat and electricity mix have significant influence on the final results of the EA. Regarding the choice of heat and electricity mix in an EA of buildings and the built environment, it is argued that both average and marginal data on electricity production should be used in general. As for data on district heat production, it is recommended to use data on the average production in the specific, local district heating system in general. Finally, it is argued that consequences of the assumptions made should be explicitly communicated in the EA report, so as to let the decision-makers rather than the analysis make the evaluation.

  • 640.
    von Malmborg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Strachan, P.A.
    The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen Business School, Department of Business and Management, Garthdee Road, Aberdeen AB10 7QE, United Kingdom.
    Climate policy, ecological modernization and the UK emission trading scheme2005In: European Environment, ISSN 0961-0405, E-ISSN 1099-0976, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 143-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the election of the Labour government in 1997, leading to a flurry of policy documents utilizing ecological modernization language, the UK has seen a steady growth in the use of new environmental policy instruments, with the British government having launched in 2002 the world's first national economy-wide emission trading scheme for greenhouse gases. Among other things, the UK Emissions Trading Scheme aims at stimulating a transition of the UK towards a low-carbon economy. Reporting findings of a recent survey of those 31 organizations participating directly in the scheme, this article critically examines the effectiveness of the scheme as an instrument in climate policy and ecological modernization. The study reveals a number of issues that appear to have been 'glossed over' by recent Government reports, and questions whether the UK ETS and climate policy in practice are vehicles for ecological modernization. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment.

  • 641.
    Vornanen, Vesa-Jukka
    et al.
    University of VaasaVaasa, Finland.
    Sivula, Ari
    University of VaasaVaasa, Finland.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Takala, Josu
    University of VaasaVaasa, Finland.
    Mutual Trust: Joint Performance of an Operations Strategy Implementation—Securing the Value Chain by Preparedness2018In: Managing Public Trust / [ed] Kożuch, Barbara; Magala, Sławomir J.; Paliszkiewicz, Joanna, Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018, p. 175-190Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter discusses mutual trust in the daily construction of public safety. The chapter is based on the corresponding author’s article-based dissertation, with work connecting joint research articles to his action research. In doing so, this chapter summarizes the implementation of the strategy and how it has been studied. The research is limited to a municipal facilities’ service unit that aims to secure a common value chain for all situations. To do this, joint performance is required. The study is based on action research, with the use of mixed methods. The study utilized the resource-based view theory and empirically employs the balanced critical factor index method for managing the unit.

  • 642.
    Wallerius, Joel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Zakrisson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technique and Management .
    Green Supply Chain Management in Thailand: An Investigation of the Use in the Electrical and Electronics Industry2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective with this thesis is to clarify the advantages - both economic and environmental - that companies in the Thai electronic manufacturing industry can draw from managing their supply chain and adding a green aspect to it. This through investigations of the concept known as Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM). The research will assist companies with scarce knowledge of green supply chain management in making decisions and priorities in that area.

    Semi-structured interviews were performed on sight in Bangkok, Thailand and surrounding region. These provided insight and knowledge of the situation and today-state regarding environmental awareness and GSCM implementation within the Thai Electrical and Electronics Industries. Interviews were performed with representatives and experts from different sectors – from universities, industry and supporting agencies and serve as the foundation for the research.

    A model has been developed out of previous research and findings that could suit the Thai industry. This model can be seen as guidelines in the work towards becoming green and aims at continuous improvement of the organizations environmental performance.

    In Thailand today companies do not see the benefits of themselves review their organizations environmental impact or developing in this area. Environmental awareness among the public is low and the lack of demand for green products result in few drivers for companies to become green. Also the lack of proper legislation and compliance audits are part of the problem. Missing environmental education and knowledge are extensive and improvements needed. The concept of GSCM is not wide spread but popularity is increasing steadily. Some environmental initiatives are though performed in the industry but not under the name of the concept. Customer demands, legislation and education should be the main focus areas for developing the industry.

