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  • 801.
    Agmell, M.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahadi, A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zhou, J. M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bushlya, V.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stahl, J. -E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Modeling subsurface deformation induced by machining of Inconel 7182017In: Machining science and technology, ISSN 1091-0344, E-ISSN 1532-2483, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 103-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the development and optimization of the machining process with regards to the subsurface deformation are done through experimental method which is often expensive and time consuming. This article presents the development of a finite element model based on an updated Lagrangian formulation. The numerical model is able to predict the depth of subsurface deformation induced in the high- speed machining of Inconel 718 by use of a whisker-reinforced ceramic tool. The effect that the different cutting parameters and tool microgeometries has on subsurface deformation will be investigated both numerically and experimentally. This research article also addresses the temperature distribution in the workpiece and the connection it could have on the wear of the cutting tool. The correlation of the numerical and experimental investigations for the subsurface deformation has been measured by the use of the coefficient of determination, R-2. This confirms that the finite element model developed here is able to simulate this type of machining process with sufficient accuracy.

  • 802. Agmell, Mathias
    et al.
    Ahadi, A
    Zhou, J M
    Peng, Ru
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bushlya, Volodymyr
    Stahl, J-E
    Modeling Subsurface Deformation Induced by Machining of Inconel 7182017In: Machining science and technology, ISSN 1091-0344, E-ISSN 1532-2483, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 103-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, the development and optimization of the machining process with regards to the subsurface deformation are done through experimental method which is often expensive and time consuming. This article presents the development of a finite element model based on an updated Lagrangian formulation. The numerical model is able to predict the depth of subsurface deformation induced in the high- speed machining of Inconel 718 by use of a whisker-reinforced ceramic tool. The effect that the different cutting parameters and tool microgeometries has on subsurface deformation will be investigated both numerically and experimentally. This research article also addresses the temperature distribution in the workpiece and the connection it could have on the wear of the cutting tool. The correlation of the numerical and experimental investigations for the subsurface deformation has been measured by the use of the coefficient of determination, R2. This confirms that the finite element model developed here is able to simulate this type of machining process with sufficient accuracy.

  • 803.
    Agmell, Simon
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dekker, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    IR-Based Indoor Localisation and Positioning System2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents a prototype beacon-based indoor positioning system using IR-based triangulation together with various inertial sensors mounted onto the receiver. By applying a Kalman filter, the mobile receivers can estimate their position by fusing the data received from the two independent measurement systems. Furthermore, the system is aimed to operate and conduct all calculations using microcontrollers. Multiple IR beacons and an AGV were constructed to determine the systems performance.

    Empirical and practical experiments show that the proposed localisation system is capable centimeter accuracy. However, because of hardware limitation the system has lacking update frequency and range. With the limitations in mind, it can be established that the final sensor-fused solution shows great promise but requires an extended component assessment and more advanced localisation estimations method such as an Extended Kalman Filter or particle filter to increase reliability.

  • 804.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Critical Comment on Collste2011In: Public Health Ethics, ISSN 1754-9973, E-ISSN 1754-9981, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 203-205Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article claims that the account of specification as a way to solve conflicts between rights, suggested by Göran Collste, is unsatisfactory. It is argued that specification is not a solution on its own, but is better described as a remedy in response to a political failure.

  • 805.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Secular State?2010In: Identity and pluralism : ethnicity, religion and values / [ed] Göran Collste, Linköping: LiU-Tryckk , 2010, p. 80-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 806.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Lunds universitet.
    Bör den liberala staten privilegiera religion i samhället?2013In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 1-21Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det anses ofta att en liberal stat måste förhålla sig neutral till religiösa element i samhället. Att bryta mot neutralitetskravet och därmed privilegiera religiösa element i samhället är uteslutet, hävdas det, eftersom ett sådant privilegierande skulle innebära att man medvetet gynnar en grupp uppfattningar om det goda livet – vilket skulle vara synnerligen icke-liberalt.

    I den här artikeln ifrågasätts det neutralitetskrav som åläggs den liberala staten. Istället försvaras idén att en liberal stat i vissa fall kan ha en prima facie skyldighet att privilegiera vissa religiösa element i samhället. I artikeln presenteras tre villkor som måste vara uppfyllda för att ett avsteg från neutralitetskravet ska vara rättfärdigat.

    Efter en kortare diskussion om den relevanta empiriska forskningen konkluderas att en liberal stat i vissa fall är berättigad att privilegiera religiösa element i samhället utan att därmed kompromissa med sin liberala status.

  • 807.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Introduktion2013In: Varför inte Socialism? och Om den egalitära rättvisans valuta / [ed] G. A. Cohen, Daidalos, 2013Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 808.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Justice among Us: A Philosophical Analysis of Michael Walzer’s Theory of Justice2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The American philosopher Michael Walzer has been regarded as one of the most influential theorists in the field of distributive justice since the publication of Spheres of Justice in 1983. However, despite the popularity, his theory is often misunderstood or said to suffer from serious shortcomings.

    The aim of the dissertation is to present and defend a clearer and stronger version of Walzer’s theory of distributive justice. After a brief sketch of Walzer’s early works, in which important concepts were introduced and developed, the mature theory is analysed. By subjecting the key areas of Walzer’s theory to a critical and reconstructive philosophical analysis, a stronger and more detailed account is gained. Important ideas and concepts such as community, consent, interpretation, social meanings, complex equality and minimal morality are discussed, criticised and revised in order to strengthen the theory. In addition, a comparison is made between John Rawls’s method of wide reflective equilibrium and Walzer’s interpretative method; it is argued that the methods of the two philosophers exhibit considerable similarities.

  • 809.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Michael Sandel: What Money Can’t Buy: The Moral Limits of Markets2014In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 37-44Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 810.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Quality of Government and the Treatment of Immigrants2013In: Ecumenical Review Sibiu / Revista Ecumenica Sibiu, ISSN 2065-5940, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 25-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Normative questions concerning the treatment of immigrants can be approached from various perspectives: consequentialistic, deontological, fairness-based, rectificatory, or similar. In this paper, the implications of the idea of quality of government for the treatment of immigrants are examined. It is argued that an acceptable definition of quality of governance includes a principle of beneficence, which prescribes a beneficial treatment of immigrants whenever laws and policies allow. The principle, which is not novel in itself, is presented in a more specified form and is provided with a philosophical justification.

  • 811.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Quality of Government: Toward a More Complex Definition2013In: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 107, no 3, p. 433-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concepts such as “quality of government” and “good governance” refer to a desired character of the exercise of public authority. Recently the interest in good governance, the quality of government, and similar concepts has increased considerably. However, despite this increasing interest and use, an adequate definition of the concept of quality of government has proved difficult to find. This article criticizes recent attempts at such a definition and proposes an alternative, more complex definition that includes moral content and also encompasses a plurality of values and virtues at its core. An acceptable definition of the quality of governance must be consistent with the demands of a public ethos, the virtues of good decision making and reason giving, the rule of law, efficiency, stability, and a principle of beneficence. The article describes these components in detail and the relations among them.

  • 812.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Reassessing Walzer’s social criticism2012In: Philosophy & Social Criticism, ISSN 0191-4537, E-ISSN 1461-734X, Vol. 38, no 9, p. 917-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is often argued that Michael Walzer's theory of social criticism, which underpins his theory of justice, is not much of a theory at all, but rather an impressionistic collection of historical anecdotes. Contrary to this perception, I argue that Walzer's method can be accurately described as a version of John Rawls' well-known method of wide reflective equilibrium. Through a systematic comparison it can be shown that the two methods are strikingly similar. This implies that, far from the critics' claim, Walzer's method can be described as a philosophically sophisticated method. This also adds credibility to Walzer's views on politics and justice.

