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  • 651.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The Urk World: Hibernating Infrastructures and the Quest for Urban Mining2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis concerns urban mining, an umbrella term for different recycling strategies aimed to recover materials from the built environment. More specifically, it focuses on hibernating urban infrastructures, that is: cables and pipes that have been left behind in their subsurface location after they were disconnected. I term this subsurface urban realm of system rejects the “Urk World”. “Urk” is short for “urkopplad”, the Swedish word for “disconnected”, an abbreviation often found on old infrastructure maps denoting discarded system parts. Since urks contain high concentrations of copper, my normative stance is that the Urk World should be “mined” as a contribution towards diminishing the persistently wasteful handling of mineral resources in society.

    The thesis has three focus areas. The first of these discusses how the Urk World has emerged, that is: how the creation of urks is sustained in sociotechnical processes related to infrastructure’s provision. The second concerns the potential of urk mining, how much copper the Urk World contains, where these quantities are located and by which implications they could be recovered. The third focus area is devoted to the politics of urks, and is concerned with the political embeddedness of infrastructure and where politics might intervene for the sake of increased urk recovery.

    Five papers complete the thesis. The first paper investigates how much copper, aluminium and steel there is in the Urk World of the Swedish city of Norrköping, and how these quantities are spatially dispersed in the urban environment. The second paper is based on interviews with system owners and repair crews, and investigates how urks come into existence in relation to three different infrastructural processes: maintenance, larger installation projects and shutdown. The third paper describes how environmental systems analysis can be beneficially coupled with theories and methods from the social sciences to create knowledge useful to aid the development of urk recycling schemes. The fourth article makes use of the inherent ambiguities of urks to investigate a spectrum of locations where politics aimed for increased urk recovery can intervene as well as what is at stake there. The fifth and final paper investigates urks in Linköping’s power grid in spatial and weight terms, and analyses the implications of urk recovery from several different viewpoints.

    In overall terms, the major contribution of the thesis is how it improves the knowledge of societal stocks of materials, thereby giving an increased recognition of the built environment as a resource base. In overall scientific terms, it sets an example of how a coherent interdisciplinary research design can provide knowledge useful for the implementation of urk recycling schemes as well as for political decision–making for increased urk recovery.

    Delarbeid
    1. To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden
    Vise andre…
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, s. 103-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional mining, prospecting methods are used to increase the degree of certainty with regard to the stock of metals. Similarly, prospecting in terms of "urban mining" aims to increase the information about metal stocks available for recovery in the built environment. Infrastructure systems, such as for power supply and heating, are rich in copper, aluminum and iron (including steel). For a number of reasons, pipes and cables remain in the ground after being taken out of use or disconnected. This is also true for entire obsolete systems. In this paper, these infrastructures "cold spots" are viewed as hibernating stock with a significant potential for urban mining. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe infrastructure systems for AC and DC power, telecommunication, town gas and district heating in the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, have been quantified and spatially allocated with a GIS-based approach of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). About 20% of the total stock of aluminum and copper in these systems is found to be in hibernation. The findings also indicate that cables have been disconnected to a larger extent than pipes. As an example, cables for DC power, taken out of use in the late 1930s yet still in the ground, consist of 230 tonnes of copper. The results illustrate a clear tendency for larger stocks of hibernating copper and aluminum to be found in the central rather than the outer parts of the city. A reverse, ring-like pattern is true for iron, mostly because the central parts of the town gas pipes are used for fiber optics. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanParticular focus has been placed on the industrial area of Sodra Butangen, which is slated for redevelopment and re-zoning from industrial to residential. Since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes anyway, the entire metal stock can be taken into prospecting consideration. Analysis shows that the chances of finding aluminum here are 28 times higher than in the rest of the city. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe argue for an increased MFA focus on the heterogeneous complexity found in the details of the specific locale, rather than striving for generalized assumptions about the broader picture. In doing so, MFA could very well provide a tool for a future business line of urban mining of hibernating metal stocks.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2013
    Emneord
    Urban mining, Hibernation, Infrastructure cold spots, GIS, Metal stocks
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97230 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.05.041 (DOI)000322802300011 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA||

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-09-06 Laget: 2013-09-05 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 85-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Our societies are reliant on metals to such an extent that the total amounts of some of them in the built environment are comparable in size to the remaining amounts in known mountain ores. Because of concerns about mineral scarcity, the United Nations has assessed alternative sources for metal extraction and targeted urban areas in general and infrastructure systems in particular, since these are large, spatially concentrated and rich in metals. Referring to the possibility of recovering these metal stocks, infrastructure systems constitute what material flow researchers has conceptually termed “urban mines.” While most urban infrastructure is in use, significant amounts of cables and pipes have been disconnected and remain in their subsurface locations; they are “hibernating.” In this article, we analyze the occurrence of such hibernation in the Swedish city of Norrköping's urban infrastructure mine where, we know from a previous study, that every fourth kilo of infrastructure is discarded. Our applied perspective is different from the logic of system expansion as a way to meet increased demand often found in the field of infrastructure studies since we are interested in how systems are disconnected and left behind. This enables us to offer a refined understanding of the concepts of infrastructure “decline” and infrastructure “cold spots.” We argue that to prevent the increase of dormant infrastructures and to engage in the urban mining of already dormant infrastructures, we must develop a sensibility to the materiality of derelict infrastructure components and the underlying causes for why they form different kinds of spatial patterns.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Taylor & Francis, 2013
    Emneord
    Urban Mining; Urban Infrastructure; Infrastructure “Cold Spots;” Hibernation; Norrko¨ping
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98054 (URN)10.1080/10630732.2013.809222 (DOI)000324670300006 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-09-26 Laget: 2013-09-26 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    3. Toward Social Material Flow Analysis: On the Usefulness of Boundary Objects in Urban Mining Research
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Toward Social Material Flow Analysis: On the Usefulness of Boundary Objects in Urban Mining Research
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 742-752Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Material flow analysis (MFA) has been an effective tool to identify the scale of physical activity, the allocation of materials across economic sectors for different purposes, and to identify inefficiencies in production systems or in urban contexts. However, MFA relies on ignoring the social drivers of those flows to be able to perform its calculations. In many cases therefore, it remains detached from the processes (e.g., urban) that underpin them. This becomes a problem when the purpose of research is to inform the design of detailed recycling schemes, for which micro-level practice knowledge on how material flows are mediated by human agency is needed. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a particular social science approach, namely, infrastructure studies (IS), can be combined with MFA to enhance the latters potential as a decision support tool. To achieve a successful combination between IS and MFA, the object of inquiry must be carefully defined to function as a boundary object, which allows academic approaches to work together without the need for consensus. This approach is illustrated with a case study example in urban mining research that assesses the hibernating stock of subsurface urban infrastructure in Norrkoping, Sweden. It provides an example of how a well-calibrated MFA and a complementary social science approach can provide hands-on advice for private as well as public actors in a local and place-specific context. The article aims to advance the integration of social science and the study of the physical economy to contribute to the emerging field of social industrial ecology.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
    Emneord
    boundary objects; hibernating stocks; infrastructure; material flow analysis (MFA); science; technology and society (STS); urban mining
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122664 (URN)10.1111/jiec.12361 (DOI)000363267800006 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS; Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-16 Laget: 2015-11-13 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-01
    4. Urks and the Urban Subsurface as Geosocial Formation
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Urks and the Urban Subsurface as Geosocial Formation
    2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 827-848Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates “urks”, i.e., disconnected parts of urban infrastructure that remain in their subsurface location. The reason for engaging in this topic is resource scarcity concerns, as urks contain large amounts of copper and aluminum that could be “mined” for the benefit of the environment.

    Our starting point is that there is a certain non–stagnant capacity of waste–like entities such as urks and that their resistance to categorization is crucial to encapsulate their political potential (cf. Hawkins, 2006; Moore, 2012; Hird, 2013). We investigate how this indeterminate capacity has implications in terms of where future trajectories for urk recovery are conceivable.

    The study is based on interviews with respondents from the infrastructure and waste sectors in Sweden. By stressing the relationship between urks and their geo–social subsurface surroundings, we use the respondents’ exploratory interpretations of urks to outline a spectrum of issues that should be further discussed for urks to become a matter of concern. The negotiation of these issues, we suggest, can be conceived of as a form of navigation along the perceived fault lines between actors and priorities, and they must be resolved for increased urk recovery to occur.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Sage Publications, 2016
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122760 (URN)10.1177/0162243916634866 (DOI)000382579500003 ()
    Merknad

    The status of this article was previous Manuscript.

    Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (FORMAS); Swedish Innovation Agency (VINNOVA); Aforsk Foundation

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-11-20 Laget: 2015-11-20 Sist oppdatert: 2019-03-11bibliografisk kontrollert
    5. The economic conditions for urban infrastructure mining: Using GIS to prospect hibernating copper stocks
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>The economic conditions for urban infrastructure mining: Using GIS to prospect hibernating copper stocks
    2015 (engelsk)Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 103, s. 85-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we suggest a methodology that combines geographic information systems (GIS) and material flow analysis (MFA) into a secondary reserve-prospecting tool. The approach is two-phased and couples spatially informed size estimates of urban metal stocks (phase 1) to the equally spatially contingent efforts required to extract them (phase 2). Too often, even the most advanced MFA assessments stop at the first of these two phases, meaning that essential information needed to facilitate resource recovery, i.e., urban mining, is missing from their results. To take MFA one step further, our approach is characterized by a high resolution that connects the analysis of the stock to the social practices that arrange material flows in the city, thereby enabling an assessment of the economic conditions for secondary resource recovery.

    To exemplify, we provide a case study of the hibernation stock of copper found in disconnected power cables in Linköping, Sweden. Since 1970, 123 tonnes of copper or ≈1 kg per person have accumulated underneath the city, predominantly in old, central parts of the city and industrial areas. While shorter cables are more numerous than long ones, the longer ones contribute to a larger share of the stock weight. Resource recovery in specific projects reliant on digging comes at great costs, but integrating it as an added value to ordinary maintenance operations render eight locations and 2.2 tonnes of copper (2% of the stock) profitable to extract. Compared to the budget sizes of regular maintenance projects, the integrated recovery of a significant share of the stock comes with relatively small economic losses. Therefore, we suggest integrated resource recovery and regular maintenance as an interesting environmental measure for any infrastructure provider to engage with.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2015
    Emneord
    Urban mining, Hibernating stocks, Infrastructure, Material flow analysis, GIS, Economic assessment
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121463 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.025 (DOI)000362618600009 ()
    Prosjekter
    Städer som gruvor II: utveckling av affärsmässiga koncept genom implementering av pilotprojekt
    Forskningsfinansiär
    VINNOVA, 2013-03015
    Merknad

    Fundin text: Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS; Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-09-21 Laget: 2015-09-21 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-04
  • 652.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Toward Social Material Flow Analysis: On the Usefulness of Boundary Objects in Urban Mining Research2015Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 742-752Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Material flow analysis (MFA) has been an effective tool to identify the scale of physical activity, the allocation of materials across economic sectors for different purposes, and to identify inefficiencies in production systems or in urban contexts. However, MFA relies on ignoring the social drivers of those flows to be able to perform its calculations. In many cases therefore, it remains detached from the processes (e.g., urban) that underpin them. This becomes a problem when the purpose of research is to inform the design of detailed recycling schemes, for which micro-level practice knowledge on how material flows are mediated by human agency is needed. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how a particular social science approach, namely, infrastructure studies (IS), can be combined with MFA to enhance the latters potential as a decision support tool. To achieve a successful combination between IS and MFA, the object of inquiry must be carefully defined to function as a boundary object, which allows academic approaches to work together without the need for consensus. This approach is illustrated with a case study example in urban mining research that assesses the hibernating stock of subsurface urban infrastructure in Norrkoping, Sweden. It provides an example of how a well-calibrated MFA and a complementary social science approach can provide hands-on advice for private as well as public actors in a local and place-specific context. The article aims to advance the integration of social science and the study of the physical economy to contribute to the emerging field of social industrial ecology.

  • 653.
    Wallsten, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Underneath Norrköping: An Urban Mine of Hibernating Infrastructure2013Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the subsurface infrastructure in the Swedish city of Norrköping from an urban mining perspective. Urban mining is a broadly defined term for different strategies that regard the built environment as a resource base for materials. In this study, the focus is on three base metals that exist in large quantities in infrastructure parts: iron, copper and aluminium. A special focus is given to the parts of Norrköping’s infrastructure that are not in-use and thus constitute a ”hibernating stock” that contains recyclable metals.

    The main results of this study are twofold. First, a quantitative assessment of the hibernating stocks of urban infrastructure gives answers to how large the stocks are and where in Norrköping they are located. This was performed using a spatially informed Material Flow Analysis to arrive at a recycling potential in terms of weight and spatial concentration. Second, a qualitative assessment was made regarding how these hibernating stocks of urban infrastructure come into existence. An infrastructure studies perspective was used to outline three patterns with their own sets of ”hibernation” logics. These logics give rise to different prerequisites for the implementation of urban mining in practice.

    A main argument of this study’s cover essay is that both of the above outlined kinds of knowledge are needed to engage in urban mining with confidence. Thus, the main focus of the cover essay text is to describe how the two different perspectives of Material Flow Analysis and infrastructure studies were combined into a coherent research approach.

    Delarbeid
    1. To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden
    Vise andre…
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, s. 103-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional mining, prospecting methods are used to increase the degree of certainty with regard to the stock of metals. Similarly, prospecting in terms of "urban mining" aims to increase the information about metal stocks available for recovery in the built environment. Infrastructure systems, such as for power supply and heating, are rich in copper, aluminum and iron (including steel). For a number of reasons, pipes and cables remain in the ground after being taken out of use or disconnected. This is also true for entire obsolete systems. In this paper, these infrastructures "cold spots" are viewed as hibernating stock with a significant potential for urban mining. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe infrastructure systems for AC and DC power, telecommunication, town gas and district heating in the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, have been quantified and spatially allocated with a GIS-based approach of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). About 20% of the total stock of aluminum and copper in these systems is found to be in hibernation. The findings also indicate that cables have been disconnected to a larger extent than pipes. As an example, cables for DC power, taken out of use in the late 1930s yet still in the ground, consist of 230 tonnes of copper. The results illustrate a clear tendency for larger stocks of hibernating copper and aluminum to be found in the central rather than the outer parts of the city. A reverse, ring-like pattern is true for iron, mostly because the central parts of the town gas pipes are used for fiber optics. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanParticular focus has been placed on the industrial area of Sodra Butangen, which is slated for redevelopment and re-zoning from industrial to residential. Since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes anyway, the entire metal stock can be taken into prospecting consideration. Analysis shows that the chances of finding aluminum here are 28 times higher than in the rest of the city. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe argue for an increased MFA focus on the heterogeneous complexity found in the details of the specific locale, rather than striving for generalized assumptions about the broader picture. In doing so, MFA could very well provide a tool for a future business line of urban mining of hibernating metal stocks.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Elsevier, 2013
    Emneord
    Urban mining, Hibernation, Infrastructure cold spots, GIS, Metal stocks
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97230 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.05.041 (DOI)000322802300011 ()
    Merknad

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Innovation Agency, VINNOVA||

    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-09-06 Laget: 2013-09-05 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
    2. A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines
    Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines
    2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 85-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Our societies are reliant on metals to such an extent that the total amounts of some of them in the built environment are comparable in size to the remaining amounts in known mountain ores. Because of concerns about mineral scarcity, the United Nations has assessed alternative sources for metal extraction and targeted urban areas in general and infrastructure systems in particular, since these are large, spatially concentrated and rich in metals. Referring to the possibility of recovering these metal stocks, infrastructure systems constitute what material flow researchers has conceptually termed “urban mines.” While most urban infrastructure is in use, significant amounts of cables and pipes have been disconnected and remain in their subsurface locations; they are “hibernating.” In this article, we analyze the occurrence of such hibernation in the Swedish city of Norrköping's urban infrastructure mine where, we know from a previous study, that every fourth kilo of infrastructure is discarded. Our applied perspective is different from the logic of system expansion as a way to meet increased demand often found in the field of infrastructure studies since we are interested in how systems are disconnected and left behind. This enables us to offer a refined understanding of the concepts of infrastructure “decline” and infrastructure “cold spots.” We argue that to prevent the increase of dormant infrastructures and to engage in the urban mining of already dormant infrastructures, we must develop a sensibility to the materiality of derelict infrastructure components and the underlying causes for why they form different kinds of spatial patterns.

    sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
    Taylor & Francis, 2013
    Emneord
    Urban Mining; Urban Infrastructure; Infrastructure “Cold Spots;” Hibernation; Norrko¨ping
    HSV kategori
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98054 (URN)10.1080/10630732.2013.809222 (DOI)000324670300006 ()
    Tilgjengelig fra: 2013-09-26 Laget: 2013-09-26 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-06bibliografisk kontrollert
  • 654.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Carlsson, Annica
    Environmental Strategies Research- fms, Urban Planning and Environment, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frändegård, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Svanström, Stefan
    Department for Regions and Environment, Statistics Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden.
    To prospect an urban mine - assessing the metal recovery potential of infrastructure "cold spots" in Norrkoping, Sweden2013Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 55, s. 103-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In conventional mining, prospecting methods are used to increase the degree of certainty with regard to the stock of metals. Similarly, prospecting in terms of "urban mining" aims to increase the information about metal stocks available for recovery in the built environment. Infrastructure systems, such as for power supply and heating, are rich in copper, aluminum and iron (including steel). For a number of reasons, pipes and cables remain in the ground after being taken out of use or disconnected. This is also true for entire obsolete systems. In this paper, these infrastructures "cold spots" are viewed as hibernating stock with a significant potential for urban mining. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThe infrastructure systems for AC and DC power, telecommunication, town gas and district heating in the city of Norrkoping, Sweden, have been quantified and spatially allocated with a GIS-based approach of Material Flow Analysis (MFA). About 20% of the total stock of aluminum and copper in these systems is found to be in hibernation. The findings also indicate that cables have been disconnected to a larger extent than pipes. As an example, cables for DC power, taken out of use in the late 1930s yet still in the ground, consist of 230 tonnes of copper. The results illustrate a clear tendency for larger stocks of hibernating copper and aluminum to be found in the central rather than the outer parts of the city. A reverse, ring-like pattern is true for iron, mostly because the central parts of the town gas pipes are used for fiber optics. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanParticular focus has been placed on the industrial area of Sodra Butangen, which is slated for redevelopment and re-zoning from industrial to residential. Since the ground will be dug up for sanitation purposes anyway, the entire metal stock can be taken into prospecting consideration. Analysis shows that the chances of finding aluminum here are 28 times higher than in the rest of the city. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanWe argue for an increased MFA focus on the heterogeneous complexity found in the details of the specific locale, rather than striving for generalized assumptions about the broader picture. In doing so, MFA could very well provide a tool for a future business line of urban mining of hibernating metal stocks.

  • 655.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Johansson, Nils
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    A Cable Laid Is a Cable Played: On the Hibernation Logic behind Urban Infrastructure Mines2013Inngår i: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 20, nr 3, s. 85-103Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Our societies are reliant on metals to such an extent that the total amounts of some of them in the built environment are comparable in size to the remaining amounts in known mountain ores. Because of concerns about mineral scarcity, the United Nations has assessed alternative sources for metal extraction and targeted urban areas in general and infrastructure systems in particular, since these are large, spatially concentrated and rich in metals. Referring to the possibility of recovering these metal stocks, infrastructure systems constitute what material flow researchers has conceptually termed “urban mines.” While most urban infrastructure is in use, significant amounts of cables and pipes have been disconnected and remain in their subsurface locations; they are “hibernating.” In this article, we analyze the occurrence of such hibernation in the Swedish city of Norrköping's urban infrastructure mine where, we know from a previous study, that every fourth kilo of infrastructure is discarded. Our applied perspective is different from the logic of system expansion as a way to meet increased demand often found in the field of infrastructure studies since we are interested in how systems are disconnected and left behind. This enables us to offer a refined understanding of the concepts of infrastructure “decline” and infrastructure “cold spots.” We argue that to prevent the increase of dormant infrastructures and to engage in the urban mining of already dormant infrastructures, we must develop a sensibility to the materiality of derelict infrastructure components and the underlying causes for why they form different kinds of spatial patterns.

  • 656.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Urks and the Urban Subsurface as Geosocial Formation2016Inngår i: Science, Technology and Human Values, ISSN 0162-2439, E-ISSN 1552-8251, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 827-848Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates “urks”, i.e., disconnected parts of urban infrastructure that remain in their subsurface location. The reason for engaging in this topic is resource scarcity concerns, as urks contain large amounts of copper and aluminum that could be “mined” for the benefit of the environment.

    Our starting point is that there is a certain non–stagnant capacity of waste–like entities such as urks and that their resistance to categorization is crucial to encapsulate their political potential (cf. Hawkins, 2006; Moore, 2012; Hird, 2013). We investigate how this indeterminate capacity has implications in terms of where future trajectories for urk recovery are conceivable.

    The study is based on interviews with respondents from the infrastructure and waste sectors in Sweden. By stressing the relationship between urks and their geo–social subsurface surroundings, we use the respondents’ exploratory interpretations of urks to outline a spectrum of issues that should be further discussed for urks to become a matter of concern. The negotiation of these issues, we suggest, can be conceived of as a form of navigation along the perceived fault lines between actors and priorities, and they must be resolved for increased urk recovery to occur.

  • 657.
    Wallsten, Björn
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Magnusson, Dick
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema teknik och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Andersson, Simon
    Independent Scholar, Sweden.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    The economic conditions for urban infrastructure mining: Using GIS to prospect hibernating copper stocks2015Inngår i: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 103, s. 85-97Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we suggest a methodology that combines geographic information systems (GIS) and material flow analysis (MFA) into a secondary reserve-prospecting tool. The approach is two-phased and couples spatially informed size estimates of urban metal stocks (phase 1) to the equally spatially contingent efforts required to extract them (phase 2). Too often, even the most advanced MFA assessments stop at the first of these two phases, meaning that essential information needed to facilitate resource recovery, i.e., urban mining, is missing from their results. To take MFA one step further, our approach is characterized by a high resolution that connects the analysis of the stock to the social practices that arrange material flows in the city, thereby enabling an assessment of the economic conditions for secondary resource recovery.

    To exemplify, we provide a case study of the hibernation stock of copper found in disconnected power cables in Linköping, Sweden. Since 1970, 123 tonnes of copper or ≈1 kg per person have accumulated underneath the city, predominantly in old, central parts of the city and industrial areas. While shorter cables are more numerous than long ones, the longer ones contribute to a larger share of the stock weight. Resource recovery in specific projects reliant on digging comes at great costs, but integrating it as an added value to ordinary maintenance operations render eight locations and 2.2 tonnes of copper (2% of the stock) profitable to extract. Compared to the budget sizes of regular maintenance projects, the integrated recovery of a significant share of the stock comes with relatively small economic losses. Therefore, we suggest integrated resource recovery and regular maintenance as an interesting environmental measure for any infrastructure provider to engage with.

  • 658.
    Wang, Gaihua
    et al.
    Hubei Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Xiong, Wei
    Hubei Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Li, Yan
    Hubei Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Univ Southern Queensland, Australia.
    An improved non-local means filter for color image denoising2018Inngår i: Optik (Stuttgart), ISSN 0030-4026, E-ISSN 1618-1336, Vol. 173, s. 157-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-local means filter is a special case of non-linear filter. It performs well for filtering Gaussian noise while preserving edges and details of the original images. In this paper, we propose an improved filter for color image denoising based on combining the advantages of non-local means filter and bilateral filter. To compare the similarity of patches, a new weight value is computed by adding texture information into weights. The experimental results of color image filtering show that the proposed method has a better performance for reducing Gaussian noise and mixture noise.

