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  • 8751.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Creative Accumulation: Integrating New and Established Technologies in Periods of Discontinuous Change2011In: Knowledge Integration and Innovation: Critical challenges facing international technology-based firms / [ed] Berggren, C., Bergek, A., Bengtsson, L., Hobday, M., Söderlund, J., Oxford: Oxford University Press , 2011, p. 246-273Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology-based firms continue to compete primarily on innovation, and are continuously required to present new solutions to an exacting market. As technological complexity and specialization intensifies, firms increasingly need to integrate and co-ordinate knowledge by means of project groups, diversified organizations, inter-organizational partnerships, and strategic alliances. Innovation processes have progressively become interdisciplinary, collaborative, inter-organizational, and international, and a firm's ability to synthesize knowledge across disciplines, organizations, and geographical locations has a major influence on its viability and success.This book demonstrates how knowledge integration is crucial in facilitating innovation within modern firms. It provides original, detailed empirical studies of prerequisites, mechanisms, and outcomes of knowledge integration processes on several organizational levels, from key individuals, projects, and internal organizations, to collaboration between firms. It stresses the need to understand knowledge integration as a multi-level phenomenon, which requires a broad repertoire of organizational and technical means. It further clarifies the need for strong internal capabilities for exploiting external knowledge, reveals how costs of knowledge integration affect outcomes and strategic decisions, and discusses the managerial implications of fostering knowledge integration, providing practical guidance and support for managers of knowledge integration in

  • 8752.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hobday, Michael
    CENTRIM (Centre for Research in Innovation Management), University of Brighton.
    Technological discontinuities and the challenge for incumbent firms: Destruction, disruption or creative accumulation?2013In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 42, no 6-7, p. 1210-1224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creative destruction of existing industries as a consequence of discontinuous technological change is a central theme in the literature on industrial innovation and technological development. Established competence-based and market-based explanations of this phenomenon argue that incumbents are seriously challenged only by ‘competence-destroying’ or ‘disruptive’ innovations, which make their existing knowledge base or business models obsolete and leave them vulnerable to attacks from new entrants. This paper challenges these arguments. With detailed empirical analyses of the automotive and gas turbine industries, we demonstrate that these explanations overestimate the ability of new entrants to destroy and disrupt established industries and underestimate the capacity of incumbents to perceive the potential of new technologies and integrate them with existing capabilities. Moreover, we show how intense competition in the wake of technological discontinuities, driven entirely by incumbents, may instead result in late industry shakeouts. We develop and extend the notion of ‘creative accumulation’ as a way of conceptualizing the innovating capacity of the incumbents that appear to master such turbulence. Specifically, we argue that creative accumulation requires firms to handle a triple challenge of simultaneously (a) fine-tuning and evolving existing technologies at a rapid pace, (b) acquiring and developing new technologies and resources and (c) integrating novel and existing knowledge into superior products and solutions.

  • 8753.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Industrial marketing.
    Do Innovation Strategies Matter?2004In: International J.A. Schumpeter Society,2004, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8754.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Do technology strategies matter? A comparison of two electrical engineering corporations, 1988-19982009In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 445-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reap competitive advantage from innovation, a firms technology activities should square with its technology strategy - but how do technology strategies relate to activities and financial performance in relevant business areas? This paper investigates this question by means of a comparison between two leading firms in the electrical engineering industry: ABB and General Electric. We show that substantial performance differences between these companies in the power generation field are related to differences in their espoused technology strategies (as indicated by statements in annual reports) and technology activities (as indicated by patenting) and the degree of alignment between these.

  • 8755.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics, Business Administration.
    Watson, Jim
    Emerging Technological Paths in a Mature Market: A Study of Patenting and Performance of Three Leading Firms in the Power Generation Equipment Industry, 1986-20022005In: European Group on Organization Studies EGOS Colloquium,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8756.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Bruzelius, Maria
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Patents with Inventors from Different Countries: Exploring some Methodological Issues Through a Case Study2005In: DRUID Summer Conference,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8757.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Universiteit Utrecht.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Markard, Jochen
    ETH.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Truffer, Bernhard
    Universiteit Utrecht & EAWAG.
    Technological innovation systems in contexts: Conceptualizing contextual structures and interaction dynamics2015In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 16, p. 51-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract This paper addresses interactions between technological innovation systems (TIS) and wider “context structures”. While TIS studies have always considered various kinds of contextual influences, we suggest that the TIS framework can be further strengthened by a more elaborated conceptualization of TIS context structures and TIS–context interactions. For that purpose, we identify and discuss four especially important types of context structures: technological, sectorial, geographical and political. For each of these, we provide examples of different ways in which context structures can interact with a focal TIS and how our understanding of TIS dynamics is enhanced by considering them explicitly. Lessons for analysts are given and a research agenda is outlined.

  • 8758.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola, Sweden.
    Markard, Jochen
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Truffer, Bernhard
    Eawag, Switzerland.
    TIS dynamics in technological, sectoral, political and geographical context: lessons for analysts2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes its departure in the criticism raised against the technological innovation system (TIS) literature in relation to the research field of socio-technical (sustainability) transitions for neglecting interactions between individual technologies and wider societal “contexts”. We first show that TIS studies have always considered various kinds of contextual systems, while also acknowledging that the TIS framework can be further strengthened by a more explicit conceptualization of TIS contexts and TIS-context interaction. We then propose a conceptual framework, which builds on the idea that TIS contexts could be seen as institutionally coherent structures that reside outside of the focal TIS. Four especially important types of context structures are identified and discussed: technological, sectoral, political and geographical. For each of these, we provide example of different ways in which each type of context can interact with a focal TIS and identify new questions that can be answered if analysts take the respective context more explicitly into account in TIS analyses. From the point of view of future research, this paper is a first step towards developing a framework for analyzing the interrelation between TIS dynamics and sectoral change and building a new TIS-based model of socio-technical transitions.