  • 813.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Ethics of Free Soloing2010In: Climbing: because it's there / [ed] Stephen E. Schmid, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, p. 158-168Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 814.
    Agnafors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden .
    When Do We Share Moral Norms?2012In: Journal of Value Inquiry, ISSN 0022-5363, E-ISSN 1573-0492, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 303-315Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 815.
    Agnafors, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Västra Götalandsregionen, Södra Älvsborgs Sjukhus, Barn- och ungdomspsykiatriska kliniken.
    A Biopsychosocial and Long Term Perspective on Child Behavioral Problems: Impact of Risk and Resilience2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mental health has become a prominent issue in society. Yet, much remains unknown about the etiology of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present thesis was to investigate the association between biological, psychological and social factors of risk and resilience and behavioral problems in a birth cohort of Swedish children. 1723 mothers and their children were followed from birth to the age of 12 as part of the South East Sweden Birth Cohort Study (the SESBiC study). Information was gathered through register data, standardized questionnaires and DNA samples.

    In study I, stability of maternal symptoms of depression and the impact on child behavior at age 12 were investigated. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was found to be 12.0 % postpartum. Symptoms of postpartum depression significantly increased the risk for subsequent depressive symptoms 12 years later in women. Children whose mothers reported concurrent symptoms of depression and anxiety had an increased risk for both internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12, but no long term effect on child behavior was seen for postpartum depressive symptoms. The greatest risk was seen for children whose mothers reported symptoms of depression on both occasions. In study II, the impact of gene-environment interaction of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met and experience of life events together with symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety on child behavior at age 12 was studied. A main effect of 5-HTTLPR was noticed, but no geneenvironment effects were shown. Similarly to study I, concurrent symptoms of maternal depression and anxiety were an important predictor of child behavioral problems. A high degree of psychosocial stress around childbirth was found to have long lasting detrimental effects on child behavior, increasing the risk for internalizing problems at age 12. Study III investigated the impact of geneenvironment interactions of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met and life events together with symptoms of maternal depression and birth characteristics on behavioral problems at age 3. Symptoms of postpartum depression were found to predict internalizing as well as externalizing problems in children three years later. Child experience of life events was a stable predictor of behavioral problems across the scales similar to sociodemographic factors such as parental immigration status and unemployment. No gene-environment interaction effects of 5-HTTLPR or BDNF Val66Met were shown. Study IV used the risk factors identified in studies I-III to investigate factors of resilience to behavioral problems at age 12. The l/l genotype of 5-HTTLPR was associated with a lower risk for behavioral problems at age 12, especially for children facing low adversity. Good social functioning was found to be a general resource factor, independent of the level of risk, while an easy temperament was associated with resilience for children with a high degree of adversity. However, effect sizes were small.

    In summary, the results from the present thesis emphasize the importance of maternal mental health and sociodemographic factors for child mental health at ages 3 and 12, which must be taken into account in clinical settings. Moreover, it adds to the null-findings of the gene-environment effect of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met on behavioral problems in children, but indicates a main effect of 5-HTTLPR on internalizing symptoms at age 12.

    List of papers
    1. Symptoms of Depression Postpartum and 12 years Later-Associations to Child Mental Health at 12 years of Age
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Symptoms of Depression Postpartum and 12 years Later-Associations to Child Mental Health at 12 years of Age
    2013 (English)In: Maternal and Child Health Journal, ISSN 1092-7875, E-ISSN 1573-6628, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 405-414Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Children of depressed mothers have been shown to express behaviour problems to a greater extent than children of non-depressed mothers. The purpose of this study was to examine the persistence of depressive symptoms in mothers and to evaluate the relative importance of symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD) and concurrent maternal symptoms of depression, on child behaviour at age 12. A birth cohort of 1,707 children and their mothers was followed from 3 months after birth to 12 years after birth. Self-reported symptoms of depression in mothers were assessed at baseline and 12-year follow-up where 893 mothers (52.3 %) and their children participated. The mothers reports on the behaviour of their children at age 12 were used. Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors that increased the risk of child behaviour problems. At baseline, 10.4 % scored above the cutoff for symptoms of postpartum depression. At follow up, 18.2 % scored above the cutoff for depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis showed that ongoing maternal symptoms of depression, as distinct from PPD-symptoms, was the strongest predictor of child behaviour problems at age 12. The gender of the child and socio-demographic factors at baseline were additional factors that affected the risk of behaviour problems in the 12 year old children. Children of mothers who reported symptoms of depression, both postpartum and at follow-up, were at a greater risk of behaviour problems compared to children of women with no depressive symptoms on either occasion. Our findings indicate that recurrent and ongoing maternal depressive symptoms significantly increase the risk of child behaviour problems as reported by mothers, while symptoms of PPD do not seem to result in an increased risk of behaviour problems in 12 year olds. High maternal socio-demographic life stress at childbirth constitutes an important risk factor for later child behaviour problems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag (Germany), 2013
    Keywords
    CBCL, Children, Mental health, Postpartum depression, SESBiC-study
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90750 (URN)10.1007/s10995-012-0985-z (DOI)000316021200003 ()
    Available from: 2013-04-05 Created: 2013-04-05 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems - a longitudinal study.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems - a longitudinal study.
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 10-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and disabling condition with a high relapse frequency. Maternal mental health problems and experience of traumatic life events are known to increase the risk of behavior problems in children. Recently, genetic factors, in particular gene-by-environment interaction models, have been implicated to explain depressive etiology. However, results are inconclusive.

    METHODS: Study participants were members of the SESBiC-study. A total of 889 mothers and their children were followed during the child's age of 3 months to 12 years. Information on maternal depressive symptoms was gathered postpartum and at a 12 year follow-up. Mothers reported on child behavior and traumatic life events experienced by the child at age 12. Saliva samples were obtained from children for analysis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms.

    RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, and internalizing problems in 12-year-old children (OR 5.72, 95% CI 3.30-9.91). Furthermore, carriers of two short alleles (s/s) of the 5-HTTLPR showed a more than 4-fold increased risk of internalizing problems at age 12 compared to l/l carriers (OR 4.73, 95% CI 2.14-10.48). No gene-by-environment interaction was found and neither depressive symptoms postpartum or traumatic experiences during childhood stayed significant in the final model.

    CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety are significant risk factors for behavior problems in children, which need to be taken into account in clinical practice. Furthermore, we found a main effect of 5-HTTLPR on internalizing symptoms in 12-year-old children, a finding that needs to be confirmed in future studies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2013
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104869 (URN)10.1186/1753-2000-7-10 (DOI)23518193 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Early predictors of behavioural problems in pre-schoolers: a longitudinal study of constitutional and environmental main and interaction effects
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early predictors of behavioural problems in pre-schoolers: a longitudinal study of constitutional and environmental main and interaction effects
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The early environment is important for child development and wellbeing. Gene-by-environment studies investigating the impact of the serotonin transporter genelinked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms by life events on mental health and behaviour problems have been inconclusive. Methodological differences regarding sample sizes, study population, definitions of adversities and measures of mental health problems obstacle their comparability. Furthermore, very few studies included children. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between a broad range of risk factors covering pregnancy and birth, genetic polymorphism, experience of multiple life events and psychosocial environment, and child behaviour at age three, using a comparably large, representative, population-based sample.

    Methods: A total of 1,106 children, and their mothers, were followed from pregnancy to age three. Information on pregnancy and birth-related factors was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms, child behaviour and child experiences of life events were filled in by the mothers. Child saliva samples were used for genotyping the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the association between psychological scales and genetic polymorphisms.

    Results: Symptoms of postpartum depression increased the risk of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Experience of multiple life events was also a predictor of behavioural problems across the scales. No gene-by-environment or gene-bygene-by-environment interactions were found. Children of immigrants had an increased risk of internalizing problems and parental unemployment was significantly associated with both internalizing and externalizing type of problems.

    Conclusion: This study shows the importance of the psychosocial environment for psychosocial health in preschool children, and adds to  the literature of null-findings of gene-by-environment effects of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF in children

    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124207 (URN)10.1186/s12887-016-0614-x (DOI)000377535800002 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies:Funding was obtained from the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research (FAS), the Swedish Research Council (VR), the Clas Groschinsky Memorial Foundation, Stockholm, Samariten Foundation, Stockholm, the Hallsten Research Foundation and ALF, County Council of Ostergotland.