  • 659.
    Wang, Jin
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China; Xian Univ Posts and Telecommun, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Jiahao
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China; Shaanxi Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Ren, Shan
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China; Xian Univ Posts and Telecommun, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Infinitely repeated game based real-time scheduling for low-carbon flexible job shop considering multi-time periods2020Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 247, artikkel-id 119093Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Production scheduling has great significance for optimizing tasks distribution, reducing energy consumption and mitigating environmental degradation. Currently, the research of production scheduling considering energy consumption mainly focuses on the traditional manufacturing workshop. With the wide application of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, the real-time data of manufacturing resources and production processes can be retrieved easily. These manufacturing data can provide opportunities for manufacturing enterprises to reduce energy consumption and enhance production efficiency. To achieve these targets, a multi-period production planning based real-time scheduling (MPPRS) approach for the loT-enabled low-carbon flexible job shop (LFJS) is presented in this study to carry out real-time scheduling based on the real-time manufacturing data. Then, the mathematical models of real-time scheduling are established to achieve production efficiency improvement and energy consumption reduction. To obtain a feasible solution, an infinitely repeated game optimization approach is used. Finally, a case study is implemented to analyse and discuss the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that in general, the proposed method can achieve better results than the existing dynamic scheduling methods. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 660.
    Wang, Jin
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China; Xian Aeronaut Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wu, Naiqi
    Macau Univ Sci and Technol, Peoples R China; Guangdong Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Multiagent and Bargaining-Game-Based Real-Time Scheduling for Internet of Things-Enabled Flexible Job Shop2019Inngår i: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. 2518-2531Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid advancement and widespread applications of information technology in the manufacturing shop floor, a huge amount of real-time data is generated, providing a good opportunity to effectively respond to unpredictable exceptions so that the productivity can be improved. Thus, how to schedule the manufacturing shop floor for achieving such a goal is very challenging. This paper addresses this issue and a new multiagent-based real-time scheduling architecture is proposed for an Internet of Things-enabled flexible job shop. Differing from traditional dynamic scheduling strategies, the proposed strategy optimally assigns tasks to machines according to their real-time status. A bargaining-game-based negotiation mechanism is developed to coordinate the agents so that the problem can be efficiently solved. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed architecture and scheduling method, a proof-of-concept prototype system is implemented with Java agent development framework platform. A case study is used to test the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method. Through simulation and comparison, it is shown that the proposed method outperforms the traditional dynamic scheduling strategies in terms of makespan, critical machine workload, and total energy consumption.

  • 661.
    Wasserbaur, Raphael
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Spurring remanufacturing through public procurement: A case study in the Swedish automotive industry2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this early stage research is to is to understand how municipalities through public procurement can influence the scale-up of remanufacturing of spare parts in the automotive industry. We present an early assessment of the potential of remanufacturing to cover the spare parts demands of municipalities. The applied methods included interviews as well as a literature review on green public procurement and on remanufacturing in the automotive sector. The results show that current management of car fleets in the analysed Swedish municipalities is not leading to demand for remanufactured spare parts. We suggest that if the public sector wants to spur this aspect of circular economy, car fleets need to be managed differently and holistic assessments like lifecycle costing and lifecycle analysis should be part of the public procurement process.

  • 662.
    Wasserbaur, Raphael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Analysing interplays between PSS business models and governmental policies towards a circular economy2018Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, 2018, Vol. 73, s. 130-136Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Insights about the interplay between business models of an enterprise and policies by governments in a circular economy (CE) context are limited. To fill the gap, this paper aims to analyse and learn from the interplays reported in the literature beyond the CE context. It focuses on product/service system (PSS) business models, and uses a systematic literature review. Six types of policies and nine components of a PSS business model are introduced in the analysis. Results show that frequently observed types of interplays are regulatory policies versus value proposition, revenue model, and cost model; economic policies versus revenue model and cost model. On the other hand, rarely reported types are the interplays with three types of polices co-regulation, information-based, and agreement-based policies. Future research includes broadening the scope in order to get a more complete picture as well as relating the proposed approach to the current EU context.

  • 663.
    Wasserbaur, Raphael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Extending environmental impact assessments of consumer products with System Dynamics2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impact of a product depends on a variety of factors. In this paper, existing assessments are extended through the system dynamics methodology. A conceptual model was developed that contains several factors influencing on the use of washing machine and related CO2e-emissions. A stock and flow diagram allows for a streamlined environmental impact assessment of washing machines in households. The results show that both, wash frequency of households and the development of the energy consumption of washing machines are crucial factors for lowering future CO2e-emissions in the washing machines industry, whereas the sharing of washing machines did not show significant impact.

  • 664.
    Wasserbaur, Raphael
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    System analysis including aspects of governmental policies, business models and product/service design2019Inngår i: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier B.V. , 2019, Vol. 83, s. 32-37Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    For todays transformation towards a circular and resource-efficient economy, an understanding is needed of how changes in socio-technical systems affect resource efficiency (RE). This paper suggests an approach to analyse the RE of socio-technical systems and the related Product-Service Systems (PSSs). A conceptual framework consisting of elements of business models, governmental policies and product and service design is developed. Laundry practices in Sweden serve as the context for a case study. The results indicate that asset sharing is most resource-efficient to facilitate domestic laundry practices, followed by PSSs and individual ownership coming last. This type of analysis helps to understand the role of PSS for RE. Future research focuses on dynamic modelling of socio-technical systems and their impact on RE. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 665.
    Whalen, Joann
    et al.
    McGill University, Canada.
    (Chunbao) Xu, Charles
    Western University, Canada.
    Shen, Fei
    Sichuan Agriculture University, Peoples R China.
    Kumar, Amit
    University of Alberta, Canada.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Editorial Material: Sustainable biofuel production from forestry, agricultural and waste biomass feedstocks in APPLIED ENERGY, vol 198, issue , pp 281-2832017Inngår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 198, s. 281-283Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 666.
    Wibeck, Victoria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Avdelningen för studier av vuxenutbildning, folkbildning och högre utbildning (VUFo).
    Öberg, Gunilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Learning in focus groups: An analytical dimension for enhancing focus group research2007Inngår i: Qualitative Research, ISSN 1468-7941, E-ISSN 1741-3109, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 249-267Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus group is a research methodology in which a small group of participants gathers to discuss a specified issue under the guidance of a moderator. The discussions are tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed. Notably, the interaction between focus group participants has seldom been evaluated, analysed or discussed in empirical research. We argue that considering the focus group in light of current research into interaction in problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial groups would facilitate the deliberate exploitation of group processes in designing focus groups, staging data collection and analysing and interpreting data. When the analytical focus shifts from mere content analysis to an analysis of what the participants themselves are trying to learn, one can explore not only what the participants are talking about, but also how they are trying to understand and conceptualise the issue under discussion. © 2007 Sage Publications.

  • 667.
    Widgren, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    UNANSWERED QUESTIONS IN CONCEPTUAL DESIGN TOWARDS CIRCULAR ECONOMY2016Inngår i: DS 84: PROCEEDINGS OF THE DESIGN 2016 14TH INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-4, DESIGN SOC , 2016, s. 571-578Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 668.
    Wiesner, Stefan
    et al.
    University of Bremen, BIBA – Bremer Institut für Produktion und Logistik GmbH, Germany.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Thoben, Klaus-Dieter
    University of Bremen, Faculty of Production Engineering, Germany.
    Integrating Requirements Engineering for Different Domains in System Development: Lessons Learnt from Industrial SME Cases2017Inngår i: Procedia CIRP: 9th CIRP IPSS Conference: Circular Perspectives on PSS / [ed] Tim C. McAloone, Daniela C.A. Pigosso, Niels Henrik Mortensen and Yoshiki Shimomura, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, s. 351-356Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a trending transition for companies from offering products to solutions in order to fulfill better customer needs and to reduce environmental impact by e.g. dematerialization. This solution-based development has an associated integration of intelligent devices that contributes to increasing system complexity. The ability of systems engineering processes, methods and tools to cope with these developments is a critical factor for manufacturing companies today. Still, in many cases it is hard to find adequately trained people and sufficiently integrated development tools for complex solutions, especially in the case of small and medium sized enterprises. Often, the tangible (hardware) part of the solution is primarily developed and the intangible parts (software and services) are added on top. However, key for a successful development is to adapt and integrate all parts according to the requirements set for the solution. Thus, it is essential how requirements are worked with during systems engineering and how they influence the development of the tangible and intangible parts of the solution. The objective of this paper is to study the approach of different industrial use cases for requirements engineering in system development. The aim is to identify how practices from domains like mechanical engineering, software or service engineering can be adapted for an integrated requirements engineering for complex systems, like product-service systems.

  • 669.
    Wiktor, Mårten
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Johansson, Izabelle
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Using LCA and LCC in Planning Industrial Symbiosis: A study of the handling of sewage sludge in Malmö, Sweden2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage sludge is currently being disposed by spreading it out on fields, an action that recycles important nutrients such as phosphorus, but also leads to heavy metal contamination. With impeding regulation changes, possibly making it harder or impossible to keep current practice, waste water treatment plants are reviewing their options. One solution could be mono-incineration with phosphorus recovery. However, to make the sludge have a heating value high enough to avoid support fuel it needs to be thermally dried, which requires large amounts of heat. Moreover, large investments would have to be made, creating a more complex system than the current one. Industrial symbiosis could be the solution for making it both more economically and environmentally sustainable and possible, as it is possible to utilise waste heat for the drying, and collaborating with a waste incineration company to incinerate the sludge. Setting up an industrial symbiosis exchange is not always simple; knowing who benefits from what, and who should pay for what investment can be complicated. Moreover, it is often assumed that industrial symbiosis exchanges are environmentally sustainable, but it is not always the case.

