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  • 601.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. International Business School, Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Davoody, Nadia
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Koch, Sabine
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steps to Consider for Effective Decision Making when Selecting and Prioritizing eHealth Services2013In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 192, p. 239-243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Making the best choice for an organization when selecting IT applications or eHealth services is not always easy as there are a lot of parameters to take into account. The aim of this paper is to explore some steps to support effective decision making when selecting and prioritizing eHealth services prior to implementation and/or procurement. The steps presented in this paper were identified by interviewing nine key stakeholders at Stockholm County Council. They are supposed to work as a guide for decision making and aim to identify objectives and expected effects, technical, organizational, and economic requirements, and opportunities important to consider before decisions are taken. The steps and their respective issues and variables are concretized in a number of templates to be filled in by decision makers when selecting and prioritizing eHealth services.

  • 602.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Research Center of Information Technology and Information Systems, Department of Informatics, Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Koch, Sabine
    Health Informatics Centre, Department of Learning, Informatics, Management and Ethics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Identifying Where the Values Come from IT-Innovations in Health and Social Care2012In: Intelligent Information Management, ISSN 2160-5912, Vol. 4, no 5A, p. 296-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies aimed to capture the effects of IT-innovations in health and social care have shown that there is a gap between expected and factual outcomes. Many decision makers feel the need to articulate an ideal end-state for their organizations. Striking the balance between novelty and believability of such an ideal end-state is often tricky and they become neither satisfied with the ideal not the visioning. In this study, we explore the contribution of IT-innovations to health and social care. The results showed that coherence between context and IT-innovation is important to capture effects and outcomes. Being coherent rather than visionary contributes to identify where you are, as an organization, and to capture effects and outcomes that “make sense” in the context in question. The paper makes an exposition from the model building, algorithm design to performance analysis and contributes to the academic prosperity in Intelligent Information Management The knowledge generated is expected to provide input when identifying goals that IT-investments are supposed to achieve.

  • 603.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Le Rouge, Cynthia
    School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO, USA.
    Barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine: a bi-country evaluation2013In: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics, ISSN 0926-9630, E-ISSN 1879-8365, Vol. 192, p. 933-933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognizing that current practices for healthcare delivery are no longer sustainable, OECD governments are focusing more and more on how to leverage ICT to facilitate superior healthcare delivery. One such possibility is the use of Telemedicine. A major goal of telemedicine today is to develop next-generation telemedicine tools and technologies. However, key andquot;classicandquot; barriers continue to challenge widespread telemedicine adoption by health care organizations. These barriers include technology, financial, legal/standards, business strategy, and human resources issues. This comparative study explores the current status of barriers and opportunities to the widespread adoption of telemedicine in two different countries: Sweden, and USA.

  • 604.
    Vink, Josina
    et al.
    Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Wetter-Edman, Katerina
    Örebro University.
    Rodrigues, Vanessa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Designing Good(s)? Exploring the Politics of Social Design Processes2017In: Conference Proceedings of the Design Management Academy / [ed] Erik Bohemia, Cees de Bont, Lisbeth Svengren Holm, United Kingdom, 2017, Vol. 3, p. 961-977Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As design shifts from designing objects to designing for social transformation, there is an increasing need to address political dimensions within the design process. This paper explores those dimensions by drawing insights from the field of Science and Technology Studies. In doing so, we bring forward issues of ontological politics within social design processes, including: the recognition of situated knowledges, the multiplicity of reality, and the performative nature of methods. The implications of these issues are investigated through the examination of two practice examples in which different methods were used to support reflection on politics in social design processes. This research highlights the need to be more critical of the “good” that social design processes are working towards and the methods used to support political awareness. It also opens-up a host of new questions about how to address political issues amid the complexity and multiplicity of reality.

  • 605.
    Vrethem, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Prestandaoptimering av hybrida mobilapplikationer: En kvalitativ studie2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lately, as the market for mobile applications are growing there has appeared new innovative strategies that facilitates development of mobile applications for smartphones. One of those methods is hybrid development, the method has a tradeoff with performance, especially for older devices. Effects on performance is crucial when choosing development strategy. This study evaluates performance in terms of application launch time, and how it can be optimized. Performance is evaluated by performing real device test with a cloud service that provides a distribution of physical smartphone devices. 

  • 606.
    Vågstedt, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Åberg, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Slösa inte tid på konfigurationen: En jämförande analys av Ansible, Chef och Puppet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport har skrivits under ett examensarbete på Linköpings Universitet för att ta reda på vilket program som är mest tidseffektivt att använda för hantering av datorkonfigurationer. De konfigurationshanterarna som analyserades i detta arbete är Ansible, Chef och Puppet som är tre av de ledande programmen inom ämnet. Motiveringen till arbetet är att när komplexiteten hos infrastrukturen ökar, så är det viktigt att hitta en konfigurationshanterare som verkställer konfigurationen på systemen tillräckligt snabbt för att möta den komplexa infrastrukturens behov. Jämförelsen görs baserat på hur lång tid det tar för varje program att genomföra olika typer av konfigurationer, med olika uppsättningar av antalet system som konfigureras, och från denna data görs slutsatser om programmens tidseffektivitet, spridning och skalning. 

  • 607.
    Wallin, Johan
    et al.
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Hafsteinsdottir, Elin
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap, Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap, Historia, Karstad University.
    Bergman, Eva
    Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap, Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper, Biologi, Karlstad University.
    Bergman, Maria
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Fundell, Sara
    Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärdering.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Helenius, Ola
    Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning, Göteborgs universitet.
    Jahnke, Anette
    Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning, Göteborgs universitet.
    Digitala lärresurser I matematikundervisningen, delrapport skola: Systematisk översikt 2017:022017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna systematiska översikt sammanställer forskning om digitala lärresurser för att ut­veckla barns och elevers kunskaper i matematik. Forskningen spänner över förskolan till och med gymnasieskolan och anknyter specifikt till matematikundervisningen. I denna rapport redovisas översiktens resultat för grund-och gymnasieskolan.

    De digitala lärresurser som studeras erbjuder alla en interaktivitet. Det betyder att eleverna är aktiva i relation till lärresursen i själva undervisningssituationen.

    De frågor som besvaras i rapporten är:

    • Vilka effekter har matematikundervisning med digitala lärresurser på elevers kunskaper i matematik?
    • Vad kan förklara om en matematikundervisning med digitala lärre- surser har effekt eller inte på elevers kunskaper i matematik?

    Översikten har sin bakgrund bland annat i lärares frågor om huruvida undervisning med hjälp av digitala lärresurser kan påverka elevers kunskapsutveckling.

    Digitala lärresurser i grund- och gymnasieskolan

    Det vetenskapliga underlaget består av 75 studier. Endast två studier är gjorda i Sverige, men alla studier berör ett matematikinnehåll som är relevant för den svenska skolan. Upp till och med årskurs 6 dominerar digitala lärresurser med fokus på området tal och taluppfattning, men det finns studier som behandlar annat innehåll, till exempel algebra eller geometri. I högre årskurser är det vanligaste innehållet algebra samt samband och förändring.