    Vid tiden för publicering förelåg publikationen endast som manuskript

    Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-22 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
    4. A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve
    Show others...
    2016 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience in the context of child behavior. Biological factors are seldom considered in psychosocial models of resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on behavior at preadolescence. Data from 889 children and their mothers were used. A cumulative adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children’s experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament and social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. Results show that the l/l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was associated with lower internalizing scores, especially for children exposed to low adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilient outcomes for children exposed to high adversity. Child social functioning was found to be more of a general resource variable buffering risk in both high and low adversity groups. The results support a multiple level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors. The present findings call for both preventive actions and further studies on biopsychosocial models in resilience research.

    Keywords
    Child, genotype, longitudinal, mental health, resilience
    National Category
    Psychiatry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124208 (URN)
    Available from: 2016-01-22 Created: 2016-01-22 Last updated: 2016-01-22Bibliographically approved
  • 816.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Mental health in young mothers, single mothers and their children2019In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 19, article id 112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Parenthood is a life transition that can be especially demanding for vulnerable individuals. Young maternal age and maternal single status have been reported to increase the risk for adverse outcomes for both mother and child. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of young maternal age and maternal single status on maternal and child mental health and child development at age 3. Methods: A birth-cohort of 1723 mothers and their children were followed from birth to age 3. Sixty-one mothers (3.5%) were age 20 or younger, and 65 (4.0%) reported single status at childbirth. The mothers filled out standardized instruments and medical information was retrieved from the standardized clinical assessment of the children at Child Welfare Centers, (CWC). Results: Young maternal age was associated with symptoms of postpartum depression whereas single status was not. Young mothers were more prone to report internalizing and externalizing problems in their children, while there was no association between single status and child behavioral problems. No differences were seen on child development (CWC scores). School drop-out was, however, a more influential factor on depressive symptoms postpartum than maternal age. Conclusion: Young mothers are at increased risk for symptoms of postpartum depression which indicates the need for attention in pre- and postnatal health care programs. Single mothers and their children were not found to be at increased risk for adverse outcomes. The importance of schooling was demonstrated, indicating the need for societal support to encourage adolescents to remain in school.

  • 817.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Comasco, Erika
    Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Dekeyser, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Oreland, Lars
    Division of Pharmacology, Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Effect of gene, environment and maternal depressive symptoms on pre-adolescence behavior problems - a longitudinal study.2013In: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 10-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Depression is a common and disabling condition with a high relapse frequency. Maternal mental health problems and experience of traumatic life events are known to increase the risk of behavior problems in children. Recently, genetic factors, in particular gene-by-environment interaction models, have been implicated to explain depressive etiology. However, results are inconclusive.

    METHODS: Study participants were members of the SESBiC-study. A total of 889 mothers and their children were followed during the child's age of 3 months to 12 years. Information on maternal depressive symptoms was gathered postpartum and at a 12 year follow-up. Mothers reported on child behavior and traumatic life events experienced by the child at age 12. Saliva samples were obtained from children for analysis of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms.

    RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety, and internalizing problems in 12-year-old children (OR 5.72, 95% CI 3.30-9.91). Furthermore, carriers of two short alleles (s/s) of the 5-HTTLPR showed a more than 4-fold increased risk of internalizing problems at age 12 compared to l/l carriers (OR 4.73, 95% CI 2.14-10.48). No gene-by-environment interaction was found and neither depressive symptoms postpartum or traumatic experiences during childhood stayed significant in the final model.

    CONCLUSIONS: Concurrent maternal symptoms of depression and anxiety are significant risk factors for behavior problems in children, which need to be taken into account in clinical practice. Furthermore, we found a main effect of 5-HTTLPR on internalizing symptoms in 12-year-old children, a finding that needs to be confirmed in future studies.

  • 818.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Sodra Alvsborgs Hosp, Sweden.
    Norman Kjellstrom, Anna
    Reg Vastra Gotaland, Sweden.
    Torgerson, Jarl
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Rusner, Marie
    Sodra Alvsborgs Hosp, Sweden; Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Somatic comorbidity in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders2019In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 28, no 11, p. 1517-1525Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the adult population, psychiatric disorders are associated with somatic illness. Explanatory life style factors have been found, but also a failure to recognize somatic illness in this group. Another factor is side effects from long-term use of antipsychotic drugs. Given the psychiatric-somatic comorbidity in the adult population, it is of interest to investigate whether an association exists already during childhood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the frequency of somatic illness in children and adolescents with a psychiatric diagnose. Data were obtained from the regional health care database Vega, Sweden. Psychiatric and somatic diagnoses obtained during 2011-2013 for individuals aged 3-18 years were extracted. Descriptive statistics were used to examine difference in somatic morbidity between children with and without psychiatric diagnoses. Logistic regression was used in age-stratified models to test the association between psychiatric and somatic diagnoses. Anxiety and behavioral disorders were associated with all somatic conditions investigated at nearly all ages. The same applied to substance use, investigated at age 9-18 years. Affective disorders were associated with all somatic conditions at age 12-18 years. Psychotic conditions were associated with asthma, bowel disorders and myalgia in adolescents. Children with psychiatric disorders are at remarkably high risk for concurrent somatic illness. The associations span across many types of conditions and across all ages. The results support the need for awareness of somatic morbidity in child and adolescent psychiatric clinical settings, and the need for coordinated health care for children with comorbid states.

  • 819.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A Biopsychosocial Approach to Risk and Resilience on Behavior in Children Followed from Birth to Age 122017In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 584-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on preadolescence behavior. Data from 889 children and mothers from a birth cohort were used. An adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and childrens experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament, social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. The l/ l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region was associated with lower internalizing scores, but not mainly related to the level of adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilience for children exposed to high adversity. Social functioning was found to be promotive independent of the risk level. The results support a multiple-level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors.

  • 820.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    A biopsychosocial approach to risk and resilience on behavior in children followed from birth to age twelve2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing prevalence of mental health problems calls for more knowledge into factors associated with resilience in the context of child behavior. Biological factors are seldom considered in psychosocial models of resilience. The present study used multiple statistical methodologies to examine a biopsychosocial model of risk and resilience on behavior at preadolescence. Data from 889 children and their mothers were used. A cumulative adversity score was created by combining maternal symptoms of depression, psychosocial risk and children’s experiences of life events. The proposed resilience factors investigated were candidate genetic polymorphisms, child temperament and social functioning, and maternal sense of coherence. Results show that the l/l genotype of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) was associated with lower internalizing scores, especially for children exposed to low adversity. An easy temperament was associated with resilient outcomes for children exposed to high adversity. Child social functioning was found to be more of a general resource variable buffering risk in both high and low adversity groups. The results support a multiple level model of resilience indicating effects, though small, of both biological and psychosocial factors. The present findings call for both preventive actions and further studies on biopsychosocial models in resilience research.

  • 821.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Oreland, Lars
    Department of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Early predictors of behavioural problems in pre-schoolers: a longitudinal study of constitutional and environmental main and interaction effects2016In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The early environment is important for child development and wellbeing. Gene-by-environment studies investigating the impact of the serotonin transporter genelinked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphisms by life events on mental health and behaviour problems have been inconclusive. Methodological differences regarding sample sizes, study population, definitions of adversities and measures of mental health problems obstacle their comparability. Furthermore, very few studies included children. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between a broad range of risk factors covering pregnancy and birth, genetic polymorphism, experience of multiple life events and psychosocial environment, and child behaviour at age three, using a comparably large, representative, population-based sample.

    Methods: A total of 1,106 children, and their mothers, were followed from pregnancy to age three. Information on pregnancy and birth-related factors was retrieved from the Medical Birth Register. Questionnaires on depressive symptoms, child behaviour and child experiences of life events were filled in by the mothers. Child saliva samples were used for genotyping the 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the association between psychological scales and genetic polymorphisms.

    Results: Symptoms of postpartum depression increased the risk of both internalizing and externalizing problems. Experience of multiple life events was also a predictor of behavioural problems across the scales. No gene-by-environment or gene-bygene-by-environment interactions were found. Children of immigrants had an increased risk of internalizing problems and parental unemployment was significantly associated with both internalizing and externalizing type of problems.

