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  • 8551.
    Berglund, Aseel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Using speech and dialogue for interactive TV navigation2004In: Interactive Access in the Information Society (UAIS), ISSN 1615-5289, Vol. 3, no 3-4, p. 224-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction techniques for interactive television (iTV) are currently complex and difficult to use for a wide-range of viewers. Few previous studies have dealt with the potential benefits of multimodal dialogue interaction in the context of iTV for the purpose of flexibility, usability, efficiency, and accessibility. This paper investigates the benefits of introducing speech and connected dialogue for iTV interaction, and presents a case study in which a prototype system was built allowing users to navigate the information space and control the operation of the TV by a speech-based natural language interface. The system was evaluated by analysing the user experience in five categories capturing essential aspects of iTV interaction: interaction style, information load, data access, effectiveness and initiative. Design considerations relevant for speech and dialogue information systems for TV interfaces also emerged from the analysis.

  • 8552.
    Berglund, Aseel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Qvardfordt, P.
    Error Resolution Strategies for Interactive Television Speech Interfaces2003In: Proceedings of the Ninth IFIP TC13 International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, INTERACT, Zürich, Switzerland, 2003, p. 105–112-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8553.
    Berglund, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Deliberations on the impact of antibiotic contamination on dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes in aquatic environments2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The great success of antibiotics in treating bacterial infectious diseases has been hampered by the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Not only does antibiotic resistance threaten to increase the difficulty in treating bacterial infectious diseases, but it could also make medical procedures such as routine surgery and organ transplantations very dangerous to perform. Traditionally, antibiotic resistance has been regarded as a strictly clinical problem and studies of the problem have mostly been restricted to a clinical milieu. Recently, non-clinical environments, and in particular aquatic environments, have been recognised as important factors in development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Elevated concentrations of antibiotics in an environment are likely to drive a selection pressure which favours resistant bacteria, and are also believed to promote horizontal gene transfer among the indigenous bacteria. Antibiotic resistance genes are often located on mobile genetic elements such as plasmids and integrons, which have the ability to disseminate among taxonomically unrelated species. The environmental bacteria can thus serve as both reservoirs for resistance and hot spots for the development of new antibiotic resistance determinants.

    There is still a lack of data pertaining to how high antibiotic concentrations are necessary to drive a selection pressure in aquatic environments. The aim of this thesis is to determine the effect of high and low concentrations of antibiotics on environmental bacterial  communities from different aquatic environments. In the studies performed, antibiotics were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bacterial diversity and evenness were assessed using molecular fingerprints obtained with 16S rRNA gene-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, and antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons were quantified using real-time PCR.

    Water and sediment samples were collected from different rivers and canals in Pakistan. The environments differed in anthropogenic exposure from undisturbed to heavily contaminated. A general trend could be observed of high concentrations of antibiotics correlating to elevated concentrations of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons. Extremely high concentrations of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons were found in the sediments downstream of an industrial drug formulation site, which likely correlated to the high load of antibiotics found in the water. Antibiotic and antibiotic resistance gene concentrations were also shown to increase downstream of Ravi river, which flows through Lahore, a city of more than 10 million inhabitants. Rivers not impacted by anthropogenic contamination were found to contain antibiotics and resistance gene concentrations of similar levels as in Europe and the U.S. Similar measurements were performed in the Swedish river Stångån. The concentrations of antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons were shown to increase in the river after it had passed, and received urban wastewater effluent from the city of Linköping.

    A series of constructed wetlands were exposed to a mixture of different antibiotics at environmentally relevant concentrations over a few weeks. The antibiotic exposure did not observably affect the bacterial diversity or integron concentrations. Antibiotic resistance genes were found at low background concentrations, but the antibiotic exposure did not observably affect the concentrations. The constructed wetlands were also found to reduce most antibiotics at levels comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes, suggesting that constructed wetlands may be useful supplementary alternatives to conventional wastewater treatment.

    To investigate the effect of antibiotics on an uncontaminated aquatic environment in a more controlled setting, microcosms were constructed from lake water and sediments and subsequently exposed to varying concentrations of antibiotics (ranging from wastewater-like concentrations to 1,000 times higher). The water and sediments were gathered from the lake Nydalasjön, near Umeå, which is not exposed to urban waste. While antibiotic resistance genes and class 1 integrons were found in the lake sediments, no increase in the concentrations of these genes could be observed due to the antibiotic additions.

    In conclusion, although antibiotic resistance genes and integrons are part of the environmental gene pool, low concentrations of antibiotics do not seem to immediately impact their prevalence. However, aquatic environments exposed to anthropogenic waste do exhibit elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons. Aquatic environments heavily polluted with antibiotics also clearly display correspondingly high concentrations of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons. These results clearly indicate the necessity to keep down pollution levels as well as the need to establish the range of antibiotic concentrations which do promote resistance. This must be done in order to enable risk assessments and to establish acceptable levels of antibiotic pollution. It should also be stressed that more research is required to elucidate what effect low levels of antibiotic exposure has on environmental bacterial communities.

    List of papers
    1. Occurrence and Abundance of Antibiotics and Resistance Genes in Rivers, Canal and near Drug Formulation Facilities – A Study in Pakistan
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Occurrence and Abundance of Antibiotics and Resistance Genes in Rivers, Canal and near Drug Formulation Facilities – A Study in Pakistan
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a global phenomenon that has severe epidemiological ramifications world-wide. It has been suggested that antibiotics that have been discharged into the natural aquatic environments after usage or manufacture can promote the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). These environmental ARGs could serve as a reservoir and be horizontally transferred to human-associated bacteria and thus contribute to AR proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropogenic load of antibiotics in Northern Pakistan and study the occurrence of ARGs in selected samples from this region. 19 sampling sites were selected; including six rivers, one dam, one canal, one sewage drain and four drug formulation facilities. Our results show that five of the rivers have antibiotic levels comparable to surface water measurements in unpolluted sites in Europe and the US. However, high levels of antibiotics could be detected in the downstream river in close vicinity of the 10 million city Lahore, 1100, 1700 and 2700 ng L−1 for oxytetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Highest detected levels were at one of the drug formulation facilities, with the measured levels of 1100, 4100, 6200, 7300, 8000, 27000, 28000 and 49000 ng L−1 of erythromycin, lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole respectively. ARGs were also detected at the sites and the highest levels of ARGs detected, sulI and dfrA1, were directly associated with the antibiotics detected at the highest concentrations, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Highest levels of both antibiotics and ARGs were seen at a drug formulation facility, within an industrial estate with a low number of local residents and no hospitals in the vicinity, which indicates that the levels of ARGs at this site were associated with the environmental levels of antibiotics.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2013
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96426 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0062712 (DOI)000321148400001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning FORMAS|210-2006-2132|Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (MISTRA)||