    När det gäller matematiska förmågor är det många digitala lärresurser som fokuserar på begrepps-och proceduranvändning, men även bland dem kan ofta också aktiviteter som involverar andra förmågor adresseras, såsom problemlösnings-och resonemangsförmåga.

    Vi har kunnat identifiera fem olika huvudkategorier av digitala lärresurser för matematikundervisning i grund-och gymnasieskolan:

    • Uppgifter: lärresurser som levererar matematikuppgifter tillsammans med vägledning eller individanpassning. Uppgifterna och vägledningen regleras i många fall utifrån hur användaren presterar.
    • Objekt: lärresurser med vilka matematik och matematiska objekt, till exempel geometriska former, kan representeras genom att utnyttja det digitala mediet.
    • Spel: lärresurser som utnyttjar spelmekanismer såsom uppdrag, utmaningar, belöningar och tävlingsmoment för att förmedla ett ämnesinnehåll. Spel
    • karaktäriseras ofta av lekfullt utforskande inom ramen för en berättelse.
    • ––Verktyg: lärresurser som har tagits fram i ett annat syfte än för att bedriva undervisning, men som kan användas i matematikundervisningssammanhang, till exempel ett kalkyl-eller grafritande program.
    • ––Kurspaket: lärresurser av ett mer omfattande slag som kan innehålla flera funktioner och beröra många matematikområden. Ofta är kurspaketen tänkta att användas som ett komplement under en längre tid, till exempel under en hel årskurs. I vissa fall handlar det om undervisningspaket som består av olika kombinationer av digitala lärresurser och tryckt material samt lektionsupplägg, lärarhandlingar och kompetensutveckling för lärarna.

    Kategorierna är inte exakta och det finns överlapp mellan dem. Vid kategoriseringen strävade vi efter att hitta en huvudmekanism för lärresursen i fråga.

    Undervisning med digitala lärresurser kan ha positiva effekter

    Genomgången visar tydligt att det går att konstruera digitala lärresurser som kan använ­das för att utveckla många olika matematiska förmågor, i synnerhet om de används i en i övrigt rik undervisningsmiljö. Men det går inte att dra slutsatsen att en lika effektiv undervisning inte skulle kunna utformas på andra sätt, utan digitala lärresurser.

    Gynnsamt med ett tydligt fokus på tröskelbegrepp

    Det är positivt för elevers kunskapsutveckling om undervisning med digitala lärresurser har ett avgränsat matematikinnehåll som eleverna kan arbeta med på ett fokuserat sätt. En stor del av forskningen behandlar sådana arbetssätt och det finns flera tänkba­ra skäl till att de i många fall ger goda resultat. Dels kan det vara lättare att konstruera bra digitala lärresurser om man begränsar sig till ett mindre omfattande matematikin­nehåll, dels kan det vara lättare för både lärare och elever att lära sig att använda den sortens lärresurser. Genomgången tyder vidare på att det av forskningstekniska skäl är lättare att uppnå tydliga effekter vid den här sortens upplägg.

    När ett relativt smalt matematikinnehåll behandlas är det i allmänhet valt på ett genomtänkt sätt, exempelvis kan det handla om steg i matematikutvecklingen som är vedertaget problematiska. Ofta talar man om så kallade tröskelbegrepp – matematiska begrepp som eleverna behöver förstå för att kunna utvecklas vidare inom ett område. Exempel på tröskelbegrepp som berörs i underlaget är bråk och funktioner.

    Varierade sätt att uppleva, erfara och kommunicera matematik

    Det förefaller vara positivt för elevers kunskapsutveckling om de digitala lärresurser­na möjliggör att eleverna kan uppleva och urskilja matematiska begrepp och proces­ser visuellt och dynamiskt. Det kan exempelvis uppnås genom att använda digitala geometriska objekt för att ge elever rika och varierade upplevelser av geometriska egenskaper. Det verkar vidare vara bra om lärresurserna är konstruerade på ett sätt som uppmuntrar till att elever samtalar om matematikupplevelserna med varandra och med lärare. Det kan åstadkommas såväl med digitala lärresurser för samarbetsin­riktade arbetssätt som med digitala lärresurser för självständigt arbete.

    Med undantag för kurspaket kan de flesta typer av digitala lärresurser fungera bra

    Digitala kurspaket har i allmänhet studerats i stora elevgrupper under lång tid, till exem­pel en hel årskurs. Man kan säga att dessa studier utgör en slags motpol till studier med ett avgränsat matematikinnehåll. Även resultatmässigt är kontrasten stor; kurspaketen tycks i de allra flesta fall inte innebära några betydelsefulla vinster för kunskapsutveck­lingen. Möjligen är kurspaketens enskilda delar inte lika bra som lärresurser med ett mer avgränsat ämnesinnehåll, eller så innefattar de både gynnsamma och ogynnsamma enskilda delar som medför att effekterna tar ut varandra.

    En nackdel med studierna av digitala kurspaket är att det kan vara svårt att säker­ställa i vilken utsträckning lärresurserna verkligen har använts så som det var tänkt. Samtidigt är det en fördel att studierna avspeglar vad som kan förväntas när omfattande digitala lärresurser används under lång tid i stora grupper. En tänkbar bidragande förklaring till att kurspaketen vanligen innebär små vinster – om några – är att det kan vara en större utmaning att förändra matematikundervisningen så att den generellt tar stöd i digitala lärresurser.

    Med undantag för kurspaketen har vi inte funnit stöd för att någon kategori av digitala lärresurser sticker ut när det gäller effekter på elevers matematikkunskaper. Det går att nå goda resultat med såväl uppgifter och objekt som spel och verktyg. Digitala verktyg har dock undersökts i endast två studier, båda på gymnasienivå. Det är i sig ett viktigt resultat att så få studier behandlar digitala verktyg i matematikunder­visningen.

    Lärarens roll och arbete är centralt

    Lärarens roll och arbete kan skilja sig beroende på utformningen av och syftet med en viss digital lärresurs. Medan vissa lärresurser är tänkta att i huvudsak erbjuda eleverna självständiga matematikaktiviteter, förutsätter andra att läraren själv hanterar den digitala lärresursen. Genomgången visar att det går att nå bra effekter på elevernas matematikkunskaper i båda fallen.

    Digitala lärresurser för självständigt arbete kan vara ett kompletterande stöd i un­dervisningen och på så sätt möjliggöra att lärare kan ägna mer tid och kraft åt andra aspekter av undervisningen. Det gör att resultatet blir mer beroende av lärresursen i sig, snarare än på interaktionen med övrig undervisning. Om lärresurserna erbju­der individanpassad vägledning kan det skapa särskilt goda förutsättningar för elevernas kunskapsutveckling. Men även när digitala lärresurser för självständigt arbete används verkar det vara särskilt gynnsamt om de används på ett integrerat sätt till­sammans med annan undervisning. Det är helt jämförbart med hur andra resurser för lärande i allmänhet kan användas. Exempelvis kan en digital lärresurs användas för att ge eleverna vissa typer av erfarenheter som sedan också behandlas inom den lärarledda undervisningen. Digitala lärresurser för självständigt arbete är vanligare i årskurser till och med mellanstadiet.