  • 8759.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Jacobsson, S.
    Department of Energy and Environment, IMIT, RIDE, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, B.
    Weatherhead School of Management, Case Western Reserve University, 11119 Bellflower Road, Cleveland, OH 44106-7235, United States.
    Lindmark, S.
    IMIT, RIDE, Department of Innovation Engineering and Management, SE-412 96 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Rickne, A.
    Centre for Innovation, Research and Competence in the Learning Economy (CIRCLE), Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden.
    Analyzing the functional dynamics of technological innovation systems: A scheme of analysis2008In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 407-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various researchers and policy analysts have made empirical studies of innovation systems in order to understand their current structure and trace their dynamics. However, policy makers often experience difficulties in extracting practical guidelines from studies of this kind. In this paper, we operationalize our previous work on a functional approach to analyzing innovation system dynamics into a practical scheme of analysis for policy makers. The scheme is based on previous literature and our own experience in developing and applying functional thinking. It can be used by policy makers not only to identify the key policy issues but also to set policy goals. © 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 8760.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers.
    Are tradable green certificates a cost-efficient policy driving technical change or a rent-generating machine? Lessons from Sweden 2003-20082010In: ENERGY POLICY, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 1255-1271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European policy debate, tradable green certificates (TGC) have been suggested to be a superior regulatory framework for promoting the diffusion of renewable electricity technologies. The purpose of this paper is to assess the performance of the Swedish TGC system, contributing to the European debate on the suitability of different types of frameworks. The expectations of the TGC system were that it would: (a) be effective in terms of increasing the supply of "green" electricity; (b) do this in a cost effective manner (from both a social and a consumer perspective): (c) generate an equitable distribution of costs and benefits and (d) drive technical change. So far, it has performed adequately in terms of effectiveness and social cost effectiveness. However, consumer costs have been substantially higher than expected, very large rents are generated and, at best, it contributes marginally to technical change. Thus. a TGC framework should be selected if the overriding concern is to minimize short term social costs of reaching a certain goal with a high degree of predictability. However, it cannot be expected to also drive technical change, keep consumer costs down and be equitable. Such trade-offs need to be revealed and not obscured by analysts.

  • 8761.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    The emergence of a growth industry: a comparative analysis of the German, Dutch and Swedish wind turbine industries2003In: Change, Transformation and Development / [ed] Stan Metcalfe, Uwe Cantner, Heidelberg: Physica/Springer , 2003, 1, p. 197-228Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains a collection of papers all concerned with the exploration of economic and social dynamics in relation to the innovation process and its outcomes. This theme is firmly rooted in the Schumpeterian tradition in which an economic perspective is mutually embedded in a wider awareness of the role of other disciplines. Indeed since Schumpeter's time, the degree of specialisation within the social sciences has risen many fold, new sub disciplines continue to emerge, highly specialised theoretical tools and empirical methods continue to be developed, and new fields for the study of management and business overlap with the more traditional social sciences. There is, consequently, a need for connecting principles to offset the dangers of intellectual fragmentation. Evolutionary economics and evolutionary analysis more generally, certainly provide some of these connecting principles. The various contributions to this volume reflect upon this research programme in a number of ways.

  • 8762.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Universiteit Utrecht.
    Functions in innovation systems: A framework for analysing energy system dynamics and identifying goals for system-building activities by entrepreneurs and policy-makers2006In: Innovation in energy systems: Learning from economic, institutional and management approaches,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8763.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers university of technology .
    Hekkert, Marko
    Utrecht University .
    Functions in innovation systems: A framework for analysing energy system dynamics and identifying goals for system-building activities by entrepreneurs and policy makers2008In: Innovation for a Low Carbon Economy: Economic, Institutional and Management Approaches, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar , 2008, 1, p. 79-111Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book shows that although innovations in energy systems represent a core contribution to achieving national and international energy policy goals, theoretical approaches to understanding innovation differ radically between separate disciplinary perspectives. The need for greater mutual learning between these approaches is met within this study as international academics from economic, institutional and management backgrounds share and analyse their respective approaches, knowledge and insights.

  • 8764.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Hekkert, Marko
    Universiteit Utrecht.
    Smith, Keith
    Imperial College Business School.
    Functionality of innovation systems as a rationale and guide in innovation policy2010In: The Theory and Practice of Innovation Policy.: An International Research Handbook / [ed] Ruud E Smits, Stefan Kuhlmann, Philip Shapira, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This comprehensive Handbook explores the interactions between the practice, policy, and theory of innovation. The goal is twofold: to increase insight into this dynamic process, searching for options to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of both policy and innovative practice, and to identify conceptual or empirical lacunae and questions that can guide future research. The Handbook is a joint project from 24 prominent scholars in the field, and although each chapter reveals the insights of its respective authors, two overarching theoretical perspectives provide unique coherence and consistency throughout. This original reference work will not only provide valuable insights for scholars and students on innovation studies, but also to policymakers and practitioners.

  • 8765.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers university of technology .
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers university of technology .
    'Legitimation' and 'development of positive externalities': Two key processes in the formation phase of technological innovation systems2008In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 575-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to the climate change challenge requires a massive development and diffusion of carbon neutral technologies and, thus, emergence and growth of new socio-technical systems. This paper contributes to an improved understanding of the formative phase of new technological innovation systems (TIS) by outlining a framework for analysing TIS dynamics in terms of structural growth and key innovation-related processes ("functions") and by discussing two of these functions at some depth: "legitimation" and "development of positive externalities". Empirical examples are provided from case studies on renewable energy technologies. We highlight the problematic role of technology assessment studies in shaping legitimacy and the importance of early market formation for the emergence of "packs of entrepreneurs" that may contribute to legitimation, and discuss how exploitation of overlaps between different TISs may create positive externalities, opening up for a powerful "bottom-up" process of system growth. Associated policy and management challenges are identified.

  • 8766.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Sandén, Björn
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Which are the key processes and policy challenges in the formation and growth of a technology-specific innovation system?2006In: Understanding processes in sustainable innovation journeys,2006, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8767.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jacobsson, Staffan
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Sandén, Björn A.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    'Legitimation' and 'development of positive externalities': two key processes in the formation phase of technological innovation systems2011In: The Dynamics of Sustainable Innovation Journeys / [ed] Frank W. Geels, Marko P. Hekkert och Staffan Jacobsson, Abingdon: Routledge, 2011, p. 55-72Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Responding to the climate change challenge requires a massive development and diffusion of carbon neutral technologies and, thus, emergence and growth of new socio-technical systems. This paper contributes to an improved understanding of the formative phase of new technological innovation systems (TIS) by outlining a framework for analysing TIS dynamics in terms of structural growth and key innovation-related prodcesses ("functions") and by discussing two of these functions at some depth: "legitimation" and "development of positive externalities". Empirical examples are provided from case studies on renewable energy technologies. We highlight the problematic role of technology assessment studies in shaping legtimacy and the importance of early market formation for the emergence of "packs of entrepreneurs" that may contribute to legitimation, and discuss how exploitation of overlaps between different TISs may create positive externalities, opening up for a powerful "bottom-up" process of system growth. Associated poilcy and management challenges are identified.