    To better understand how costs should be allocated, and how exchanges should look to be both economically and environmentally sustainable, the methods life cycle analysis (LCA) and life cycle cost analysis (LCC) are suitable to use, as they allow a full view of the system, which can be broken down into different processes. The aim of this study is to see how LCA and LCC can be used on a planned symbiosis project to assess environmental and economical impacts. The results that were found was that using waste heat instead of primary produced heat was not necessarily better, both economically and environmentally in the categories acidification, eutrophication, and global warming potential. If the drying could take place solely during warmer months, through use of storage, then the heat could be produced through waste incineration, creating electricity to sell and replace marginal electricity. There was no clear cut answer to which scenario was better of the thirteen looked at in this study, as different scenarios were better in different categories, which proved the necessity of doing an LCA and a LCC, or similar methods. Moreover, the larger investments were not always the most profitable, even in the best economical scenario, showing the risk of unequal cost distribution. Similarly, the best scenario to avoid global warming potential involved using storage of dried sludge, increasing emissions for the one responsible for the storage, whilst decreasing emissions for incineration substantially.

    In summary, performing a LCA and a LCC on a planned symbiosis exchange can both show how different choices affect different categories, and help mitigate risks of uneven distribution of both costs and emissions.

  • 670.
    Wilewska-Bien, Magda
    et al.
    Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Reception of sewage in the Baltic Sea: The port's role in the sustainable management of ship wastes2018Inngår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 93, s. 207-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2019, the special area requirements under MARPOL 73/78 Annex IV will come into effect in the Baltic Sea.This puts pressure on ports to develop reception facilities for sewage from passenger ships. This paper is built ona review of published information about the ports´ work to update sewage reception facilities and the results ofan e-mail questionnaire that was sent to a number of ports in the region, and interviews with environmentalmanagers from two major ports in the region. During the last 15 years, major investments have been made inport reception facilities in many passenger ports. However, there are still diverging views on the question if theport waste reception capacity in the region is sufficient. A few ports have for a long time been dominant asregards the reception of sewage in the Baltic Sea region, but recent increases in the ports´ waste receptioncapacity have predominantly occurred in smaller ports. This has been brought about by a replacement of mobilemeans for sewage collection with fixed connection systems or an increase of capacity of existing fixed connectionsystems. Following HELCOM recommendation, the majority of the ports have introduced a no-special-fee systembut there are differences in how this is applied.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2020-05-09 14:13
  • 671.
    Willman, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik.
    Möjligheterna för teknikkonsultföretag att bidra till positiv indirekt miljöpåverkan: En studie hur teknikkonsultföretag kan genomföra fler miljörelaterade uppdrag2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As the environmental requirements on businesses increase from various stakeholders, the incentives for businesses to work more with environmental issues also increase. Historically, the requirements were focusing on companies with direct emissions from operations. Lately, the environmental impacts that occur indirectly as results of corporate activities have become more topical. Companies and organizations that mainly offer services often have a greater indirect than direct environmental impact. This is because they are affecting third parties, which in turn have a direct environmental impact. Technology consultancy companies are affecting the environment indirectly through their assignments and services that affect the customers' businesses or products which in turn cause environmental impact. Thus, it is interesting to study how technology consultancy companies can increase the positive indirect environmental impact. 

    The purpose of this work is to study how technology consultancy companies can increase their indirect positive impact on the environment and at the same time generate more revenue by offering environmental services. 

    Combitech is a technology consultancy company operating within many areas. Some years ago, Combitech adopted a strategy aimed at strengthening the environmental profile of the company. This has resulted in that Combitech have also launched an environmental education for all employees. Furthermore, the company has established a target implying that 10 % of all assignments towards customers will lead to environmental improvements. The objective requires that the company is accomplishing more environmental contracts with customers. However, this is not so easy for a company that traditionally has not offered environmental consulting services to any greater extent. Therefore, it is interesting for Combitech to identify the right strategy in order to sell more environmental services. This work is based on a case study that is focusing on Combitech. 

    The methods implemented to answer the purpose in this work are of qualitative kind. Literature studies were first conducted for studying previous research in the area. This was followed by document studies, interviews, and observations internally at Combitech in order to investigate the company's current situation. The major part of this work was the interview process with Combitech’s customers to examine their approach to environmental management and environmental services. Based on a benchmarking of competing companies’ environmental profiles, Combitech’s current environmental work and responses from client interviews, an analysis was made to identify what activities and actions Combitech could implement in order to sell more environmental services. Then, the results were discussed in a broader perspective in order to distinguish how much that is generalizable to other technology consultancy companies. 

    There are varying interests among customers regarding environment related issues. There is currently a great gap of knowledge and experience at Combitech regarding environment. By training the personnel within environmental related issues the competence gap will be reduced. Sellers and business developers who hold environmental expertise can help educate customers about environmental services that suit the specific client's business. Combitech should initially focus on selling environmental services to existing customers where framework agreements exists and also to the customers of smaller sizes where Combitech acting as the single or one of the few consulting firms. This is because Combitech in these situations has an advantage over competing consulting firms which may not quote without a framework agreement or that do not have existing cooperation with a customer who is Combitech’s existing customer. The key for selling more environmental related services is to offer customers tailor made services that suits the unique demand of different customers.

  • 672.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: An explorative approach2007Inngår i: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, Vol. 16, nr 6, s. 442-455Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate an approach for initiating development of a local industrial symbiosis network. By maintaining the broad perspective of industrial symbiosis, which includes both material and energy flow analysis, and also taking into account the internal energy use and possibilities for energy savings, we aim to achieve a better system view that avoids both sub-optimizations and unhealthy dependencies. The approach is applied to a case based on the cooperation between the forest industry, municipality and energy service company in a small town in southern Sweden. Several possibilities for improving material and energy use by increasing integration were identified. It was concluded that it is important to have a genuine knowledge of the system studied and close contact with the actors involved, since a simple analysis of energy and material flows is not sufficient to decide which solutions might be more advantageous. It is also important to have a flexible system boundary looking at the system from different perspectives and at different levels to find the best uses for existing energy and material streams.

  • 673.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för konstruktions- och produktionsteknik, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Developing integration in a local industrial ecosystem: Human dimensionsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the human dimensions of improving energy and material-use efficiency of a system through increased integration and exchange between local actors. The results are based on a case study of a Swedish municipality with developed forest industry. The actors' views are discussed together with the most important factors to enable increased integration and exchange to take place. The greatest barriers found were lack of knowledge and resources, attitudes, time frames, development consent, and lack of continuity and local power for some companies. One conclusion is that the municipal authority could have a role as coordinator of local integration projects. However, tius role can be impeded by the weak integration of different divisions in the municipality's organisation and it is suggested that companies with integration as their business concept can be key actors when developing more integrated networks. It was also clear that intra-organisational issues may impede inter-organisational integration.

  • 674.
    Wolf, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Towards cooperation in industrial symbiosis: considering the importance of the human dimension2005Inngår i: Progress in Industrial Ecology – An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 185-199Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the human dimensions of improving energy and material-use efficiency of a system through increased integration and exchange between local actors. The results are based on a case study of a Swedish municipality with a developed forest industry. The actors' views are discussed together with the most important factors to enable increased integration and for exchange to take place. The greatest barriers found were the lack of knowledge and resources, attitudes, time frames, development consent, and lack of continuity and local power for some companies. One conclusion is that the municipal authority could have a role as coordinator of local integration projects. However, this role can be impeded by the weak integration of different divisions in the municipality's organisation and it is suggested that companies with integration as their business concept can be key actors when developing more integrated networks. It was also clear that intraorganisational issues may impede interorganisational integration.