    Arbetssätt med digitala lärresurser som innebär en hög grad av aktiv lärarmedver­kan eller som är tekniskt komplexa kräver oftast att lärarna först får möjlighet att utbilda sig i hur lärresurserna fungerar och vad som kan göras med stöd av dem. I dessa fall behöver man beakta länken mellan lärresurserna, undervisningens upplägg i övrigt och innehållet i kompetensutvecklingen. Det är tänkbart att de digitala lärresurser som i sig kräver en högre lärarinvolvering också ger bra förutsättningar för att skapa en sådan länkning. Samtidigt krävs då också mer av läraren. För den här sortens lärresurser blir det avgörande för resultatet vad läraren själv väljer att göra med lärresurserna tillsam­mans med sina elever.

    Urval av forskning

    Av nära 10 000 publikationer som identifierades i litteratursökningen har vi gått igenom drygt 700 studier i fulltext. Av dessa bedömdes totalt 85 studier kunna bidra till att besvara den systematiska översiktens frågor, varav 75 avser grund-och gymnasieskolan och 10 avser förskolan. I denna rapport redovisas resultaten från de 75 studier som avser grund-och gymnasieskolan.

    Alla studierna är kontrollerade experiment, vilket innebär att forskarna har jäm­fört två eller flera undervisningsinsatser med varandra. Alla studier mäter också i vilken grad elevers kunskaper i matematik påverkas av undervisningen. Undervisnin­gen med digitala lärresurser som har undersökts är i alla studier upplagd på ett sätt som syftar till att passa förskole-eller skolmatematiken. Det betyder bland annat att undervisningen behandlar matematikinnehåll som valts på ett medvetet sätt i relation till en viss målgrupp.

    De allra flesta digitala lärresurser som har studerats finns inte på svenska. Flertalet är inte heller öppet tillgängliga. Även om detta medför att lärresurserna oftast inte kan användas direkt i ett svenskt sammanhang ger översikten kunskap om hur digitala lärre­surser kan se ut till innehåll och funktion samt hur de kan användas i undervisningen för att ge effekter på kunskapsutvecklingen i matematik.

  • 608.
    Wallin, Johan
    et al.
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Hafsteinsdottir, Elin
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Samuelsson, Johan
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Bergman, Eva
    Skolforskningsinstitutet, Solna.
    Helenius, Ola
    Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning, Göteborgs universitet.
    Jahnke, Anette
    Institutionen för pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Gulz, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Digitala lärresurser I matematikundervisningen, delrapport förskola: Systematisk översikt vid Skolforskningsinstitutet, 2017 (Vol. 2)2017Report (Other academic)
  • 609.
    Wan, Miao
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jönsson, Arne
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Cong
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommun, Peoples R China .
    Li, Lixiang
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommun, Peoples R China .
    Yang, Yixian
    Beijing University of Posts and Telecommun, Peoples R China .
    Web user clustering and Web prefetching using Random Indexing with weight functions2012In: Knowledge and Information Systems, ISSN 0219-1377, E-ISSN 0219-3116, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 89-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Users of a Web site usually perform their interest-oriented actions by clicking or visiting Web pages, which are traced in access log files. Clustering Web user access patterns may capture common user interests to a Web site, and in turn, build user profiles for advanced Web applications, such as Web caching and prefetching. The conventional Web usage mining techniques for clustering Web user sessions can discover usage patterns directly, but cannot identify the latent factors or hidden relationships among users navigational behaviour. In this paper, we propose an approach based on a vector space model, called Random Indexing, to discover such intrinsic characteristics of Web users activities. The underlying factors are then utilised for clustering individual user navigational patterns and creating common user profiles. The clustering results will be used to predict and prefetch Web requests for grouped users. We demonstrate the usability and superiority of the proposed Web user clustering approach through experiments on a real Web log file. The clustering and prefetching tasks are evaluated by comparison with previous studies demonstrating better clustering performance and higher prefetching accuracy.

  • 610.
    Wang, Weixing
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; School of Information Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China.
    Zhao, Weisen
    School of Information Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China.
    Huang, Lingxiao
    School of Information Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wang, Zhiwei
    School of Information Engineering, Chang’an University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, China.
    Applications of terrestrial laser scanning for tunnels: a review2014In: Journal of Traffic and Transportation Engineering (English Edition), ISSN 2095-7564, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 325-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the use of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technique in engineering surveys is gaining an increasing interest due to the advantages of non-contact, rapidity, high accuracy, and large scale. Millions of accurate 3D points (mm level accuracy) can be delivered by this technique with a high point density in a short time (up to 1 million points per second), which makes it a potential technique for large scale applications in engineering environments such as tunnels, bridges, and heritage buildings. Tunnels, in particular those with long lengths, create great challenges for surveyors to obtain the satisfactory scanned data. This paper presents a short history of TLS techniques used for tunnels. A general overview of TLS techniques is given, followed by a review of several applications of TLS for tunnels. These applications are classified as: detecting geological features of drilling tunnels, monitoring the geometry of tunnels during excavation, making deformation measurements, and extracting features. The review emphasizes how TLS techniques can be used to measure various aspects of tunnels. It is clear that TLS techniques are not yet a common tool for tunnel investigations, but there is still a huge potential to excavate.

  • 611.
    Wass, Sofie
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Bertil
    Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jönköping International Business School, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Korkmaz, Seher
    E-health and Strategic IT, Public Health Care Administration, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schemeikka, Tero
    E-health and Strategic IT, Public Health Care Administration, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vég, Anikó
    Department of Healthcare Development, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Exploring the effects of eHealth service innovation2015In: Health Systems, ISSN 2047-6965, E-ISSN 2047-6973, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 212-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To analyse the impact of implementation and use of eHealth services is fraught with difficulty, and there is often a gap between expected and identified outcomes. In this paper, we identify innovation effects of an eHealth service by applying a framework that focusses on the expected coherent impacts of implementing an IT innovation and contributes to the body of knowledge on tracking innovation effects of services in eHealth. A case study examines four different care units in a government-funded health-care setting. The results show that the effects in the first two contexts of the framework, the micro level and intra-/interorganisational level, could be clearly identified with regard to the physicians and the organisation. However, effects were lacking in the virtual context when looking beyond the involvement of the stakeholders in the eHealth service. The connections between effects for societal groups and larger societal systems simply could not be made in a satisfactory manner.

  • 612.
    Wass, Sofie
    et al.
    Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jönköping International Business School, Sweden.
    Challenges of Stimulating a Market for Social Innovation: Provision of a National Health Account2015In: Digital Healthcare Empowering Europeans / [ed] Ronald Cornet, Lăcrămioara Stoicu-Tivadar, Alexander Hörbst, Carlos Luis Parra Calderón, Stig Kjær Andersen, Mira Hercigonja-Szekeres, IOS Press, 2015, Vol. 210, p. 546-550Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation in healthcare can be associated with social innovation and the mission to contribute to a shared value that benefits not only individuals or organizations but the society as a whole. In this paper, we present the prerequisites of stimulating a market for social innovations by studying the introduction of a national health account. The results show that there is a need to clarify if a national health account should be viewed as a public good or not, to clarify the financial responsibilities of different actors, to establish clear guidelines and to develop regulations concerning price, quality and certification of actors. The ambition to stimulate the market through a national health account is a promising start. However, the challenges have to be confronted in order for public and private actors to collaborate and build a market for social innovations such as a national health account.