    Conclusion: This study shows the importance of the psychosocial environment for psychosocial health in preschool children, and adds to  the literature of null-findings of gene-by-environment effects of 5-HTTLPR and BDNF in children

  • 822.
    Agnafors, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    deKeyser, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Göran Svedin, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Symptoms of Depression Postpartum and 12 years Later-Associations to Child Mental Health at 12 years of Age2013In: Maternal and Child Health Journal, ISSN 1092-7875, E-ISSN 1573-6628, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 405-414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children of depressed mothers have been shown to express behaviour problems to a greater extent than children of non-depressed mothers. The purpose of this study was to examine the persistence of depressive symptoms in mothers and to evaluate the relative importance of symptoms of postpartum depression (PPD) and concurrent maternal symptoms of depression, on child behaviour at age 12. A birth cohort of 1,707 children and their mothers was followed from 3 months after birth to 12 years after birth. Self-reported symptoms of depression in mothers were assessed at baseline and 12-year follow-up where 893 mothers (52.3 %) and their children participated. The mothers reports on the behaviour of their children at age 12 were used. Multivariate analysis was used to assess factors that increased the risk of child behaviour problems. At baseline, 10.4 % scored above the cutoff for symptoms of postpartum depression. At follow up, 18.2 % scored above the cutoff for depressive symptoms. Multivariate analysis showed that ongoing maternal symptoms of depression, as distinct from PPD-symptoms, was the strongest predictor of child behaviour problems at age 12. The gender of the child and socio-demographic factors at baseline were additional factors that affected the risk of behaviour problems in the 12 year old children. Children of mothers who reported symptoms of depression, both postpartum and at follow-up, were at a greater risk of behaviour problems compared to children of women with no depressive symptoms on either occasion. Our findings indicate that recurrent and ongoing maternal depressive symptoms significantly increase the risk of child behaviour problems as reported by mothers, while symptoms of PPD do not seem to result in an increased risk of behaviour problems in 12 year olds. High maternal socio-demographic life stress at childbirth constitutes an important risk factor for later child behaviour problems.

  • 823.
    Agndal, H.
    et al.
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Consequences of outsourcing for organizational capabilities: Some experiences from best practice2009In: Benchmarking, ISSN 1463-5771, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 316-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The research on effects of outsourcing tends to focus on financial effects and effects at a country level. These are not the only consequences of outsourcing, though. When firms outsource functions previously performed in-house, they risk losing important competencies, knowledge, skills, relationships, and possibilities for creative renewal. Such non-financial consequences are poorly addressed in the literature, even though they may explain financial effects of outsourcing. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to develop a model that enables the study of non-financial consequences of outsourcing. Design/methodology/approach: Based on a review of the literature on interdependencies between organizational functions, a main proposition is developed: given that savings gained from outsourcing are not reinvested in the organization, outsourcing of any function will negatively impact the capabilities of that and other functions in the organization. This proposition is broken down into sub-propositions, which are tested through a focus group study. Respondents include purchasing professionals with experience from best practice outsourcing. Findings: The initial proposition is developed through identification of variables mediating the proposed negative consequences of outsourcing. Mediating variables are broken down into four categories: variables relating to the outsourcer, the outsourcee, the relationship between the parties, and the context. Research limitations/implications: By developing a model for the study of non-financial consequences of outsourcing, this paper takes a step towards opening up an important avenue for future research. Originality/value: This paper contributes to the outsourcing field by not only considering non-financial effects, but also by drawing on examples of best practice outsourcing to identify ways in which potentially negative consequences of outsourcing may be managed.

  • 824.
    Agnebrink, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Liljegren, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Flerspråkighet och läs- och skrivsvårigheter: Framgångsfaktorer för upptäckt och kartläggning av läs- och skrivsvårigheter hos flerspråkiga elever i åk 1-32019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag har ca 20% av alla elever i grundskolan annat modersmål än svenska. Resultat från PISA-undersökningar visar att läsförståelseförmågan hos elever med utländsk bakgrund är lägre än hos elever med svensk bakgrund (Skolverket 2006:10) vilket innebär en stor utmaning för oss pedagoger som verkar i svensk skola. I uppdraget som speciallärare ingår att kartlägga och bedöma flerspråkiga elevers läs- och skrivutveckling. Bakgrunden till vår studie är svårigheterna i att skilja på flerspråkiga elevers andraspråksutveckling och eventuella läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Många gånger är det komplext och man väntar länge med att utreda dessa elevers svårigheter. Syftet med studien är att studera framgångsfaktorer i arbetet med att upptäcka och kartlägga flerspråkiga elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter genom att ta del av ett antal pedagogers och rektorers erfarenheter och uppfattningar. En del i studien har varit att undersöka de organisatoriska förutsättningarna för det arbetet. Det är en kvalitativ intervjuundersökning som genomförts på fyra grundskolor i samma kommun. Undersökningen innefattar tre speciallärare, en specialpedagog, tre klasslärare, tre modersmålslärare samt tre rektorer. För analys av det empiriska materialet har vi använt tematisk analys och teoretiska synsätt inom specialpedagogik har diskuterats. Resultatet visar att speciallärares samarbete och samverkan med olika yrkeskategorier, speciellt modersmålslärare och föräldrar uppfattas som en framgångsfaktor. Studien visar också att tidig upptäckt, kartläggning på båda språk genom adekvata tester samt kunskap i andraspråksinlärning är framgångsfaktorer i arbetet med flerspråkiga elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter. En slutsats som dras i studien är att de organisatoriska förutsättningarna för att pedagogerna ska ha tid till att mötas och samverka kring de flerspråkiga eleverna ser olika ut på skolorna idag och behöver utvecklas.

  • 825.
    Agnew, Louise
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Johnston, Venerina
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Landén Ludvigsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in West Östergötland, Department of Rehabilitation in Motala.
    Peterson, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Overmeer, Thomas
    Malardalen University, Sweden; University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Johansson, Gun
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Peolsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. University of Queensland, Australia.
    FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH WORK ABILITY IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC WHIPLASH-ASSOCIATED DISORDER GRADE II-III: A CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS2015In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 546-551Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the factors related to self-perceived work ability in patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder grades II-III. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Patients: A total of 166 working age patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorder. Methods: A comprehensive survey collected data on work ability (using the Work Ability Index); demographic, psychosocial, personal, work- and condition-related factors. Forward, stepwise regression modelling was used to assess the factors related to work ability. Results: The proportion of patients in each work ability category were as follows: poor (12.7%); moderate (39.8%); good (38.5%); excellent (9%). Seven factors explained 65% (adjusted R-2 = 0.65, p less than 0.01) of the variance in work ability. In descending order of strength of association, these factors are: greater neck disability due to pain; reduced self-rated health status and health-related quality of life; increased frequency of concentration problems; poor workplace satisfaction; lower self-efficacy for performing daily tasks; and greater work-related stress. Conclusion: Condition-specific and psychosocial factors are associated with self-perceived work ability of individuals with chronic whiplash-associated disorder.

  • 826.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Early domestication?: Phenotypic alterations of Red Junglefowl selected for divergent fear of humans2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication is the process through which animals adapt to conditions provided by humans. The domesticated phenotype differs from wild ancestors in a number of traits relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. One of the most striking differences is the animals’ fear response towards humans, and reduced fear of humans is assumed to have been an early prerequisite for the success of domestication. The early alterations seen in the domesticated phenotype may be traits developed as a correlated selection response due to tameness rather than selected upon one by one.

    This thesis summarizes a project where Red Junglefowl were selected for divergent fear of humans during six generations. In every generation, fear response to human was assessed in a standardized test and, according to fear score, the animals were bred for either high fear of humans (H) or low fear of humans (L). The animals were, above that of the standardized selection test, behaviourally phenotyped in different tests in each generation mainly focusing on fear, exploration and social behaviour. In addition to behaviour, the animals were phenotyped for body weight, egg weight, metabolism, feed intake, plumage condition, blood plasma corticosterone and peripheral serotonin. After culling, vital organs and brains were harvested and weighed.