  • 8768.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Maria, Bruzelius
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Are patents with multiple inventors from different countries a good indicator of international R&D collaboration? The case of ABB2010In: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 39, p. 1321-1334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the critical case of ABB, this paper questions the relevance of using patents with multiple inventors from different countries (“cross-country patents”) as an indicator of international R&D collaboration. The study shows that less than half of ABB’s cross-country patents are the result of international R&D collaboration as described by one of the more inclusive definitions found in previous literature. Only a third of the patents are the result of joint R&D activities between different MNC subsidiaries or firms. We also discuss the implications of our study for the assignment of patents to countries based on inventor addresses.

  • 8769.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Entrepreneurial investors in renewable electricity production: motives and investment processes2012In: Entrepreneurial investors in renewable electricity production: motives and investment processes, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transformation of energy systems towards a low-carbon economy requires large investments in renewable electricity production capacity, in terms of new power plants as well as conversion from fossil fuels to renewable fuels such as biomass. In order for those investments to increase, a larger number of actors have to see renewable electricity production as an opportunity worth pursuing. Understanding the motives and decision processes involved in opportunity recognition and exploitation in this field is, thus, key to predicting and encouraging further investments.

    Recent studies have shown that investments in renewable electricity production are made by a diverse (in terms of knowledge and experience) set of actors (Bergek et al., 2012). Many of these have little or no previous experience of electricity production, which implies that recognizing and pursuing the opportunity of renewable electricity production implied a radical break with their existing routines for the purpose of creating new (for them) combinations of resources (cf. Schumpeter, 1934b). In this conference paper, we study these actors from an entrepreneurship perspective in order to understand why they came to recognize the same basic opportunity (to invest in renewable electricity production) in spite of their apparent lack of knowledge and previous experience, and how they were able to acquire the resources needed to exploit the opportunity.

    Traditionally, economic value has been seen as the main entrepreneurial motive: entrepreneurs exploit opportunities in order to generate profit (cf. Baumol, 1990; Casson, 1982; Gilad and Levine, 1986; Kirzner, 1973; Schumpeter, 1934b; Shane and Venkataraman, 2000b; Silver and Auster, 1969). Recently, the idea has been put forward that exploitation of opportunities may be driven by sustainability values or concerns, such as a wish to induce social or environmental change (e.g. Hockerts and Wüstenhagen, 2010; Schaltegger and Wagner, 2007; Zahra et al., 2009). Based on the results of 22 interviews conducted with entrepreneurs of different sizes, backgrounds and main activities, we show that economic motives were predominant. However, in spite of the fact that all entrepreneurs saw a potential economic value in the opportunity, only few of them developed the opportunity using a profit-maximization strategy. For a majority of entrepreneurs, even a small profit was acceptable or seen as a bonus. Motives such as environment and social improvements were not decisive for pursuing the opportunity. Most of the entrepreneurs were driven by personal or internal motives, i.e. fulfilling personal or internal needs, rather than by market-needs, i.e. market-driven opportunities or market-gaps.

    Authors have emphasized the importance of some determinants of opportunity recognition, e.g.  prior knowledge (cf. Baron, 2006), networks (cf. Ucbasaran et al., 2001) and interests (cf. Ardichvili et al., 2003; Guth and Ginsberg, 1990). Our study of the entrepreneurial process shows that entrepreneurs are indeed influenced by their personal network but that other factors such as access to an initial resource, e.g. land, can also affect their recognition process. Moreover, we found that some triggers were decisive for their opportunity exploitation decisions: the decision to start a company, the recognition of a market-need, an interest in the technology, a problem or the access to a natural resource. This led us to the identification of different types of entrepreneurs: investment-driven entrepreneurs, diffusion-driven entrepreneurs, technology-driven entrepreneurs, solution-driven entrepreneurs and efficiency-driven entrepreneurs. 

    Finally, previous literature especially emphasizes the importance of identifying resource needs, managing existing resources and acquiring new resources in order to exploit opportunities (Alvarez and Busenitz, 2001; Brush et al., 2001; Katz and Gartner, 1988; Ucbasaran et al., 2001). Entrepreneurs typically do not control all the resources they need to exploit an opportunity and they, therefore, have to acquire them from external sources (Shook et al., 2003; Ucbasaran et al., 2001). This can be a challenging process, since emerging ventures lack reputation and track record (Brush et al., 2001). In our study, in the process of opportunity development, each type of entrepreneur had access to one or several initial resources but had to acquire additional key resources. We found that the resource acquisition of those additional resources is less challenging when intermediary actors and existing personal networks are in place and when entrepreneurs control instrumental resources that can be used to obtain other resources.

  • 8770.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nya investerare i förnybar elproduktion:motiv, investeringskriterier ochpolicykonsekvenser (NyEl): Slutrapport2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project New investors in renewable electricity production: motives, investment criteria and policyimplications has studied non-traditional investors in renewable electricity production with thepurpose to generate a scientific basis for the design and implementation of policy instrumentsdirected at these investors and to further develop existing decision-support models. The studyshows (a) that a majority of the investments in renewable electricity production in Sweden hasbeen done by non-traditional investors, (b) that these non-traditional investors do notconstitute a homogenous group but rather consists of many different types of actors withdifferent motives, resources, knowledge bases and networks who use different strategies toimplement their investments and who differ in their responses to economic policy instrumentsand (c) that differences with regard to strategies and responses are related to investmentmotives rather than to organizational form or main activity.

  • 8771.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sundberg, Gunnel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Who invests in renewable electricity production?: Empirical evidence and suggestions for further research2013In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 56, p. 568-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transforming energy systems to fulfill the needs of a low-carbon economy requires large investments in renewable electricity production (RES-E). Recent literature underlines the need to take a closer look at the composition of the RES-E investor group in order to understand the motives and investment processes of different types of investors. However, existing energy policies generally consider RES-E investments made on a regional or national level, and target investors who evaluate their RES-E investments according to least-cost high-profit criteria. We present empirical evidence to show that RES-E investments are made by a heterogeneous group of investors, that a variety of investors exist and that their formation varies among the different types of renewable sources. This has direct implications for our understanding of the investment process in RES-E and for the study of motives and driving forces of RES-E investors. We introduce a multi-dimensional framework for analyzing differences between categories of investors, which not only considers to the standard economic dimension which is predominant in the contemporary energy literature, but also considers the entrepreneurship, innovation-adoption and institutional dimensions. The framework emphasizes the influence of four main investor-related factors on the investment process which should be studied in future research: motives, background, resources and personal characteristics.