    Available from: 2013-08-20 Created: 2013-08-19 Last updated: 2017-12-06
    2. Detection and Quantification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Stångån River, Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection and Quantification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Stångån River, Sweden
    2014 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem which threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. It is becoming increasingly clear that the dynamics of antibiotic resistance are not confined to clinical settings. The environment is likely to play an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes from and to both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river which flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stångån River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent wastewater treatment plant over three months. Seven antibiotic resistance genes and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using realtime PCR. Furthermore, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of ten different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the wastewater treatment plant as compared to upstream. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from Stångån River, suggesting that selection for antibiotic resistance genes did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in antibiotic resistance genes is likely to be due to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the wastewater treatment plant.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105869 (URN)
    Available from: 2014-04-11 Created: 2014-04-11 Last updated: 2014-04-11
    3. Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes.
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng×l(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keywords
    Antibiotic resistance genes; Antibiotics; Quantitative real-time PCR; Constructed wetlands
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105870 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.12.128 (DOI)000333772500004 ()24448029 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-04-11 Created: 2014-04-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Abundance and dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in lake sediment microcosms
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Abundance and dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in lake sediment microcosms
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, p. e108151-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing disease is an ever growing threat to the world. Recently, environmental bacteria have become established as important both as sources of antibiotic resistance genes and in disseminating resistance genes. Low levels of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are regularly released into water environments via wastewater, and the concern is that such environmental contamination may serve to create hotspots for antibiotic resistance gene selection and dissemination. In this study, microcosms were created from water and sediments gathered from a lake in Sweden only lightly affected by human activities. The microcosms were exposed to a mixture of antibiotics of varying environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., concentrations commonly encountered in wastewaters) in order to investigate the effect of low levels of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance gene abundances and dynamics in a previously uncontaminated environment. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Abundances of seven antibiotic resistance genes and the class 1 integron integrase gene, intL1, were quantified using real-time PCR. Resistance genes sulI and ermB were quantified in the microcosm sediments with mean abundances 5 and 15 gene copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies, respectively. Class 1 integrons were determined in the sediments with a mean concentration of 3.86x10(4) copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies. The antibiotic treatment had no observable effect on antibiotic resistance gene or integron abundances.

    National Category
    Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105871 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0108151 (DOI)000342351800068 ()25247418 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-04-11 Created: 2014-04-11 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
  • 8554.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bich Hoang, Ngoc Thi
    Vietnam Natl Childrens Hosp, Vietnam.
    Tärnberg, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kien Le, Ngai
    Vietnam Natl Childrens Hosp, Vietnam.
    Svartström, Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Khanh Khu, Dung Thi
    Vietnam Natl Childrens Hosp, Vietnam.
    Nilsson, Maud
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Thanh Le, Hai
    Vietnam Natl Childrens Hosp, Vietnam.
    Welander, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Olson, Linus
    TRAC, Sweden; TRAC, Vietnam; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mattias
    TRAC, Sweden; TRAC, Vietnam; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases. TRAC, Sweden; TRAC, Vietnam.
    Insertion sequence transpositions and point mutations in mgrB causing colistin resistance in a clinical strain of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae from Vietnam2018In: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, ISSN 0924-8579, E-ISSN 1872-7913, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 789-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance among Klebsiella pneumoniae to the last-resort antibiotics carbapenems and colistin is increasing worldwide. In this study, whole-genome sequencing was used to determine the colistin resistance mechanisms in clinical isolates of carbapenem-and colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae from Vietnam. Alterations in the regulatory gene mgrB, via mutations and insertion sequence transpositions, were found in 30 of 31 isolates, emphasising the importance of this resistance mechanism in colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  • 8555.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Claesson, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Letter: High Prevalence of Heterogeneously Glycopeptide-Intermediate Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci in Sternal Wounds in ANTIMICROBIAL AGENTS AND CHEMOTHERAPY, vol 60, issue 8, pp 5097-50982016In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 60, no 8, p. 5097-5098Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 8556.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dienus, Olaf
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Sokolova, Ekaterina
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Berglind, Emma
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden; Karolinska University of Lab, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Occurrence and removal efficiency of parasitic protozoa in Swedish wastewater treatment plants2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 598, p. 821-827Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica and Dientamoeba fragilis are parasitic protozoa and causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans. G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in particular are the most common protozoa associated with waterborne outbreaks in high-income countries. Surveillance of protozoan prevalence in wastewater and evaluation of wastewater treatment removal efficiencies of protozoan pathogens is therefore imperative for assessment of human health risk. In this study, influent and effluent wastewater samples from three wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were collected over nearly one year and assessed for prevalence of parasitic protozoa. Quantitative real-time PCR using primers specific for the selected protozoa Cryptosporidium spp., G, intestinalis, E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and D. fragilis was used for protozoan DNA detection and assessment of wastewater treatment removal efficiencies. Occurrence of G. intestinalis, E. dispar and D. fragilis DNA was assessed in both influent (44, 30 and 39 out of 51 samples respectively) and effluent wastewater (14, 9 and 33 out of 51 samples respectively) in all three wastewater treatment plants. Mean removal efficiencies of G. intestinalis, E. dispar and D. fragilis DNA quantities, based on all three wastewater treatment plants studied varied between 67 and 87%, 37-75% and 20-34% respectively. Neither E. histolytica nor Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in any samples. Overall, higher quantities of protozoan DNA were observed from February to June 2012. The high prevalence of protozoa in influent wastewater indicates the need for continued monitoring of these pathogens in wastewater-associated aquatic environments to minimise the potential risk for human infection. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8557.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ersson, Carolina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Martin, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eklund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Challenges for developing a system for biogas as vehicle fuel: lessons from Linkoping, Sweden2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels are being employed in nearly all the EU member states to fulfill the targets set up by the European Directive 2003/30/EC to have a 5.75% share of renewable energy in their transport sector by 2010. In Sweden ethanol is the leading biofuel, while biogas mainly depend on local initiatives with the city of Linköping as a case in point.

    Our purpose with this article is to analyze the development of biogas in Linköping within a framework of technological transition theory. To this we add a set of concepts from large technical systems-literature to address and re-analyze two earlier studies on the biogas development in Linköping to achieve a deeper understanding of this success story. We argue that the establishment of a development trajectory for biogas depended on the ability of the involved actors to establish and nurture their social network, to create learning processes and stimulate the articulation of expectations and visions. It was also important that these three factors were allowed to influence each other for the system to gain a momentum of its own.

    Furthermore, the biogas development in Linköping is found to be interesting in that the triggers for the development came from a variety of levels and angles. Initially, the rising fuel prices after the oil crises in the 1970’s resulted in an increased interest in renewable fuels in general. Second, an anticipated national pipeline for natural gas planned through Linköping was considered a huge potential for methane exports. A part from these external energy incentives, the local trigger was the bad urban air quality caused by the public transport authority’s bus fleet. The breakthrough came when it was discovered that by-product biogas from the wastewater treatment facility could be used as a fuel for transport.

    When the plans for the national pipeline were rejected, a fruitful co-operation between the municipally owned production facility and the public transport authority was set up to meet the constructed demand from public transport. This cooperative pair-arrangement was the starting point for the biogas niche trajectory as other actors subsequently were enrolled to increase the size and agency of the network.

    Nowadays, biogas and other renewable fuels play a significant role in the supply of transport fuels for Linköping. In 2009, a total of 9.5% of all transport fuels used in Linköping were from renewable sources, i.e. biogas (4.6%), ethanol and biodiesel. This puts the city well ahead of the European target of 5.75% renewable fuels by 2010.

  • 8558.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Department of Microbiology, Medical Services, County Hospital Ryhov, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Detection and Quantification of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Stångån River, Sweden2014Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem which threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. It is becoming increasingly clear that the dynamics of antibiotic resistance are not confined to clinical settings. The environment is likely to play an important role in dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes from and to both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river which flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stångån River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent wastewater treatment plant over three months. Seven antibiotic resistance genes and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using realtime PCR. Furthermore, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of ten different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the wastewater treatment plant as compared to upstream. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from Stångån River, suggesting that selection for antibiotic resistance genes did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in antibiotic resistance genes is likely to be due to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the wastewater treatment plant.