    In paper I, we demonstrated that the selection trait has a significant genetic heritability and is genetically correlated with other behavioural responses associated with fearfulness and exploration. In paper II, we concluded that animals from the L strain had better plumage condition, higher weight, laid larger eggs and also generated larger offspring. Furthermore, when tested in a social dominance test with a limited resource, they received less and performed more aggression regardless of whether the restricted source was edible or not. In paper III, we revealed that animals from the L strain had higher basal metabolic rate as chicks, gained more weight in relation to feed intake and were bolder in a Novel Object test. Furthermore, the L males had higher plasma levels of peripheral serotonin, but the corticosterone after a restraint stress test did not differ. In paper IV and V, we concluded the project by comparing brain and organ weights as well as behaviour of the parental generation (P0) with the fifth selected generation (S5). The absolute brain weight as well as the weight specific brain weight were larger in the animals selected on H than in the L-animals. The relative weight of telencephalon was significantly higher in H whereas relative weight of cerebellum was significantly lower. Heart, liver, spleen and testes were all relatively heavier in H animals than in L. Interestingly, the behaviours assessed in P0 and S5 seemed to be rather resilient to the selection with only small differences in S5.

    To summarize, the selection on divergent tameness in Red Junglefowl has affected several phenotypic traits associated with the domesticated phenotype. The results of this project indicate that tameness in Red Junglefowl could be an underlying factor driving trait modifications towards the domesticated phenotype.

    List of papers
    1. Heritability and Genetic Correlations of Fear-Related Behaviour in Red Jungelfowl -Possible Implications for Early Domestication
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heritability and Genetic Correlations of Fear-Related Behaviour in Red Jungelfowl -Possible Implications for Early Domestication
    2012 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, p. e35162-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated species differ from their wild ancestors in a number of traits, generally referred to as the domesticated phenotype. Reduced fear of humans is assumed to have been an early prerequisite for the successful domestication of virtually all species. We hypothesized that fear of humans is linked to other domestication related traits. For three generations, we selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of domestic chickens) solely on the reaction in a standardized Fear of Human-test. In this, the birds were exposed for a gradually approaching human, and their behaviour was continuously scored. This generated three groups of animals, high (H), low (L) and intermediate (I) fearful birds. The birds in each generation were additionally tested in a battery of behaviour tests, measuring aspects of fearfulness, exploration, and sociality. The results demonstrate that the variation in fear response of Red Junglefowl towards humans has a significant genetic component and is genetically correlated to behavioural responses in other contexts, of which some are associated with fearfulness and others with exploration. Hence, selection of Red Junglefowl on low fear for humans can be expected to lead to a correlated change of other behavioural traits over generations. It is therefore likely that domestication may have caused an initial suite of behavioural modifications, even without selection on anything besides tameness.

    National Category
    Natural Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76833 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0035162 (DOI)000305336200026 ()
    Available from: 2012-04-20 Created: 2012-04-20 Last updated: 2017-12-07
    2. Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring
    2014 (English)In: animal, ISSN 1751-7311, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 1498-1505Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Many traits associated with domestication are suggested to have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans. Tameness may have reduced the stress of living in human proximity and improved welfare in captivity. We selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of all domestic chickens) for four generations on high or low fear towards humans, mimicking an important aspect of the earliest period of domestication, and tested birds from the third and fourth generation in three different social tests. Growth and plumage condition, as well as size of eggs and offspring were also recorded, as indicators of some aspects of welfare. Birds selected for low fear had higher weight, laid larger eggs and generated larger offspring, and had a better plumage condition. In a social dominance test they also performed more aggressive behaviour and received less of the same, regardless of whether the restricted resource was feed or not. Hence, dominance appeared to increase as a consequence of reduced fear of humans. Furthermore, egg size and the weight of the offspring were larger in the less fearful birds, and plumage condition better, which could be interpreted as the less fearful animals being better adapted to the environment in which they were selected.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Cambridge University Press, 2014
    Keywords
    Red Junglefowl, domestication, fearfulness, selection, social behaviour
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109499 (URN)10.1017/S1751731114001426 (DOI)000342219000013 ()24910136 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-08-20 Created: 2014-08-20 Last updated: 2016-11-17
    3. Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)
    2015 (English)In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 20150509Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44-48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ROYAL SOC, 2015
    Keywords
    genetics; domestication; stress
    National Category
    Zoology Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123162 (URN)10.1098/rsbl.2015.0509 (DOI)000364772300009 ()26382075 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|research council Formas; ERC [322206]

    Available from: 2015-12-07 Created: 2015-12-04 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
    4. Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl
    2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5), focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PLOS, 2016
    National Category
    Developmental Biology Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132742 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0166075 (DOI)000387909300035 ()27851792 (PubMedID)
    Note

    European Research Council [322206]; FORMAS [221-2007-838]; Vetenskapsradet [621-2008-5437]

    Available from: 2016-11-22 Created: 2016-11-22 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
  • 827.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ali, A.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Olby, S.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Red Junglefowl (Gallus gallus) selected for low fear of humans are larger, more dominant and produce larger offspring2014In: animal, ISSN 1751-7311, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 1498-1505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many traits associated with domestication are suggested to have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans. Tameness may have reduced the stress of living in human proximity and improved welfare in captivity. We selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of all domestic chickens) for four generations on high or low fear towards humans, mimicking an important aspect of the earliest period of domestication, and tested birds from the third and fourth generation in three different social tests. Growth and plumage condition, as well as size of eggs and offspring were also recorded, as indicators of some aspects of welfare. Birds selected for low fear had higher weight, laid larger eggs and generated larger offspring, and had a better plumage condition. In a social dominance test they also performed more aggressive behaviour and received less of the same, regardless of whether the restricted resource was feed or not. Hence, dominance appeared to increase as a consequence of reduced fear of humans. Furthermore, egg size and the weight of the offspring were larger in the less fearful birds, and plumage condition better, which could be interpreted as the less fearful animals being better adapted to the environment in which they were selected.

  • 828.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brain size is reduced by selectionfor tameness in Red Junglefowl–correlated effects in vital organs2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 3306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During domestication animals have undergone changes in size of brain and other vital organs. We hypothesize that this could be a correlated effect to increased tameness. Red Junglefowl (ancestors of domestic chickens) were selected for divergent levels of fear of humans for five generations. The parental (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5) were culled when 48–54 weeks old and the brains were weighed before being divided into telencephalon, cerebellum, mid brain and optic lobes. Each single brain part as well as the liver, spleen, heart and testicles were also weighed. Brains of S5 birds with high fear scores (S5 high) were heavier both in absolute terms and when corrected for body weight. The relative weight of telencephalon (% of brain weight) was significantly higher in S5 high and relative weight of cerebellum was lower. Heart, liver, testes and spleen were all relatively heavier (% of body weight) in S5 high. Hence, selection for tameness has changed the size of the brain and other vital organs in this population and may have driven the domesticated phenotype as a correlated response.

  • 829.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Is evolution of domestication driven by tameness? A selective review with focus on chickens2018In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 205, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication of animals offers unique possibilities to study evolutionary changes caused by similar selection pressures across a range of species. Animals from separate genera tend to develop a suite of phenotypic alterations referred to as "the domesticated phenotype". This involves changes in appearance, including loss of pigmentation, and alterations in body size and proportions. Furthermore, effects on reproduction and behaviour are typical. It is hypothesized that this recurring phenotype may be secondary effects of the increased tameness that is an inevitable first step in the domestication of any species. We first provide a general overview of observations and experiments from different species and then review in more detail a project attempting to recreate the initial domestication of chickens. Starting from an outbred population of Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all modem chickens, divergent lines were selected based on scores in a standardized fear-of-human test applied to all birds at 12 weeks of age. Up to the eighth selected generation, observations have been made on correlated effects of this selection on various phenotypes. The fear score had a significant heritability and was genetically correlated to several other behavioural traits. Furthermore, low-fear birds were larger at hatch, grew faster, laid larger eggs, had a modified metabolism and increased feed efficiency, had modified social behaviour and reduced brain size. Selection affected gene expression and DNA-methylation in the brains, but the genetic and epigenetic effects were not specifically associated with stress pathways. Further research should be focused on unraveling the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms underlying the correlated side-effects of reduced fear of humans.