  • 8772.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Incubator best practice: A framework2008In: Technovation, ISSN 0166-4972, E-ISSN 1879-2383, Vol. 28, no 1-2, p. 20-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incubators have become a ubiquitous phenomenon in many parts of the world and are viewed as a tool for promoting the development of technology-based growth firms. Considering the large faith and the considerable amounts of money invested in incubators, the identification of best practice incubator models is of importance. Previous incubator assessment literature has tended to emphasise the measurement of incubator outcomes. In this paper, we argue that best practice identification requires a holistic approach, where the goals of the incubators are taken into account and the performance of different incubators are put in relation to their incubator models. In this context, the aim of this paper is to develop a framework that can serve as a basis for identifying best practice incubator models and for more rigorous evaluations of incubator performance. The framework suggested includes three distinguishing model components: selection, business support and mediation. We distinguish between idea-focused selection and entrepreneur-focused selection as well as between “picking-the-winners” and “survival-of-the-fittest” selection. Business support is seen as a continuum from “laissez-faire” to “strong intervention”. Mediation strategies vary in terms of the type of innovation system in focus: technological, regional or cluster. The framework is applied to 16 Swedish incubators.

  • 8773.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Integrating the supply and demand sides of public support to new technology-based firms2015In: Science and Public Policy, ISSN 0302-3427, E-ISSN 1471-5430, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 514-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses public support and argues that supply does not match demand in terms of the support needs of different types of new technology-based firms (NTBFs). The demand side of public support to NTBFs is analysed by developing a typology of NTBFs, based on venture origin and degree of innovativeness. Each types characteristics, challenges and support needs are identified. The supply side is analysed in terms of the goals, instruments and level of aggregation of the two main policy areas that provide support for NTBFs: small and medium-sized enterprise policy and science, technology and innovation policy. Finally, the demand and supply sides are compared and three main shortcomings of existing public support to NTBFs are identified. This paper makes a twofold contribution: first, the typology gives guidelines for policy-makers with respect to the support needs of the NTBFs. Second, it identifies shortcomings in existing public support and recommends improvements.

  • 8774.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating the supply and demand sides of public support to NTBFs: a typology with implications for policy makers2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy makers consider the start-up and growth of new technology-based firms (NTBFs) to be one of the primary solutions to increase economic growth, as they contribute both to the development of new technologies and products and to job creation. In consequence, public support to NTBFs has been a prioritized issue. Such support has traditionally been justified by referring to market failures in terms of, e.g., underinvestment in R&D (Nelson, 1959; Pavitt, 1991) and “financial gaps” faced by early-stage ventures (Bygrave and Timmons, 1992). However, the argument of this paper is that supply of support does not match demand in terms of the support needs of different types of NTBFs. In order to remedy this shortcoming, this paper combines entrepreneurship and innovation research to develop a typology of NTBFs that is used to compare and integrate the demand and supply sides of public support to NTBFs.

     The first part of the paper focuses the demand side of public support to NTBFs. We first discuss general characteristics of NTBFs, with a particular focus on aspects of vulnerability and liability of newness (Stinchcombe, 1965): NTBFs are new, which implies immaturity (Penrose, 1959), lack of credibility (Birly and Norburn, 1985; Zimmerman and Zeitz, 2002) and limited resources (North et al., 2001), as well as technology-focused, which tends to imply lack of managerial skills and dependency on one main product (cf. Westhead and Storey, 1997; Mason and Harrison, 2001). We then argue that differences between NTBFs influence both the conditions for them overcoming their initial vulnerability and the types of problems they encounter in the early development phase. Thus, different types of firms will have different support needs and different potential to achieve certain types of outcomes within a specific time frame. Based on this discussion, a typology of NTBFs is developed, which takes into account the origin of the venture (academic spin-offs vs. corporate spin-offs vs. independent companies) (cf. Meyer, 2005; Wallin and Lindholm-Dahlstrand, 2006) and the degree of innovativeness of the venture’s main product (non-innovative vs. sustaining innovation vs. disruptive innovation) (cf. Rosenbloom and Christensen, 1994). The resulting nine types of NTBFs are illustrated by empirical examples and the support needs of each type are identified. The typology, thus, provides guidelines for policy makers with respect to the support needs of different types of NTBFs.

    The second part of the paper focuses the supply side, i.e. the two main policy areas that provide support for NTBFs: small-and-medium-sized-enterprise (SME) policy and science-technology-innovation (STI) policy. A comparative analysis between these two areas reveals interesting differences with regards to both goals and instruments used. Both aim at economic growth and to some extent social welfare, but whereas SME policy focuses on job creation (cf. Rothwell, 1984), STI policy focuses on national competitiveness through the development and diffusion of new products and processes (cf. Lundvall and Borrás, 2005), which does not necessarily go hand-in-hand with job creation. Moreover, whereas an explicitly aim of SME policy is to improve attitudes and conditions for founding new firms (Storey, 2003), STI policy focuses on technology, products and processes and shows little interest in whether innovation happens in new or established firms (cf. Lundvall and Borrás, 2005). With regards to the policy instruments used, both policy areas include financing, networking initiatives, regulation, education and training, but with quite different foci in terms of the level of aggregation of support initiatives (individual ventures vs. innovation system) as well as target types of NTBFs: The focus of SME policy is to support individual ventures, whereas STI policy aims at building or strengthening innovation systems, i.e. to remove system weaknesses (Jacobsson and Johnson, 2000; Klein Woolthuis et al., 2005) by improving the infrastructure for primarily research-based firms, often in specific technology fields.

    The third part of the paper compares the demand side and the supply side and identifies the main shortcomings of existing public support to NTBFs as a basis for recommendations on how to improve the support portfolio. First, there is a bias in the public support portfolio towards some types of NTBFs, most notably academic spin-offs, whereas for example corporate spin-offs and independent inventors are overlooked – irrespective of their support needs. In order to overcome this bias, policy makers need to align the supply of support to NTBFs with the support needs of the targeted firms. Second, market aspects are under-emphasised in comparison to technology and product aspects, both in individual-level support and system-level support. Thus, both the firm-level support and the system level support would benefit from measures developing marketing and sales capabilities of individual ventures or stimulating entrepreneurial experimentation and market formation on the system level. Third, there is a missing link in the support instrument portfolio: NTBFs frequently lack the information, competences and networks needed to identify and connect to relevant innovation systems, but the current support portfolio includes few measures to assist them with this. The support portfolio should therefore be complemented by mediation (Bergek and Norrman, 2008) between individual firms and relevant innovation systems, i.e. support measures helping NTBFs to access and utilise resources on the system level.

    To sum up, we recommend policy makers from SME and STI policy to (1) take into account that NTBFs have different support needs and to align their support to the needs of the targeted firms, (2) increase the market focus of the supplied support and (3) complement the current support portfolio with instruments directed at mediation between individual firms and relevant innovation systems. Implementing these recommendations would, however, require increased co-ordination between SME and STI policy, which is our forth and final recommendation to policy makers.