  • 613.
    Wass, Sofie
    et al.
    Jönköping Int Business Sch, Sweden.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jonköping Int Business Sch, Sweden.
    Healthcare in the age of open innovation - A literature review2016In: Health Information Management Journal, ISSN 1833-3583, E-ISSN 1833-3575, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 121-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In spite of an increased interest in open innovation and strategies that call for an increased collaboration between different healthcare actors, there is a lack of open innovation research in public contexts. Objective: This article presents the results of a review regarding the healthcare sectors engagement in open innovation as well as constraining factors and positive outcomes of open innovation in healthcare. Method: The literature search focused on papers published in English between 2003 and 2014. Based on specified inclusion criteria, 18 articles were included. Results: Results reveal that most studies focus on inbound open innovation where external knowledge is integrated with the internal knowledge base at an initial phase of the innovation process. Innovation primarily results in products and services through innovation networks. We also identified constraining factors for open innovation in healthcare, including the complex organizations of healthcare, the need to establish routines for capturing knowledge from patients and clinicians, regulations and healthcare data laws as well as the positive outcome patient empowerment. Conclusion: The healthcare sectors engagement in open innovation is limited, and it is necessary to perform further research with a focus on how open innovation can be managed in healthcare.

  • 614.
    Wass, Sofie
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    I Got 99 Problems, and eHealth Is One2017In: MEDINFO 2017: PRECISION HEALTHCARE THROUGH INFORMATICS, IOS PRESS , 2017, Vol. 245, p. 258-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many eHealth initiatives are never implemented or merely end as pilot projects. Previous studies report that organisational, technical and human issues need to be properly taken into consideration if such initiatives are to be successful. The aim of this paper is to explore whether previously identified challenges within the area have remained in the Swedish eHealth setting or whether they have changed. After interviewing experts in eHealth, we present a classification of areas of concern. Recurrence of previously identified challenges was found, but also new issues were identified. The results of the study indicate that there is a need to consider organisational and semantic issues on both national and international levels. Legal and technical challenges still exist but it seems even more important to support eHealth initiatives financially, increase practitioners knowledge in health informatics and manage new expectations from patients.

  • 615.
    Wass, Sofie
    et al.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Same, same but different: Perceptions of patients' online access to electronic health records among healthcare professionals2018In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we explore how healthcare professionals in primary care and outpatient clinics perceive the outcomes of giving patients online access to their electronic health records. The study was carried out as a case study and included a workshop, six interviews and a survey that was answered by 146 healthcare professionals. The results indicate that professionals working in primary care perceive that an increase in information-sharing with patients can increase adherence, clarify important information to the patient and allow the patient to quality-control documented information. Professionals at outpatient clinics seem less convinced about the benefits of patient accessible electronic health records and have concerns about how patients manage the information that they are given access to. However, the patient accessible electronic health record has not led to a change in documentation procedures among the majority of the professionals. While the findings can be connected to the context of outpatient clinics and primary care units, other contextual factors might influence the results and more in-depth studies are therefore needed to clarify the concerns.

  • 616.
    Wass, Sofie
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    The Role of ICT in Home Care2017In: CONTEXT SENSITIVE HEALTH INFORMATICS: REDESIGNING HEALTHCARE WORK, IOS PRESS , 2017, Vol. 241, p. 153-158Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With an ageing population and limited resources, ICT is often mentioned as a solution to support elderly people in maintaining an independent and healthy lifestyle. In this paper, we describe how ICT can support access to information and rationalization of work processes in a home care context. We do this by modelling the workflow and identifying the possible impact of ICT. The results show a complex process and indicate that the available resources are not used in the best possible way. The introduction of ICT could increase patient safety by reducing the risk of misplacing information about the care recipients and at the same time provide real time information about the care recipients needs and health at the point of care. However, to rationalize the work processes there is a need to combine ICT with a changed procedure for handling keys.

  • 617.
    Wass, Sofie
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    The Role of PAEHRs in Patient Involvement2018In: Journal of medical systems, ISSN 0148-5598, E-ISSN 1573-689X, Vol. 42, no 11, article id 210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increased patient access to data, healthcare services are experiencing change where patients are moving away from being mere passive actors towards becoming more active and involved participants. In this paper, we explore the role of patient accessible electronic health records (PAEHRs) with respect to this increase in patient involvement. The study was performed as a case study and included nine interviews with patients and a survey that was responded to by 56 patients. Our results show that PAEHRs have a role in the enhancement of patient involvement because PAEHRs (i) foster a more balanced relationship between patients and healthcare professionals and (ii) increase access to information.

  • 618.
    Wass, Sofie
    et al.
    Jönköping Univ, Sweden.
    Vimarlund, Vivian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Jönköping Univ, Sweden.
    Ros, Axel
    Jönköping Univ, Sweden.
    Exploring patients perceptions of accessing electronic health records: Innovation in healthcare2019In: Health Informatics Journal, ISSN 1460-4582, E-ISSN 1741-2811, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 203-215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The more widespread implementation of electronic health records has led to new ways of providing access to healthcare information, allowing patients to view their medical notes, test results, medicines and so on. In this article, we explore how patients perceive the possibility to access their electronic health record online and whether this influences patient involvement. The study includes interviews with nine patients and a survey answered by 56 patients. Our results show that patients perceive healthcare information to be more accessible and that electronic health record accessibility improves recall, understanding and patient involvement. However, to achieve the goal of involving patients as active decision-makers in their own treatment, electronic health records need to be fully available and test results, referrals and information on drug interactions need to be offered. As patient access to electronic health records spreads, it is important to gain a deeper understanding of how documentation practices can be changed to serve healthcare professionals and patients.

  • 619.
    Weiss, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Error profiling for evaluation of machine-translated text: a Polish-English case study2012In: Proceedings of the Eight International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC'12) / [ed] Nicoletta Calzolari (Conference Chair) and Khalid Choukri and Thierry Declerck and Mehmet Uğur Doğan and Bente Maegaard and Joseph Mariani and Jan Odijk and Stelios Piperidis, Paris, Frankrike: European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2012, p. 1764-1770Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study of Polish-English machine translation, where the impact of various types of errors on cohesion and comprehensibility of the translations were investigated. The following phenomena are in focus: (i) The most common errors produced by current state-of-the-art MT systems for Polish-English MT. (ii) The effect of different types of errors on text cohesion. (iii) The effect of different types of errors on readers' understanding of the translation. We found that errors of incorrect and missing translations are the most common for current systems, while the category of non-translated words had the most negative impact on comprehension. All three of these categories contributed to the breaking of cohesive chains. The correlation between number of errors found in a translation and number of wrong answers in the comprehension tests was low. Another result was that non-native speakers of English performed at least as good as native speakers on the comprehension tests.