  • 830.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Effects of Divergent Selection for Fear of Humans on Behaviour in Red Junglefowl2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication has caused a range of similar phenotypic changes across taxa, relating to physiology, morphology and behaviour. It has been suggested that this recurring domesticated phenotype may be a result of correlated responses to a central trait, namely increased tameness. We selected Red Junglefowl, the ancestors of domesticated chickens, during five generations for reduced fear of humans. This caused a marked and significant response in tameness, and previous studies have found correlated effects on growth, metabolism, reproduction, and some behaviour not directly selected for. Here, we report the results from a series of behavioural tests carried out on the initial parental generation (P0) and the fifth selected generation (S5), focusing on behaviour not functionally related to tameness, in order to study any correlated effects. Birds were tested for fear of humans, social reinstatement tendency, open field behaviour at two different ages, foraging/exploration, response to a simulated aerial predator attack and tonic immobility. In S5, there were no effects of selection on foraging/exploration or tonic immobility, while in the social reinstatement and open field tests there were significant interactions between selection and sex. In the aerial predator test, there were significant main effects of selection, indicating that fear of humans may represent a general wariness towards predators. In conclusion, we found only small correlated effects on behaviours not related to the tameness trait selected for, in spite of them showing high genetic correlations to fear of humans in a previous study on the same population. This suggests that species-specific behaviour is generally resilient to changes during domestication.

  • 831.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jöngren, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Strandberg, Erling
    Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Zoology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Heritability and Genetic Correlations of Fear-Related Behaviour in Red Jungelfowl -Possible Implications for Early Domestication2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 4, p. e35162-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated species differ from their wild ancestors in a number of traits, generally referred to as the domesticated phenotype. Reduced fear of humans is assumed to have been an early prerequisite for the successful domestication of virtually all species. We hypothesized that fear of humans is linked to other domestication related traits. For three generations, we selected Red Junglefowl (ancestors of domestic chickens) solely on the reaction in a standardized Fear of Human-test. In this, the birds were exposed for a gradually approaching human, and their behaviour was continuously scored. This generated three groups of animals, high (H), low (L) and intermediate (I) fearful birds. The birds in each generation were additionally tested in a battery of behaviour tests, measuring aspects of fearfulness, exploration, and sociality. The results demonstrate that the variation in fear response of Red Junglefowl towards humans has a significant genetic component and is genetically correlated to behavioural responses in other contexts, of which some are associated with fearfulness and others with exploration. Hence, selection of Red Junglefowl on low fear for humans can be expected to lead to a correlated change of other behavioural traits over generations. It is therefore likely that domestication may have caused an initial suite of behavioural modifications, even without selection on anything besides tameness.

  • 832.
    Agnvall, Beatrix
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Katajamaa, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Altimiras, Jordi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jensen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Is domestication driven by reduced fear of humans? Boldness, metabolism and serotonin levels in divergently selected red junglefowl (Gallus gallus)2015In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 20150509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated animals tend to develop a coherent set of phenotypic traits. Tameness could be a central underlying factor driving this, and we therefore selected red junglefowl, ancestors of all domestic chickens, for high or low fear of humans during six generations. We measured basal metabolic rate (BMR), feed efficiency, boldness in a novel object (NO) test, corticosterone reactivity and basal serotonin levels (related to fearfulness) in birds from the fifth and sixth generation of the high- and low-fear lines, respectively (44-48 individuals). Corticosterone response to physical restraint did not differ between selection lines. However, BMR was higher in low-fear birds, as was feed efficiency. Low-fear males had higher plasma levels of serotonin and both low-fear males and females were bolder in an NO test. The results show that many aspects of the domesticated phenotype may have developed as correlated responses to reduced fear of humans, an essential trait for successful domestication.

  • 833.
    Agren, H
    et al.
    Linkoping Univ, Inst Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Gel'mukhanov, F
    Linkoping Univ, Inst Phys & Measurement Technol, S-58183 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Kramers-Heisenberg and Weisskopf-Wigner descriptions of resonant X-ray Raman scattering2000In: Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, ISSN 0368-2048, E-ISSN 1873-2526, Vol. 110, no 1-3, p. 153-178Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An overview is presented of the theory of X-ray Raman scattering as originally formulated by Kramers and Heisenberg and by Weisskopf and Wigner. Two particular aspects of the theory are described in some detail, the formation of band profiles and the role of symmetry, These aspects are discussed in connection with recent results for atomic and molecular scatterers obtained in radiative and nonradiative scattering experiments conducted with 2nd and 3rd generation synchrotron radiation sources. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 834.
    Agren, Martin
    et al.
    Prosthodont Specialist Clin, Sweden.
    Sahin, Christofer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland.
    Pettersson, Mattias
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    The effect of botulinum toxin injections on bruxism: A systematic review2020In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To systematize evidence on the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) in the treatment of bruxism measured through bite force or electromyography (EMG) at the masseter muscle. Method Identification of relevant articles through databases PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Ovid and EBSCO and manual search were performed for sources from review articles. Studies scoring less than 3 on the Jadad Scale were excluded. Results Four articles were included after an exclusion of 333 articles. 3 articles measured EMG and 1 bite force. 1 article did not record a significant drop of activity, 1 article recorded reduction midway and at final endpoint. 2 articles recorded initial reduction, but a non significant difference at later follow up. Conclusion The available research is inconclusive and does not show enough evidence that bruxism can be treated with BTA injections. However, promising results have been shown in individual studies and further research in this area is needed.

  • 835.
    Agren, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Presentation av post-doctoral mentorship2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 836.
    Agren, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Health, Activity and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Strömberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    Luttik, ML
    Caregiving tasks and caregiver burden over time: effects of an intervention for patients with post-operative heart failure and their partners.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 837.
    Agrento, Daniela
    et al.
    Department of Business and Social Studies,University of Siena,Piazza San Francesco,Sienna, Italy.
    Grossi, Giuseppe
    Department of Business and Social Studies,University of Siena,Piazza San Francesco,Sienna, Italy.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Halmstad University.
    Collin, Sven-Olof
    Halmstad University.
    The 'externalisation' of local public service delivery: experience in Italy and Sweden2010In: International Journal of Public Policy, ISSN 1740-0600, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 41-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, the local government sector in European countries has undergone important changes involving, among other things, the externalisation of local public service provision through various forms of corporatisation, public-public collaboration, public-private partnerships and contracting out. An important consequence of these institutional changes has been the recasting of local governance systems through the need for increased cooperation between public and private actors. This article addresses these matters with comparative reference to the experience in Italy and Sweden. In doing so, it considers local governments in their constitutional and legal contexts, leading to more detailed discussions of their externalisation initiatives and resultant organisational forms and governance arrangements. Issues of ownership have been important concerning the significance of 'community' and 'place' in the management of public affairs.

  • 838. Agreus, L
    et al.
    Borgquist, Lars
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Department of Health and Society, General Practice.
    The cost of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, dyspepsia and peptic ulcer disease in Sweden2002In: PharmacoEconomics (Auckland), ISSN 1170-7690, E-ISSN 1179-2027, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective: Dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) involve a substantial cost to Swedish society. There is a lack of up-to-date nationwide cost estimates after 1985. This study was conducted to present a comprehensive and updated cost analysis and study the change over time of the national cost of these disorders. Design and setting: Primarily, data from National Swedish databases and secondly, data from databases from the County of Uppsala for 1997 were used for the calculations and estimations. Perspective: Swedish societal perspective. Results: The total cost to Swedish society of dyspepsia, PUD and GORD in 1997 was $US424 million, or $US63 per adult. Direct costs totalled $US258 million (61%) while indirect costs totalled $US166 million (39%). The highest proportions of costs were due to drugs and sick leave, these being 37 and 34%, respectively. Conclusions: The cost of dyspepsia and GORD is substantial for patients, health providers and society. Since 1985, drug costs have increased substantially while the cost of sick leave has decreased.

  • 839.
    Agrup, Måns
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Olsen, Karen
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Pathology. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Forensic Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Wingren, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    C-erbB-2 overexpression and survival in early onset breast cancer2000In: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, ISSN 0167-6806, E-ISSN 1573-7217, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Young breast cancer patients have a decreased survival rate and it has been demonstrated that young age is an independent predictor of adverse prognosis. Overexpression of c-erbB-2 protein (also known as HER-2/neu) has been shown to be a prognostic indicator in breast cancer in general and especially among patients with axillary nodal metastases. The present study was initiated to determine the prognostic significance of c-erbB-2 protein overexpression in early onset breast cancer.