  • 8775.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Policy to Promote NTBFs: A Tentative Framework2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8776.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Norrman, Charlotte
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Sorting Out the Apples, Pears and Fruit Salads in Incubator Performance Assessment2005In: The Annual High Technology Small Firm Conference,2005, 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8777.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Onufrey, Ksenia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Is one path enough? Multiple paths and path interaction as an extension of path dependency theory2014In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1261-1297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To explain the development of multi-technology companies and industries where several alternative technologies co-exist and interact over long periods, this article suggests an extension of path dependency theory by providing a conceptualization of the path notion that incorporates the theoretical possibility of multiple paths and path interaction. The conceptualization is applied to a patent study of three leading companies in the lighting industry: General Electric, Osram/Siemens, and Philips. The study shows technology development patterns that are characterized by strong persistence, both within each path and across the whole technology field. These results demonstrate that multiple technological paths can co-exist in companies and industries, characterized by simultaneous long-term presence of several technologies. In such cases, path interaction takes place both between co-existing paths and when new, radically different paths are created. Although further studies are needed to identify the underlying self-reinforcing mechanisms, there is a clear indication that technological path dependency is not restricted to unitary progression patterns, as implied by previous conceptualizations.

  • 8778.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Onufrey, Ksenia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship . Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Path dependency in industries with multiple technological trajectories2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the literature on path dependency in processes of innovation and technical change, two partly conflicting perspectives are presented. Within the first perspective, it is argued that the cumulative nature of technical change creates persistence in innovative activities: accumulated competencies and learning within a specific field generate new research questions and opportunities for innovation and create entry barriers, which works in favour of incumbent firms and limits the role of new innovators in an industry (Malerba et al., 1997). In contrast, the other perspective emphasises that path dependency gradually decreases the number of available future options (Aminzade, 1992; Araujo and Harrison, 2002) and eventually leads to lock-in to inefficient, inferior or unsustainable technology paths (Cowan and Gunby, 1996; David, 1985; Unruh, 2000).

    Within both these perspectives, paths tend to be conceptualised as single technological trajectories. However, in some industries multiple trajectories are pursued in parallel and new trajectories are added over time. This raises the questions of whether such industries still can be path dependent and, in that case, where path dependency occurs: within or across trajectories and at the company or industry level. To what extent does the incumbents’ development of newly added trajectories build on their existing knowledge base? The purpose of this paper is to answer these questions by analysing technological activities of three leading firms in the lighting industry.

    The paper is based on an analysis of lighting patents granted to General Electric (GE), Osram/Siemens and Philips and their key subsidiaries by the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) over a period of 35 years (1976-2011). Lighting-related patents were identified through a combination of class-based search and title- and abstract-based keyword search.

    Our analysis shows a common patenting pattern between the three companies: about 70% of all the patents in the dataset belong to seven most frequently used classes and about 50% - to the top three classes. Most of these classes can be described as traditional since companies used them during the whole period of analysis. While some of them are declining both in terms of patent shares and numbers (H01K – Incandescent lamps), others are stable or growing (H01J – Discharge lamps, F21 – Lighting, H05B – Electric lighting, C09K – Materials for applications). Such long-term stability of traditional classes and similarity of patenting patterns between the three companies indicate technological persistence both at the company and the industry levels.

    The most recent addition to the companies’ patent stock is the semiconductors class (H01L). It has been intensively developed since the late 1990s, when industry incumbents joined the LED technology which was pioneered by new entrants. However, about 30-40% of the LED-related patents of GE, Osram/Siemens and Philips still belong to traditional lighting classes. Companies have, thus, been able to use their previously accumulated expertise in the development of LED lighting, in spite of its discontinuous character. While technological persistence in terms of LED development can be observed at both industry and company levels, there are some differences among the three companies.

    An analysis of patent references shows that when a patent cites one of the company’s own lighting patents, in 60-70% of the cases both patents belong to the same first class, which is a clear sign of path dependency inside trajectories. However, pairwise usage of patent classes indicates not only persistence inside technological trajectories, but also a complex relation between them since patents frequently belong to several classes simultaneously. In particular, H01J (discharge lamps) is the most frequently used secondary class.

    The main conclusions of the paper are the following: first, we have found signs of path dependency in the lighting industry at the company level in a form of technological persistence. Although persistence inside technological trajectories is especially strong, there is also a complex interconnection between trajectories which indicates that previous association of paths with single trajectories is too simplified. Second, a similarity of companies’ patenting patterns in almost every aspect of the analysis provides a clear evidence of path dependency at the industry level. Third, the LED example shows, on the one hand, a break with previous activities, and on the other hand, the ability of incumbents to use their accumulated expertise when developing a new, even radically different, technology. Overall, it can be concluded that path dependency can exist in industries with multiple technological trajectories. However, whether this path dependency is productive and efficient or will lead to unsustainable lock-in remains to be seen.

  • 8779.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Berggren, Christian
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Watson, J.
    SPRU, University of Sussex, The Freeman Centre, East Sussex BN1 9QE, United Kingdom.
    Technological capabilities and late shakeouts: Industrial dynamics in the advanced gas turbine industry, 1987-20022008In: Industrial and Corporate Change, ISSN 0960-6491, E-ISSN 1464-3650, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 335-392Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on technological discontinuities and late shakeouts in mature industries. The empirical case is combined cycle gas turbine technology in the power generation industry, where two of four main incumbents (GE, ABB, Siemens, and Westinghouse) exited the industry after several years of competition. We show that the vast differences in firm performance are strongly related to variation in technological capabilities, such as sourcing and integration of knowledge from related industries and after-launch problem solving. The findings from this case may also be of general interest for studies of dynamics in other mature, complex industries.

  • 8780.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project management, Innovations and Entrepreneurship .
    Tell, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration .
    Palmberg, Christopher
    Product complexity and collaborative modes of knowledge sourcing: The case of combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT)2008In: Vision ERA-Net Conference,2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

        

  • 8781.
    Bergek, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Zdolsek, Joachim H.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping.
    Hahn, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Research Unit, Södertälje Hospital, Södertälje, Sweden.
    Non-invasive blood haemoglobin and plethysmographic variability index during brachial plexus block2015In: British Journal of Anaesthesia, ISSN 0007-0912, E-ISSN 1471-6771, Vol. 114, no 5, p. 812-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Plethysmographic measurement of haemoglobin concentration (SpHb  ), pleth variability index (PVI), and perfusion index (PI) with the Radical-7 apparatus is growing in popularity. Previous studies have indicated that SpHb  has poor precision, particularly when PI is low. We wanted to study the effects of a sympathetic block on these measurements.