  • 8559.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    URBAN WASTEWATER EFFLUENT INCREASES ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE GENE CONCENTRATIONS IN A RECEIVING NORTHERN EUROPEAN RIVER2015In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 192-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem that threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. The environment is likely to play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) among both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river that flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stangan River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent WWTP over 3 mo. Seven ARGs and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of 10 different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the WWTP. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from the Stangan River, suggesting that selection for ARGs did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in ARGs is likely to be attributable to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the WWTP. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:192-196. (c) 2014 SETAC

  • 8560.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hoang, Ngoc Thi Bich
    National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Tärnberg, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Le, Ngai Kien
    National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Welander, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Nilsson, Maud
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Khu, Dung Thi Khanh
    National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Nilsson, Lennart E.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Olson, Linus
    The Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Le, Hai Thanh
    National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Larsson, Mattias
    The Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Colistin- and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying mcr-1 and bla(OXA-48) isolated at a paediatric hospital in Vietnam2018In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 73, no 4, p. 1100-1102Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 8561.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Abundance and dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in lake sediment microcosms2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, p. e108151-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing disease is an ever growing threat to the world. Recently, environmental bacteria have become established as important both as sources of antibiotic resistance genes and in disseminating resistance genes. Low levels of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are regularly released into water environments via wastewater, and the concern is that such environmental contamination may serve to create hotspots for antibiotic resistance gene selection and dissemination. In this study, microcosms were created from water and sediments gathered from a lake in Sweden only lightly affected by human activities. The microcosms were exposed to a mixture of antibiotics of varying environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., concentrations commonly encountered in wastewaters) in order to investigate the effect of low levels of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance gene abundances and dynamics in a previously uncontaminated environment. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Abundances of seven antibiotic resistance genes and the class 1 integron integrase gene, intL1, were quantified using real-time PCR. Resistance genes sulI and ermB were quantified in the microcosm sediments with mean abundances 5 and 15 gene copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies, respectively. Class 1 integrons were determined in the sediments with a mean concentration of 3.86x10(4) copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies. The antibiotic treatment had no observable effect on antibiotic resistance gene or integron abundances.

  • 8562.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Weisner, Stefan E B
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Wetland Research Centre, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Department of Chemistry, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes.2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng×l(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes.

  • 8563.
    Berglund, Caroline
    et al.
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Ekströmer, Karin
    Department of Radiology, Mälarsjukhuset Eskilstuna Hospital, Sweden.
    Abtahi, Jahan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Primary Chronic Osteomyelitis of the Jaws in Children: An Update on Pathophysiology, Radiological Findings, Treatment Strategies, and Prospective Analysis of Two Cases2015In: Case Reports in Dentistry, ISSN 2090-6447, E-ISSN 2090-6455, Vol. 2015, no 152717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Primary chronic osteomyelitis (PCO) of the jaws in children is associated with pain, trismus, and swelling. In children, temporomandibular joint involvement is rare and few studies have been published due to the relatively low incidence. This paper presents two cases of mandibular PCO in children with the involvement of the collum mandibulae. In addition, a review of the literature regarding demographic data, histological, radiological, and laboratory findings, and treatment strategies of PCO was also performed. Material and Methods. Prospective analyses of two PCO cases. A PubMed search was used and the articles were sorted according to their corresponding key area of focus. Results. Review of the literature revealed twenty-four cases of PCO with two cases of mandibular condyle involvement. The mean age was 18 years; the male to female ratio was 1 : 3. Most of the patients were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs in combination with decortication. Clinical recurrence was seen in 7 cases. Conclusion. A combination of anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical intervention appears to be the first choice of treatment. However, surgical removal of necrotic tissue adjacent to collum mandibulae has its limitations in children. Further investigations are of utmost importance in order to increase our knowledge and understanding of this disease.

  • 8564.
    Berglund, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Improving maintainability on modern cross-platform projects2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As software systems grow in size they will also grow in complexity. If the increased complexity is not managed the system will be increasingly difficult to maintain. The effect of unmaintainable software is even more distinct when using a agile development process. By increasing the maintainability of the system these problems will be dealt with and the system can be extended with sustained efficiency.

    This thesis will evaluate the development process of a modern, agile company in order to find changes that will promote increased maintainability. The result is an modified process that will increase the maintainability with the smallest possible overhead for the development organisation.

    The result is based on earlier studies of development technologies that have proven to increase the maintainability. The implementation of these technologies are adjusted to fit the development team, and some of the technologies that are not suitable for the team are rejected.

  • 8565.
    Berglund, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Development of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) user interface2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop the user interface for a UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle) intended for mobile reconnaissance in urban areas. The operator interface consists of both soft- and hardware. As a part, a graphical user interface has been developed with emphasis on usability including functionality for positioning with geographical presentation as well as sensor presentation. In addition to a display unit for sensor interaction and manoeuvring of the vehicle, the user interface includes a transceiver unit that handles the operator and vehicle intercommunication. Two sets of the system were delivered to the Swedish armed forces to be used in trials.

  • 8566.
    Berglund, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Funktionsutveckling av ett UGV operatörsgränssnitt2011Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to develop the user interface for a UGV (Unmanned Ground Vehicle) intended for mobile reconnaissance in urban areas. The operator interface consists of both soft- and hardware. As a part, a graphical user interface has been developed with emphasis on usability including functionality for positioning with geographical presentation as well as sensor presentation. In addition to a display unit for sensor interaction and manoeuvring of the vehicle, the user interface includes a transceiver unit that handles the operator and vehicle intercommunication. Two sets of the system were delivered to the Swedish armed forces to be used in trials.

  • 8567.
    Berglund, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Jessie
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Genborg, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kugelberg, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ringertz, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zakrisson, Lilian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Praktisk tillämpning av agil programutvecklingsmetodik: Utveckling av e-handelsapplikationen Shrt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna rapport är att beskriva arbetet kring utvecklingen av en webbapplikation för försäljning av t-shirts - Shrt - och utreda möjligheterna för att lansera varumärket på marknaden. Projektet utgick ifrån visionen ”att ge våra kunder verktygen som behövs för att uttrycka sin personlighet, genom mode som kunden själv designar, via webben”. Under projektet har utvecklingsmetodiken scrum använts tillsammans med andra verktyg som är vanliga vid agila projekt. Vid konkretisering av varumärket Shrt och dess produkt genomfördes brainwriting. För att skapa en produktbacklogg använde sig utvecklingsgruppen av arbetsmetoderna funktionsanalys, konceptdivergens, konceptutvärdering och prototyping. Funktionerna i produktbackloggen delades sedan in i kategorierna nödvändiga, önskvärda samt onödiga funktioner. Produktbackloggen låg sedan till grund för hur arbetet delades upp i tre olika sprintar med separata mål och redovisningar. Den första sprinten fokuserade på funktion, den andra på upplevelse för användaren och den tredje på underhåll samt förbättring av kod – refaktorering. Under slutet av utvecklingen genomfördes användartester utifrån Task-based scenarios där användaren får försöka utföra en uppgift utan instruktioner på hur den ska utföras.  

    Resultatet av projektet blev en webbapplikation med all funktionalitet som klassificerades som nödvändig och önskvärd. Detta var något som utvecklingsgruppen ansåg vara ett acceptabelt resultat. Om tiden för utveckling hade varit längre är det möjligt att ytterligare funktionalitet hade kunnat implementeras. Det hade säkerligen varit positivt för varumärket Shrt, som hade kunnat ge ett mer professionellt intryck för slutanvändaren. 

  • 8568.
    Berglund, Ebba
    et al.
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Dahlberg, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Our future health care employees – educated in clinical Quality Improvement2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Quality improvement is common knowledge among engineers or human resource management but often missing in health care education. Our two organizations have started a collaboration to increase knowledge of quality improvement work in faculty and in clinic. We will describe and share experiences of how 400 undergraduate students in interprofessional teams practically and theoretically learn about Quality Improvement work in real health care settings. Outcome is measured as improvement in patient, student, and staff “value”.

