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  • 851.
    Wickström, Anette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Psykisk hälsa ur barns och ungdomars perspektiv: De sociala relationernas avgörande betydelse2018In: Barn- och ungdomsvetenskap: Grundläggande perspektiv / [ed] Thomas Johansson och Emma Sorbring, Stockholm: Liber , 2018, p. 350-362Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 852.
    Wifvesson, Marianne
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    On Voyage with Cristóvão Colombo: The Privatization of Catholic Orphan Care in São Paulo City, 1892-19222005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1890, the military overthrew the monarchy, separated the Church from the State, and installed a Federal Republic in Brazil. The decentralization of political powers enhanced the abilities of each federal state to shape its own politics of childhood. In São Paulo, such an ability resulted in the passage of diverse state laws in the areas of childcare, and several institutions were created to attend to children’s needs during the early twentieth century.

    The purpose of this study is to examine the various roles of the State in the expansion of private religious orphan care in São Paulo city during the 1892-1922 period, as well as some of these roles’ effects on the practical uses of Catholic orphanages by diverse interest groups. The debate among state legislators and Catholic clergy as well as the admission and discharge practices at one Catholic orphanage served as bases for the examination.

    The study will show that the expansion of private institutions of childcare tended to obscure the role of the State in the expansion of public and private schooling during the period. On the one hand, the influence of the State appeared to have diminished as a consequence of fewer years of mandatory schooling at public institutions; the delegation of childcare to private institutions; the limited state regulations of the content of care at private institutions; the lack or limited subvention of the State in proportion to all children hosted at such institutions; and, the admission requirements which seemed to discourage rather than encourage application. The “true” role, influence, and dependence on the State, on the other hand, surfaced in times of political unrest.

  • 853.
    Wiltgren, Layal Kasselias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Import: Ungdomar skapar etniska kategoriseringar2014In: Barn, ISSN 0800-1669, no 4, p. 31-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary ethnicity research agrees that ethnicity, like other identity categories, is a social construct.In this article I aim to illustrate how youth in a segregated junior high school on the outskirts of Stockholm,humorously use the term import to categorize newly arrived immigrants. Although the term refers tophysical movement it is mainly concerned with matters of style and behavior. The term is, however, open,fluid and inclusive as the youth themselves can, in a playful manner, move in and out of the category. Theoverarching study, of which this article is part, is based on a yearlong fieldwork following two eight gradeclasses where all the students have the experience of migration within their families.

  • 854.
    Wingard, Leah
    et al.
    San Francisco State University.
    Forsberg, Lucas
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Parent involvement in childrens homework in American and Swedish dual-earner families2009In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1576-1595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes parent involvement by employing ethnographic methods and discourse analysis of parent-child talk about homework. We juxtapose what is often presented as a straightforward and unproblematic concept of parent involvement in education policy and research with actual instances of the day-to-day practices and reported experiences of parent involvement in childrens homework in the U.S. and Sweden. Our analyses show that parent involvement may be either parent or child initiated, and varies widely according to how much homework the child is assigned, the childs orientation to homework and a number of other factors. Analyses demonstrate that parents become involved in two main ways: 1. through anticipating and planning the activity of homework and 2. by directly participating in the accomplishment of the homework task itself. We additionally highlight in the paper that there is an inherent tension between a parents responsibility for homework and the childs responsibility for homework, and that parent involvement can cause tension in communication in the parent-child relationship.

  • 855. Wright, Katie
    et al.
    Sköld, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies.
    Swain, Shurlee
    Examining Abusive Pasts: Reassessing Institutional Violence and Care through Commissions of Inquiry2018In: traverse. Zeitchrift für Geschichte, ISSN 1420-4355, Vol. 25, no 3, p. 162-178Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 856.
    Zetterkvist-Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hon kan om hon vill och han om han får stöd: Ett genusperspektiv på lärares sätt att prata om elever med diagnosen dyslexi eller lässpecifika läs- och skrivsvårigheter2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten handlar om ett specifikt fenomen som blev synligt i en avhandlingsstudie om hur barn, föräldrar och lärare berättar om och tillskriver betydelse och innebörd åt diagnoser som dyslexi eller specifika läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Innan jag presenterar detta fenomen närmare skall jag kortfattat beskriva avhandlingsstudien i sin helhet. Syftet med studien var att erhålla ökad förståelse av hur barn använder och ger betydelse åt en diagnos som dyslexi eller specifika läs- och skrivsvårigheter. I centrum stod 20 barn vars läs- och skrivprestationer under tidiga skolår inte motsvarat de krav som skolan formulerat. Det ledde till att bamen blev testade i en utredning där barnens skriftspråkliga svårigheter definierades i termer av dyslexi eller specifika läs- oeh skrivsvårigheter. Bamen var mellan 10 och 13 år och återfanns vid tiden studien i årskursema fyra till sex. När föräldrama tillfrågades om sitt och sina bams deltagande i studien betonades vikten av bamens "infonned consent". Bamen (19 av de 20 som ingår i studien) intervjuades i sin hemmiljö. Bamintervjuema utformades i syfte att ge bamen stort utrymme att styra och bestämma innehållet i det samtal som formas. Bamens föräldrar (20 intervjuer) och lärare (25 intervjuer) intervjuades med inriktning på hur dessa vuxna aktörer runtomkring använde och tillskrev betydelse och innebörd åt en diagnos som dyslexi eller specifika läs- oeh skrivsvårigheter. Dessa intervjuer var liksom bamens öppna, med fokus pa vissa samtalsamnen och barnen var den eentrala referenspunkten.

    I analysen av lärarintervjuema visade det sig att läramas sätt att tala om sina elever skilde sig åt i flera avseenden. Det gick att se två olika sätt att prata om den diagnos eleven fått, vilka framstår som två olika ståndpunkter. Vissa lärare pratade om diagnosen i positiva termer och därmed värdefull för både eleven och dem själva som lärare. Andra lärare förhöll sig mer avvaktande till diagnosen, vad gäller dess potential att förklara och första den specifika elevens skriftspråkliga prestationer. I det senare fallet framkastades också alternativa förklaringsmodeller till att den specifika eleven uppvisar hinder i sitt tillagnande av skriftspråket. Detta rörde sig alltsa om tva skilda satt att prata om oeh resonera kring diagnosen. Intervjuerna kunde på basis av vad jag uppfattade som ett ställningstagande för eller emot diagnosen i förhallånde till den specifika eleven delas upp i två grupper: 15 intervjuer i vilka ett accepterande av diagnosen dominerar och 10 intervjuer i vilka en mer avvaktande hållning gentemot diagnosen kan spåras.

    Intervjusamtalen handlade emelleltid inte bara om hur läraren såg på eleven vad gäller diagnosen och det fenomen som den betecknar. I samtalen pratade vi också om eleven utifrån andra aspekter, både i problemorienterade och berömmande respektive till synes neutrala ordalag. Detta tal om eleven och diagnosen gav en antydan om hur lärarna ser på och uppfattar elever på ett generellt plan. Dessa berättelser, redogörelser och beskrivningar visade - direkt eller indirekt - vilka krav och förväntningar dessa lärare hade på elever i egenskap av elever. I lärarnas berättande konstmerades med andra ord en bild av den goda eleven, både utifrån vad som framhävs som positivt och vad som presenteras som problem vad gäller elevers sätt att vara.

    I ett yttrande som det följande framträder implicit en norm för vad som kan sägas utgöra en god elev: "sa det är först nu som hon är liksom mottaglig för och arbeta med som en riktig skolelev." (19: 27-28, min kursivering) Uttryeket en riktig skolelev antyder hur elevskap värderas, ett elevskap som kan vara mer eller mindre "riktigt" och tyder på en underliggande en norm gentemot vilken elevens beteende jämförs och bedöms. Jag valde att i analysen av hur bilden av den goda eleven konstrueras tydliggöra de kriterier som byggde upp och formade denna norm.

    Det var i samband med denna analys som ytterligare ett fenomen visade sig, vilket skall diskuteras mer ingående i denna rapport. Den bilden, eller rättare sagt, dessa bilder av hur en god elev förväntas vara, var nämligen också bilder av flickor och pojkar. Det framstod som om att flickor i högre grad omtalades i termer som överensstämmer med vad som utgjorde bilden av en god elev. Jag skall emellertid inledningsvis återge vad som framkom i analysen av bilden av den goda eleven. Därefter foljer en presentation av hur denna bild oeksa kan analyseras utifrån ett genusperspektiv.