    Methods Twenty patients underwent hand surgery under brachial plexus block with one Radical-7 applied to each arm. Measurements were taken up to 20 min after the block had been initiated. Venous blood samples were also drawn from the non-blocked arm.

    Results During the last 10 min of the study, SpHb  had increased by 8.6%. The PVI decreased by 54%, and PI increased by 188% in the blocked arm (median values). All these changes were statistically significant. In the non-blocked arm, these parameters did not change significantly.

    Conclusions Brachial plexus block significantly altered SpHb  , PVI, and PI, which indicates that regional nervous control of the arm greatly affects plethysmographic measurements obtained by the Radical-7. After the brachial plexus block, SpHb  increased and PVI decreased.

  • 8782.
    Bergek, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zdolsek, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Hahn, Robert G
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Anesthesiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Surgery.
    Accuracy of noninvasive haemoglobin measurement by pulse oximetry depends on the type of infusion fluid2012In: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 29, no 12, p. 586-592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Measurement of blood haemoglobin concentration by pulse oximetry could be of value in determining when erythrocytes should be transfused during surgery, but the effect of infusion fluids on the results is unclear.

    Objective: To study the effect of crystalloid and colloid fluid on the accuracy (bias) and precision of pulse oximetry haemoglobin estimation to indicate the venous haemoglobin concentration in volunteers.

    Design: Open interventional crossover study.

    Setting: Single university hospital.

    Participants: Ten male volunteers aged 18–28 (mean 22) years.

    Interventions: Each volunteer underwent three infusion experiments on separate days and in random order. The infusions were Ringer's acetate (20 ml kg−1), hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (10 ml kg−1) and a combination of both.

    Results: At the end of the infusions of Ringer's acetate, pulse oximetry haemoglobin concentration had decreased more than the true haemoglobin concentration (15 vs. 8%; P < 0.005; n  = 10) whereas starch solution decreased pulse oximetry haemoglobin concentration less than true haemoglobin concentration (7 vs. 11%; P < 0.02; n  = 20). The same differences were seen when the fluids were infused separately and when they were combined. The overall difference between all 956 pairs of pulse oximetry haemoglobin concentration and true haemoglobin concentrations (the bias) averaged only −0.7 g l−1 whereas the 95% prediction interval was wide, ranging from −24.9 to 23.7 g l−1. In addition to the choice of infusion fluid, the bias was strongly dependent on the volunteer (each factor, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion: The bias of measuring haemoglobin concentration by pulse oximetry is dependent on whether a crystalloid or a colloid fluid is infused.

  • 8783.
    Bergek, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Oslo, Norway.
    Mignon, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Motives to adopt renewable energy technologies: evidence from Sweden2017In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 106, p. 547-559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of renewable energy technologies (RETs) has to speed up for countries to reach their, often ambitious, targets for renewable energy generation. This requires a large number of actors to adopt RETs. Policies will most likely be needed to induce adoption, but there is limited knowledge about what motivates RET adoption. The purpose of this paper is to complement and expand the available evidence regarding motives to adopt RETs through a survey to over 600 non-traditional RET adopters in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that although environmental concerns, technology interest, access to a base resource and prospects to make money are important motives in general, RET adopters is a heterogeneous group with regard to motives: there are many different motives to adopt RETs, adopters differ in how large importance they attach to the same motive and each adopter can have several different motives to adopt. There are also differences in motives between RETs (especially wind power vs. solar power) and between adopter categories (especially IPPs vs. individuals and diversified companies). This implies that a variety of policy instruments might be needed to induce further adoption of a variety of RETs by a variety of adopter categories.

  • 8784.
    Bergelin, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Wastesson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Corporate Social Responsibility in Vietnam: A Study of the Relation between Vietnamese Suppliers2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vietnam is a developing country in South-East Asia with borders toward China, Laos and Cambodia. As other countries in the same area are far more developed, Vietnam can gain a lot from international trade. It is an important factor for a country to build prosperity and gain economic growth and thereby reach a higher standard of living. But for a company to succeed in the international market is a demanding task. Both internal and external factors that influence a company’s competence need to be taken into consideration. The awareness of Corporate Social Responsibility is increasing every day and it is becoming a more and more important factor for the end-customer as well as the buyers and suppliers. This Master Thesis deals with the relationship between Vietnamese suppliers and their international buyers and how Corporate Social Responsibility affects that relation.

    The result of the study shows that there are advantages for both the Vietnamese supplier and the international buyer. Companies that work together and care for each other will end up with a strong and long-term relation. Both the quality and the productivity increased and that the staff turn-over decreased when introducing CSR. One also has to understand that the international customers are in command and that the suppliers are merely following the customer’s demands. Furthermore, quality, price and delivery time are the most important factors when choosing a supplier but by working with CSR these factors will also be affected positively.

    It was also, apart from the main focus of this thesis, interesting to discover how corruption and cultural differences affected the supplier-buyer relation and also the discussion about whose responsibility it actually is to work with these issues; the buying rich customer or the relatively poor supplier?

  • 8785.
    Bergelin, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Human Activity Recognition and Behavioral Prediction using Wearable Sensors and Deep Learning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When moving into a more connected world together with machines, a mutual understanding will be very important. With the increased availability in wear- able sensors, a better understanding of human needs is suggested. The Dart- mouth Research study at the Psychiatric Research Center has examined the viability of detecting and further on predicting human behaviour and complex tasks. The field of smoking detection was challenged by using the Q-sensor by Affectiva as a prototype. Further more, this study implemented a framework for future research on the basis for developing a low cost, connected, device with Thayer Engineering School at Dartmouth College. With 3 days of data from 10 subjects smoking sessions was detected with just under 90% accuracy using the Conditional Random Field algorithm. However, predicting smoking with Electrodermal Momentary Assessment (EMA) remains an unanswered ques- tion. Hopefully a tool has been provided as a platform for better understanding of habits and behaviour. 

  • 8786.
    Bergeling, Ann-Sofie
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    ”DU OCH JAG, FRÖKEN!”: pedagogiska möten mellan barn och vuxna på fyra daghem2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to describe the day care center as an educational envirorunent, focusing the interaction between caregiver and child. The theoretical frame of reference is Bronfenbrenner's ecological mode! of human development. The day care center is considered as a "microsystem" where the children develop by interacting with the adults in terms of what the children and adults do together, how they do it and the role they take. It is a qualitative study. The author has spent two weeks in each of the four day care centers. The data have been collected by interviews, videorecordings and observations and are presented as "pictures". The thesis states that thi:? interaction between caregiver and child can be looked upon as "meetings". However, the adult and the child do not always meet. They may meet in a physical sense but that does not guarantee that they also meet in a psychological sense. Those caregivers who tend to "meet" the children are contingent, openminded and active. They respect the children, see them and confirm them with a permissible attitude. The possibilities to meet are finally regarded in relation to the physical setting, established norms, the personality of those who interact and the caregiver's "pedagogical attitude".