  • 620.
    Westberg, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Applying a chatbot for assistance in the onboarding process: A process of requirements elicitation and prototype creation2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It has previously been shown that the quality of the onboarding process affects the chances of a new hire staying at a company, yet it is common that companies have problems in succeeding to maintain a well-organized onboarding. To aid new hires in their onboarding, and to lower the amount of work for the HR personnel, chatbots can be used. In this project, a chatbot was developed for the onboarding process of a large company. Interviews were held with new hires and HR personnel which were used to create requirements for the chatbot. These were divided into two categories; information and functional requirements. A third category, non-functional requirements, was created based on Microsoft’s guidelines for development of conversational AI. Based on the requirements, a chatbot prototype was built using Microsoft Bot Framework with the use of two cognitive services, LUIS and QnA Maker. Both the requirements and the prototype were created iteratively. The information that the interview participants requested from the chatbot was eitherpractical or personal information, or information about the employer, the internal systems, or other employees. It was revealed that the chatbot mainly needed to answer simple questions and didn’t demand any procedural conversation flow which made the use of QnA Maker appropriate. However, for questions and tasks that would benefit or require a procedural flow QnA Maker’s follow-up prompts could be used in future work to create multi-turn conversations.

  • 621.
    Westin, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Different recipient designs with dialogue partners: An experimental comparison between a Chatbot and a Human communication partner2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Chatbots are becoming more common in modern society, but there are almost no studies that explore both the differences and causes that divides human communication from communication with a chatbot. The aim of this thesis was to explore different recipient design people take when communicating with a human and a chatbot. A chatbot was built and an experiment was conducted that measured the performance and experience of the participants. A thematic analysis then found out causes for these experiences. The study focused on finding new differences in addition to exploring people’s boredom, frustration, understanding, repetition, and performance in a task. The study found differences and causes in people’s recipient design when communicating with a human compared to a chatbot, as well as differences in the performance of a task. Hopefully, this will help future research figure out solutions for the differences found.

  • 622.
    Westin, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Salén, Ludwig
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Managing participants in co-design: A case study investigating empowerment, ownership and power dynamics in a design consultancy context2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study provides new insights on the designer role in co-design processes. Co-design has shifted the designer role into a facilitator, which requires a new skillset. In this thesis, this new role is investigated through the three psychological constructs; empowerment, ownership and power dynamics. The process consists of two main parts: pre-study and case study. In the pre-study, designers with different roles are interviewed about co-design. In the case study, three co-design sessions are observed and the facilitators interviewed in retrospect.

    Several strategies and actions are identified for empowering participants, some for the participants to feel ownership and almost none for balancing out power dynamics. The identified strategies include using straightforward methods and having a selfless mindset. However, there are indications that long term relationships are prioritized over actual outputs. This notion might be explained by the fact that the case companies are consultants. The need to always satisfy the clients makes the facilitators disregard some of the power differences in the room.

  • 623.
    Wetter Edman, Katarina
    et al.
    HDK, Academy of Design and Crafts, Göteborg.
    Malmberg, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Experience and expertise: key issues for developing innovation capabilities through service design2016In: Service design geographies: Proceedings of the ServDes.2016 Conference / [ed] Nicola Morelli, Amalia de Götzen, Francesco Grani, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016, p. 516-521Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Public organisations need to rethink the ways they innovate and improve their services. Service design has become a means to achieve innovation capabilities through service design projects with the purpose of both enhancing innovation capabilities, and creating new service. Based on observations, interviews and project documentations this exploratory paper reflects on the role and articulation of design expertise, how and if it may be transferred through design projects. Further, the relation between learning by doing and learning through expert examples is discussed through a pragmatist lens.

  • 624.
    Wetter Edman, Katarina
    et al.
    Högskolan för Design och Konsthantverk, Göteborgs Universitet.
    Sangiorgi, Daniela
    Lancaster University.
    Edvardsson, Bo
    CTF, Karlstad universitet.
    Holmlid, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Christian, Grönroos
    Hanken.
    Mattelmäki, Tuuli
    Aalto University.
    Design for value co-creation: Towards an understanding fo the synergies between design for service and service logic2014In: Journal of Service Science, ISSN 2164-3970, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 106-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to bridge recent work on Service Logic with practice and research in the Design for Service to explore whether and how human-centered collaborative design approaches could provide a source for interpreting existing service systems and proposing new ones and thus realize a Service Logic in organizations. A comparison is made of existing theoretical backgrounds and frameworks from Service Logic and Design for Service studies that conceptualize core concepts for value co-creation: actors, resources, resource integration, service systems, participation, context, and experience.

    We find that Service Logic provides a framework for understanding service systems in action by focusing on how actors integrate resources to co-create value for themselves and others, whereas Design for Service provides an approach and tools to explore current service systems as a context to imagine future service systems and how innovation may develop as a result of reconfigurations of resources and actors. Design for Service also provides approaches, competences, and tools that enable involved actors to participate in and be a part of the service system redesign. Design for value co-creation is presented using this model.

    The paper builds on and extends the Service Logic research first by repositioning service design from a phase of development to Design for Service as an approach to service innovation, centered on understanding and engaging with customers' own value-creating practices. Second, it builds on and extends through discussing the meaning of value co-creation and identifying and distinguishing collaborative approaches for the generation of new resource constellations. In doing so, the collaborative approaches allow for achieving value co-creation in designing.

  • 625.
    Wetter-Edman, Katarina
    et al.
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden; Cty Council Varmland, Sweden; Cty Council Sormland, Sweden.
    Vink, Josina
    Cty Council Varmland, Sweden; Karlstad Univ, Sweden.
    Blomkvist, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Staging aesthetic disruption through design methods for service innovation2018In: Design Studies, ISSN 0142-694X, E-ISSN 1872-6909, Vol. 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the discourse connecting design and innovation, there has been a growing emphasis on the importance of cognitive processes in relation to design methods. However, the over-emphasis on cognition fails to clearly identify the triggers of change necessary for service innovation. In response, this article draws on classic American pragmatism and service-dominant logic to highlight the underappreciated role of actors bodily experiences when using design methods for service innovation. The authors of this paper posit that design methods stage aesthetic disruption, a sensory experience that challenges actors existing assumptions. In doing so, the use of design methods can lead to destabilizing the habitual action of participating actors, helping them to break free of existing institutions and contribute to service innovation. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 626.
    Wiik, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Detection and interpretation of weak signals2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Managing safety at a nuclear power plant is about a complex system with demanding technology under time pressure where the cost of failure is exceptionally high. Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last few years introduced Pre-job Briefing and other so called Human Performance Tools to advert errors and strengthen control. By using the Systemic Resilience Model different views of safety are taken to understand the origin of the signals that leads to a Pre-job Briefing, and how the signal is interpreted, re-interpreted, and presented.

    The study took place at a Swedish nuclear power plant and included four days of observations and 20 interviewees. The thematic analysis shows a similarity between mentioned origins of Pre-job Briefings and the intended use of Pre-job Briefing. Characteristics of a High Reliability Organisation is shown in practice by a culture of that one will to have a Pre-job Briefing is enough, that sharp end workers is used as a valuable resource for safety and a systematic support to screen jobs over time without influencing non-job related factors.