  • 857.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att växa upp i en homosexuell familj - ungdomar och unga vuxna berättar2002In: Uppväxt, familjeformer och barns bästa: om familjeliv som offentlig angelägenhet och vardaglig praktik : bidrag presenterade vid en konferens ordnad av Institutet för framtidsstudier och Tema barn, Linköpings universitet, i Stockholm den 5 och 6 februari 2001 / [ed] Ingrid Söderlind, Stockholm: Institutet för framtidsstudier , 2002, p. 134-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet handlar om berättelser av ungdomar och unga vuxna som växt upp med en mamma eller pappa som kommit ut som homosexuell under deras uppväxt.

  • 858.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Barn och dyslexi: barns förhållningssätt till diagnosen dyslexi/läs- och skrivsvårigheter (Reviderad version)1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här diskussionen kommer att fördjupas inom ramen för ett mer omfattande tvärvetenskapligt forskningsprojekt som heter Välfärdsstatens omvandling och en ny barndom, i vilket Barn ocll dyslexi ingår som ett delprojekt. Det förra är ett forskningsprojekt som ur historiskalsociologiska och psykologiskalpedagogiska perspektiv närrnar sig en rad frågestallningar kring bamdomens innebord, forhållandet mellan barn, föräldrar, samhälle och stat och hur detta har präglats av välfardsstatens förändring under de senaste årtiondena.

    I den föreliggande texten är det den andra frågestallningen som står i fokus det vill säga den del av studien som riktar sig emot enskilda barns sätt att använda dyslexi/läs- och skrivsvårigheter. I de avsnitt som följer tänker jag ge en överblick över hur jag kom i kontakt med bamen och deras föräldrar och en rad andra metodologiska överväganden som följer en studie av det har slaget. Därefter presenteras bamens berättande om dyslexi/läs- och skrivsvårigheter, deras erfarenheter från skola och specialundervisning relaterat till hur de väljer att presentera sig själva i en intervjusituation.

  • 859.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Barns perspektiv i forskning om psykisk hälsa - förhållningssätt och utmaningar2012In: Barn, ISSN 0800-1669, no 1, p. 9-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses children's perspective in research on mental health and illness in childhood as a challenging approach. The starting point is the issue of how a child perspective in research is different from child perspective as defined in political contexts. In light of current critical discussions among researchers in childhood studies a significant difference is that researchers present theoretical and methodological starting points when results based on children's perspectives are discussed. A particular challenge arises as more and more researchers from research fields outside childhood research begins to assume child's perspective. Another challenge is linked to the particular issue of mental health and illness. Drawing on Ian Hacking’s concepts of "the looping effects" (Hacking 1995, 1999) one promising approach in studying mental health and illness in childhood from a child perspective is outlined.

  • 860.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Daughters, Sons, and Homosexual Parents: A study of adolescent and young adult narratives on growing up in gay and lesbian families2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, 15 teenagers and 16 young adults related their experiences of having one or two homosexual parents. All of these young informants were born in a heterosexual relationship where the parents later separated and then they lived in "new" or "post-nuclear" families.

    The analysis shows considerable variation in the children's and adolescents' perceptions and experiences of living with homosexual or bisexual parents. One important finding of the study is that the parent's homosexuality becomes a highly prominent theme in the interviews where the parent/child relationship is also described as inadequate. This was found in a few cases in the study where the parent's homosexuality is presented as closely associated with negatively charged experiences. In the remaining interviews, parent/child relationships are presented as good and meaningful. In those cases, homosexuality is accorded less prominence in the children's life stories. Here emerge two different ways of telling about the parent's homosexuality that show how experiences of life with a homosexual parent can vary. In the one case, homosexuality is described as something self-evident that certainly distinguishes the family, but not in a negative sense. Despite an array of differences in living conditions, homosexuality is described as a natural and accepted element of family life. Homosexuality in these cases is not a point of conflict for the informant. In the other case, homosexuality is described as a problem in relation to the informant's friends and peers. The difficulties they describe do not however encompass the parent as a person; instead, the parental relationship is  presented as significant. This attitude appears to be a consequence of the social, psychological, and cultural expectations that characterize the teenage years for some adolescents. A point of conflict emerges here concerning on the one hand loyalty to the parent and the adolescents' familiarity with homosexuality, and on the other hand the adolescents'participation in peer groups in which heterosexist views are expressed. The informants use various strategies to manage this conflict, which seems to characterize early adolescence since the endeavors to conceal are eventually transformed into a more accepting attitude as the adolescents get older. It is similar to the process that relatives of homosexuals go through when a son, daughter, brother, or sister "comes out" and the relative must manage kinship and concern on the one hand and heterosexist value judgments on the other.

  • 861.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Från samhällets barn till egna individer: Barnpsykiatrisk behandlingsideologi 1945-19852012In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 40-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article the changing development of treatment ideology and policy in Swedish child psychiatry for the period 1945 to 1985 is discussed. Psychoanalytical ideas had been a source of inspiration in the development of municipal child guidance services in the interwar period. From 1945 and onwards Swedish child psychiatric clinics were introduced as a part of the medical health services within the realm of the county councils. The aim of this article is to examine the role played by psychoanalytic and psychodynamic thinking in this development of Swedish child psychiatry as a medical specialty. A rhetorical analysis of official government reports and policy documents dealing with the child psychiatric services in Sweden has been carried out. The analysis has specifically focused intellectual knowledge traditions underpinning the evolving treatment ideologies, including ways of defining problematic children and diagnostic categories. When mental health services for children were introduced in the mid-1940s, psychoanalytic thinking was intertwined with the social democratic vision of the future Swedish welfare state in which children were symbolizing the future. In practice, however, treatment ideas during the first years were on the whole sparse and psychiatric treatment for children was not yet developed in this context. The child guidance tradition of testing children and guiding parents appeared to be the usual way of addressing parents and children. From the early 1960s, child psychiatric services expanded and the number of units increased immensely. By now a treatment ideology based on psychodynamic theories began to evolve and child therapy became more and more common treatment approach. In the 1970s this treatment ideology actually gained hegemonic status, only challenged by family therapy ideas.  The conclusion is that psychoanalytical ideas have been influential for child psychiatry as an institutional practice for the whole period of time. Even if psychoanalysis was less influential in treatment arenas in the beginning years, the way it was intertwined with political visions of welfare and health care for all children, paved the way for the coming years development psychodynamic treatment ideology. The treatment ideological development however led to a change in how children were perceived. In the first decades of child psychiatry children were defined as society's children, a notion which emphasized social factors as critical to children's well-being and mental health. The coming decades the image of the child changed and was increasingly individualized and children's mental health became rhetorically more and more tied to relational circumstances in early childhood.

  • 862.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lokalt sektorsöverskridande hälsofrämjande arbete för barn och unga : ”50‐miljonersprojektet” Katrineholms kommun.2012Report (Other academic)
  • 863.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    När Bowlby kom till Sverige. Från motstånd till erkännande.: Anknytningsteori i Sverige 1950-20002009In: Barn, barndom och föräldraskap / [ed] A-M Markström, M Simonsson, I. Söderlind & E Änggård, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2009, 1, p. 271-289Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 864.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    På tal om dyslexi: En studie av hur barn, föräldrar och lärare berättar om och ger betydelse åt diagnoser som dyslexi och specifika läs- och skrivsvårigheter2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to understand how children diagnosed as dyslectics use and ascribe meaning to the diagnosis given to them. The theoretical starting point is social constructionism, implying that dyslexia is a word that signifies a phenomenon, in this case children's problem with reading and writing, which in turn is mediated through a cultural, social and historical context.

    Twenty children in the age of 10-13 yr. took part in the study. The children were interviewed at home. In order to activate children's narration of their lived experiences, the interviews were informal and semi-structured. In order to grasp how parents and teachers concerned talked about dyslexia in relation to the specific child these parties were interviewed as well. In the analysis of the interviews narrative inquiry were important.