  • 8787.
    Bergemalm, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Hennerdal, Sture
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Persson, Birger
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Borg, Erik
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Perception of the acoustic environment and neuroimaging findings: a report of six cases with a history of closed head injury2009In: ACTA OTO-LARYNGOLOGICA, ISSN 0001-6489, Vol. 129, no 7, p. 801-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conclusion: The main finding was the relation between difficulty in determining the direction of movement of a sound source and frontal lesions and poor working memory. Poor correspondence in some cases between functional findings and imaging findings can be due to the possibility of axonal degeneration as well as plastic reorganization. Objective: The purpose of the present investigation of six cases was to identify auditory, cognitive and neuroimaging long-term sequelae of closed head injury (CHI) with particular focus on environmental sound recognition and moving sound sources. Subjects and methods: Six subjects who had experienced CHI were investigated with auditory tests. Four subjects also completed cognitive testing. CT and MRI were performed. Results: There was a large individual variability of the test results with respect to morphological findings. In five cases with central auditory processing disorders morphological brain damage was demonstrated. Two cases with shortcomings on cognitive testing and with frontal brain lesions demonstrated problems in determining the direction of movement of a sound source. The results may indicate that basal frontal lobe structures play a role in following and determining the direction of movement of a sound source. Two cases had problems with environmental sound recognition; in one left temporal brain lesions were demonstrated.

  • 8788.
    Bergemalm, P.-O.
    et al.
    Ahlsèn Research Institute, Örebro University Hospital, S-701 85 Örebro, Sweden, ENT Department, Lindesberg County Hospital, Lindesberg, Sweden.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Appearances are deceptive? Long-term cognitive and central auditory sequelae from closed head injury2005In: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 39-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible signs of long-term cognitive and/or central auditory sequelae seven to eleven years after a closed head injury (CHI) of sufficient severity to cause scull fracture and/or brain contusion. Another purpose was that this investigation should be carried out in a group of recovered trauma victims with, to the individual, no known or minimal sequelae. A computer-based set of five cognitive tests and three central auditory tests were used in a group of formerly brain-injured patients who considered themselves as well recovered. Most of the participants did not report any signs of cognitive or auditory impairment. Tests of working memory capacity, verbal information processing speed, phonological processing and verbal inference-making ability were used. Auditory brain response (ABR), distorted speech audiometry (interrupted speech), and phase audiometry were used to test central auditory function. The initial severity of brain damage, i.e. status when the patient arrived at the emergency ward, was estimated with Swedish Reaction Level Scale (RLS). Cognitive shortcomings after CHI were demonstrated in a high percentage (59%, 13/22) of the cases seven to eleven years after the injury. Central auditory processing disorders (APD) were also demonstrated in a fairly high percentage (58%, 11/19) of the subjects. None of the correlations between RLS and the results on cognitive and central auditory tests reached statistical significance. However, there was a correlation between cognitive performance and the results on the central auditory tests used in this investigation. Eighty percent (8/10) of those participants with pathologies on ABR and/or phase audiometry and/or IS also failed on one or more of the cognitive tasks, compared to 44% (4/9) among those with no signs of APD. It is possible, many years after CHI, to observe cognitive shortcomings and APD in a relatively high percentage of CHI cases that are subjectively considered to be fairly well recovered. The cognitive tasks used in the study have proved to be a sensitive method to discover cognitive impairments. Long-term cognitive sequelae and APD could not be predicted from RLS scores. © 2005 British Society of Audiology, International Society of Audiology, and Nordic Audiological Society.

  • 8789.
    Bergenbrant, Mikaela
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating Usability Work in the Development Process at a Consulting Firm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When needing software, using the services of an IT consulting rm is todaya common solution for companies nowadays. To make a system suited forthe intended users it is important to focus on usability.There are many dierent approaches possible to use when developinga usable system. The purpose of this study was to study if any of theapproaches, goal-directed design, could be used when a customer orders asolution from a consulting rm. This was to be studied through a case studywhich was conducted at the IT consulting rm Sigma. One of Sigma's customersis Toyota Material Handling Group which is a supplier of forkliftsand additional services like the online eet management platform ToyotaISite. The platform is about to be further developed by connecting it to amobile application with the purpose of making the platform more accessibleand ecient. The assignment in the case study was to develop a prototypefor this mobile application. This was done using the goal-centered design approach.Further, in order to understand the work at Sigma today, interviewswere conducted with developers at the company.The data collected led to an analysis about how Sigma and other similarIT consulting rms could use the goal-centered design approach when developingsoftware. The conclusion drawn was that parts of the method couldbe motivated to the customer and thereby be used in future projects, whilesome parts would be harder to motivate for the customer. The includedsteps were user research, context scenarios, requirements and high-delityprototyping. These conclusions can be used to integrate usability work inthe development process in the context of an IT consulting rm deliveringa system to a customer.

  • 8790. Bergendahl, Christina
    et al.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology.
    Boosting complex learning by strategic assessment and course design2005In: Journal of Chemical Education, ISSN 0021-9584, E-ISSN 1938-1328, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 645-651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategic selection of instruction and assessment methods geared to higher cognition levels was used to foster increasingly complex learning. Assessment results from the redesigned course show that students are capable of mastering higher-order cognitive skills relative to these objectives, however the synthesis category constitutes a threshold in students' cognitive development. No single assessment method was found to be clearly the best, yet careful selection of the method that allows higher-order thinking made it possible to develop a combination of assessments that meet objectives.