  • 8569.
    Berglund, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Dynamisk pedagogik i relation till lärarutbildningen idag: En teoriprövande studie där lärarrollen prövas inom den dynamiska pedagogiken ur ett dramapedagogiskt perspektiv2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Begreppet dynamisk pedagogik myntades på 1970-talet av efter att ha uppkommit inom Kordainstitutet vilket var en utbildningsorganisation som växte fram ur barnteaterrörelsen Vår Teater vars verksam finns sedan 1940-talet. Dynamisk pedagogik syftar, likt övrig Kordapedagogik, till att utbilda ledare inom olika verksamheter genom självinsikt. Sedan pedagogikens och Kordainstitutets grundare Dan Lipschütz gått bort lever den dynamiska pedagogiken kvar dels inom lärarutbildningen på Stockholms universitet. Enkätstudier, observationer, intervjuer, utbildningsmaterial och annan litteratur har varit utgångspunkten för att ta reda på hur en kurs i dynamisk pedagogik inom lärarutbildningen utformats i relation till dess rötter. Studiens resultat visar att dess dynamiska förhållningssätt lever kvar och är värt att bära med sig ut i arbetslivet som lärare. Att förhållningssättet bevarats beror på att de kursansvariga inom lärarprogrammet tagit del av Dan Lipschütz personliga sätt att vara under sina egna Kordautbildningar. Förhållningssätet, är ett förstående och tillmötesgående sätt att förmedla vikten av att utvärdera sin ledarroll och det egna jaget genom gestaltande.

    Metod och form har historiskt kommit att placeras inom det personlighetsutvecklande perspektivet inom dramapedagogiken. Dynamisk pedagogik har likt den svenska skolan sedan decentraliseringen färgats av demokratiska värderingar.

  • 8570.
    Berglund, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Dellborg, Mikael
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sörensson, Peder
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Christersson, Christina
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Niels Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rinnstrom, Daniel
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Thilen, Ulf
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    High incidence of infective endocarditis in adults with congenital ventricular septal defect2016In: Heart, ISSN 1355-6037, E-ISSN 1468-201X, Vol. 102, no 22, p. 1835-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective Ventricular septal defects (VSDs), if haemodynamically important, are closed whereas small shunts are left without intervention. The long-term prognosis in congenital VSD is good but patients are still at risk for long-term complications. The aim of this study was to clarify the incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) in adults with VSD. Methods The Swedish registry for congenital heart disease (SWEDCON) was searched for adults with VSD. 779 patients were identified, 531 with small shunts and 248 who had the VSD previously closed. The National Patient Register was then searched for hospitalisations due to IE in adults during a 10-year period. Results Sixteen (2%) patients were treated for IE, 6 men and 10 women, with a mean age of 46.3 +/- 12.2 years. The incidence of IE was 1.7-2.7/1000 years in patients without previous intervention, 20-30 times the risk in the general population. Thirteen had small shunts without previous intervention. There was no mortality in these 13 cases. Two patients had undergone repair of their VSD and also aortic valve replacement before the episode of endocarditis and a third patient with repaired VSD had a bicuspid aortic valve, all of these three patients needed reoperation because of their IE and one patient died. No patient with isolated and operated VSD was diagnosed with IE. Conclusions A small unoperated VSD in adults carries a substantially increased risk of IE but is associated with a low risk of mortality.

  • 8571.
    Berglund, Emmy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Försäkringsgivarens regressrätt: särskilt om regressbeloppet och regresskrav mot en medförsäkrad2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En försäkringsgivare som utgivit ersättning för en skada kan inträda i den försäkrades rätt till skadestånd från skadevållaren, sådan rätt kallas regressrätt och regleras huvudsakligen i Lag (2005:104) om försäkringsavtal (FAL) 7 kap. 9 §. Regressrätten ska härledas ur försäkringstagarens rätt till skadestånd, därmed kan inte försäkringsgivaren hamna i bättre rätt mot skadevållaren än vad försäkringstagaren hade. Skadan måste ha orsakats av en tredje man, försäkringsgivaren kan således inte rikta regresskrav mot försäkringstagaren själv. Som försäkringstagare räknas även den som i försäkringsavtalet upptagits som medförsäkrad, den medförsäkrade måste ha ett försäkrat intresse i den försäkrade egendomen för att avtalet ska äga giltighet till förmån för denne.

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att bringa klarhet i vilken utsträckning försäkringsgivare kan tillämpa regressrätten, vem ett regresskrav kan riktas mot och om regressrätten, som FAL antyder, är begränsad till rena skadeståndssituationer. Uppsatsens innehåll baseras på relevant lagstiftning, förarbeten och doktrin. Vem ett försäkringsbolag kan rikta regresskrav mot diskuteras, i synnerhet frågan om regresskrav kan riktas mot någon som är medförsäkrad. Rättsfallen i Securitasfallet (NJA 2001 s. 711) och Spårvagnsfallet (Svea hovrätts dom 2017-12-07, mål T 3492-16) har en central roll för frågan om regresskrav mot medförsäkrad tillåts. Därutöver analyseras vilket belopp försäkringsgivaren har rätt att kräva regressersättning för, centralt för den diskussionen är de olika värderingsregler som tillämpas i egendoms- respektive ansvarsförsäkring, samt frågan om kulansbetalningar, det vill säga om försäkringsgivaren har betalat ut ersättning utan att ha varit skyldig till det, kan ligga till grund för ett regressanspråk.

    Uppsatsen visar att regress mot medförsäkrad som huvudregel inte tillåts. För att kunna skyddas av förbudet mot regresskrav mot medförsäkrad, måste dock den medförsäkrade ha ett försäkrat intresse i vad försäkringen avser. Regressbeloppet kan som högst vara beloppet i den skadeståndsfordran som den skadelidande försäkringstagaren haft gentemot skadevållaren. Kulansbetalningar och försäkringsbolagets egna kostnader till följd av skadan, såsom rättegångskostnader och kostnader för handläggning av ärendet, får inte inkluderas i regressbeloppet. 

  • 8572.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Communicating bugs: Global bug knowledge distribution2005In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 709-719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unfortunately, software-component libraries shared on a global scale contain bugs. Members of the library user community often report bugs, workarounds, and fixes. This bug knowledge, however, generally remain undiscovered on library web site or in open bug databases. In this article I describe design criteria for bug handing from a global user community perspective. I also describe a distribution architecture for bug knowledge. The architecture focuses on bug awareness and bug visibility in the standard work environment. © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8573.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Designing electronic reference documentation for software component libraries2003In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary software development is based on global sharing of software component libraries. As a result, programmers spend much time reading reference documentation rather than writing code, making library reference documentation a central programming tool. Traditionally, reference documentation is designed for textbooks even though it may be distributed online. However, the computer provides new dimensions of change, evolution, and adaptation that can be utilized to support efficiency and quality in software development. What is difficult to determine is how the electronic text dimensions best can be utilized in library reference documentation.

    This article presents a study of the design of electronic reference documentation for software component libraries. Results are drawn from a study in an industrial environment based on the use of an experimental electronic reference documentation (called Dynamic Javadoc or DJavadoc) used in a real-work situation for 4 months. The results from interviews with programmers indicate that the electronic library reference documentation does not require adaptation or evolution on an individual level. More importantly, reference documentation should facilitate the transfer of code from documentation to source files and also support the integration of multiple documentation sources.