  • 675.
    Xie, Kefan
    et al.
    Wuhan Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Mei, Yanlan
    Wuhan Univ Technol, Peoples R China; Wuhan Inst Technol, Peoples R China.
    Gui, Ping
    Wuhan Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Early-warning analysis of crowd stampede in metro station commercial area based on internet of things2019Inngår i: Multimedia tools and applications, ISSN 1380-7501, E-ISSN 1573-7721, Vol. 78, nr 21, s. 30141-30157Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Crowd stampede has attracted significant attention of emergency management researchers in recent years. Early-warning of crowd stampede in metro station commercial area is discussed in this paper under the context of Internet of Things (IoT). Metro station commercial area is one of the entity carriers of E-commerce. IOT is a new concept of realizing intelligent sense, monitoring, tracking and management, which can be used in early-warning analysis of crowd stampede in metro station. Stampede risk early-warning in commercial area plays an important role in ensuring the operation of e-commerce online. Firstly, the laws and characteristics of the crowd movement in the commercial area of metro station are studied, which include the laeuna effect, block effect and aggravation effect. Secondly, the early-warning paradigm is constructed from four dimensions, ie. function, modules, principle and process. And then, under the IOT environment, the AHPsort II is applied to integrate the early-warning information and classify the stampede risk level. Finally, the paper takes the commercial area of Wuhan A metro station as an example to verify the practicability and effectiveness of the AHPsort II application to early-warning of crowd stampede in metro station commercial area.

  • 676.
    Yadav, Gunjan
    et al.
    VJTI, India.
    Luthra, Sunil
    State Inst Engn and Technol, India.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Univ Tennessee, TN 37996 USA.
    Mangla, Sachin Kumar
    Univ Plymouth, England.
    Narkhede, Balkrishna Eknath
    NITIE, India.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Development of a lean manufacturing framework to enhance its adoption within manufacturing companies in developing economies2020Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 245, artikkel-id 118726Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The urgent need to reduce negative corporate environmental impacts while enhancing their financial strength and positive societal benefits is attracting company leaders to implement various quality improvement systems such as lean manufacturing, six sigma, sustainable manufacturing, and circular economy concepts, approaches and technologies. All of these approaches are valuable, with Lean Manufacturing (LM) among the leading systems, if implemented within an appropriate framework. In that context, the objective of the authors was to document the drivers for improving implementation of LM within manufacturing companies. Implementation of LM practices is already providing competitive advantages such as improvements in product quality, productivity, worker health and safety and customer satisfaction in developed countries but has not been widely implemented in companies in developing countries. To help to enhance implementation of LM in developing countries, the authors developed a framework for enhancing the adoption of lean manufacturing processes in such companies. The hybrid Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP)- Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) tools were used as the framework to identify and to quantify the interrelationships among the drivers for implementation of LM. This hybrid approach facilitated documentation of the relative importance and priority of the thirty-one lean manufacturing drivers. The results revealed that improved shop-floor management, quality management, and manufacturing strategy drivers were among the most critical drivers, which enhance LM adoption. These findings are beneficial for company leaders and researchers working to improve environmental, economic and societal health, especially within companies in developing countries. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 677.
    Zhang, Abraham
    et al.
    Auckland Univ Technol, New Zealand; Excelsia Coll, Australia; Indiana Wesleyan Univ, Australia.
    Venkatesh, V. G.
    Ecole Management Normandie, France.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Wan, Ming
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qu, Ting
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Univ Tennessee, TN USA.
    Barriers to smart waste management for a circular economy in China2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 240, artikkel-id UNSP 118198Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management requires a new vision and drastic improvements for a transition to a zero-waste circular economy. In reality, however, many economies are producing more and more waste, which poses a serious challenge to environmental sustainability. The problem is enormously complex as it involves a variety of stakeholders, demands behavioral changes, and requires a complete rethinking of the current waste management systems and the dominant linear economic model. Smart enabling technologies can aid in a transformation of waste management toward a circular economy, but many barriers persist. This study first shortlists twelve important barriers to smart waste management in China based on interviews with experienced practitioners. It then prioritizes these barriers through a scientific prioritization technique, fuzzy Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL), based on the survey data from three representative stakeholders. It identified three key causal barriers: the lack of regulatory pressures, the lack of environmental education and culture of environmental protection, and the lack of market pressures and demands. Practical and theoretical implications were discussed based on the research results and findings. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 678.
    Zhang, Fanshun
    et al.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Cejun
    Chongqing Technol and Business Univ, Peoples R China; Tianjin Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Congdong
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Univ Tennessee, TN USA.
    A systematic review of recent developments in disaster waste management2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 235, s. 822-840Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disaster waste management received increasing attention in recent years, but there was no review updating the evolving development after the study of Brown et al. (2011a). To explore how the topics in disaster waste management evolved in recent years and to analyze whether the gaps identified by Brown et al. (2011a) are covered, 82 papers published from 2011 to 2019 were selected from the Scopus database based on the defined process and criteria. This paper systematically examines the disaster waste management research from nine aspects of planning, waste, waste treatment options, environment, economics, social considerations, organizational aspects, legal frameworks and funding. The results suggested that there were no obvious changes or developments in the field of disaster waste management, although a few research gaps have been addressed, such as waste separation, waste quantities, case studies of incineration and waste to energy, direct economic effects, social considerations as well as application of GIS technology. Except for the comparative studies, future directions were suggested by the gaps that persist since Brown et al. (2011a) and the new gaps that were identified in this review. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2021-06-22 15:27
  • 679.
    Zhang, Kai
    et al.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Qu, Ting
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhou, Dajian
    Guangdong Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Thurer, Matthias
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Nie, Duxian
    South China Agr Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Congdong
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huang, George Q.
    Jinan Univ, Peoples R China; Univ Hong Kong, Peoples R China.
    IoT-enabled dynamic lean control mechanism for typical production systems2019Inngår i: Journal of Ambient Intelligence and Humanized Computing, ISSN 1868-5137, E-ISSN 1868-5145, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 1009-1023Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The emergence and subsequent popularization of lean has been one of the most significant developments in the history of operations management. However, there is a lack of systematic theory on the control framework underlying lean production. It is therefore difficult to conduct more in-depth research on Lean theory, specifically in the context of emerging technologies as smart manufacturing or Industry 4.0. In this study, process control theory is used to re-define several major lean methods and tools. Then a Lean-Oriented Optimum-State Control Theory (L-OSCT) is proposed that integrates these lean methods and tools into optimum-state control theory. On the level of method and mechanism, we adopt a recently emerged synchronization approach to obtain global-wide leanness of a large-scale system. L-OSCT provides dynamic process control in industrial networking systems. At last, a case study in a large-size paint making company in China is used to validate the effectiveness of the approach.