    The signals acted upon matched well with the intended, and personnel get several opportunities to evaluate the signals together, striving for best possible circumstances. The Systemic Resilience Model was successfully applied together with a thematic analysis, which strengthens its validity as a holistic model that combines different views of safety in one coherent model. SyRes allowed to present additional themes, leaving the question at what stage SyRes is optimally implemented in a thematic analysis.

  • 627.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Functional Modeling of Constraint Management in Aviation Safety and Command and Control2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has shown that the concept of constraint management is instrumental in understanding the domains of command and control and aviation safety. Particularly, functional modeling as a means to address constraint management provides a basis for analyzing the performance of socio-technical systems. In addition to the theoretical underpinnings, six studies are presented.

              First, a functional analysis of an exercise conducted by a team of electricity network emergency managers is used to show that a team function taxonomy can be used to analyze the mapping between team tasks and information and communication technology to assess training needs for performance improvement. Second, an analysis of a fire-fighting emergency management simulation is used to show that functional modeling and visualization of constraints can describe behavior vis-à-vis constraints and inform decision support design. Third, analysis of a simulated adversarial command and control task reveals that functional modeling may be used to describe and facilitate constraint management (constraining the adversary and avoiding being constrained by the adversary).

              Studies four and five address the domain of civil aviation safety. The analysis of functional resonance is applied to an incident in study four and an accident in study five, based on investigation reports. These studies extend the functional resonance analysis method and accident model. The sixth study documents the utility of this functional modeling approach for risk assessment by evaluating proposed automation for air traffic control, based on observations, interviews, and experimental data.

              In sum, this thesis adds conceptual tools and modeling methods to the cognitive systems engineering discipline that can be used to tackle problems of training environment design, decision support, incident and accident analysis, and risk assessment.

    List of papers
    1. A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
    2006 (English)In: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 332-347Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the roles of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in training for effective emergency management and inter-organisational coordination. Collocation can encourage the development of common ground and trust and, in turn, result in greater efficiency and effectiveness. We expect to find communication and artefact use during collocated training that cannot readily transfer to the ICT used to link distributed work settings. This expectation makes the reliance on ICT and distributed work during emergency management operations suspect. To test these claims, we observed a large-scale, real-time exercise designed to facilitate cooperation among electricity and telecommunications companies. The exercise scenario was similar to the January 2005 windstorm that left much of southern Sweden without electricity or telephone service and revealed the need for better cooperation among utility providers. The observations suggest that while collocation is clearly beneficial, a mismatch in ICT use between collocated training and distributed emergency management operations is likely to be detrimental for preparedness.

    Keywords
    emergency management; training; artefact use; collocated work; distributed work; real-time exercise; inter-organisational coordination; cooperation; information technology; communications; ICT; Sweden; electricity companies; telecommunications companies
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12838 (URN)10.1504/IJEM.2006.011300 (DOI)
    Available from: 2007-12-19 Created: 2007-12-19 Last updated: 2017-12-14
    2. Representation of spatio-temporal resource constraints in network-based command and control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Representation of spatio-temporal resource constraints in network-based command and control
    2008 (English)In: Naturalistic decision making and macrocognition: Ed.: Schraagen, J.M.C., Militello, L., Ormerod, T., & Lipshitz, R., Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing Limited , 2008, p. 351-371Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2008
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17587 (URN)987-0-7546-7020 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2009-04-03 Created: 2009-04-03 Last updated: 2009-05-19
    3. Functional modeling of agile command and control
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional modeling of agile command and control
    2009 (English)In: 14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), Washington, DC, USA: DOD CCRP , 2009Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical element to successful command and control (C2) is developing and updating an accurate and lucid model of the interdependencies between functional units, e.g., multiple platoons of artillery and tanks. Two of the challenges to this understanding are (1) the adoption of a detailed description of interdependency and the associated understanding of interdependent functions (Brehmer, 2007) and (2) the application of that description to both own and opponent forces’ opportunities and vulnerabilities to provide for agility (Alberts, 2007). This paper documents a straightforward approach to modeling functional interdependency that addresses these challenges. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM; Hollnagel, 2004) is shown to describe the C2 functions of the DOODA loop (Brehmer, 2007) and the tactical and operational functions of military activity. FRAM models are applied to own and opponent forces in a computer-based dynamic war-game (DKE) to reveal and characterize both agile and unsuccessful C2 practice.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Washington, DC, USA: DOD CCRP, 2009
    National Category
    Other Computer and Information Science
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17588 (URN)
    Conference
    14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington D.C,USA June 15-17, 2009
    Available from: 2009-04-03 Created: 2009-04-03 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Comparing a multi-linear (STEP) and systemic (FRAM) method for accident analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing a multi-linear (STEP) and systemic (FRAM) method for accident analysis
    2009 (English)In: Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications. / [ed] Martorell, S., Guedes Soares, C., & Barnett, J., London, UK: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009, p. 19-26Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident models and analysis methods affect what accident investigators look for, which contributing factors are found, and which recommendations are issued. This paper contrasts the Sequentially Timed Events Plotting (STEP) method and the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) for accident analysis and modelling. The main issues addressed in this paper are comparing the established multi-linear method (STEP) with the systemic method (FRAM) and evaluating which new insights the latter systemic method provides for accident analysis in comparison to the former established multi-linear method. Since STEP and FRAM are based on a different understandings of the nature of accidents, the comparison of the methods focuses on what we can learn from both methods, how, when, and why to apply them. The main finding is that STEP helps to illustrate what happened, whereas FRAM illustrates the dynamic interactions within socio-technical systems and lets the analyst understand the how and why by describing non-linear dependencies, performance conditions, variability, and their resonance across functions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London, UK: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17595 (URN)10.1016/j.ress.2010.06.003 (DOI)000266027000003 ()978-0-415-48513-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    European Safety and Reliability Association Annual Conference (ESREL), September 2008, Valencia, Spain.
    Available from: 2009-04-05 Created: 2009-04-05 Last updated: 2015-06-04
    5. An analysis of functional resonance of the Alaska Airlines flight 261 accident
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of functional resonance of the Alaska Airlines flight 261 accident
    2009 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17636 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-04-06 Created: 2009-04-06 Last updated: 2017-12-13
    6. Functional modeling for risk assessment of automation in a changing air traffic management environment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional modeling for risk assessment of automation in a changing air traffic management environment
    2008 (English)In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference Working on Safety, Crete, Greece, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17638 (URN)
    Available from: 2009-04-06 Created: 2009-04-06 Last updated: 2009-05-19
  • 628.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Hollnagel, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    An analysis of functional resonance of the Alaska Airlines flight 261 accident2009In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 629.
    Woltjer, Rogier
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Prytz, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Cognitive Science Masters Programme, LiU.
    Smith, Kip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Functional modeling of agile command and control2009In: 14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), Washington, DC, USA: DOD CCRP , 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical element to successful command and control (C2) is developing and updating an accurate and lucid model of the interdependencies between functional units, e.g., multiple platoons of artillery and tanks. Two of the challenges to this understanding are (1) the adoption of a detailed description of interdependency and the associated understanding of interdependent functions (Brehmer, 2007) and (2) the application of that description to both own and opponent forces’ opportunities and vulnerabilities to provide for agility (Alberts, 2007). This paper documents a straightforward approach to modeling functional interdependency that addresses these challenges. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM; Hollnagel, 2004) is shown to describe the C2 functions of the DOODA loop (Brehmer, 2007) and the tactical and operational functions of military activity. FRAM models are applied to own and opponent forces in a computer-based dynamic war-game (DKE) to reveal and characterize both agile and unsuccessful C2 practice.