    In the debate about dyslexia, prominent in the 1990's, a controversy arose over the extent to which a diagnosis like dyslexia labels the child as abnormal or emancipates the child from the guilt of failure.This study shows that the children's ways of using and ascribing meaning to the diagnostic word is complex and multifaceted and cannot easily be defined as either a label or an emancipatory device. It seems as if the word dyslexia is a purposeful discursive tool in varying degrees for respectively children, parents and teachers. Children use diagnostic words in a complex interplay of meanings and signification, closely connected to their way of interpreting the moral judgement made when their performance is articulated as "wrong" or "odd". In the parents' narration the diagnosis seems to be taken up in an interpretative framework, thus providing a way for parents to clarify and emphasise their responsibility concerning the child's progress and good. The teachers use the diagnosis in various ways, not only todefine the problem but also to obtain resources and clarify moral and social aspects. However the teachers' ways of talking about the children is to a large degree related to a moral judgement of thechildren as pupils. This moral dimension appears to be independent of the teachers' ways of talking about the pupil's abilities or disabilities. Therefore, the diagnostic term does not seem to have the sameimpact in the interpretative framework of teachers, as in the case of the parents'.

  • 865.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Regnbågsfamiljer som en utmaning för föräldraskapets genus2010In: Barnets familjer ur barnkulturella perspektiv / [ed] Ann Banér, Stockholm: Centrum för barnkulturforskning vid Stockholms universitet , 2010, p. 111-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många av oss lever med  uppfattningen att en familj ska bestå av mamma, pappa, barn och att så  har det alltid varit. Men forskningen visar att i ett historiskt  perspektiv har familjelivet sett mycket splittrat ut och överensstämmer  föga med vår eventuella idealbild. Den mångfald av personer som omger och  präglar barns vardag i det västerländska samhället är således inget nytt  för barn. Denna skrift ger perspektiv på hur olika familje- och  institutionsmönster formar och påverkar barns, ungas och vuxnas liv  idag.

  • 866.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Sandtray technique for Swedish children 1945-1960: diagnostics, psychotherapy and processes of individualisation2011In: Paedagogica historica, ISSN 0030-9230, E-ISSN 1477-674X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 825--840Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article examines the development of a diagnostic and therapeutic technique named The Sandtray at the Erica Foundation, a privately-run child counselling service in Stockholm. Originally it was called The World, developed by the British paediatrician and child psychiatrist Margaret Lowenfeld. In the 1930s it was imported to Sweden, where it gained a central position in child psychotherapy activities. The aim of the article is to discuss how The Sandtray was utilised at the Erica Foundation, both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. These two approaches are also discussed in relation to Foucauldian theories of the individualisation process. In the diagnostic practice the child was individually assessed and evaluated in relation to normative standards of scientific child developmental psychology, while in the therapeutic practice the individual child was through verbalisation techniques encouraged to reflect and demonstrate introspection as a subject. Two renderings of the individualisation of children are thus discerned in the utilisation of The Sandtray, one as a result of the disciplinary regime of the diagnostic practice, another through technologies of the self in the therapeutic practice. The latter also underwent a change with respect to how children were viewed. The emphasis on notions of children as different in comparison to adults was increasingly played down to the benefit of the notion of children as being the same.

  • 867.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vad är identitet?: en begreppsdiskussion i anslutning till ett projekt om barns sätt att prata om diagnosen dyslexi1998Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Identitet är ett begrepp som i allt högre utsträckning kommit att användas inom en rad skilda kunskapsområden såsom sociologi, socialpsykologi, antropologi och psykologi/psykoanalytisk teori. 'Identitet' har kommit att användas i relation till aspekter såsom etnicitet, genus, sexuell orientering osv. Anthony Giddens bok Modernity and Self-Identity. Self and society in late modem age (1991), där 'identitet' används ur ett sociologiskt perspektiv, är bara en i raden av böcker som givits ut under 1990-talet. Brennan (1992) diskuterar detta omfattande bruk av termen 'identitet' och hävdar att det är ett problem att 'identitet' används i en rad så pass skilda sammanhang utan att egentligen närmare definition. Brennan aktualiserar t ex hur olika förgreningarna inom psykoanalytisk teori kommit att använda 'identitet' på skilda sätt, utan att detta egentligen problematiseras och lyfts fram i ljuset.

    I forlängningen av Brennans resonemang så finner jag det därför viktigt och nödvändigt att föra ett närmare resonemang kring hur identitet kan forstås och definieras. Det är inte min avsikt att reda ut och klargöra hur 'identitet' kommit att användas och forstås på ett generellt plan, utan diskussionen kommer att föras i relation till de teoretiska referensramar som är relevanta i mitt avhandlingsarbete.

  • 868.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    War children, evacuations, and state politics in Europe during WWII: a local case of sick Finnish war children in Sweden2015In: Conflict, violence, and peace / [ed] Christopher Harker, Kathrin Hörschelmann, Tracey Skelton, Singapore: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2015, p. 1-21Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe during World War II, evacuations of children without parents from war zones and war-affected areas were common. Evacuations required administration and extensive logistics, and financial resources had to be obtained. Governments and government agencies were involved but their political aims and motivations differed. The following chapter examines the evacuation of Finnish war children to Sweden during World War II. It focuses on the sick Finnish war children whose evacuation and medical care in Sweden became a concern of the Swedish state. Based on an analysis of medical records, the construction of children and the state’s role in the evacuations is discussed. A historical perspective on evacuations of war children during WWII offers an opportunity to reflect on the current situation of unaccompanied refugee children and their arrival to European countries today.

  • 869.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hagström, Mirjam
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nyanlända barn och den svenska mottagningsstrukturen: Röster om hösten 2015 och en kunskapsöversikt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten riktar blicken mot den svenska mottagningen av nyanlända barn (0-18 år) under hösten 2015. Migrationsver­kets statistik visar att av de drygt 160 000 flyktingar som sökte asyl i Sverige 2015 var knappt hälften under 18 år, ca 70 000. Av dessa var i sin tur hälften ensam­kommande barn, drygt 35 000. I jämförelse med året innan fyrdubblades antalet asylsökande ensamkom­mande barn och antal barn som anlände med sina föräldrar eller andra vårdnadshavare fördubblades.

    När barn (0–18 år) söker asyl i Sverige, med eller utan föräldrar, möter de en komplex mottagnings­struktur bestående av verksamheter från alla sektorer i samhället: den offentliga sektorn som återfinns på stat-, landstings- och kommunal nivå; det civila samhället samt den privata sektorn, eftersom delar av det offentliga välfärdssystemet omfattar upphandlade tjänster. En viktig utgångspunkt för rapporten är att mottagningsstrukturen omfattar skilda verksam­hetsområden som skola och utbildning, socialtjänst, asylprövning, hälso- och sjukvård samt civilsamhället. Dessa olika delar i samhället lyder under skilda styr­ningsmekanismer, vilket ställer höga krav på samord­ning och samverkan mellan de olika delarna.

    Till följd av den exceptionella ökningen av asyl­sökande under hösten 2015 ökade trycket på mottag­ningsstrukturen och de problem och utmaningar som uppstod hanterades på skilda sätt med olika framgång. Det finns viktiga lärdomar och viktig erfarenhet att ta tillvara på från den aktuella perioden, som grund för att utveckla och förbättra mottagningen. Det är ambitionen med denna rapport.

    Med avstamp i den exceptionella situationen syftar rapporten till att sätta ljuset på mottagningsstrukturen för nyanlända barn med, särskilt fokus på hösten 2015. Ett övergripande syfte är att identifiera problem och utmaningar som aktualiserats inom och mellan olika verksamhetsområden involverade i mottagningen av nyanlända barn. Vidare belyser rapporten vilka konsekvenser detta får för barnen. Rapporten ställer följande tre frågor: Hur uppfattade myndigheter, välfärdens aktörer och ideella organisationer att mot­tagandet av nyanlända barn hanterades under hösten 2015? Hur ser kunskapsläget ut när det gäller de vill­kor och processer som styr och påverkar mottagandet av nyanlända barn? Vilka slutsatser kan dras ifråga om mottagningsstrukturens kapacitet att förhålla sig till nyanlända barns olika förutsättningar och behov?

    Den första frågan besvaras via en intervjustudie, den andra besvaras genom en kunskapsöversikt. Intervjuerna har genomförts med aktörer involverade i mottagandet, som representerar olika verksam­hetsområden, från fyra olika kommuner. På basis av resultat från intervjuerna och kunskapsöversiktens genomgång av tidigare forskning har en rad utma­ningar identifierats och diskuterats utifrån frågor om vad det innebär och vilka konsekvenserna blir för nyanlända barn utifrån deras olika förutsättningar och behov.