  • 8574.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Helping Users Live With BugsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 8575.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Library Communication Among Programmers Worldwide2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Programmers worldwide share components and jointly develop components on a global scale in contemporary software development. An important aspect of such library-based programming is the need for technical communication with regard to libraries – library communication. As part of their work, programmers must discover, study, and learn as well as debate problems and future development. In this sense, the electronic, networked media has fundamentally changed programming by providing new mechanisms for communication and global interaction through global networks such as the Internet. Today, the baseline for library communication is hypertext documentation. Improvements in quality, efficiency, cost and frustration of the programming activity can be expected by further developments in the electronic aspects of library communication.

    This thesis addresses the use of the electronic networked medium in the activity of library communication and aims to discover design knowledge for communication tools and processes directed towards this particular area. A model of library communication is provided that describes interaction among programmer as webs of interrelated library communities. A discussion of electronic, networked tools and processes that match such a model is also provided. Furthermore, research results are provided from the design and industrial valuation

    of electronic reference documentation for the Java domain. Surprisingly, the evaluation did not support individual adaptation (personalization). Furthermore, global library communication processes have been studied in relation to open-source documentation and user-related bug handling. Open-source documentation projects are still relatively uncommon even in open-source software projects. User-related Open-source does not address the passive behavior users have towards bugs. Finally, the adaptive authoring process in electronic reference documentation is addressed and found to provide limited support for expressing the electronic, networked dimensions of authoring requiring programming skill by technical writers.

    Library communication is addressed here by providing engineering knowledge with regards to the construction of practical electronic, networked tools and processes in the area. Much of the work has been performed in relation to Java library communication and therefore the thesis has particular relevancefor the object-oriented programming domain. A practical contribution of the work is the DJavadoc tool that contributes to the development of reference documentation by providing adaptive Java reference documentation.

    List of papers
    1. Designing electronic reference documentation for software component libraries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Designing electronic reference documentation for software component libraries
    2003 (English)In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary software development is based on global sharing of software component libraries. As a result, programmers spend much time reading reference documentation rather than writing code, making library reference documentation a central programming tool. Traditionally, reference documentation is designed for textbooks even though it may be distributed online. However, the computer provides new dimensions of change, evolution, and adaptation that can be utilized to support efficiency and quality in software development. What is difficult to determine is how the electronic text dimensions best can be utilized in library reference documentation.

    This article presents a study of the design of electronic reference documentation for software component libraries. Results are drawn from a study in an industrial environment based on the use of an experimental electronic reference documentation (called Dynamic Javadoc or DJavadoc) used in a real-work situation for 4 months. The results from interviews with programmers indicate that the electronic library reference documentation does not require adaptation or evolution on an individual level. More importantly, reference documentation should facilitate the transfer of code from documentation to source files and also support the integration of multiple documentation sources.

    Keywords
    Electronic documentation, Programming, Reference documentation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13490 (URN)10.1016/S0164-1212(02)00136-X (DOI)
    Available from: 2002-10-20 Created: 2002-10-20 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    2. Helping Users Live With Bugs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Helping Users Live With Bugs
    Manuscript (Other academic)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13491 (URN)
    Available from: 2002-10-20 Created: 2002-10-20 Last updated: 2010-01-13
    3. Open-Source Documentation: in search of user-driven, just-in-time writing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Open-Source Documentation: in search of user-driven, just-in-time writing
    2001 (English)In: Proceedings of SIGDOC 2001, October 21– 24, 2001 in Santa Fe, NM, Santa Fee, NM: ACM , 2001, p. 132-141Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iterative development models allow developers to respond quickly to changing user requirements, but place increasing demands on writers who must handle increasing amounts of change with ever-decreasing resources. In the software development world, one solution to this problem is open-source development: allowing the users to set requirements and priorities by actually contributing to the development of the software. This results in just-in-time software improvements that are explicitly user-driven, since they are actually developed by users.In this article we will discuss how the open source model can be extended to the development of documentation. In many open-source projects, the role of writer has remained unchanged: documentation development remains a specialized activity, owned by a single writer or group of writers, who work as best they can with key developers and frequently out-of-date specification documents. However, a potentially more rewarding approach is to open the development of the documentation to the same sort of community involvement that gives rise to the software: using forums and mailing lists as the tools for developing documentation, driven by debate and dialogue among the actual users and developers.Just as open-source development blurs the line between user and developer, open-source documentation will blur the line between reader and writer. Someone who is a novice reader in one area may be an expert author in another. Two key activities emerge for the technical writer in such a model: as gatekeeper and moderator for FAQs and formal documentation, and as literate expert user of the system they are documenting.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Santa Fee, NM: ACM, 2001
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13492 (URN)10.1145/501516.501543 (DOI)
    Conference
    SIGDOC 2001
    Available from: 2002-10-20 Created: 2002-10-20 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    4. Writing for Adaptable Documentation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Writing for Adaptable Documentation
    2000 (English)In: Proceedings of IPCC/SIGDOC 2000, September 24 – 27, Cambridge, Massachusetts, IEEE , 2000, p. 497-508Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of reusable software components results in an information overload problem in the development process. Software developers must read large amounts of documentation. Adaptive documentation is one way to address this problem and support efficient reading. However, in our view, adaptive documentation requires a writing process that delivers the pedagogical strategies for adaptivity. The article takes a stance in a project on adaptive software reference documentation and discusses the requirements on writing. It also discusses writing trends and Web languages in relation to adaptivity. It is concluded that describing change in documentation is not supported on an authoring level but rather on a programming level

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2000
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13493 (URN)10.1109/IPCC.2000.887306 (DOI)0-7803-6431-7 (ISBN)
    Conference
    2000 Joint IEEE International and 18th Annual Conference on Computer Documentation (IPCC/SIGDOC 2000) Professional Communication Conference, 24-27 September 2000, Cambridge, MA, UK
    Available from: 2002-10-20 Created: 2002-10-20 Last updated: 2015-04-09
    5. Dynamic Software Component Documentation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic Software Component Documentation
    2000 (English)In: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Learning Software Organizations, in conjunction with the Second International Conference on Product Focused software Process Improvement June 20 2000, Oulu, Finland, 2000Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13494 (URN)
    Conference
    The Second International Conference on Product Focused software Process Improvement, June 20 2000, Oulu, Finland
    Available from: 2002-10-20 Created: 2002-10-20 Last updated: 2018-01-13
    6. Intermediate Knowledge trough Conceptual Source-Code Organization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intermediate Knowledge trough Conceptual Source-Code Organization
    1998 (English)In: Proceedings of the 10:th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, June 18-20 San Francisco Bay CA USA, San Diego: Knowledge Systems Institute , 1998, p. 112-115Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    San Diego: Knowledge Systems Institute, 1998
    National Category
    Computer Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13495 (URN)0-9641699-9-1 (ISBN)
    Conference
    10:th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering
    Available from: 2002-10-20 Created: 2002-10-20 Last updated: 2018-01-13
  • 8576.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Use-Oriented Documentation in Software Development1999Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Software documentation is an important tool in modem component-based programming. Building software applications requires detailed knowledge about a vast number of components and the structures they form. This knowledge is often acquired by reading reference documentation of application-programming interfaces (APIs). Thus, the design of the API reference documentation and its reading support affect the cost and quality of software development.

    We examine how efficiency and quality in software development can be increased through the design of software documentation and reading support for software documentation. The thesis reports on the DJavadoc project and the reading support for online Java API reference documentation that it provides. The Java API reference documentation can be viewed as a collection of documentation designed for multiple needs. As a consequence, ex:cessive information is present in most situations. In DJavadoc we have extended the official Java API reference documentation to achieve control over the visibility of information types. DJavadoc adds client-side, real-time redesign to the documentation to support the design of multiple views. As a result, the reader may further design views of the information that are more in line with the reader's personal and changing needs. In the thesis we also discuss online API reference documentation and its role in programming.