  • 680.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Sichao
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China; KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Yang, Haidong
    Guangdong Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Li, Miao
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Huisingh, Donald
    Univ Tennessee, TN USA.
    Wang, Lihui
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sweden.
    The Internet of Things enabled real-time scheduling for remanufacturing of automobile engines2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 185, s. 562-575Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Typical challenges that managers of remanufacturing face are composed of the lack of timely, accurate, and consistent information of remanufacturing resources. Therefore, it is difficult to implement real-time production scheduling for the shop floor. To address this problem, the authors applied the concept of the Internet of Things to the remanufacturing of automobile engines to form an Internet of Manufacturing Things environment. Under the Internet of Manufacturing Things, an identification technology for disassembled engine parts was designed, and the real-time status of the remanufacturable resources can be monitored. Based on the captured remanufacturing information, a real-time production scheduling method was developed, and a mathematical model was developed to achieve cost reduction, dynamic management of remanufacturable resources, and energy consumption decrease. To obtain an optimal solution, a Pareto-based optimization method was used. Finally, a case study was performed to analyze the effectivity of the proposed method. The results showed that the remanufacturing cost and energy consumption were reduced by 34% and 34% respectively, and the worker load rate was more balanced. These improvements can contribute to more sustainable development and greener production within the remanufacturing industry, especially for remanufacturing of automobile engines. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 681.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China; Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Ma, Shuaiyin
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Haidong
    Guangdong Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Lv, Jingxiang
    Northwestern Polytech Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    A big data driven analytical framework for energy-intensive manufacturing industries2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 197, s. 57-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy-intensive industries account for almost 51% of energy consumption in China. A continuous improvement in energy efficiency is important for energy-intensive industries. Cleaner production has proven itself as an effective way to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy consumption. However, there is a lack of manufacturing data due to the difficult implementation of sensors in harsh production environment, such as high temperature, high pressure, high acid, high alkali, and smoky environment which hinders the implementation of the cleaner production strategy. Thanks to the rapid development of the Internet of Things, many data can be sensed and collected in the manufacturing processes. In this paper, a big data driven analytical framework is proposed to reduce the energy consumption and emission for energy-intensive manufacturing industries. Then, two key technologies of the proposed framework, namely energy big data acquisition and energy big data mining, are utilized to implement energy big data analytics. Finally, an application scenario of ball mills in a pulp workshop of a partner company is presented to demonstrate the proposed framework. The results show that the energy consumption and energy costs are reduced by 3% and 4% respectively. These improvements can promote the implementation of cleaner production strategy and contribute to the sustainable development of energy intensive manufacturing industries. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 682.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Ren, Shan
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Huisingh, Donald
    University of Tennessee, TN USA.
    A framework for Big Data driven product lifecycle management2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 159, s. 229-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Optimization of the process of product lifecycle management is an increasingly important objective for manufacturing enterprises to improve their sustainable competitive advantage. Originally, this approach was developed to integrate the business processes of an organization and more effectively manage and utilize the data generated during lifecycle studies. With emerging technologies, product embedded information devices such as radio frequency identification tags and smart sensors are widely used to improve the efficiency of enterprises routine management on an operational level. Manufacturing enterprises need a more advanced analysis approach to develop a solution on a strategic level from using such lifecycle Big Data. However, the application of Big Data in lifecycle faces several challenges, such as the lack of reliable data and valuable knowledge that can be employed to support the optimized decision-making of product lifecycle management. In this paper, a framework for Big Data driven product lifecycle management was proposed to address these challenges. Within the proposed framework, the availability and accessibility of data and knowledge related to lifecycle can be achieved. A case study was presented to demonstrate the proof-of-concept of the proposed framework. The results showed that the proposed framework was feasible to be adopted in industry, and can provide an overall solution for optimizing the decision-making processes in different phases of the whole lifecycle. The key findings and insights from the case study were summarized as managerial implications, which can guide manufacturers to ensure improvements in energy saving and fault diagnosis related decisions in the whole lifecycle. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 683.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, PR China.
    Ren, Shan
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, PR China; Department of Mechanical Engineering, Honghe University, Yunnan, PR China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Department of Production, University of Vaasa, Vaasa, Finland.
    Si, Shubin
    Key Laboratory of Contemporary Design and Integrated Manufacturing Technology, Ministry of Education, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Shaanxi, PR China.
    A big data analytics architecture for cleaner manufacturing and maintenance processes of complex products2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 142, nr 2, s. 626-641Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaner production (CP) is considered as one of the most important means for manufacturing enterprises to achieve sustainable production and improve their sustainable competitive advantage. However, implementation of the CP strategy was facing barriers, such as the lack of complete data and valuable knowledge that can be employed to provide better support on decision-making of coordination and optimization on the product lifecycle management (PLM) and the whole CP process. Fortunately, with the wide use of smart sensing devices in PLM, a large amount of real-time and multi-source lifecycle big data can now be collected. To make better PLM and CP decisions based on these data, in this paper, an overall architecture of big data-based analytics for product lifecycle (BDA-PL) was proposed. It integrated big data analytics and service-driven patterns that helped to overcome the above-mentioned barriers. Under the architecture, the availability and accessibility of data and knowledge related to the product were achieved. Focusing on manufacturing and maintenance process of the product lifecycle, and the key technologies were developed to implement the big data analytics. The presented architecture was demonstrated by an application scenario, and some observations and findings were discussed in details. The results showed that the proposed architecture benefited customers, manufacturers, environment and even all stages of PLM, and effectively promoted the implementation of CP. In addition, the managerial implications of the proposed architecture for four departments were analyzed and discussed. The new CP strategy provided a theoretical and practical basis for the sustainable development of manufacturing enterprises.

  • 684.
    Zhang, Yingfeng
    et al.
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China; Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Geng
    Northwestern Polytech University, Peoples R China.
    Qu, Ting
    Jinan University, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Jinan University, Peoples R China; University of Vaasa, Finland.
    Zhong, Ray Y.
    University of Auckland, New Zealand.
    Analytical target cascading for optimal configuration of cloud manufacturing services2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 151, s. 330-343Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining with advanced technologies (e.g., cloud computing, Internet of Things, and service-oriented technology), cloud manufacturing was proposed and gained wide attention. By managing a huge amount of distributed and idle manufacturing resources to meet various manufacturing requirements, cloud manufacturing provides sustainable means for promoting cleaner production. Manufacturing service configuration plays an important role in implementing cloud manufacturing. Most research adopted central optimization methods to get optimal service configuration results. However, these all-in-one methods with an individual decision model can hardly maintain the autonomous decision rights of different service providers. Consequently, service providers may lose their flexibility to achieve private decision objectives, which is unfavorable for keeping the sustainable competitive advantages of enterprises. In this paper, a decentralized decision mechanism named analytical target cascading is introduced to solve the manufacturing service configuration problem. An analytical target cascading model for the manufacturing service configuration problem is proposed based on the hierarchical structure of cloud manufacturing system. Elements in the proposed model are formulated and solved in a loose coupling and distributed manner. The situation when alternative service providers owned autonomous decision rights to configure their respective upstream manufacturing stages is also considered. A case study is employed to verify the effectiveness of analytical target cascading in solving the manufacturing service configuration problem. It shows that analytical target cascading can not only obtain the same manufacturing service configuration results as central optimization method but also maintain the autonomous decision rights of different service providers. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 685.
    Zhang, Yongping
    et al.
    School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, 12633 Beijing China.
    Tao, Fei
    School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, 12633 Beijing China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Zhang, Pengyuan
    School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing China.
    Cheng, Ying
    School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing China.
    Zuo, Ying
    School of Automation Science and Electrical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing China.
    Long/short-term utility aware optimal selection of manufacturing service composition towards Industrial Internet platform2019Inngår i: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 3712-3722Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As numerous Industrial Internet platforms emerge, manufacturing services are shared among multiple stakeholders more frequently than ever. The optimal selection of shared manufacturing service composition (MSC) should both promise the task completion and the stakeholders’ satisfaction. However, as commercial entities, stakeholders concentrate on not only the temporary benefits but also the long-term acquisitions. Most of the existing MSC problems neglect the stakeholders’ prospect on the manufacturing service sharing. This leads to the disappointment and dissatisfaction of the stakeholders with long-term expectations, who will abandon the participation in Industrial Internet platform. Therefore, the long/short-term preferences of various stakeholders should be satisfied and balanced. In this paper, the long/short-term preferences of three sides (provider, consumer, and operator) are discussed. And the models considering short-term utility of a consumer and long-term utility of providers, are established. The potential tasks assigned to providers are taken into account to estimate the long-term utility if the current task is accepted. Then, to solve the bi-objective optimization problem, an improved Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II algorithm, combining Tabu search and improved K-means mechanism, is proposed to find the optimal solution set. Finally, the effectiveness of the method is verified by the experimental results in terms of solution diversity, astringency and stability, in which a finding is further observed that the changes of consumers’ preferences have little impact on the long-term utility of providers.

  • 686.
    Zhang, Yongping
    et al.
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Zhang, Pengyuan
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tao, Fei
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Univ Vaasa, Finland.
    Zuo, Ying
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Consensus aware manufacturing service collaboration optimization under blockchain based Industrial Internet platform2019Inngår i: Computers & industrial engineering, ISSN 0360-8352, E-ISSN 1879-0550, Vol. 135, s. 1025-1035Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To realize collaboration among distributed enterprises, manufacturing service collaboration on Industrial Internet platform is an efficient method. However, the low degree of participation resulted by the sense of distrust, dissatisfaction, and insecurity hinders the widely application of Industrial Internet platform. Therefore, a secure, trustworthy, and multi-user satisfied manufacturing service collaboration method is in urgent need. A blockchain based platform could be utilized to support collaboration among distributed participants to complete trustworthy transactions. In addition, in order to satisfy multiple users, there should be a suitable collaboration mechanism that allows interest-independent participants to fulfil their short/long-term expectations and guide them to a consensus. Based on the establishment of the underlying data and network layer of the blockchain, the collaboration optimization of manufacturing services based on consensus is proposed. By utilizing Memetic algorithm, both the long-term utility of providers and the short-term utility of consumers are combined to choose the optimal providers for the tasks. The providers are selected with higher satisfaction degree of consumers.