    From the today state at a very basic low much is to be done. Fear of large investments, cost and the lack of knowledge are obstacles to the development. This research shows that these concerns are to be avoided. And by following the model in this thesis companies can find proper knowledge in the area of GSCM. Concluded is that with understanding of the concept and proper implementation from the right knowledge Thai companies can gain great advantages in the future - both economical and environmental.

  • 643.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Living in 'Next Nature'2014In: Access ro resources: an urban agenda / [ed] Henrietta Palmer, Spurbuchverlag , 2014, p. 198-203Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an argument that infrastructural systems have entered the same domain as ecosystems: blackouts in the electric grid behave with the same system dynamics as forest fires do and earthquakes. Nature and culture seem to be trading places.

  • 644.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Urk World: Hibernating Infrastructures and the Quest for Urban Mining2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis concerns urban mining, an umbrella term for different recycling strategies aimed to recover materials from the built environment. More specifically, it focuses on hibernating urban infrastructures, that is: cables and pipes that have been left behind in their subsurface location after they were disconnected. I term this subsurface urban realm of system rejects the “Urk World”. “Urk” is short for “urkopplad”, the Swedish word for “disconnected”, an abbreviation often found on old infrastructure maps denoting discarded system parts. Since urks contain high concentrations of copper, my normative stance is that the Urk World should be “mined” as a contribution towards diminishing the persistently wasteful handling of mineral resources in society.

    The thesis has three focus areas. The first of these discusses how the Urk World has emerged, that is: how the creation of urks is sustained in sociotechnical processes related to infrastructure’s provision. The second concerns the potential of urk mining, how much copper the Urk World contains, where these quantities are located and by which implications they could be recovered. The third focus area is devoted to the politics of urks, and is concerned with the political embeddedness of infrastructure and where politics might intervene for the sake of increased urk recovery.

    Five papers complete the thesis. The first paper investigates how much copper, aluminium and steel there is in the Urk World of the Swedish city of Norrköping, and how these quantities are spatially dispersed in the urban environment. The second paper is based on interviews with system owners and repair crews, and investigates how urks come into existence in relation to three different infrastructural processes: maintenance, larger installation projects and shutdown. The third paper describes how environmental systems analysis can be beneficially coupled with theories and methods from the social sciences to create knowledge useful to aid the development of urk recycling schemes. The fourth article makes use of the inherent ambiguities of urks to investigate a spectrum of locations where politics aimed for increased urk recovery can intervene as well as what is at stake there. The fifth and final paper investigates urks in Linköping’s power grid in spatial and weight terms, and analyses the implications of urk recovery from several different viewpoints.

    In overall terms, the major contribution of the thesis is how it improves the knowledge of societal stocks of materials, thereby giving an increased recognition of the built environment as a resource base. In overall scientific terms, it sets an example of how a coherent interdisciplinary research design can provide knowledge useful for the implementation of urk recycling schemes as well as for political decision–making for increased urk recovery.

    List of papers
    1. To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional mining, prospecting methods are used to increase the degree of certainty with regard to the stock of metals. Similarly, prospecting in terms of "urban mining" aims to increase the information about metal stocks available for recovery in the built environment. Infrastructure systems, such as for power supply and heating, are rich in copper, aluminum and iron (including steel). For a number of reasons, pipes and cables remain in the ground after being taken out of use or disconnected. This is also true for entire obsolete systems. In this paper, these infrastructures "cold spots" are viewed as hibernating stock with a significant potential for urban mining. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe infrastructure systems for AC and DC power, telecommunication, town gas and district heating in the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, have been quantified and spatially allocated with a GIS-based approach of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). About 20% of the total stock of aluminum and copper in these systems is found to be in hibernation. The findings also indicate that cables have been disconnected to a larger extent than pipes. As an example, cables for DC power, taken out of use in the late 1930s yet still in the ground, consist of 230 tonnes of copper. The results illustrate a clear tendency for larger stocks of hibernating copper and aluminum to be found in the central rather than the outer parts of the city. A reverse, ring-like pattern is true for iron, mostly because the central parts of the town gas pipes are used for fiber optics. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanParticular focus has been placed on the industrial area of Sodra Butangen, which is slated for redevelopment and re-zoning from industrial to residential. Since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes anyway, the entire metal stock can be taken into prospecting consideration. Analysis shows that the chances of finding aluminum here are 28 times higher than in the rest of the city. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe argue for an increased MFA focus on the heterogeneous complexity found in the details of the specific locale, rather than striving for generalized assumptions about the broader picture. In doing so, MFA could very well provide a tool for a future business line of urban mining of hibernating metal stocks.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Urban mining, Hibernation, Infrastructure cold spots, GIS, Metal stocks
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97230 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.05.041 (DOI)000322802300011 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA||