    Ett övergripande resultat från intervjustudien är att tack vare ett stort engagemang och högt ansvars­tagande från aktörernas sida från olika delar av mottagningsstrukturen, har arbetet i det stora hela fungerat bra. Verksamheter och rutiner har anpassats och förändrats utifrån de krav som de större grup­perna av nyanlända barn medförde. Många lyfter också hur viktigt det var att få ett tydligt stöd och klara riktlinjer från ledningshåll för att på ett flexibelt sätt kunna anpassa resurser och insatser. Vidare är det många som värjer sig mot en problemfixering och efterlyser ett förhållningssätt som möjliggör flexibla lösningar som så långt möjligt skapar goda villkor för de nyanlända barnen. Men höstens intensiva situation har också bidragit till att ett antal problemområden och utmaningar har identifierats av de intervjuade, som på olika sätt präglar det svenska mottagandet av nyanlända barn.

    Sju utmaningar

    Rapporten har valt att lyfta och diskutera dessa utmaningar genom att både relatera dem till tidigare forskning (vad vi vet) och att synliggöra behov av forskning (vad vi behöver veta mer om).

    Hantera effekter av väntetider och osäkerhet

    En övergripande och omfattande utmaning är att hantera effekterna av den väntan och osäkerhet som asylprocessen medför för nyanlända barn. De långa väntetiderna i ankomstboende innebär för de ensam­kommande barnen en fördröjning med att få en god man, som vidare påverkade möjligheterna att skapa ett stabilt boende. Vidare har de långa väntetiderna inneburit försenad skolplacering för många barn i skolåldern, också när vistelsekommun fastställts och boende etablerats, eftersom det rådde brist på lärare och lokaler. Generellt sett är nyanlända barn en sårbar grupp, till följd av krig och uppbrott och en instabil tillvaro som flykting. Tidigare forskning har pekat på vikten av skolplacering som en trygghetsfaktor. Likaså är struktur och förutsägbarhet i vardagslivet av vikt för att barnen ska kunna hantera oro och osäkerhet. I intervjuerna framhålls särskilt hur de barn som anlände med höstens flyktinggrupper uppvisade många tecken på mental ohälsa, vilket inte följdes upp då den typ av stöd som krävdes inte fanns tillgängligt. Väntetider präglar alla asylsökande och nyanlända barns liv, men till följd av att så många flyktingar kom hösten 2015 blev väntetiderna extra långa. Vad som ytterligare utmanar situationen med många barn som befinner sig i situationer med osäkra tidsramar och väntetider är förslaget om den tillfälliga lagstiftning som kraftigt begränsar möjligheten att få permanenta uppehållstillstånd. Väntan riskerar att permanentas för nyanlända barn i mottagningsstrukturen, vilket förhindrar långsiktig planering inför framtiden.

    Minimera risk för utanförskap

    En andra utmaning består i att motverka risken för att nyanlända barn jämfört med andra jämnåriga lever i en parallell vardag på grund av en fördröjd och försvårad integrationsprocess. Asylsökande barn i de lägre åldrarna respektive de äldre tonåringarna har inte rätt till förskola respektive gymnasieutbildning i samma utsträckning som andra barn i Sverige, vilket innebär ökad risk för marginalisering. Vidare tenderar nyanlända elever att i stor utsträckning placeras i förberedande undervisning separerade från övriga elever på skolorna, vilket tidigare forskning visar får negativa konsekvenser såväl pedagogiskt som socialt. När ljuset riktas mot mottagningsstrukturen som helhet framträder bilden av en parallell vardag för gruppen nyanlända barn och ungdomar i jämförelse med deras jämnåriga i Sverige. Ju längre tid en sådan parallell vardag fortgår, desto svårare är det att bryta utanförskap, vilket i nästa steg innebär utmaning nummer tre.

    Skapa gränsöverskridande synsätt på integration

    Denna utmaning består i att utveckla integrations­arbetet på ett sätt som motverkar att integration uppfattas som anpassning och istället inbjuder till gränsöverskridande synsätt. Integration som mål är ett begrepp som behöver definieras i relation till sammanhang och verksamhet, inklusive en öppenhet för de nyanlända barnens och ungdomarnas eget perspektiv.

    Motverka att nyanlända barn i familj faller mellan stolarna

    En fjärde utmaning rör mottagandet av nyanlända barn i familj det vill säga de som har sina föräldrar eller släktingar med sig vid ankomsten, som legala vårdnadshavare. I jämförelse med ensamkommande barn framstår barn i familj som en mer utsatt grupp i relation till mottagningsstrukturen. Det finns större risk att de faller mellan stolarna när det gäller insatser som skola och hälsovård. I stora delar blir föräldrar­nas kapacitet att orientera sig och kräva insatser för barnen avgörande. Eftersom många familjer med barn bor i eget boende under asyltiden ökar avståndet mel­lan familjen och de välfärdsinsatser som är tillgängliga för alla barn i Sverige, oavsett migrationsstatus. Det är ett problem som blev särskilt påtagligt under hösten 2015 då många familjer inte heller gavs möjlighet till enskilda mottagningssamtal med handläggare på Migrationsverket, där just information om utbildning och vård förmedlas. Mot den bakgrunden kan man hävda att det finns en mer sammansatt organisation för ensamkommande asylsökande barn i jämförelse med asylsökande barn i familj, vilket blir tydligt när mottagningsstrukturen utsätts för hårdare press. Det finns fastställda samverkansmål och ansvarsfördel­ning på nationell nivå som rör omhändertagandet av ensamkommande barn, vilket återspeglas i det kommunala mottagandet som har pågått sedan 2006 när kommunerna fick en utökat ansvar för asylsö­kande ensamkommande barn och ungdomar. Trots en rad problem i mottagandet av ensamkommande barn, med boenden och gode män, så finns det aktörer som bär ett formellt ansvar för att gruppen får sina rättigheter uppfyllda och som kan ställas till svars när hanteringen brister. När det gäller asylsökande barn i familj läggs ansvaret på barnens föräldrar eller andra vuxna runt familjerna, som måste navigera i ett för många nytt och komplext välfärdssystem. Det går utifrån detta att likna mottagningen av ensamkom­mande asylsökande barn mer vid ett system, där alla delar arbetar mot gemensamma mål, i jämförelse med mottagningen av asylsökande barn i familj.

    Öka samverkan mellan det offentliga och det civila samhället

    Den femte utmaningen har på många håll redan påvisats och rör vikten av ökad samverkan mellan det offentliga och det civila samhället. Höstens erfaren­heter pekar tydligt ut betydelsen av den flexibilitet och rörlighet som karaktäriserar frivilliga insatser för nyanlända barn, vidare den viktiga roll som civila samhället kan komma att spela för ett utvecklat inte­grationsarbete. En viktig fråga att hantera och vidare belysa är de hinder som uppmärksammas i tillträde för nyanlända barn inom framförallt idrottens ordi­narie verksamheter. Detta för att politiska mål om

    delaktighet och mötesplatser inom civilsamhällets organisationer och idrotten ska förverkligas.

    Hantera otydlig ansvarsfördelning

    En sjätte utmaning består i att hantera den situation som uppstår till följd av ett långt drivet beställar-ut­förar-system i kommunerna. De ensamkommande barnen har rätt till skola och god man i vistelsekom­munen, där ett boende är upphandlat av anvisnings­kommunen, vars ansvar för omsorg och boende kvarstår. Ansvarsfördelning kan bli otydlig och barn i svåra situationer kan hamna i kläm.

    Olika aktörer har olika villkor att förhålla sig till

    Den sista utmaningen består i att hantera det faktum att mottagandet utgör en struktur snarare än ett system. Respektive verksamhet har mål som styr deras arbete och som regleras i lagar och förordningar. Det krävs samverkan som på ett tydligt sätt förhåller sig till de skilda villkor som styr respektive verksam­hetsområde med särskilt fokus på ansvarsfördelning. Därför måste den samverkan som krävs på ett tydligt sätt förhålla sig till dels de skilda villkor som styr verksamhetsområdena, dels utveckla former för att formulera en tydlig ansvarsfördelning som grund för samverkan.

    Det krävs samverkan som på ett tydligt sätt förhåller sig till de skilda villkor som styr respektive verksamhetsområde med särskilt fokus på ansvarsför­delning. När en sådan samverkan uppnås finns större möjligheter att tillgodose barns rättigheter.

  • 870.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Hydén, Margareta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Homosexuella föräldrar med barn2003In: Farväl Heternormativitet,2002, Stockholm: Lambda Nordica Förlag , 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Presentation av ett pågående forskningsprojekt. 