    Fulltekst tilgjengelig fra 2022-05-31 13:13
  • 687.
    Zheng, Pai
    et al.
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Liu, Yang
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tao, Fei
    Beihang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Wang, Zuoxu
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Chen, Chun-Hsien
    Nanyang Technol Univ, Singapore.
    Smart Product-Service Systems Solution Design via Hybrid Crowd Sensing Approach2019Inngår i: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, s. 128463-128473Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The third wave of information technology (IT) competition has enabled one promising value co-creation proposition, Smart PSS (smart product-service systems). Manufacturing companies offer smart, connected products with various e-services as a solution bundle to meet individual customer satisfaction, and in return, collect and analyze usage data for evergreen design purposes in a circular manner. Despite a few works discussing such value co-creation business mechanism, scarcely any has been reported from technical aspect to realizing this data-driven manufacturer/service provider-customer interaction cost-effectively. To fill this gap, a novel hybrid crowd sensing approach is proposed, and adopted in the Smart PSS context. It leverages large-scale mobile devices and their massive user-generated/product-sensed data, and converges with reliable static sensing nodes and other data sources in the smart, connected environment for value generation. Both the proposed hybrid crowd sensing conceptual framework and its systematic information modeling process are introduced. An illustrative example of smart water dispenser maintenance service design is given to validate its feasibility. The result shows that the proposed approach can be a promising manner to enable value co-creation process cost-effectively.

  • 688.
    Ziels, Ryan M.
    et al.
    Department of Civil Engineering, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Svensson, Bo H
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Sundberg, Carina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Shakeri Yekta, Sepehr
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Biogas Research Center.
    Microbial rRNA gene expression and co-occurrence profiles associate with biokinetics and elemental composition in full-scale anaerobic digesters2018Inngår i: Microbial Biotechnology, ISSN 1751-7907, E-ISSN 1751-7915, Vol. 11, nr 4, s. 694-709Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether the abundance and expression of microbial 16S rRNA genes were associated with elemental concentrations and substrate conversion biokinetics in 20 full-scale anaerobic digesters, including seven municipal sewage sludge (SS) digesters and 13 industrial codigesters. SS digester contents had higher methane production rates from acetate, propionate and phenyl acetate compared to industrial codigesters. SS digesters and industrial codigesters were distinctly clustered based on their elemental concentrations, with higher concentrations of NH3-N, Cl, K and Na observed in codigesters. Amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and reverse-transcribed 16S rRNA revealed divergent grouping of microbial communities between mesophilic SS digesters, mesophilic codigesters and thermophilic digesters. Higher intradigester distances between Archaea 16S rRNA and rRNA gene profiles were observed in mesophilic codigesters, which also had the lowest acetate utilization biokinetics. Constrained ordination showed that microbial rRNA and rRNA gene profiles were significantly associated with maximum methane production rates from acetate, propionate, oleate and phenyl acetate, as well as concentrations of NH3-N, Fe, S, Mo and Ni. A co-occurrence network of rRNA gene expression confirmed the three main clusters of anaerobic digester communities based on active populations. Syntrophic and methanogenic taxa were highly represented within the subnetworks, indicating that obligate energy-sharing partnerships play critical roles in stabilizing the digester microbiome. Overall, these results provide new evidence showing that different feed substrates associate with different micronutrient compositions in anaerobic digesters, which in turn may influence microbial abundance, activity and function.

  • 689.
    Ödling, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    How Provider Value is Perceived in regards to Integrated Product Service Offerings and why: A case study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As companies grow larger and become more international, it is likely that it comes to a point where it would be cheaper to produce on site, or at least have distribution centers, rather than having a centralized production that requires long range shipping. As this occurs, there is a wide range of challenges that the company must face, however these challenges are by now well documented and while not to be underestimated and called “easy” it is nothing new as a wide range of companies have done it before. One aspect that however is less known is the influence that external differences has, in other words factors that would produce a differing result even with the exact same internal setup, on the perceived aspects (referred to as Values in this work) from the providers point of view. In particular what is interesting is the perceived positive impacts above expectations that is gained from having external differences. To be able to better understand and quantify this impact the term “Provider Value” has been created and is being researched towards understanding what Values exist and how they are being affected.Provider Value (PV) is a cutting edge concept within eco-design research that this work is based on and in particular ProVa – Provider Value Evaluation for Integrated Product Service Offerings (Matschewsky et al. 2015) is the latest step to date towards creating the tools needed to increase the utilization, and reap the benefits, of PVs. Another interesting and relevant aspect to PV is how Product/Service System (PSS) could be an essential part in paving a new way of avoiding increased environmental impact while having economic growth. This is done by adding services on top of already existing products (Sakao et al. 2009).To find out more about what kind of external factors that might be behind the differences a case study was conducted, interviewing employees at two companies within one concern in Sweden and Japan. The results of this work indicates that if the company want its PVs to remain the same the main obstacle is external economic differences. In this particular study it is also clear that differences in business model and company structure has a big impact. With all the discussion regarding environment it was on a surprisingly low level of interest at both companies and what mattered was that the products cleared the minimum requirements, nothing more, as “any additional return is hard to estimate”. If PV keeps growing and tools are made to assist, this could not only help simplify the transitioning to other countries and help utilizing existing Values from the start, it could also increase the utilization in general, in particularly in regards to the Environment.

  • 690.
    Ölundh Sandström, Gunilla
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Janhager, Jenny
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sundin, Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Monteringsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Managing Innovation Processes for a Business-Driven Collaborative Network to Export Total Technical Solutions2008Inngår i: ISPIM Innovation Symposium, 2008, Singapore: ISPIM , 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a large need of environmental solutions at developing countries, where a network of small firms, e.g. in Sweden, have much opportunity for their business. This paper discusses, from both theoretical and from practical aspects, the high degree of complexity that needs to be managed when small firms export environmental-technology innovation to emerging markets. Especially, it deals with how a network of firms should manage its innovation processes. Based on the review of some 50 literature, the paper explains the methodologies adopted in an on-going project to study these issues. Discussions include differences with development of an integration of products/services within a single firm.

  • 691.
    Österberg, Ouliana
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Kartläggning av en fastighets miljöpåverkan: Livscykelanalys av flerfamiljsfastigheten "Teodoliten"2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today's climate and environmental issues have now been up for discussion for quite long. Various environmental measures have been taken, but it is not always certain that those measures actually are for the better because of the complexity of our environment. Therefore, studies of whole life cycles are very important even if they are time and resource intensive.

    Real estate accounts for 15% of global carbon emissions, but also affects our environment in many other aspects. In Sweden this number is even higher. About 30 % of its carbon dioxide emissions originates from building sector and changes are therefore of great importance. ByggVesta is a real estate company that wants to be at the forefront when it comes to eco-smart construction and wanted to know how well they are doing. It was therefore desired to conduct this LCA that reviewed their (by February 2012) newest completed property "Teodoliten" in Farsta, Stockholm.

    This life cycle assessment was a screening LCA i.e. it was carried out very superficially in order to identify the biggest polluters. All results were related to the functional unit of 1m2 floor area and year. It was found that the maintenance phase was the most pollutant one because of use of electricity and water. Here it can be mentioned that the electricity consumption is of Swedish electricity mix-type, which is much cleaner than many of the European mixes. It is therefore possible that the results may have been different if Teodoliten had been placed at another location.

    Among all the materials in the property, it was found that concrete elements were the worst pollutants. This report has, however, showed that the longer expected life time, the better this concrete frame is in comparison to wooden frame. If the property will be standing for 100 years, it will emit 95 % of the carbon dioxide- eqv. compared to a wooden frame that stands for only 60 years (the amount that is feasible for a wooden framed house). Although the climate aspect is the most focused one, the other environmental aspects show more clearly the benefits of concrete in long time perspective.

    ByggVesta has also been criticized for their shipments of concrete over the Baltic Sea. However, it has been shown that the transport with a cargo ship corresponds to only 23km by truck. Transport itself is therefore not considered to be a major subject for criticism. Latvian concrete production is of greater interest since the manufacturing process there might differ a lot from Swedish production and have other impact on environment. This issue could not be considered within the scope of this work.

    Shortly, this analysis shows that concrete frames and transportation with cargo ship is preferable if a building like Teodoliten is considered, with its geographical location and if its lifetime will last for 100 years as ByggVesta predicts. However, to be fully sure of the accuracy of these results it might be good to conduct a full comparative LCA on construction materials.

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