    Available from: 2013-09-06 Created: 2013-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines
    2013 (English)In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Our societies are reliant on metals to such an extent that the total amounts of some of them in the built environment are comparable in size to the remaining amounts in known mountain ores. Because of concerns about mineral scarcity, the United Nations has assessed alternative sources for metal extraction and targeted urban areas in general and infrastructure systems in particular, since these are large, spatially concentrated and rich in metals. Referring to the possibility of recovering these metal stocks, infrastructure systems constitute what material flow researchers has conceptually termed “urban mines.” While most urban infrastructure is in use, significant amounts of cables and pipes have been disconnected and remain in their subsurface locations; they are “hibernating.” In this article, we analyze the occurrence of such hibernation in the Swedish city of Norrköping's urban infrastructure mine where, we know from a previous study, that every fourth kilo of infrastructure is discarded. Our applied perspective is different from the logic of system expansion as a way to meet increased demand often found in the field of infrastructure studies since we are interested in how systems are disconnected and left behind. This enables us to offer a refined understanding of the concepts of infrastructure “decline” and infrastructure “cold spots.” We argue that to prevent the increase of dormant infrastructures and to engage in the urban mining of already dormant infrastructures, we must develop a sensibility to the materiality of derelict infrastructure components and the underlying causes for why they form different kinds of spatial patterns.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2013
    Keywords
    Urban Mining; Urban Infrastructure; Infrastructure “Cold Spots;” Hibernation; Norrko¨ping
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98054 (URN)10.1080/10630732.2013.809222 (DOI)000324670300006 ()
    Available from: 2013-09-26 Created: 2013-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    3. Toward Social Material Flow Analysis: On the Usefulness of Boundary Objects in Urban Mining Research
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toward Social Material Flow Analysis: On the Usefulness of Boundary Objects in Urban Mining Research
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 742-752Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Material flow analysis (MFA) has been an effective tool to identify the scale of physical activity, the allocation of materials across economic sectors for different purposes, and to identify inefficiencies in production systems or in urban contexts. However, MFA relies on ignoring the social drivers of those flows to be able to perform its calculations. In many cases therefore, it remains detached from the processes (e.g., urban) that underpin them. This becomes a problem when the purpose of research is to inform the design of detailed recycling schemes, for which micro-level practice knowledge on how material flows are mediated by human agency is needed. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a particular social science approach, namely, infrastructure studies (IS), can be combined with MFA to enhance the latters potential as a decision support tool. To achieve a successful combination between IS and MFA, the object of inquiry must be carefully defined to function as a boundary object, which allows academic approaches to work together without the need for consensus. This approach is illustrated with a case study example in urban mining research that assesses the hibernating stock of subsurface urban infrastructure in Norrkoping, Sweden. It provides an example of how a well-calibrated MFA and a complementary social science approach can provide hands-on advice for private as well as public actors in a local and place-specific context. The article aims to advance the integration of social science and the study of the physical economy to contribute to the emerging field of social industrial ecology.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
    Keywords
    boundary objects; hibernating stocks; infrastructure; material flow analysis (MFA); science; technology and society (STS); urban mining
    National Category
    Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122664 (URN)10.1111/jiec.12361 (DOI)000363267800006 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS; Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA

    Available from: 2015-11-16 Created: 2015-11-13 Last updated: 2017-12-01
    4. Urks and the Urban Subsurface as Geosocial Formation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Urks and the Urban Subsurface as Geosocial Formation
    2016 (English)In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 827-848Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates “urks”, i.e., disconnected parts of urban infrastructure that remain in their subsurface location. The reason for engaging in this topic is resource scarcity concerns, as urks contain large amounts of copper and aluminum that could be “mined” for the benefit of the environment.

    Our starting point is that there is a certain non–stagnant capacity of waste–like entities such as urks and that their resistance to categorization is crucial to encapsulate their political potential (cf. Hawkins, 2006; Moore, 2012; Hird, 2013). We investigate how this indeterminate capacity has implications in terms of where future trajectories for urk recovery are conceivable.

    The study is based on interviews with respondents from the infrastructure and waste sectors in Sweden. By stressing the relationship between urks and their geo–social subsurface surroundings, we use the respondents’ exploratory interpretations of urks to outline a spectrum of issues that should be further discussed for urks to become a matter of concern. The negotiation of these issues, we suggest, can be conceived of as a form of navigation along the perceived fault lines between actors and priorities, and they must be resolved for increased urk recovery to occur.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sage Publications, 2016
    National Category
    Environmental Sciences Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122760 (URN)10.1177/0162243916634866 (DOI)000382579500003 ()
    Note

    The status of this article was previous Manuscript.

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS); Swedish Innovation Agency (VINNOVA); Aforsk Foundation

    Available from: 2015-11-20 Created: 2015-11-20 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
    5. The economic conditions for urban infrastructure mining: Using GIS to prospect hibernating copper stocks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The economic conditions for urban infrastructure mining: Using GIS to prospect hibernating copper stocks
    2015 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 103, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we suggest a methodology that combines geographic information systems (GIS) and material flow analysis (MFA) into a secondary reserve-prospecting tool. The approach is two-phased and couples spatially informed size estimates of urban metal stocks (phase 1) to the equally spatially contingent efforts required to extract them (phase 2). Too often, even the most advanced MFA assessments stop at the first of these two phases, meaning that essential information needed to facilitate resource recovery, i.e., urban mining, is missing from their results. To take MFA one step further, our approach is characterized by a high resolution that connects the analysis of the stock to the social practices that arrange material flows in the city, thereby enabling an assessment of the economic conditions for secondary resource recovery.

    To exemplify, we provide a case study of the hibernation stock of copper found in disconnected power cables in Linköping, Sweden. Since 1970, 123 tonnes of copper or ≈1 kg per person have accumulated underneath the city, predominantly in old, central parts of the city and industrial areas. While shorter cables are more numerous than long ones, the longer ones contribute to a larger share of the stock weight. Resource recovery in specific projects reliant on digging comes at great costs, but integrating it as an added value to ordinary maintenance operations render eight locations and 2.2 tonnes of copper (2% of the stock) profitable to extract. Compared to the budget sizes of regular maintenance projects, the integrated recovery of a significant share of the stock comes with relatively small economic losses. Therefore, we suggest integrated resource recovery and regular maintenance as an interesting environmental measure for any infrastructure provider to engage with.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Urban mining, Hibernating stocks, Infrastructure, Material flow analysis, GIS, Economic assessment
    National Category
    Other Environmental Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121463 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.025 (DOI)000362618600009 ()
    Projects
    Städer som gruvor II: utveckling av affärsmässiga koncept genom implementering av pilotprojekt
    Funder
    VINNOVA, 2013-03015
    Note

    Fundin text: Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS; Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA

    Available from: 2015-09-21 Created: 2015-09-21 Last updated: 2017-12-04
  • 645.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Toward Social Material Flow Analysis: On the Usefulness of Boundary Objects in Urban Mining Research2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 742-752Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Material flow analysis (MFA) has been an effective tool to identify the scale of physical activity, the allocation of materials across economic sectors for different purposes, and to identify inefficiencies in production systems or in urban contexts. However, MFA relies on ignoring the social drivers of those flows to be able to perform its calculations. In many cases therefore, it remains detached from the processes (e.g., urban) that underpin them. This becomes a problem when the purpose of research is to inform the design of detailed recycling schemes, for which micro-level practice knowledge on how material flows are mediated by human agency is needed. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a particular social science approach, namely, infrastructure studies (IS), can be combined with MFA to enhance the latters potential as a decision support tool. To achieve a successful combination between IS and MFA, the object of inquiry must be carefully defined to function as a boundary object, which allows academic approaches to work together without the need for consensus. This approach is illustrated with a case study example in urban mining research that assesses the hibernating stock of subsurface urban infrastructure in Norrkoping, Sweden. It provides an example of how a well-calibrated MFA and a complementary social science approach can provide hands-on advice for private as well as public actors in a local and place-specific context. The article aims to advance the integration of social science and the study of the physical economy to contribute to the emerging field of social industrial ecology.

  • 646.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Underneath Norrköping: An Urban Mine of Hibernating Infrastructure2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the subsurface infrastructure in the Swedish city of Norrköping from an urban mining perspective. Urban mining is a broadly defined term for different strategies that regard the built environment as a resource base for materials. In this study, the focus is on three base metals that exist in large quantities in infrastructure parts: iron, copper and aluminium. A special focus is given to the parts of Norrköping’s infrastructure that are not in-use and thus constitute a ”hibernating stock” that contains recyclable metals.

    The main results of this study are twofold. First, a quantitative assessment of the hibernating stocks of urban infrastructure gives answers to how large the stocks are and where in Norrköping they are located. This was performed using a spatially informed Material Flow Analysis to arrive at a recycling potential in terms of weight and spatial concentration. Second, a qualitative assessment was made regarding how these hibernating stocks of urban infrastructure come into existence. An infrastructure studies perspective was used to outline three patterns with their own sets of ”hibernation” logics. These logics give rise to different prerequisites for the implementation of urban mining in practice.

    A main argument of this study’s cover essay is that both of the above outlined kinds of knowledge are needed to engage in urban mining with confidence. Thus, the main focus of the cover essay text is to describe how the two different perspectives of Material Flow Analysis and infrastructure studies were combined into a coherent research approach.

    List of papers
    1. To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional mining, prospecting methods are used to increase the degree of certainty with regard to the stock of metals. Similarly, prospecting in terms of "urban mining" aims to increase the information about metal stocks available for recovery in the built environment. Infrastructure systems, such as for power supply and heating, are rich in copper, aluminum and iron (including steel). For a number of reasons, pipes and cables remain in the ground after being taken out of use or disconnected. This is also true for entire obsolete systems. In this paper, these infrastructures "cold spots" are viewed as hibernating stock with a significant potential for urban mining. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe infrastructure systems for AC and DC power, telecommunication, town gas and district heating in the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, have been quantified and spatially allocated with a GIS-based approach of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). About 20% of the total stock of aluminum and copper in these systems is found to be in hibernation. The findings also indicate that cables have been disconnected to a larger extent than pipes. As an example, cables for DC power, taken out of use in the late 1930s yet still in the ground, consist of 230 tonnes of copper. The results illustrate a clear tendency for larger stocks of hibernating copper and aluminum to be found in the central rather than the outer parts of the city. A reverse, ring-like pattern is true for iron, mostly because the central parts of the town gas pipes are used for fiber optics. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanParticular focus has been placed on the industrial area of Sodra Butangen, which is slated for redevelopment and re-zoning from industrial to residential. Since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes anyway, the entire metal stock can be taken into prospecting consideration. Analysis shows that the chances of finding aluminum here are 28 times higher than in the rest of the city. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe argue for an increased MFA focus on the heterogeneous complexity found in the details of the specific locale, rather than striving for generalized assumptions about the broader picture. In doing so, MFA could very well provide a tool for a future business line of urban mining of hibernating metal stocks.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keywords
    Urban mining, Hibernation, Infrastructure cold spots, GIS, Metal stocks
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97230 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.05.041 (DOI)000322802300011 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA||