  • 871.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Junila, Marianne
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Gränsöverskridande socialmedicin: Vård av finska sjuka barn i Sverige 1942-19492017In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 610-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här artikeln handlar en omfattande satsning på att transportera ca 5000 sjuka finska barn till Sverige för vård och behandling under och efter andra världskriget. Sjuktransporterna pågick ända till slutet av 1940-talet. Det var ett projekt som försiggick parallellt med förflyttningar av ca 70 000 finska barn för tillfälliga placeringar i Sverige under kriget. Sjuktransporterna skiljde sig organisatoriskt i den meningen att statliga aktörer från både Finland och Sverige var involverade. Den svenska staten bidrog med ett substantiellt finansiellt stöd. Resultatet blev en gränsöverskridande socialmedicinsk satsning.

  • 872.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kvist Lindholm, Sofia
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Säg STOPP! – ett antimobbningsprojekt från Kulturskolan i Katrineholm: Forumteater och dramapedagogik när elever i år fyra utarbetar strategier mot mobbning (2009-2011). En utvärderingsrapport2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents  a research-based  evaluation with a special focus on the child’s perspective on a locally designed  anti-bullying  project called "Say STOP!" conducted in the Katrineholm  Municipality  from 2009 to 2011. "Say STOP!" was developed at the Katrineholm  Culture School as part of the school’s ongoing effort to reach out to the city’s primary  schools.  The  project  was  carried  out  in  cooperation  with representatives  of the Katrineholm  Child and Youth Project, a major initiative to promote well-being and health including counteract bully- ing among children and young people in Katrineholm,  funded by the Swedish   National   Institute   of  Public   Health.   "Say  STOP!"  was inspired  by Forumteater, a drama  pedagogy programme designed  to make  children  aware of alternative  actions  and  options  in  encoun- tering  bullying situations.  The aim was to inspire  children  to reflect on how bullying  takes place in a social context in which  onlookers play a key role in the continuation and outcome of the bullying.

    Jenny  Wistbacka,  a  teacher  at  the  Culture  School,  co-produced  – together  with a group of young people from the group "Cool without Drugs" ("Drag utan Drog") – a short film that depicts a bullying situa- tion. The scene in question  was framed by two children who introdu- ced  the  film.  Immediately   after  the  brief  bullying  scene,  the  two speakers  turned  to the  viewers with an  analysis  of what happened. They ended their discussion  with a call to come up with suggestions for how the situation  could have been dealt with in another  way. The premise  of the project was that  the film was to be shown  to school children   who  would  afterward  be  asked  to  draw,  write,  tell,  and perhaps  make a film about their ideas about alternative solutions and other  possible  ways of  behaving.  The  project  ran  for  one  to  two months  in each school.

  • 873.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Assisterad befruktning för lesbiska par: Gayvänligt, heteronormativt eller både och?2011In: Föräldraskapets politik / [ed] Helena Bergman, Maria Eriksson & Roger Klinth, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2011, p. 129-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste hundra åren har betydelsen av goda familjeförhållanden och gott föräldraskap betonats allt mer i debatt och politik. Men vad utgör ett gott föräldraskap, och hur skapas goda mödrar och fäder? Svaret på dessa frågor förändrats under det senaste seklet.

    Såväl föräldraskapet självt som försöken att påverka det genomgår ständiga förändringar. Adoptionsutredningar, assisterad befruktning för lesbiska par samt föräldrars engagemang i sina barns skolgång är några av de frågor som i boken får belysa samhällsutvecklingen. Att vara förälder till ett barn kan tyckas vara en naturlig och ursprunglig relation, men påverkas i högsta grad av tid, plats och sociala villkor.

    Bokens författare är historiker och samhällsvetare verksamma vid olika universitet och högskolor runt om i Sverige.

  • 874.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Psychodynamics in child psychiatry in Sweden, 1945-85: from political vision to treatment ideology2013In: History of Psychiatry, ISSN 0957-154X, E-ISSN 1740-2360, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 308-325Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, changing treatment ideologies and policies in child psychiatric outpatient services in Sweden from 1945 to 1985 are examined. The aim is to discuss the role played by psychoanalytic and psychodynamic thinking in this process of change. When mental health services for children were introduced in the mid-1940s, psychoanalytic thinking was intertwined with the social democratic vision of the Swedish welfare state in which children symbolized the future. In practice, however, treatment ideology was initially less influenced by psychoanalytic thinking. From the early 1960s, child psychiatric services expanded and the number of units increased. By then, the political vision had disappeared, but a treatment ideology began to evolve based on psychodynamic theories, which became dominant in the 1970s.

  • 875.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Sandin, Bengt
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    The politics of reading and writing problems: Changing definitions in Swedish schooling during the twentieth century2005In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 189-205Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reading and writing problems in school children has been the focus of a growing scientific interest regarding during the twentieth century. In search for definition, cause(s) and pedagogical interventions the subject is explored in medical, psychological and educational research. It is a field of knowledge characterized by scientific controversies and competing explanatory frames. In this article we approach the issue from a historic perspective. During the 20th century the development of compulsory schooling in Sweden three main periods can be discerned. Each is characterised by one specific explanatory framework dominating the educational policy discourse. These changing periods are related to both the increase of school participation during the first decades of the 20th century and the political ambitions associated with an education for all social classes. The politics of reading and writing problems mirrors a conflict not only about scholarly perspectives on reading and writing problems but also about the organization of welfare and system of education

  • 876.
    Zetterqvist Nelson, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Van der Horst, Frank
    Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Van der Veer, René
    Leiden University, Leiden, Netherlands.
    John Bowlby på besök i 1950-talets Sverige: - en udda fågel i svensk barnpsykiatri2017In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, no 1, p. 1--18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mismatch between John Bowlby and post-war Swedish child psychiatry: Account of a research visit

    In the first half of 1950, the British psychiatrist and psychoanalyst John Bowlby visited France, Sweden, the Netherlands, and the USA to gain information about the state of the art in the care of homeless children. The World Health Organization published Bowlby’s conclusions as

    Maternal Care and Mental Health (1952). The article aims to present an account and discussion of Bowlby’s weeklong visit to Sweden, based on previously unpublished notebooks and letters. The analysis shows a clear mismatch between Bowlby’s ideas and those of his Swedish hosts working in child psychiatry and social care. At first sight, Bowlby seemed to align with the Swedish psychoanalytically oriented child psychiatrists, while rejecting those Swedish experts who represented a biological approach with ideas about heredity, but it was more complicated than that. Bowlby also appreciated the methodological rigor and statistical methods of the latter current. What he did not appreciate, however, was that both Swedish currents, despite their mutual disagreements, shared a similar view of the importance of the environment for child development that was much broader than his own. For Bowlby’s hosts, environmental factors such as housing, schooling, parental care, number of siblings, social contacts, etc. were all important for the understanding of poor mental health and social maladjustment in childhood. As also becomes clear from the title of his book, Bowlby rejected such a broad approach and focused exclusively on mother-child bonding as determining children’s mental development and health. This mismatch between Bowlby and the Swedish experts explains why Bowlby paid only scarce attention to Swedish views in his WHO report, why this report and his later ideas about the importance of mother-child attachment initially met with little enthusiasm, and why he remained a "queer fish" in Sweden.

  • 877.
    Änggård, Eva
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bildskapande: en del av förskolebarns kamratkulturer2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the study is to investigate how children act and make meaning in art activities in the Swedish preschool. The study is a contribution to the new social studies of childhood. Children are seen as active participants in the construction and reconstruction of society. Pictures are understood as both culturally and socially produced. They are made in social contexts and earlier pictures are used as raw material.

    The investigation has an ethnographical approach and two preschools were visited for five weeks each. In all 36 children aged four to six years participated. Data were gathered through participant observations and comprise 37 hours of videotaped art activities, videotaped informal interviews, field notes and documented pictures. Both teacher-guided and unsolicited activities were observed, but in both cases the children's meaning making was in focus.

    The analyses show that the children use a wide range of pictorial genres. The pictures are produced in dialogue with other pictures: primarily pictures produced by other children, but also the staff's pedagogical illustrations and media pictures. The art activities have different purposes such as exploration of materials, making narrative accounts or producing pictures needed in fantasy play. The production of pictures is connected in several ways to the children's play projects. Girls and boys produce largely different pictures - making pictures could be seen as a way of doing gender.