    Our preliminary studies support the design strategy taken in DJavadoc. The DJavadoc architecture has also proven suitable for continuos redesign of online documentation. Furthermore, our work provides several future research directions for software documentation and communication of functionality. The Javadoc approach can be developed to achieve more use-oriented documentation. However, the need of use-oriented documentation may also have impact on the Java programming language and ultimately object orientation.

  • 8577.
    Berglund, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Writing for Adaptable Documentation2000In: Proceedings of IPCC/SIGDOC 2000, September 24 – 27, Cambridge, Massachusetts, IEEE , 2000, p. 497-508Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid development of reusable software components results in an information overload problem in the development process. Software developers must read large amounts of documentation. Adaptive documentation is one way to address this problem and support efficient reading. However, in our view, adaptive documentation requires a writing process that delivers the pedagogical strategies for adaptivity. The article takes a stance in a project on adaptive software reference documentation and discusses the requirements on writing. It also discusses writing trends and Web languages in relation to adaptivity. It is concluded that describing change in documentation is not supported on an authoring level but rather on a programming level

  • 8578.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bång, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, ASLAB - Application Systems Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Requirements for Distributed User-Interfaces in Ubiquitous Computing Networks2002In: Proceedings of First International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia (MUM2002), Oulu: Oulu , 2002, p. 99-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8579.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces.
    Distributed Interactive Simulation for Group-Distance Exercises on the Web1998In: 1998 International Conference on Web-based Modelling Simulation,1998, San Diego, CA: Society for Computer Simulation International , 1998, p. 91-95Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8580.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dynamic Software Component Documentation2000In: Proceedings of the Second Workshop on Learning Software Organizations, in conjunction with the Second International Conference on Product Focused software Process Improvement June 20 2000, Oulu, Finland, 2000Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8581.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eriksson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Intermediate Knowledge trough Conceptual Source-Code Organization1998In: Proceedings of the 10:th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, June 18-20 San Francisco Bay CA USA, San Diego: Knowledge Systems Institute , 1998, p. 112-115Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8582.
    Berglund, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, MDALAB - Human Computer Interfaces. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Priestley, Michael
    IBM Toronto Lab, Canada.
    Open-Source Documentation: in search of user-driven, just-in-time writing2001In: Proceedings of SIGDOC 2001, October 21– 24, 2001 in Santa Fe, NM, Santa Fee, NM: ACM , 2001, p. 132-141Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Iterative development models allow developers to respond quickly to changing user requirements, but place increasing demands on writers who must handle increasing amounts of change with ever-decreasing resources. In the software development world, one solution to this problem is open-source development: allowing the users to set requirements and priorities by actually contributing to the development of the software. This results in just-in-time software improvements that are explicitly user-driven, since they are actually developed by users.In this article we will discuss how the open source model can be extended to the development of documentation. In many open-source projects, the role of writer has remained unchanged: documentation development remains a specialized activity, owned by a single writer or group of writers, who work as best they can with key developers and frequently out-of-date specification documents. However, a potentially more rewarding approach is to open the development of the documentation to the same sort of community involvement that gives rise to the software: using forums and mailing lists as the tools for developing documentation, driven by debate and dialogue among the actual users and developers.Just as open-source development blurs the line between user and developer, open-source documentation will blur the line between reader and writer. Someone who is a novice reader in one area may be an expert author in another. Two key activities emerge for the technical writer in such a model: as gatekeeper and moderator for FAQs and formal documentation, and as literate expert user of the system they are documenting.

  • 8583.
    Berglund, Fredrika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, EISLAB - Economic Information Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Management control and strategy: a case study of pharmaceutical drug development2002Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How are formal management controls designed and used in research & development (R&D)? The purpose of this study is to explain how such systems are designed and used in formulating and implementing strategies in a pharmaceutical product development organisation. The study uses a contingency approach to investigate how the control system is adjusted to the business strategy of the firm. A case study was conducted in AstraZeneca R&D where strategic planning, budgeting, project management, goals and objective systems and the reward systems were studied.

    Managers, external investors and researchers increasingly recognize the strategic importance of R&D activities. This has inspired researchers and practitioners to develop formal systems and methods for controlling R&D activities. There is, however, previous research in which a resistance towards using formal control systems to manage R&D was observed. This contrasts the general perception of management control systems as important in implementing and formulating strategies.

    The results of this study show that formal management control have an important role in managing R&D. It also explains how the system is adjusted to the business strategy of the studied firm. Different control systems (e.g. budget, project management) were found to be designed and used in different ways. This implies that it is not meaningful to discuss whether the entire control system of a firm is tight or loose and/or used interactively or diagnostically. Rather, the systems may demonstrate combinations of these characteristics. The control systems of the studied firm were found to be used differently in the project and the functional dimensions. The control systems were also designed and used in different ways at different organisational levels. Comprehensive and rather detailed studies of control systems are called for in order to understand how they are designed and used in organisations. Such studies may explain some contradictory results in previous studies on how control systems are adjusted to business strategy. 

  • 8584.
    Berglund, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics.
    Oskarsson, Mayumi Setsu
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics.
    Modellering av spårvidd över bandel 119 inom Stambanan genom Övre Norrland: Kandidatuppsats i Statistik och dataanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) has been in charge of the maintenance of the railway systems since 2010. The railway requires regular maintenance in order to keep tracks in good condition for passengers and other transports safety. To insure this safety it is important to measure the tracks geometrical condition. The gauge is one of the most important geometrics that cannot be too wide or narrow.

    The aim of this report is to create a model that is able to simulate the deviation from normal gauge from track geometrics and properties.

    The deviation from normal gauge is a random quantity that we modeled as a generalized linear model or a generalized additive model. The models can be used to simulate the possible values of the deviation. It was demonstrated in this study that GAM was able to model most of the variation in the deviation from normal gauge with the information from some track geometrics and properties.

  • 8585.
    Berglund, Gabriella
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Porthén, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Access to adequate housing - a way out of poverty?: A minor field study of the construction of emergency houses in Peru.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The lack of access to adequate housing is a major problem in many developing countries. One of the countries where the housing deficit is a big problem is Peru. The housing deficit in the country can be estimated to more than one million; a number that represents almost 15% of the country’s households. Un Techo Para Mi País (UTPMP) strives to improve this difficult housing situation by constructing emergency houses in the human settlements and thereby improving the situation for the people living in extreme poverty in Peru.

    Aim: The purpose of this study is to investigate if the construction of emergency houses could be a means of poverty reduction in Peru. The impact of improved housing conditions on a household’s standard of living and economic situation is evaluated, as well as the results of UTPMP’s activities.  

    Completion: The collection of secondary data took place in Sweden, while the primary data was  collected  during  a  two  months’  minor  field  study  in  Lima,  Peru.  Interviews  with  households benefited with an emergency house through UTPMP were conducted and observations were made by participating in UTPMP’s activities. 

    Conclusion: According to the results of our study, the access to adequate housing has had a positive effect on the household’s standard of living, but has left the economic situation unchanged. The type of action taken by UTPMP to alleviate poverty should be considered as an appropriate approach and the construction of emergency houses as a means of poverty reduction in Lima. 