  • 630.
    Ylirisku, Salu
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The varieties of good design2018In: Advancements in the philosophy of design / [ed] Pieter E. Vermaas and Stéphane Vial, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 51-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of the notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness, instrumental goodness, technical goodness, medical goodness, hedonic goodness, and the good of man. We discuss these different kinds of goodness in relation to six design traditions that we identify, namely conceptual design, usability design, engineering design, ergonomics design, experience design and sustainability design. We argue that the design traditions are grounded in different appreciations of goodness, and that designers and design researchers can benefit from a more precise discernment of values that underpin design processes and design critique in different traditions. von Wright’s treatise serves as a point of departure for the appraisal of the multifaceted and relational character of the idea of good design and of the values of design. 

  • 631.
    Zhang, Ziqi
    et al.
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Gentile, Anna Lisa
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Augenstein, Isabelle
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ciravegna, Fabio
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Mining Equivalent Relations from Linked Data2013In: Proceedings of the 51st Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL 2013), Volume 2: Short Papers, Association for Computational Linguistics, 2013, p. 289-293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linking heterogeneous resources is a major research challenge in the Semantic Web. This paper studies the task of mining equivalent relations from Linked Data, which was insufficiently addressed before. We introduce an unsupervised method to measure equivalency of relation pairs and cluster equivalent relations. Early experiments have shown encouraging results with an average of 0.75~0.87 precision in predicting relation pair equivalency and 0.78~0.98 precision in relation clustering.

  • 632.
    Zhang, Ziqi
    et al.
    University of Sheffield, England.
    Gentile, Anna Lisa
    University of Sheffield, England.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Augenstein, Isabelle
    University of Sheffield, England.
    Ciravegna, Fabio
    University of Sheffield, England.
    An Unsupervised Data-driven Method to Discover Equivalent Relations in Large Linked Datasets2017In: Semantic Web, ISSN 1570-0844, E-ISSN 2210-4968, Vol. 8, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses a number of limitations of state-of-the-art methods of Ontology Alignment: 1) they primarily address concepts and entities while relations are less well-studied; 2) many build on the assumption of the well-formedness of ontologies which is unnecessarily true in the domain of Linked Open Data; 3) few have looked at schema heterogeneity from a single source, which is also a common issue particularly in very large Linked Dataset created automatically from heterogeneous resources, or integrated from multiple datasets. We propose a domain-and language-independent and completely unsupervised method to align equivalent relations across schemata based on their shared instances. We introduce a novel similarity measure able to cope with unbalanced population of schema elements, an unsupervised technique to automatically decide similarity threshold to assert equivalence for a pair of relations, and an unsupervised clustering process to discover groups of equivalent relations across different schemata. Although the method is designed for aligning relations within a single dataset, it can also be adapted for cross-dataset alignment where sameAs links between datasets have been established. Using three gold standards created based on DBpedia, we obtain encouraging results from a thorough evaluation involving four baseline similarity measures and over 15 comparative models based on variants of the proposed method. The proposed method makes significant improvement over baseline models in terms of F1 measure (mostly between 7% and 40%), and it always scores the highest precision and is also among the top performers in terms of recall. We also make public the datasets used in this work, which we believe make the largest collection of gold standards for evaluating relation alignment in the LOD context.

  • 633.
    Zhang, Ziqi
    et al.
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Gentile, Anna Lisa
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Blomqvist, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Augenstein, Isabelle
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Ciravegna, Fabio
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Statistical Knowledge Patterns: Identifying Synonymous Relations in Large Linked Datasets2013In: The Semantic Web – ISWC 2013: 12th International Semantic Web Conference, Sydney, NSW, Australia, October 21-25, 2013, Proceedings, Part I, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, Vol. 8218, p. 703-719Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Web of Data is a rich common resource with billions of triples available in thousands of datasets and individual Web documents created by both expert and non-expert ontologists. A common problem is the imprecision in the use of vocabularies: annotators can misunderstand the semantics of a class or property or may not be able to find the right objects to annotate with. This decreases the quality of data and may eventually hamper its usability over large scale. This paper describes Statistical Knowledge Patterns (SKP) as a means to address this issue. SKPs encapsulate key information about ontology classes, including synonymous properties in (and across) datasets, and are automatically generated based on statistical data analysis. SKPs can be effectively used to automatically normalise data, and hence increase recall in querying. Both pattern extraction and pattern usage are completely automated. The main benefits of SKPs are that: (1) their structure allows for both accurate query expansion and restriction; (2) they are context dependent, hence they describe the usage and meaning of properties in the context of a particular class; and (3) they can be generated offline, hence the equivalence among relations can be used efficiently at run time.

  • 634.
    Ziegenbein, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Designing HTML5 2D platformer for web cam based motion games2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Movement interaction in games has over the last years been a main subject in the area of game design and recent motion based interaction systems provide many improvements over earlier systems. Research has proven that motion based games provide several benefits over general games, they increase the players’ engagement level and may induce both mental and physical health benefits. Still, not much research has been conducted in the area of motion based platform games, even though the platform game genre is one of the most popular game genres. In this thesis, a case study is conducted in order to extract design principles and guidelines applicable for motion based platform games. The study includes implementation of a browser-based 2D platform game that uses the web camera to provide motion based interaction. One of the conclusions in this study indicates that many game features from ordinary platform games only require minor modifications to be applicable for motion based platform games.

  • 635.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skövde.
    Czym jest to, co zwiemy ucieleśnieniem?: (What's that Thing Called Embodiment?)2015In: AVANT - Trends in Interdisciplinary Studies, ISSN 2082-6710, Vol. VI, no 3, p. 161-174Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodiment has become an important concept in many areas of cognitivescience. There are, however, very different notions of exactly what embodiment is andwhat kind of body is required for what type of embodied cognition. Hence, while manynowadays would agree that humans are embodied cognizers, there is much lessagreement on what kind of artifact could be considered embodied. This paper identifiesand contrasts six different notions of embodiment which can roughly be characterizedas (1) structural coupling between agent and environment, (2) historical embodimentas the result of a history of struct ural coupling, (3) physical embodiment,(4) organismoid embodiment, i.e. organism-like bodily form (e.g., humanoid robots),(5) organismic embodiment of autopoietic, living systems, and (6) social embodiment.

  • 636.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Interaction Lab, School of Informatics, University of Skövde, Skövde, Swede.
    The body of knowledge: On the role of the living body in grounding embodied cognition2016In: Biosystems (Amsterdam. Print), ISSN 0303-2647, E-ISSN 1872-8324, Vol. 148, p. 4-11Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Embodied cognition is a hot topic in both cognitive science and AI, despite the fact that there still is relatively little consensus regarding what exactly constitutes ‘embodiment’. While most embodied AI and cognitive robotics research views the body as the physical/sensorimotor interface that allows to ground computational cognitive processes in sensorimotor interactions with the environment, more biologically-based notions of embodied cognition emphasize the fundamental role that the living body – and more specifically its homeostatic/allostatic self-regulation – plays in grounding both sensorimotor interactions and embodied cognitive processes. Adopting the latter position – a multi-tiered affectively embodied view of cognition in living systems – it is further argued that modeling organisms as layered networks of bodily self-regulation mechanisms can make significant contributions to our scientific understanding of embodied cognition.