    Aesthetic purposes seem to be important to the children. They prefer perfectly shaped forms and use a variety of strategies to accomplish such pictures. The admiration of perfect forms could be understood in relation to children's positions in the society. The social category 'child' is constructed in relation to adults and understood as a deficiency in size, age and abilities. There is a strong positive value connected to growing older and being 'big'. The use of methods that allow one to produce pictures similar to those that older children or adults can produce is one way of appearing as 'big' and competent.

    One paradox is that the methods used to make pictures attractive in the children's eyes make them less valuable in adults' eyes. Copying or using templates goes against central values that traditionally have dominated art pedagogy, where authenticity is valued and thought of as originating from the individual artist (or child). This contradiction is connected to another contradiction concerning individualism and collectivism. While adults often think of art activities as individual, the children mostly engage in art activities collectively. They sit together with other children when making pictures, they interact with each other during the activities and they produce similar pictures. The children's picture production is part of their peer cultures, and they share and practice what could be understood as their own pictorial cultures.

  • 878.
    Åkerlund, Eva-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Liv i kollektiv: Vardagsliv bland ensamkommande ungdomar på institution2016Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien handlar om en grupp barn som inte har några föräldrar i Sverige, och som därför bor på institution. På senare tid har man tillskrivit dem kategoriseringen ensamkommande. Bakom det begreppet finns barn i olika åldrar som har lämnat sin familj och sitt hemland för ett nytt liv på en plats i världen med större framtidsmöjligheter. Många av dessa barn, som flyr till västvärlden på egen hand, delar erfarenheter av att placeras på institution. Mer precist är det en sådan tillvaro denna studie kommer att kretsa kring.

  • 879.
    Åslund, Åsa
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vårdnad och fostran till Barnets bästa: en studie om förändringen i svensk lagstiftning under 1900-talet rörande vårdnanden om barnet1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    For at! finna den övergripande förandringsprocessen i den svenska lagstiftningen rörande barnets rättsliga ställning och barnets förhållandet till dess vårdare, har en rad mer empiriskt inriktade frågor ställts. Vad skall barnet fostras till? Vem skall fostra/vårda barnet? Vad innebär det av lagstiftaren så ofta använda uttrycket "barnets bästa"? Hur har lagstiftaren sett på barnet, föräldrarna och relationerna dem emellan då han valt en viss formulering?

    I arbetet har jag gjort tre nedslag i utvecklingen. Jag har valt at! granska arbetet kring dels 1917 och 1920 års lagar om barn utom respektive i äktenskap, dels 1949 ars föräldrabalk och slutligen 1983 års föräldrabalk. Dessa tre nedslag ar motiverade av att lagstiftningen avseende omvårdnaden av barn yid dessa tillfällen genomgår stora förändringar. I 1917 och 1920 års lagar samt i 1983 års lag införs något helt nytt i lagstiftningen. I de tidigare lagarna definieras för första gången begreppet vårdnad, i den senare lagstiftningen har barnet givits rätt att inte bara erhålla vård och uppfostran, utan även rätt att behandlas med aktning för sin person och egenart. I 1949 års lag sammanfördes de olika barnlagar som tidigare funnits för första gången till en gemensam föräldrabalk. Vid varje "nedslag" görs dels en redovisning av lagtexten och dess tillkomst, dels förs ett resonemang om den förändringsprocess som gör sig gällande och om de olika krafter som gör sig gällande i lagstiftningsarbetet.

    Vid arbetet med denna studie har relevant lagstiftning och förarbetena till denna lagstiftning, riksdagsmaterialet, gåtts igenom. Till grund for studien ligger även viss litteratur på området. Arbetet omfattar endast föräldrabalken och lagarna om barn i respektive utom äktenskap. Det hade i och för sig varit möjligt att göra ett vidare arbete där även annan lagstiftning som berör barnets rättsliga ställning hade analyserats. Jag har emellertid valt bort denna möjlighet, då belysningen av den ovan ställda frågestallningen inte kan förväntas öka i så väldigt stor utsträckning vid en sådan vidgning av studien.

  • 880.
    Överlien, Carolina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Girls on the Verge of Exploding?: Voices on Sexual Abuse, Agency and Sexuality at a Youth Detention Home2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis investigates the dilemmas and difficulties the staff at a youth detention home encounter and struggle with when working with young women who are understood to be victims of sexual abuse. At the center of attention is talk about the problems of talking about sexual abuse and other difficult experiences. The overall aim in conducting the study was to open up an arena that has been neglected and little investigated - youth detention homes for girls and young women, by talking to staff and the young women at the detention homes, and talking about sexual abuse. Also in focus was the young women's own thinking about the body and sexuality.

    The findings are presented in five articles. The first article examines what discursive devices are employed when using the focus group method when talking to the young women in forced care. The study shows in what ways the focus groups is a fruitful method for studying marginalized young women and their views and thoughts about being young women today. The second article addressed the issue of how the staff form narratives of sexual abuse. Stories of sexual abuse were "power stories" as well as "work identity stories" and were considered to have the power to heal as well as the power to harm. The third article examines the process leading up to the definition of sexual abuse. The study is concerned with the process in which the staff members define whether or not a young woman has been a victim of sexual abuse. A determining factor was whether or not the act involved a person who was defined as a victim. A core issue was an evaluation of the credibility of the alleged abused girl and the degree of consent. The fourth article addresses the issue of how the staff and the young women at the detention home talk about sexuality. The article compares the different views of the staff and the young women and concludes that the staff talk about the young women as asexual children and as victims of sexual abuse, and the young women talk about themselves as having sexual agency. Finally, the fifth article shows how the young women talk abut childbearing and motherhood.

    The study shows that the issue of talking about sexual abuse and other difficult experiences is complex. The different views of how to talk about sexual abuse, whether to talk about sexual abuse, when to talk and to whom, as well as the question about whether there is a need to talk, makes the issue of talking about sexual abuse multi-layered and contradictory.

    List of papers
    1. The Focus Group Method as an In-depth Method?: Young Women Talking About Sexuality
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Focus Group Method as an In-depth Method?: Young Women Talking About Sexuality
    2005 (English)In: International Journal of Social Research Methodology, ISSN 1364-5579, E-ISSN 1464-5300, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 331-344Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses whether the focus group method can be employed with troubled groups and for the discussion of high-involvement topics. It analyses focus groups' discourse of high-involvement topics, such as 'the body', 'relationships', and 'sexuality', conducted with female adolescents aged 15-20 years at a detention home. Contrary to the traditional belief that the focus group method is designed for low-involvement topics and mainstream groups, our analyses of the discursive devices employed suggest that the method can indeed be used for high-involvement topics. We also argue that other methods would not have given us 'deeper' insights and that the focus group method can be seen as a less intrusive method to be used in this setting.

    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13447 (URN)10.1080/1364557042000119607 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-11-15 Created: 2004-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    2. Work identity at stake: The power of sexual abuse stories in the world of compulsory youth care
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Work identity at stake: The power of sexual abuse stories in the world of compulsory youth care
    2003 (English)In: Narrative Inquiry, ISSN 1387-6740, E-ISSN 1569-9935, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 217-242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with issues of narrative power in the highly contested area of sexual abuse stories. The storytellers are all members of a group of resident assistants working at a Swedish detention home for young women aged 13–21. Being a victim of sexual abuse was seen as a fundamental component in the complex picture of self destructive behavior impairing the young women. Expressing their suffering and talking about these experiences were seen as important aspects of the positive psychological development that was the aim of mandating the young women to compulsory care. The analysis focuses on the performative, destabilized struggle of the staff to maintain their work identity at the detention home, as they talked about their encounters with young women victimized by sexual abuse. The object of examination is how the work identity of the resident assistants at the institution was enacted and lived through in a narrative form as accountable patterns of meaning, as they took an active part in the process of narrating. The stories were “power stories” as well as “work identity stories”, considered to have the power to heal as well as the power to harm, and the staff regarded themselves as responsible for the storytelling, at the same time as they were not in control of either the act of storytelling or its outcome.