    Available from: 2013-09-06 Created: 2013-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
    2. A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines
    2013 (English)In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Our societies are reliant on metals to such an extent that the total amounts of some of them in the built environment are comparable in size to the remaining amounts in known mountain ores. Because of concerns about mineral scarcity, the United Nations has assessed alternative sources for metal extraction and targeted urban areas in general and infrastructure systems in particular, since these are large, spatially concentrated and rich in metals. Referring to the possibility of recovering these metal stocks, infrastructure systems constitute what material flow researchers has conceptually termed “urban mines.” While most urban infrastructure is in use, significant amounts of cables and pipes have been disconnected and remain in their subsurface locations; they are “hibernating.” In this article, we analyze the occurrence of such hibernation in the Swedish city of Norrköping's urban infrastructure mine where, we know from a previous study, that every fourth kilo of infrastructure is discarded. Our applied perspective is different from the logic of system expansion as a way to meet increased demand often found in the field of infrastructure studies since we are interested in how systems are disconnected and left behind. This enables us to offer a refined understanding of the concepts of infrastructure “decline” and infrastructure “cold spots.” We argue that to prevent the increase of dormant infrastructures and to engage in the urban mining of already dormant infrastructures, we must develop a sensibility to the materiality of derelict infrastructure components and the underlying causes for why they form different kinds of spatial patterns.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2013
    Keywords
    Urban Mining; Urban Infrastructure; Infrastructure “Cold Spots;” Hibernation; Norrko¨ping
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98054 (URN)10.1080/10630732.2013.809222 (DOI)000324670300006 ()
    Available from: 2013-09-26 Created: 2013-09-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
  • 647.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Carlsson, Annica
    Environmental Strategies Research- fms, Urban Planning and Environment, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Svanström, Stefan
    Department for Regions and Environment, Statistics Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, p. 103-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional mining, prospecting methods are used to increase the degree of certainty with regard to the stock of metals. Similarly, prospecting in terms of "urban mining" aims to increase the information about metal stocks available for recovery in the built environment. Infrastructure systems, such as for power supply and heating, are rich in copper, aluminum and iron (including steel). For a number of reasons, pipes and cables remain in the ground after being taken out of use or disconnected. This is also true for entire obsolete systems. In this paper, these infrastructures "cold spots" are viewed as hibernating stock with a significant potential for urban mining. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe infrastructure systems for AC and DC power, telecommunication, town gas and district heating in the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, have been quantified and spatially allocated with a GIS-based approach of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). About 20% of the total stock of aluminum and copper in these systems is found to be in hibernation. The findings also indicate that cables have been disconnected to a larger extent than pipes. As an example, cables for DC power, taken out of use in the late 1930s yet still in the ground, consist of 230 tonnes of copper. The results illustrate a clear tendency for larger stocks of hibernating copper and aluminum to be found in the central rather than the outer parts of the city. A reverse, ring-like pattern is true for iron, mostly because the central parts of the town gas pipes are used for fiber optics. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanParticular focus has been placed on the industrial area of Sodra Butangen, which is slated for redevelopment and re-zoning from industrial to residential. Since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes anyway, the entire metal stock can be taken into prospecting consideration. Analysis shows that the chances of finding aluminum here are 28 times higher than in the rest of the city. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe argue for an increased MFA focus on the heterogeneous complexity found in the details of the specific locale, rather than striving for generalized assumptions about the broader picture. In doing so, MFA could very well provide a tool for a future business line of urban mining of hibernating metal stocks.