    A population consisting of 110 young breast cancer patients, ≤ 36-year-old at diagnosis, was analyzed with immunohistochemical staining for c-erbB-2 protein.

    Thirty patients (27%) were found to overexpress the c-erbB-2 protein. C-erbB-2 positivity was significantly associated with poor survival when all patients were included in the analysis (P = 0.002) and for patients with axillary nodal metastases (P = 0.0007). No such association was found for node-negative patients. Furthermore, the difference in prognosis in relation to c-erbB-2 among node-positive patients was maintained, when these were stratified in groups treated or not treated with adjuvant chemotherapy.

    The study indicates that overexpression of c-erbB-2 protein is a strong prognostic factor in young breast cancer patients with axillary nodal metastases. Moreover, the adverse prognosis associated with c-erbB-2 overexpression in node-positive patients was observed whether or not the patients had received adjuvant chemotherapy.

  • 840.
    Aguilar, Edgar A.
    et al.
    Univ Gdansk, Poland.
    Farkas, Mate
    Univ Gdansk, Poland.
    Martinez, Daniel
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Alvarado, Matias
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Carine, Jaime
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Xavier, Guilherme B
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Barra, Johanna F.
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Canas, Gustavo
    Univ Bio Bio, Chile.
    Pawlowski, Marcin
    Univ Gdansk, Poland.
    Lima, Gustavo
    Univ Concepcion, Chile.
    Certifying an Irreducible 1024-Dimensional Photonic State Using Refined Dimension Witnesses2018In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 120, no 23, article id 230503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a new class of dimension witnesses, based on quantum random access codes, which are a function of the recorded statistics and that have different bounds for all possible decompositions of a high-dimensional physical system. Thus, it certifies the dimension of the system and has the new distinct feature of identifying whether the high-dimensional system is decomposable in terms of lower dimensional subsystems. To demonstrate the practicability of this technique, we used it to experimentally certify the generation of an irreducible 1024-dimensional photonic quantum state. Therefore, certifying that the state is not multipartite or encoded using noncoupled different degrees of freedom of a single photon. Our protocol should find applications in a broad class of modern quantum information experiments addressing the generation of high-dimensional quantum systems, where quantum tomography may become intractable.

  • 841.
    Aguilar, Helena
    et al.
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Urruticoechea, Ander
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Halonen, Pasi
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam.
    Kiyotani, Kazuma
    Center for Genomic Medicine, RIKEN, Yokohama, Japan.
    Mushiroda, Taisei
    Center for Genomic Medicine, RIKEN, Yokohama, Japan.
    Barril, Xavier
    University of Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Serra-Musach, Jordi
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Islam, Abul
    University of Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Caizzi, Livia
    Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Di Croce, Luciano
    Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Nevedomskaya, Ekaterina
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam.
    Zwart, Wilbert
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam.
    Bostner, Josefine
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Perez-Tenorio, Gizeh
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fornander, Tommy
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm South General Hospital, Sweden.
    Sgroi, Dennis C
    Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, USA.
    Garcia-Mata, Rafael
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
    Jansen, Maurice Phm
    Cancer Institute, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    García, Nadia
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Bonifaci, Núria
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Climent, Fina
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Soler, María Teresa
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Vida, Alejo
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Gil, Miguel
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Brunet, Joan
    Hospital Josep Trueta, Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Martrat, Griselda
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Gómez-Baldó, Laia
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Extremera, Ana I
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Figueras, Agnes
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Balart, Josep
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Clarke, Robert
    Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA.
    Burnstein, Kerry L
    University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
    Carlson, Kathryn E
    University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Katzenellenbogen, John A
    University of Illinois, Urbana, USA.
    Vizoso, Miguel
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Esteller, Manel
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain .
    Villanueva, Alberto
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Rodríguez-Peña, Ana B
    CSIC-University of Salamanca, Spain.
    Bustelo, Xosé R
    CSIC-University of Salamanca, Spain.
    Nakamura, Yusuke
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Zembutsu, Hitoshi
    University of Tokyo, Japan.
    Stål, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Beijersbergen, Roderick L
    The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam .
    Pujana, Miguel Angel
    L’Hospitalet del Llobregat, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    VAV3 mediates resistance to breast cancer endocrine therapy2014In: Breast Cancer Research, ISSN 1465-5411, E-ISSN 1465-542X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. R53-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Endocrine therapies targeting cell proliferation and survival mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) are among the most effective systemic treatments for ERalpha-positive breast cancer. However, most tumors initially responsive to these therapies acquire resistance through mechanisms that involve ERalpha transcriptional regulatory plasticity. Here, we identify VAV3 as a critical component in this process.

    METHODS: A cell-based chemical compound screen was carried out to identify therapeutic strategies against resistance to endocrine therapy. Binding to ERalpha was evaluated by molecular docking analyses, an agonist fluoligand assay, and short-hairpin (sh) RNA-mediated protein depletion. Microarray analyses were performed to identify altered gene expression. Western blot of signaling and proliferation markers and shRNA-mediated protein depletion in viability and clonogenic assays were performed to delineate the role of VAV3. Genetic variation in VAV3 was assessed for association with the response to tamoxifen. Immunohistochemical analyses of VAV3 were carried out to determine the association with therapy response and different tumor markers. An analysis of gene expression association with drug sensitivity was carried out to identify a potential therapeutic approach based on differential VAV3 expression.

    RESULTS: The compound YC-1 was found to comparatively reduce the viability of cell models of acquired resistance. This effect was probably not due to activation of its canonical target (soluble guanylyl cyclase) but instead a result of binding to ERalpha. VAV3 was selectively reduced upon exposure to YC-1 or ERalpha depletion and, accordingly, VAV3 depletion comparatively reduced the viability of cell models of acquired resistance. In the clinical scenario, germline variation in VAV3 was associated with response to tamoxifen in Japanese breast cancer patients (rs10494071 combined P value = 8.4 x 10-4). The allele association combined with gene expression analyses indicated that low VAV3 expression predicts better clinical outcome. Conversely, high nuclear VAV3 expression in tumor cells was associated with poorer endocrine therapy response. Based on VAV3 expression levels and the response to erlotinib in cancer cell lines, targeting EGFR signaling may be a promising therapeutic strategy.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes VAV3 as a biomarker and rationale signaling target to prevent and/or overcome resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer.

  • 842.
    Aguilar Sommar, Ruth
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Business process modelling: Review and framework2004In: International Journal of Production Economics, ISSN 0925-5273, E-ISSN 1873-7579, Vol. 90, no 2, p. 129-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A business process is the combination of a set of activities within an enterprise with a structure describing their logical order and dependence whose objective is to produce a desired result. Business process modelling enables a common understanding and analysis of a business process. A process model can provide a comprehensive understanding of a process. An enterprise can be analysed and integrated through its business processes. Hence the importance of correctly modelling its business processes. Using the right model involves taking into account the purpose of the analysis and, knowledge of the available process modelling techniques and tools. The number of references on business modelling is huge, thus making it very time consuming to get an overview and understand many of the concepts and vocabulary involved. The primary concern of this paper is to make that job easier, i.e. review business process modelling literature and describe the main process modelling techniques. Also a framework for classifying business process-modelling techniques according to their purpose is proposed and discussed. © 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 843.
    Aguilar Sommar, Ruth
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    INTEROP Network of Excellence2006In: Produktionsstrategi, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 10-11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 844.
    Aguilar Sommar, Ruth
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Production Economics.
    Poler, R.
    GIP Research Centre, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia, Spain, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Research Centre on Production Management and Engineering (CIGIP), European Operations Management Association (EurOMA), Production and Operations Management Society (POMS), Association for the Organisation Engineering (ADINGOR).
    Integrated analysis of the production planning process using Trampolin and DGRAI as process modelling tools2006In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 31-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides managers and other decision-makers with support on how to analyse business processes by presenting the use and features of Trampolin and DGRAI as complementary tools for the analysis of business processes to support enterprise integration. Two business process models were built for the production planning process in a large telecommunication company one using Trampolin and the other using DGRAI. The former offers a statistical analysis of the process showing the information required, responsible and other features of each activity along the process besides its links and sequence. The second gives a more dynamic analysis focusing on the process' decisional flow and its associated information and resources permitting to simulate and analyse the consequences of the decision-making process. A brief description of what may be analysed with each tool followed by analytical insights, and an analysis of how these tools support enterprise integration, are provided. Also the paper shows the advantages and disadvantages of each tool as well as some common and complementary characteristics found in the models.