    Keywords
    Sexual Abuse, Narrative, Young Women, Social Work Practice, Work Identity, Detention Home
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13448 (URN)10.1075/ni.13.1.08ove (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-11-15 Created: 2004-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    3. Applying Narrative Analysis to the Process of Confirming or Disregarding Cases of Suspected Sexual Abuse
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Applying Narrative Analysis to the Process of Confirming or Disregarding Cases of Suspected Sexual Abuse
    2005 (English)In: Child & Family Work, ISSN 1356-7500, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 57-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses discourse about sexual abuse at a detention home for young women. At the centre of attention is staff members' struggle with the process of confirming or disregarding cases of alleged sexual abuse. The determining factor for establishing an act as sexual abuse was whether or not the act involved a person who was defined as a victim. A core issue in the process was an evaluation of the credibility of the alleged abused girl and the degree of consent. The unintended result was that many of the girls' narratives were never confirmed. The article argues that there is no objective 'given' regarding the definition of sexual abuse. To be involved in the process of understanding and establishing an act as sexual abuse means being involved in a process of social definition. To be able to handle such involvement constitutes a fundamental professional issue in social work. Adopting a narrative approach to the process of confirming or disregarding cases of suspected sexual abuse shifts the focus from developing categories of social problems and work on the basis of them to developing ways of listening to young people and allowing their narratives to provide a point of departure.

    Keywords
    detention home, narrative, sexual abuse, young women
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13449 (URN)10.1111/j.1365-2206.2005.00352.x (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-11-15 Created: 2004-11-15
    4. Innocent Girls or Active Young Women?: Negotiating Sexual Agency at a Detention Home
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Innocent Girls or Active Young Women?: Negotiating Sexual Agency at a Detention Home
    2003 (English)In: Feminism and Psychology, ISSN 0959-3535, E-ISSN 1461-7161, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 345-367Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes discourse about sexuality at a detentionhome for young women aged 13-21 years. Staffmembers, both male and female, talk about the young women asif they were still children, i.e. as asexualbeings, thereby denying them sexual agency. Theimage of young women as innocent children is, however, contestedby the young women themselves, who explicitlyclaim sexual agency. The article concludes thatby not using the situatedness of a young woman as their therapeuticalpoint of departure, the staff members cannotprovide her with the guidance and support that she needs. The article further suggests that feminist theoryshould focus on young women's own perceived senseof agency and that sexual agency can be understood and established in the context of Moi's (1999) model ofwomen as `de Beauvoirian' situated beings.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London, UK: Sage Publications, 2003
    Keywords
    compulsory care, feminist theory, sexuality, situatedness, voice
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13450 (URN)10.1177/0959353503013003007 (DOI)000184284300007 ()
    Available from: 2004-11-15 Created: 2004-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
    5. “You want to have done your living if you know what I mean”: Young Incarcerated Swedish women speak about motherhood
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>“You want to have done your living if you know what I mean”: Young Incarcerated Swedish women speak about motherhood
    2004 (English)In: Feminism & Psychology, ISSN 0959-3535, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 226-230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13451 (URN)10.1177/0959353504042175 (DOI)
    Available from: 2004-11-15 Created: 2004-11-15 Last updated: 2018-01-13
  • 881.
    Överlien, Carolina
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Innocent Girls or Active Young Women?: Negotiating Sexual Agency at a Detention Home2003In: Feminism and Psychology, ISSN 0959-3535, E-ISSN 1461-7161, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 345-367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyzes discourse about sexuality at a detentionhome for young women aged 13-21 years. Staffmembers, both male and female, talk about the young women asif they were still children, i.e. as asexualbeings, thereby denying them sexual agency. Theimage of young women as innocent children is, however, contestedby the young women themselves, who explicitlyclaim sexual agency. The article concludes thatby not using the situatedness of a young woman as their therapeuticalpoint of departure, the staff members cannotprovide her with the guidance and support that she needs. The article further suggests that feminist theoryshould focus on young women's own perceived senseof agency and that sexual agency can be understood and established in the context of Moi's (1999) model ofwomen as `de Beauvoirian' situated beings.

  • 882.
    Överlien, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hydén, Margareta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Focus Group Method as an In-depth Method?: Young Women Talking About Sexuality2005In: International Journal of Social Research Methodology, ISSN 1364-5579, E-ISSN 1464-5300, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 331-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses whether the focus group method can be employed with troubled groups and for the discussion of high-involvement topics. It analyses focus groups' discourse of high-involvement topics, such as 'the body', 'relationships', and 'sexuality', conducted with female adolescents aged 15-20 years at a detention home. Contrary to the traditional belief that the focus group method is designed for low-involvement topics and mainstream groups, our analyses of the discursive devices employed suggest that the method can indeed be used for high-involvement topics. We also argue that other methods would not have given us 'deeper' insights and that the focus group method can be seen as a less intrusive method to be used in this setting.

  • 883.
    Överlien, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Hydén, Margareta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies.
    Women in prison and secure psychiatric settings: Whose needs, whose dangerousness? II. 'You want to have done your living if you know what I mean'2004In: Feminism and Psychology, ISSN 0959-3535, E-ISSN 1461-7161, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 226-230Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 884.
    Överlien, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hydén, Margareta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Work identity at stake: The power of sexual abuse stories in the world of compulsory youth care2003In: Narrative Inquiry, ISSN 1387-6740, E-ISSN 1569-9935, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 217-242Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with issues of narrative power in the highly contested area of sexual abuse stories. The storytellers are all members of a group of resident assistants working at a Swedish detention home for young women aged 13–21. Being a victim of sexual abuse was seen as a fundamental component in the complex picture of self destructive behavior impairing the young women. Expressing their suffering and talking about these experiences were seen as important aspects of the positive psychological development that was the aim of mandating the young women to compulsory care. The analysis focuses on the performative, destabilized struggle of the staff to maintain their work identity at the detention home, as they talked about their encounters with young women victimized by sexual abuse. The object of examination is how the work identity of the resident assistants at the institution was enacted and lived through in a narrative form as accountable patterns of meaning, as they took an active part in the process of narrating. The stories were “power stories” as well as “work identity stories”, considered to have the power to heal as well as the power to harm, and the staff regarded themselves as responsible for the storytelling, at the same time as they were not in control of either the act of storytelling or its outcome.

  • 885.
    Överlien, Carolina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hydén, Margareta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    “You want to have done your living if you know what I mean”: Young Incarcerated Swedish women speak about motherhood2004In: Feminism & Psychology, ISSN 0959-3535, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 226-230Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 886.
    Čekaitė, Asta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Getting started: Children’s participation and language learning in an L2 classroom2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis investigates L2 learners’ participation and language learning in a Swedish immersion classroom (ages 7-10). The data consist of video recordings and observations of classroom (and recess) activities, during one school year. Methodologically, the present thesis combines insights from language socialization with detailed transcriptions and analysis, inspired by conversation analytic approaches. More specifically, the learners’ communicative practices are studied as they emerge in the interactional ecology of a specific classroom, situating Swedish language (L2) development within the concrete classroom experiences of the learner. Three communicative practices were recurrently identified in the children’s classroom repertoires: (i) summonses; (ii) self-selections; (iii) language play, including metapragmatic play.

    The findings are documented in four studies. The first article focuses on how L2 novices solicit the teacher’s attention during individual seatwork. It illustrates how the novices upgraded their attempts to secure the teacher’s attention by employing multimodally structured summons turns, involving affective stances and displays of classroom artefacts. In the second study, an L2 novice’s self-selections in teacher-fronted (conversational) activities are analysed in a longitudinal perspective, showing how participation in such activities was related to language, and interactional skills, that were consequential for ‘learner’ identity in the classroom community. The third study explores the children’s metapragmatic play and demonstrates how they created joking episodes, involving transgressions from local classroom norms. Finally, the fourth study analyses children’s spontaneous form-focused language play. It demonstrates that such playful episodes and transgressions from ‘correct’ language form recurrently evolved into spontaneous peer-run ‘language lessons’; a form of aesthetic explorations of language form and meaning, involving multiparty public performances.

    As a whole, the present studies illuminate different aspects of informal learning in language classrooms, highlighting practices that have largely escaped systematic attention in much prior work on second language acquisition.