  • 637.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arvola, MattiasLinköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Dahlbäck, NilsLinköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Billing, ErikInstitutionen för informationsteknologi, Högskolan i Skövde.
    Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference: Linköping 2018, 11-12 October2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welcome to SweCog 2018 in Linköping!

    This booklet contains the program and short papers for oral and poster presentations at SweCog 2018, this year’s edition of the annual conference of the Swedish Cognitive Science Society. Following the SweCog tradition and its aim to support networking among researchers in cognitive science and related areas, contributions cover a wide spectrum of research.

    A trend in recent years, also reflected in this year’s conference program, is an increasing number of contributions that deal with different types of autonomous technologies, such as social robots, virtual agents or automated vehicles, and in particular people’s interaction with such systems. This clearly is a growing research area of high societal relevance, where cognitive science - with its interdisciplinary and human-centered approach - can make significant contributions.

    We look forward to two exciting days in Linköping, and we thank the many people who have contributed to the organization of this year’s SweCog conference, in particular of course all authors and reviewers! The organization of SweCog 2018 has been supported by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Department of Culture Communication (IKK), and the Department of Computer Information Science (IDA) at Linköpping University, as well as Cambio Healthcare Systems and Visual Sweden.

    Tom Ziemke, Mattias Arvola, Nils Dahlbäc and Erik Billing

  • 638.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Kristin E.
    US Army, MD USA.
    Endsley, Mica
    SA Technologies, CA USA.
    Situation awareness in human-machine interactive systems2017In: Cognitive Systems Research, ISSN 2214-4366, E-ISSN 1389-0417, Vol. 46Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue brings together six papers on situation awareness in human-machine interactive systems, in particular in teams of collaborating humans and artificial agents. The editorial provides a brief introduction and overviews the contributions, addressing issues such as team and shared situation awareness, trust, transparency, timing, engagement, and ethical aspects. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 639.
    Åhrén, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Mobilapplikationen som uppmuntrar barn till fysisk aktivitet: Framtagning av en konceptuell mobilapplikation som ska användas med aktivitetsarmbandet Lifee2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete har bestått av utvecklingen av en konceptuell mobilapplikation som ska uppmuntra barn till fysiskt aktiv lek. Arbetets involverade frågeställningar bestod av hur en mobilapplikation kan utformas för att uppmuntra barn till fysisk aktivitet, samt hur en mobilapplikation kan samverka med ett aktivitetsarmband för att förhöja användarupplevelsen. Utvecklingsarbetet har bestått av en produktutvecklingsprocess tidiga del, och har gått från förundersökning fram till skapandet av en high fidelity prototyp med tillhörande användartester. Produktutvecklingen har inkluderat human-centered design vilket har inneburit ett flertal tillfällen där barn, mellan 6 och 10 år gamla, har inkluderats i arbetet. Detta har påverkat de involverade metoderna samt resultatet.

    Arbetet resulterade i en konceptuell mobilapplikation där användaren kan ta hand om en figur med hjälp av poäng som samlats med fysisk aktivitet. Konceptet innehåller flera olika funktioner så som en affär där insamlade aktivitetspoäng kan spenderas, en garderob med ägda accessoarer, minispel i form av exergames och statistik över utförd fysisk ansträngning. För att förhöja användarens upplevelse av aktivitetsarmbandet skapades ett samband mellan detta och den konceptuella mobilapplikationen. Detta samband innebar att konceptets poäng samlas in med hjälp av armbandet för att sedan överföras till spelet med en synkroniseringsfunktion.

  • 640.
    Åkerstedt, Zandra
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Guided reflection in Simulator-Based Crisis Management Training: Examining the possibility to implement After Action Reviews in the CCRAAAFFFTING project2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Reflection is an important team learning activity, allowing team members to process feedback and to learn from experiences. Debriefing methods such as the After Action Review (AAR), proved to increase learning, can be used to guide teams through the process of reflection. This thesis, commissioned by the Creating Collaborative Resilience Awareness, Analysis and Action for Finance, Food and Fuel Systems in INteractive Games (CCRAAAFFFTING) project, aims to investigating how current post-exercise discussions within the CCRAAAFFFTING project support reflection and whether or not AAR could be implemented. This study used an explorative, semi-experimental research design, containing two conditions - the current post-exercise discussions (condition 1) and AAR’s (condition 2). Data was collected through observations and questionnaires. Due to issues regarding validity, data from questionnaires given to participants, as well as comparisons of participants' subjective experiences between the two conditions, could not be used to provide any support for choosing one post-exercise discussion over the other. However, observations showed that the current post-exercise discussion did not support reflection, thus, making it beneficial to implement AAR. Proper implementation of AAR could not only support team learning, but also organizational learning by facilitating the transference of knowledge back to participants home organizations. This transferred knowledge, if used right by the organizations, could help increased resilience. However, AAR cannot simply be implemented, and this thesis concludes with a list of identified recommendations.

  • 641.
    Öberg, Kim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    HORN - Hank and OpenDRIVE Road Networks: An editor for creating HANK scenarios while working with OpenDRIVE2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    HORN is a solution to the problem of how to implement scenarios in a more efficient way than was previously possible allowing researchers who wish to create scenarios for HANK the ability to quicker implement larger scenarios than was previously possible.

    OpenDRIVE is an open standard for road networks that is believed to be the way forward and Horn is an attempt at unifying OpenDRIVE scenarios with HANK - the driving simulator currently in use at Link\"{o}pings Universitet, thus futureproofing all work done to implement scenarios.

    Before HORN HANK scenarios were laboriously constructed with a really bad program or by hand and HORN tries to make the process far less painful.

    This thesis describes how to work with the Road Network Editor program HORN ("Hank and OpenDRIVE Road Networks") that was developed for working with HANK's scenarios as well as my experience implementing it and some of the fascinating rules for how to draw some exotic two dimensional geometries I found out about as I worked on HORN.

  • 642.
    Öhrström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Cluster Analysis with Meaning: Detecting Texts that Convey the Same Message2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Textual duplicates can be hard to detect as they differ in words but have similar semantic meaning. At Etteplan, a technical documentation company, they have many writers that accidentally re-write existing instructions explaining procedures. These "duplicates" clutter the database.

    This is not desired because it is duplicate work. The condition of the database will only deteriorate as the company expands. This thesis attempts to map where the problem is worst, and also how to calculate how many duplicates there are.

    The corpus is small, but written in a controlled natural language called Simplified Technical English. The method uses document embeddings from doc2vec and clustering by use of HDBSCAN* and validation using Density-Based Clustering Validation index (DBCV), to chart the problems. A survey was sent out to try to determine a threshold value of when documents stop being duplicates, and then using this value, a theoretical duplicate count was calculated.

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