  • 648.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines2013In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 85-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our societies are reliant on metals to such an extent that the total amounts of some of them in the built environment are comparable in size to the remaining amounts in known mountain ores. Because of concerns about mineral scarcity, the United Nations has assessed alternative sources for metal extraction and targeted urban areas in general and infrastructure systems in particular, since these are large, spatially concentrated and rich in metals. Referring to the possibility of recovering these metal stocks, infrastructure systems constitute what material flow researchers has conceptually termed “urban mines.” While most urban infrastructure is in use, significant amounts of cables and pipes have been disconnected and remain in their subsurface locations; they are “hibernating.” In this article, we analyze the occurrence of such hibernation in the Swedish city of Norrköping's urban infrastructure mine where, we know from a previous study, that every fourth kilo of infrastructure is discarded. Our applied perspective is different from the logic of system expansion as a way to meet increased demand often found in the field of infrastructure studies since we are interested in how systems are disconnected and left behind. This enables us to offer a refined understanding of the concepts of infrastructure “decline” and infrastructure “cold spots.” We argue that to prevent the increase of dormant infrastructures and to engage in the urban mining of already dormant infrastructures, we must develop a sensibility to the materiality of derelict infrastructure components and the underlying causes for why they form different kinds of spatial patterns.

  • 649.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urks and the Urban Subsurface as Geosocial Formation2016In: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 827-848Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates “urks”, i.e., disconnected parts of urban infrastructure that remain in their subsurface location. The reason for engaging in this topic is resource scarcity concerns, as urks contain large amounts of copper and aluminum that could be “mined” for the benefit of the environment.

    Our starting point is that there is a certain non–stagnant capacity of waste–like entities such as urks and that their resistance to categorization is crucial to encapsulate their political potential (cf. Hawkins, 2006; Moore, 2012; Hird, 2013). We investigate how this indeterminate capacity has implications in terms of where future trajectories for urk recovery are conceivable.

    The study is based on interviews with respondents from the infrastructure and waste sectors in Sweden. By stressing the relationship between urks and their geo–social subsurface surroundings, we use the respondents’ exploratory interpretations of urks to outline a spectrum of issues that should be further discussed for urks to become a matter of concern. The negotiation of these issues, we suggest, can be conceived of as a form of navigation along the perceived fault lines between actors and priorities, and they must be resolved for increased urk recovery to occur.

  • 650.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Dick
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Andersson, Simon
    Independent Scholar, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The economic conditions for urban infrastructure mining: Using GIS to prospect hibernating copper stocks2015In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 103, p. 85-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we suggest a methodology that combines geographic information systems (GIS) and material flow analysis (MFA) into a secondary reserve-prospecting tool. The approach is two-phased and couples spatially informed size estimates of urban metal stocks (phase 1) to the equally spatially contingent efforts required to extract them (phase 2). Too often, even the most advanced MFA assessments stop at the first of these two phases, meaning that essential information needed to facilitate resource recovery, i.e., urban mining, is missing from their results. To take MFA one step further, our approach is characterized by a high resolution that connects the analysis of the stock to the social practices that arrange material flows in the city, thereby enabling an assessment of the economic conditions for secondary resource recovery.

    To exemplify, we provide a case study of the hibernation stock of copper found in disconnected power cables in Linköping, Sweden. Since 1970, 123 tonnes of copper or ≈1 kg per person have accumulated underneath the city, predominantly in old, central parts of the city and industrial areas. While shorter cables are more numerous than long ones, the longer ones contribute to a larger share of the stock weight. Resource recovery in specific projects reliant on digging comes at great costs, but integrating it as an added value to ordinary maintenance operations render eight locations and 2.2 tonnes of copper (2% of the stock) profitable to extract. Compared to the budget sizes of regular maintenance projects, the integrated recovery of a significant share of the stock comes with relatively small economic losses. Therefore, we suggest integrated resource recovery and regular maintenance as an interesting environmental measure for any infrastructure provider to engage with.

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