  • 8586.
    Berglund, Gun
    et al.
    Umeå Universitet , Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Fejes, AndreasLinköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Studies in Adult, Popular and Higher Education. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Anställningsbarhet: Perspektiv från utbildning och arbetsliv2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste åren har anställningsbarhet vuxit fram som ett centralt policybegrepp i Sverige. Det används ofta i diskussioner inom både utbildning och arbetsliv. Vanligt ställda frågor är: Leder utbildning till ökad anställningsbarhet? Får de studerande lära sig vad som krävs för att bli anställda? Ofta används begreppet okritiskt och dess betydelse är otydlig. I denna bok diskuteras och analyseras  anställningsbarhet och dess användning kritiskt. Exempel ges från bland annat personalvetarprogrammet, läkar- och civilingenjörsutbildningar, yrkes- och yrkeslärarutbildningar, hälsopreventivt arbete på arbetsplatsen och från kompetensutveckling av vårdbiträden inom omsorgen. Genom dessa exempel får läsaren bilder av vad anställningsbarhet kan vara, hur det tar sig uttryck till exempel genom införandet av olika managementidéer, och vilka konsekvenser det får för arbetets organisering och individers handlande. Boken vänder sig till blivande personalvetare, studie- och yrkesvägledare samt studerande inom pedagogik med inriktning på arbetsliv och vuxnas lärande.

  • 8587.
    Berglund, Helene
    et al.
    Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, The Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Staffan
    Department of Social Work, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, The Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Dunér, Anna
    Department of Social Work, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, The Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Kjellgren, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Institute of Health and Care Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Organizing integrated care for older persons: strategies in Sweden during the past decade2015In: Journal of Health Organisation & Management, ISSN 1477-7266, E-ISSN 1758-7247, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 128-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse ways of organizing integrated care for older persons in Sweden during the past decade. Design/methodology/approach - The data consist of 62 cases of development work, described in official reports. A meta-analysis of cases was performed, including content analysis of each case. A theoretical framework comprising different forms of integration (co-ordination, contracting, co-operation and collaboration) was applied. Findings - Co-operation was common and collaboration, including multiprofessional teamwork, was rare in the cases. Contracting can be questioned as being a form of integration, and the introduction of consumer choice models appeared problematic in inter-organization integration. Goals stated in the cases concerned steering and designing care, rather than outcome specifications for older persons. Explicit goals to improve integration in itself could imply that the organizations adapt to strong normative expectations in society. Trends over the decade comprised development of local health care systems, introduction of consumer choice models and contracting out. Research limitations/implications - Most cases were projects, but others comprised evaluations of regular organization of integrated care. These evaluations were often written normatively, but constituted the conditions for practice and were important study contributions. Practical implications - Guiding clinical practice to be aware of importance of setting follow-up goals. Social implications - Awareness of the risk that special funds may impede sustainable strategies development. Originality/value - A theoretical framework of forms of integration was applied to several different strategies, which had been carried out mostly in practice. The study contributes to understanding of how different strategies have been developed and applied to organize integrated care, and highlights some relationships between integration theory and practice.

  • 8588.
    Berglund, Helene
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Duner, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Staffan
    Lund University, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Kjellgren, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Care planning at home: a way to increase the influence of older people?2012In: International Journal of Integrated Care, ISSN 1568-4156, E-ISSN 1568-4156, Vol. 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Care-planning meetings represent a common method of needs assessment and decision-making practices in elderly care. Older peoples influence is an important and required aspect of these practices. This studys objective was to describe and analyse older peoples influence on care-planning meetings at home and in hospital. Methods: Ten care-planning meetings were audio-recorded in the older peoples homes and nine were recorded in hospital. The study is part of a project including a comprehensive continuum-of-care model. A qualitative content analysis was performed. Results: Care-planning meetings at home appeared to enable older peoples involvement in the discussions. Fewer people participated in the meetings at home and there was less parallel talking. Unrelated to the place of the care-planning meeting, the older people were able to influence concerns relating to the amount of care/service and the choice of provider. However, they were not able to influence the way the help should be provided or organised. Conclusion: Planning care at home indicated an increase in involvement on the part of the older people, but this does not appear to be enough to obtain any real influence. Our findings call for attention to be paid to older peoples opportunities to receive care and services according to their individual needs and their potential for influencing their day-to-day provision of care and service.

  • 8589.
    Berglund, Helene
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Dunér, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Staffan
    Lund University, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Kjellgren, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och hälsa & Centrum för personcentrerad vård (GPCC), Göteborgs Universitet.
    Care planning at home: a way to increase the influence of older people?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8590.
    Berglund, Helene
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden.
    Hasson, Henna
    Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kjellgren, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wilhelmson, Katarina
    Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effects of a continuum of care intervention on frail older persons life satisfaction: a randomized controlled study2015In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 24, no 7-8, p. 1079-1090Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse effects of a comprehensive continuum of care (intervention group) on frail older persons life satisfaction, as compared to those receiving usual care (control group). The intervention included geriatric assessment, case management, interprofessional collaboration, support for relatives and organising of care-planning meetings in older persons own homes. Background: Improvements in older persons subjective well-being have been shown in studies including care planning and coordination by a case manager. However, effects of more complex continuum of care interventions on frail older persons life satisfaction are not well explored. DesignRandomised controlled study. Methods: The validated LiSat-11 scale was used in face-to-face interviews to assess older persons life satisfaction at baseline and at three, six and 12 months after the baseline. The odds ratio for improving or maintaining satisfaction was compared for intervention and control groups from baseline to three-month, three- to six-month as well as six- to 12-month follow-ups. Results: Older persons who received the intervention were more likely to improve or maintain satisfaction than those who received usual care, between 6 and 12 month follow-ups, for satisfaction regarding functional capacity, psychological health and financial situation. Conclusions: A comprehensive continuum of care intervention comprising several components had a positive effect on frail older persons satisfaction with functional capacity, psychological health and financial situation. Relevance to clinical practice: Frail older persons represent a great proportion of the persons in need of support from the health care system. Health care professionals need to consider continuum of care interventions impact on life satisfaction. As life satisfaction is an essential part of older persons well-being, we propose that policy makers and managers promote comprehensive continuum of care solutions.

  • 8591.
    Berglund, Helene
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Kjellgren, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Institutionen för vårdvetenskap och hälsa & Centrum för personcentrerad vård (GPCC), Göteborgs Universitet.
    Dunér, Anna
    (University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Vårdalinstitutet, Swedish Institute for Health Sciences, Lund, Sweden.
    Organizing integrated care for older persons: strategies in Sweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8592.
    Berglund, Helene
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Wilhelmson, Katarina
    Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden .
    Blomberg, Staffan
    Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden .
    Duner, Anna
    Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden .
    Kjellgren, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. University of Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Hasson, Henna
    Swedish Institute Health Science, Sweden .
    Older people's views of quality of care: a randomised controlled study of continuum of care2013In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 22, no 19-20, p. 2934-2944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives To analyse frail older peoples views of quality of care when receiving a comprehensive continuum of care intervention, compared with those of people receiving the usual care (control group). The intervention included early geriatric assessment, case management, interprofessional collaboration, support for relatives and organising of care-planning meetings in older peoples own homes. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanBackground Prior studies indicate that tailored/individualised care planning conducted by a case manager/coordinator often led to greater satisfaction with care planning among older people. However, there is no obvious evidence of any effects of continuum of care interventions on older peoples views of quality of care. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanDesign Randomised controlled study. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods Items based on a validated questionnaire were used in face-to-face interviews to assess older peoples views of quality of care at three, six and 12months after baseline. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults Older people receiving a comprehensive continuum of care intervention perceived higher quality of care on items about care planning (p0005), compared with those receiving the usual care. In addition, they had increased knowledge of whom to contact about care/service, after three and 12months (pandlt;003). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusions The study gives evidence of the advantages of a combination of components such as organising care-planning meetings in older peoples own homes, case management and interprofessional teamwork. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRelevance to clinical practice The results have implications for policymakers, managers and professionals in the area of health and social care for older people to meet individual needs of frail older people.