  • 845. Aguilar, V
    et al.
    Staver, C
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology .
    Weed vegetation response to chemical and manual selective ground cover management in a shaded coffee plantation2003In: Weed research (Print), ISSN 0043-1737, E-ISSN 1365-3180, Vol. 43, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 846.
    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia
    et al.
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Bett, Cyrus
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Sevillano, Alejandro M.
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Kurt, Timothy D.
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Lawrence, Jessica
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Soldau, Katrin
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Hammarström, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sigurdson, Christina J.
    Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; Univ Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; Univ Calif Davis, CA USA.
    Generation of novel neuroinvasive prions following intravenous challenge2018In: Brain Pathology, ISSN 1015-6305, E-ISSN 1750-3639, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 999-1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prions typically spread into the central nervous system (CNS), likely via peripheral nerves. Yet prion conformers differ in their capacity to penetrate the CNS; certain fibrillar prions replicate persistently in lymphoid tissues with no CNS entry, leading to chronic silent carriers. Subclinical carriers of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) prions in the United Kingdom have been estimated at 1:2000, and vCJD prions have been transmitted through blood transfusion, however, the circulating prion conformers that neuroinvade remain unclear. Here we investigate how prion conformation impacts brain entry of transfused prions by challenging mice intravenously to subfibrillar and fibrillar strains. We show that most strains infiltrated the brain and caused terminal disease, however, the fibrillar prions showed reduced CNS entry in a strain-dependent manner. Strikingly, the highly fibrillar mCWD prion strain replicated in the spleen and emerged in the brain as a novel strain, indicating that a new neuroinvasive prion had been generated from a previously non-neuroinvasive strain. The new strain showed altered plaque morphology, brain regions targeted and biochemical properties and these properties were maintained upon intracerebral passage. Intracerebral passage of prion-infected spleen re-created the new strain. Splenic prions resembled the new strain biochemically and intracerebral passage of prion-infected spleen re-created the new strain, collectively suggesting splenic prion replication as a potential source. Taken together, these results indicate that intravenous exposure to prion-contaminated blood or blood products may generate novel neuroinvasive prion conformers and disease phenotypes, potentially arising from prion replication in non-neural tissues or from conformer selection.

  • 847.
    Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia
    et al.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Xiao, Xiangzhu
    Case Western Reserve University, OH 44116 USA.
    Bett, Cyrus
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; US FDA, MD USA.
    Erana, Hasier
    CIC bioGUNE, Spain.
    Soldau, Katrin
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA.
    Castilla, Joaquin
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; CIC bioGUNE, Spain; Ikerbasque, Spain.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surewicz, Witold K.
    Case Western Reserve University, OH 44116 USA.
    Sigurdson, Christina J.
    University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; University of Calif San Diego, CA 92093 USA; University of Calif Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Post-translational modifications in PrP expand the conformational diversity of prions in vivo2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 43295Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Misfolded prion protein aggregates (PrPSc) show remarkable structural diversity and are associated with highly variable disease phenotypes. Similarly, other proteins, including amyloid-beta, tau, alpha-synuclein, and serum amyloid A, misfold into distinct conformers linked to different clinical diseases through poorly understood mechanisms. Here we use mice expressing glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)anchorless prion protein, PrPC, together with hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry (HXMS) and a battery of biochemical and biophysical tools to investigate how posttranslational modifications impact the aggregated prion protein properties and disease phenotype. Four GPI-anchorless prion strains caused a nearly identical clinical and pathological disease phenotype, yet maintained their structural diversity in the anchorless state. HXMS studies revealed that GPIanchorless PrPSc is characterized by substantially higher protection against hydrogen/deuterium exchange in the C-terminal region near the N-glycan sites, suggesting this region had become more ordered in the anchorless state. For one strain, passage of GPI-anchorless prions into wild type mice led to the emergence of a novel strain with a unique biochemical and phenotypic signature. For the new strain, histidine hydrogen-deuterium mass spectrometry revealed altered packing arrangements of beta-sheets that encompass residues 139 and 186 of PrPSc. These findings show how variation in posttranslational modifications may explain the emergence of new protein conformations in vivo and also provide a basis for understanding how the misfolded protein structure impacts the disease.

  • 848.
    Aguirre, Elias
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vem lägger livspusslet?: På jakt efter livspusslets innebörder i media 2009-20112012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay studies the concept of "livspusslet", a term in swedish that directly translates as "the jigsaw puzzle of life". In recent public debate it has been used to articulate issues concerning the combination of family life and a professional career. The empirical material consists of newspaper articles from nationwide daily newspapers Dagens Nyheter and Svenska Dagbladet between 2009 and 2011. The concept of "livspusslet" relates to the debate about family values, gender equality and the public view on the issue of combining family life with a career. The widespread use of the concept indicates that the social practices surrounding the debate over family policy is shifting. This essay aims to answer questions of what meanings the concept of "livspusslet" is filled with in the studied articles, who has the legitimacy to articulate the problems surrounding the combination of family life and a career and it what matter the meanings of the concept changes from one article to another.

  • 849.
    Aguirre-Hammarlund, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Flärdh, Jacob
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Sundqvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Widén, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Identitetsskapande i det lokala rummet – Bostadssociologiska perspektiv på livsvillkor och identitet2005Student paper second termStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt sedan människan övergick till fasta bosättningar från ett jägar- och samlarsamhälle har den fasta boendemiljön påverkat individen, dess livsvillkor och i de identitetsskapande processerna. Idag ställs stora krav på en flexibel identitetsprocess och det innebär att den sociala miljön är mer föränderlig och osäkrare än tidigare. Den fysiska miljön däremot, utgör en trygghet i att den är stabil för var dag som går.

    Vår presentation kommer att handla om hur det lokala rummet, både ur ett socialt och fysiskt perspektiv, påverkar identitetsskapandet för den enskilde individen. Genom de studier vi presenterar hoppas vi kunna ge svar på vilka effekter som det lokala rummet, i form av både fysisk och social miljö, har för de identitetsskapande processer som vi lever med.

    Våra studier samverkar till hur vi kan betrakta det lokala rummet som en helhet. En av studierna visar på kombinationen av de externa och interna faktorerna och deras ömsesidiga inverkan och påverkan av varandra medan de tre övriga främst har visat på betydelsen och meningen av de interna faktorerna. Vi presenterar teorier kring denna helhet som, vill vi hävda, utgör den lokala organisation som den differentierade identiteten rör sig i och som vi relaterar vårt komplexa identitetsskapande till.

  • 850.
    Agulanna, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    Informed Consent in Sub-Saharan African Communal Culture: The2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Some scholars argue that the principle of voluntary informed consent is rooted in the Western ethos of liberal individualism; that it would be difficult to implement this requirement in societies where the norms of decision-making emphasize collective rather than individual decision-making (for example, Sub-Saharan Africa); that it would amount to “cultural imperialism” to seek to implement the principle of voluntary informed consent in non-Western societies. This thesis rejects this skepticism about the possibility of implementing the informed consent requirement in non-Western environments and argues that applying the principle of voluntary informed consent in human subjects’ research in Sub-Saharan African communal culture could serve as an effective measure to protect vulnerable subjects from possible abuses or exploitations. The thesis proposes the “multi-step” approach to informed consent as the best approach to the implementation of the principle in the African communal setting. The thesis argues that the importance of the “multi-step” approach lies in the fact that it is one that is sensitive to local culture and customs. On the question of whether the principle of voluntary informed consent should be made compulsory in research, the thesis answers that we have no choice in the matter.

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