    List of papers
    1. Soliciting teacher attention in an L2 classroom: Affective displays, classroom artefacts, and embodied action
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Soliciting teacher attention in an L2 classroom: Affective displays, classroom artefacts, and embodied action
    2009 (English)In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 26-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores L2 novices’ ways of soliciting teacherattention, more specifically, their summonses. The data arebased on detailed analyses of video recordings in a Swedishlanguage immersion classroom. The analyses illuminate the lexicalshape of summonses in conjunction with prosody, body posture,gestures, and classroom artefacts. As demonstrated, a simplestructure of summoning provided a handy method for solicitingand establishing the teacher's attention, and facilitated thenovices’ participation in classroom activities from earlyon. Importantly, however, the local design of the summonseswas influenced by the competitive multiparty classroom setting.The analyses illustrate how the novices upgraded their summonsesby displaying a range of affective stances. Different aspectsof the students’ embodied actions were employed as waysof indexing affective stances, for example ‘tired’,‘resigned’, or ‘playful’, that in thelocal educational order created methods that invited the teacher'sattention and conversational uptake. These locally availableresources allowed children to upgrade their summonses and toindicate their communicative projects, in spite of their limitedSwedish (L2) resources. The findings are discussed in termsof their implications for understanding participation in L2classroom interactions as being a matter of delicately calibratedcollaborative accomplishments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford University Press, 2009
    Keywords
    L2 novices, embodied action, L2 learning, children, affective stances
    National Category
    General Language Studies and Linguistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-28176 (URN)10.1093/applin/amm057 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-10-08 Created: 2009-10-08 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    2. Turn-taking and learner identity during the first year in an L2 classroom: A novice’s changing patterns of participation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Turn-taking and learner identity during the first year in an L2 classroom: A novice’s changing patterns of participation
    2006 (English)In: Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
    National Category
    Humanities
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13991 (URN)
    Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2015-06-02
    3. Repetition and joking in children’s second language conversations: playful recyclings in an immersion classroom
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repetition and joking in children’s second language conversations: playful recyclings in an immersion classroom
    2004 (English)In: Discourse studies, ISSN 1461-4456, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 373-392Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Repetition is often associated with traditional teaching drills.However, it has been documented how repetitionsare exploited by learners themselves (Duff, 2000). In a study of immersion classroom conversations, it wasfound that playful recyclings were recurrentfeatures of young learners’ second language repertoires.Such joking events were identified on the basisof the participants’ displayed amusement,and they often involved activity-based jokes (Lampert, 1996)and meta pragmatic play, that is, joking abouthow or by whom something is said. Two typesof recyclings: intertextual play and roleappropriations were both important features in informal classroomentertainment and in the formation of a communityof learners (cf. Rogoff, 1990). In a broad sense,both types of joking contained subversive elements in that theycreated play zones or ‘time-out’(cf. Goffman, 1959; Jefferson, 1996) withinclassroom activities. Moreover, role appropriations were subversivein that they inverted classroom hierarchies.

    Keywords
    children’s early L2 conversations, joking events, metapragmatic play, repetition, subversion
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13992 (URN)10.1177/1461445604044295 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2018-03-06
    4. Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning
    2005 (English)In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 169-191Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Within communicative language teaching, ‘natural’language has had a privileged position, and a focus on formhas been seen as something inauthentic or as something thatis inconsequential for learning (for a critique, see Kramschand Sullivan 1996; Cook 1997). Yet in the present study of animmersion classroom, it was found that children with limitedL2 proficiency recurrently employed form-focused language playin spontaneous peer conversations. Our work involves a distinctfocus on multiparty talk, and it is shown how language playis, in many ways, a collaborative affair, initiated by the childrenthemselves. Playful mislabelings and puns often generated extendedrepair sequences that could be seen as informal ‘languagelessons’ focused on formal aspects of language. Simultaneously,shared laughter and shifting alignments between peers were centralaspects of the local politics of classroom life. The jokingwas quite rudimentary. Yet it included artful performance andcollaborative aestheticism, involving alliteration and otherforms of parallelisms, as well as code switching, laughing,and artful variations in pitch, volume and voice quality. Thepaper illustrates the need to integrate language play in modelsof L2 learning.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford University Press, 2005
    Keywords
    language play; joking events; collaborative performance; second language learning; immersion classroom
    National Category
    Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13993 (URN)10.1093/applin/amh042 (DOI)
    Available from: 2006-09-20 Created: 2006-09-20 Last updated: 2018-03-06
  • 887.
    Čekaitė, Asta
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Microgenesis of language creativity: Innovation, conformity and incongruence in children's language play2018In: Language sciences (Oxford), ISSN 0388-0001, E-ISSN 1873-5746, Vol. 65, p. 26-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines young children's engagement in language creativity, in this instance, spontaneous language play. It presents an analysis of peer group interaction in a multilingual preschool setting for 3- to 6-year-olds in Sweden. Combining video-ethnography and detailed interactional analysis, it explores the interactional organization, textual features, evaluative/affective stances and social functions that characterize language play. The theoretical perspective draws on interactional sociolinguistics and the Vygotskian (2004) notion that imagination and creativity are built on patterning (i.e., recognizability), innovative transformations and manipulations of prior materials, experiences and understandings. Here, creativity is shown to be a collective and normatively guided process: it is located in peer group collaborative performances, and involves peer group language, affective and aesthetic socialization. The analysis shows that children's spontaneous language play is characterized by an aesthetic in which that which is incongruent, unexpected and also recognizable is exploited and appreciated. It feeds on the ongoing tension between predictability (routine of culturally recognizable activities) and the novelty/improvisational character of in situperformance. Creative language use serves as a multifaceted locus for aesthetic, affective and normative (ideological) stance taking and mutual socialization. Through their performances, the children socialize each other into sensitivity to what kind of contributions constitute valued verbal genres of the peer group culture.

  • 888.
    Čekaitė, Asta
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Turn-taking and learner identity during the first year in an L2 classroom: A novice’s changing patterns of participation2006In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 889.
    Čekaitė, Asta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Language play, a collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning2005In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 169-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within communicative language teaching, ‘natural’language has had a privileged position, and a focus on formhas been seen as something inauthentic or as something thatis inconsequential for learning (for a critique, see Kramschand Sullivan 1996; Cook 1997). Yet in the present study of animmersion classroom, it was found that children with limitedL2 proficiency recurrently employed form-focused language playin spontaneous peer conversations. Our work involves a distinctfocus on multiparty talk, and it is shown how language playis, in many ways, a collaborative affair, initiated by the childrenthemselves. Playful mislabelings and puns often generated extendedrepair sequences that could be seen as informal ‘languagelessons’ focused on formal aspects of language. Simultaneously,shared laughter and shifting alignments between peers were centralaspects of the local politics of classroom life. The jokingwas quite rudimentary. Yet it included artful performance andcollaborative aestheticism, involving alliteration and otherforms of parallelisms, as well as code switching, laughing,and artful variations in pitch, volume and voice quality. Thepaper illustrates the need to integrate language play in modelsof L2 learning.

  • 890.
    Čekaitė, Asta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Aronsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Repetition and joking in children’s second language conversations: playful recyclings in an immersion classroom2004In: Discourse studies, ISSN 1461-4456, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 373-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Repetition is often associated with traditional teaching drills.However, it has been documented how repetitionsare exploited by learners themselves (Duff, 2000). In a study of immersion classroom conversations, it wasfound that playful recyclings were recurrentfeatures of young learners’ second language repertoires.Such joking events were identified on the basisof the participants’ displayed amusement,and they often involved activity-based jokes (Lampert, 1996)and meta pragmatic play, that is, joking abouthow or by whom something is said. Two typesof recyclings: intertextual play and roleappropriations were both important features in informal classroomentertainment and in the formation of a communityof learners (cf. Rogoff, 1990). In a broad sense,both types of joking contained subversive elements in that theycreated play zones or ‘time-out’(cf. Goffman, 1959; Jefferson, 1996) withinclassroom activities. Moreover, role appropriations were subversivein that they inverted classroom hierarchies.

  • 891.
    Čekaitė, Asta
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Evaldsson, Ann-Carita
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Stance and footing in children’s multilingual play: Rescaling practices in a Swedish preschool2019In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 144, p. 127-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how young immigrant children in multilingual playful activities with peers and adults engage with and explore heritage language forms (e.g., their features, social values and pragmatic uses), as well as transgress boundaries between different language varieties. It is argued that such ludic language practices – located and enacted within micro-interactional processes – in turn link to and contribute to macro-level socio-cultural values and tensions of languages. The selected data constitute a case study based on a video-ethnography of multilingual language practices in a preschool (for 3- to 6-year-olds) with a Swedish monolingual policy. It is found that the children's multilingual play involve the exploitation of heritage language and linguistic incongruities: it takes the shape of exaggerated repetitions, transformations of language forms (phonetic, morphological and syntactic features), various keying resources, i.e., affective (serious or ludic) and metalinguistic stances. The findings underscore the importance of taking into account young immigrant children's agency in creating new spaces (e.g., ludic or instructional activities) for heritage language forms and varieties as they are used for entertaining, rather than educational purposes.

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