  • 8593.
    Berglund, Henrik
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pragmatic entrepreneurs and institutionalized scholars? On the path-dependent nature of entrepreneurship scholarship2016In: Challenging Entrepreneurship Research / [ed] H. Landström, A. Parhankangas, A. Fayolle, P. Riott, New York: Routledge, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8594.
    Berglund, Hilda-Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Betydelsen av markanvändningshistorik för pollinatörer på hyggen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Forest clearings can potentially be an important resource for pollinators. Land use history has previously been shown to be important for the number of species and individuals of butterflies in clearings, with a larger number where it historically was meadows, even after a generation of production forest. Plant species richness has also been shown to be influenced by land use history. In this study, pollinators were collected with pan traps on clear-cuts that had at least one generation of production forest, which in the 1870s was either meadow or forest. The results showed that there was no difference in species numbers and individual number between the two types of clear-cuts when it comes to Bombus spp, Syrphinae spp, Lepturinae spp, Cetoniidae spp and Trichius spp. The result is surprising because there is a greater frequency of herbs in clearings that previously had been meadow and the expectations was therefore that there should be more pollinators there. There are indications that the catchability when it comes to the pan trap method is inversely proportional to the floral richness, and the lack of differences could therefore be due to sampling bias.

  • 8595.
    Berglund, Hilda-Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Effects of flower abundance and colour on pan-trap catches2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Pollinating insects are important for many plants and for the human population. To be able to monitor pollinators and assess improvements made for them, it is important to get information about pollinator population changes. Therefore, it is essential that the methods used to collect data are accurate (i.e. that they represent the pollinator fauna). One commonly used method is pan-traps, but this method is suggested to be affected by the abundance of surrounding flowers. The results in the present study showed that catches in pan-traps can be affected by flower cover and the colour of the flowers, depending on which colours are preferred by the insects. The effects differed when looking at a larger scale (2-6 ha) and a smaller scale (25 m2) around the pan-traps. When comparing cover of flowers with catches in pan-traps in the small scale there were some results that showed linear positive correlations (expected), but also, negative linear and quadratic correlations. In contrast, in the large scale there were no significant positive linear correlations. When comparing catches in hand-net and pan-traps, only in one out of six taxonomical groups there were a correlation. The results in this study show that catches in pan-traps can be misleading if catches are done to survey pollinator population fauna and the cover of flowers is not considered.

  • 8596.
    Berglund, Iréne
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    Hur arbetar lärare och skolledning för att hjälpa elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter?2000Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Jag har undersökt hur man inom ett rektorsområde arbetar för att hjälpa elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Jag har undersökt hur elever, skolledare och lärare ser på sin situation. I takt med att skolans ekonomiska resurser minskar föreställde jag mig att det också blir allt svårare att tillgodose de läs- och skrivsvaga elevernas behov.

    Min undersökning består av tre delar. Jag har intervjuat en skolledare och 22 elever och skickade ut en enkät till 6 lärare. Jag genomförde studien vid en skola som då jag besökt den verkat hantera problemen med att hjälpa elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter på ett bra sätt trots bristande resurser.

    Resultatet av min undersökning visade att eleverna tyckte att de fick den hjälp de behövde. Detta var ett mycket positivt resultat Lärarna ansåg dock att det fanns elever som skulle behöva mer specialhjälp. Eleverna ville ha en vuxen till i klassen, de ville inte ha mer special-lärar-resurser vilket lärare och rektor gärna skulle vilja ha.

  • 8597.
    Berglund, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery.
    Björck, M
    Elfström, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery.
    Long-term results of above knee femoro-popliteal bypass depend on indication for surgery and graft-material2005In: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, ISSN 1078-5884, E-ISSN 1532-2165, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 412-418Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To determine the long-term results of above-knee femoro-popliteal bypass with autologous saphenous vein (SV) or expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) in routine surgical practice. Methods. Data from the Swedish vascular registry, Swedvasc was reviewed retrospectively. Patients with bypass surgery in 1996 and 1997 were assessed 5-7 years later. Data were gathered from the case-records and from clinical follow-up. The composite endpoint of graft failure included death within 30 days, occlusion, major amputation, extension of the graft to below-knee position and removal of an infected graft. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox' proportional hazard ratios were calculated. Results. Four hundred and ninety-nine patients undergoing bypass for critical limb ischemia (CLI) (56%) or claudication (44%), SV (28%) or ePTFE (72%), were included. There were no significant differences in patient characteristics between patients with SV or ePTFE. CLI and ePTFE were risk factors for graft failure. For patients with both claudication and CLI SV grafts yielded better long-term results than ePTFE grafts (p<0.03) and (p<0.003), respectively. Symptom aggravation after graft occlusion was almost exclusively restricted to ePTFE grafts. Conclusions. Femoro-popliteal bypass above-knee with SV gives good long-term results, especially for claudication. ePTFE grafts cannot be recommended in claudicants, since occlusion occurs often and frequently leads to CLI. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8598.
    Berglund, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    In-Vehicle Prediction of Truck Driver Sleepiness: Steering Related Variables2007Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis project quantitative testing in a truck simulator with 22 participants were conducted during which ten in-vehicle variables were measured. Examples of measured variables are steering wheel torque, lateral position and yaw angle. These measured variables were then used to calculate 17 independent variables that all to some extent explain the sleepiness level of the driver. The drivers’ sleepiness level was measured using the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) in order to judge the performance of the independent variables. The combination of the 17 independent variables that best explain the sleepiness level of the driver is then extracted using multiple regression analysis with forward selection.

    Sometimes some of the independent variables are not defined; therefore different models were created to handle all possible combinations of valid and invalid independent variables. The final system uses six different models to predict the sleepiness level of the driver.

    The performance of the final system showed promising results. The system can correctly classify the drivers in approximately 87% of the cases. The number of occasions when the system classify the driver as sleepy when he/she is still alert is very low, approximately 0.7%.

  • 8599.
    Berglund, Jessica
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts, Crafts and Design.
    Småskaligt storskaligt: Anodiseringens roll för en smyckesmed och en industri2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anodisering är en ytbehandlingsteknik på frammarsch som ständigt bryter nya banor såväl inom industrin som hos den småskaliga utövaren. I den här uppsatsen ges en bild av hur en smyckesmed och en industri förhåller sig till ytbehandlingstekniken idag. Det är en jämförelse utifrån en historisk kontext om industrialiseringens framfart och samarbete branscherna emellan. Anodisering är en ytbehandlingsteknik som förstärker aluminiumet funktionellt och/eller estetiskt. Uppsatsen är av kvalitativ natur där material hämtats in för tolkning. Anskaffande av material har skett på ett kombinerat empiriskt och teoretiskt sätt.

     

  • 8600.
    Berglund, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design .
    Eftermonterbart whiplash-skydd till BMW 5-serie2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this master thesis is to develop a post-mountable whiplash protection device for the BMW 5 Series. The reason for this is that the model has, in comparison to other models in the same price range, performed porely in two independent whiplash tests.

    The outcome of the project is a protection device that can be mounted in an easy and safe way on the headrests in the car. The protection device will reduce the risk of a whiplash injury by decreasing the critical distance between the head and the headrest. The protection device's design is simple, but engineered to prevent the device from moving out of position in case of a collision.

    In order to reach the result, a design method suitable for this kind of work has been used. The design method involves different processes like brainstorming and the use of an evaluation matrix.

    The result of the thesis is only conceptual, and further development is necessary to reach a final product.

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