  • 8791.
    Bergendal, B.
    et al.
    National Oral Disability Centre, Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Ahlborg, B.
    Mun-H-Center, National Orofacial Resource Center for Rare Disorders, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Knudsen, E.
    Department of Plastic Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Marcusson, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Dental Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Department of Oral Surgery UHL.
    Nyberg, J.
    Department of Reconstructive Plastic Surgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wallenius, E.
    Swedish Association of Rare Disorders, Sundbyberg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson-Bonnier, K.
    Habilitation Services, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Living with facial disfigurement- Strategies for individuals and care management2011In: Special Care in Dentistry, ISSN 0275-1879, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 216-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals and families affected by craniofacial disorders have expressed dissatisfaction with their experiences in the healthcare system, with day care, and in school situations. To capture their views, focus group encounters were done in a group of young individuals with these disorders and in a group of parents whose children were affected. The aim was to synthesize their attitudes and experiences into improved strategies for parents, teenagers, and professionals in the healthcare system. Their views were compiled into a document that emphasizes the responsibilities of persons with craniofacial disorders and their parents to actively seek information on diagnosis and treatment options and to participate in decisions on therapy. The conclusion was that it is not lack of specific knowledge but rather a lack of implementation of existing recommendations that makes living with facial disfigurement difficult for many individuals and their families. © 2011 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 8792.
    Bergendal, B
    et al.
    National Oral Disability Centre, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Norderyd, J
    National Oral Disability Centre, The Institute for Postgraduate Dental Education, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Bågesund, M
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Public Dental Service, Centre for Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry.
    Holst, A
    Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Kalmar.
    Signs and symptoms from ectodermal organs in young Swedish individuals with oligodontia2006In: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, ISSN 0960-7439, E-ISSN 1365-263X, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 320-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim was to assess signs and symptoms from other ectodermal organs in addition to teeth in young individuals with oligodontia and to establish the prevalence of oligodontia Sample and methods. Children born 1981-94 reported by dental teams in the Public Dental Service to have oligodontia were asked to participate in a clinical study. The examinations comprised a structured interview on symptoms from ectodermal organs, and testing of salivary secretion Results. One hundred and sixty-two individuals met the inclusion criteria, and 123 individuals (75.9%) participated in the clinical study. Half of the individuals had one to four signs or symptoms from ectodermal organs beside oligodontia. The most common sign was low salivary secretion. Twelve individuals (9.6%) with isolated oligodontia reported impaired function of the sweat glands, hair, or nails. The prevalence of oligodontia was 0.090% Conclusions. An early identification of individuals with oligodontia can be made in a majority of cases by checking that all permanent incisors have erupted at the age of 8 years. The validity in asking individuals about normal and abnormal function of ectodermal organs was found to be low. This indicates that there is a strong need to establish routine clinical criteria for dysplasia of ectodermal organs

  • 8793.
    Bergendal, Birgitta
    et al.
    Institute Postgrad Dent Educ, Sweden.
    Bakke, Merete
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology in Linköping.
    Sjogreen, Lotta
    National Orofacial Resource Centre Rare Disease, Sweden.
    Asten, Pamela
    Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital, Norway.
    Profiles of orofacial dysfunction in different diagnostic groups using the Nordic Orofacial Test (NOT-S)-A review2014In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 578-584Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) was developed as a comprehensive method to assess orofacial function. Results from the screening protocol have been presented in 11 international publications to date. This study reviewed these publications in order to compile NOT-S screening data and create profiles of orofacial dysfunction that characterize various age groups and disorders. Materials and methods. NOT-S results of nine reports meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed. Seven of these studies not only provided data on the mean and range of total NOT-S scores, but also on the most common domains of orofacial dysfunction (highest rate of individuals with dysfunction scores), allowing the construction of orofacial dysfunction profiles based on the prevalence of dysfunction in each domain of NOT-S. Results. The compiled data comprised 669 individuals, which included healthy control subjects (n = 333) and various patient groups (n = 336). All studies reported differences between individuals with diagnosed disorders and healthy control subjects. The NOT-S data could measure treatment effects and provided dysfunction profiles characterizing the patterns of orofacial dysfunction in various diagnoses. Conclusions. This review corroborates previous results that the NOT-S differentiates well between patients and healthy controls and can also show changes in individuals after treatment. NOT-S could be used as a standard instrument to assess orofacial dysfunction, evaluate the outcomes of oral habilitation and rehabilitation and improve comparability in clinical practice and research.

  • 8794.
    Bergendal, Birgitta
    et al.
    Institute Postgrad Dent Educ, Natl Oral Disabil Centre, SE-55111 Jonkoping, Sweden Umea University, Fac Med, Department Odontol, Umea, Sweden .
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Reconstruction Centre, Department of ENT - Head and Neck Surgery UHL.
    Stecksen-Blicks, Christina
    Umea University, Fac Med, Department Odontol, Umea, Sweden .
    Orofacial dysfunction in ectodermal dysplasias measured using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening protocol2009In: ACTA ODONTOLOGICA SCANDINAVICA, ISSN 0001-6357, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 377-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To screen orofacial function in people with various ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes and compare with a healthy reference sample. Material and methods. The ED group comprised 46 individuals (30 M and 16 F; mean age 14.5 years, range 3-55). Thirty-two had hypohidrotic ED, while 14 had other ED syndromes. The reference sample comprised 52 healthy individuals (22 M and 30 F; mean age 24.9 years, range 3-55). Orofacial function was screened using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S) protocol containing 12 orofacial function domains (maximum score 12 points). Results. The total NOT-S score was higher in the ED group than in the healthy group (mean 3.5 vs. 0.4; pandlt;0.001). The dysfunctions most frequently recorded in the subjects with ED occurred in the domains chewing and swallowing (82.6%), dryness of the mouth (45.7%), and speech (43.5%). Those with other ED syndromes scored non-significantly higher than those with hypohidrotic ED (mean 4.6 vs. 3.0; pandgt;0.05). Conclusions. Individuals with ED scored higher than a healthy reference sample in all NOT-S domains, especially in the chewing and swallowing, dryness of the mouth, and speech domains. Orofacial function areas and treatment and training outcomes need to be more closely evaluated and monitored.

  • 8795.
    Bergenfeldt, Magnus
    et al.
    Herlev Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Herlev, Denmark.
    Albertsson, Maria
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Current state of adjuvant therapy in resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma2006In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN 0284-186X, E-ISSN 1651-226X, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 124-135Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic carcinoma cannot generally be cured by surgery alone. This review summarizes the development of adjuvant therapy over the past two decades. Four randomized controlled trials compare long-term survival of different treatments. The small GITSG-study supports combined chemoradiation, but the EORTC-study found no significant effect. A Norwegian study of adjuvant chemotherapy found an increased median survival, but no effect beyond two years. The large ESPAC-1 study shows a benefit for 5-FU based chemotherapy, while chemoradiation had a negative effect. Thus, evidence favours adjuvant therapy, but 5-FU may not be the ultimate drug. Support for gemcitabine is given by preliminary data from a German randomized trial, and further American and European studies are upcoming. However, postoperative therapy is problematic, as 20-30% of resected patients never undergo treatment because of slow recovery or other reasons. Preoperative therapy has some theoretical advantages, and moreover, patients with rapidly progressive disease may be spared surgery. Randomized controlled trials are lacking, but published results compare well with postoperative, adjuvant therapy. The value of locally targeted therapy is difficult to assess. Reasonable results have been obtained with regional chemotherapy, whereas intraoperative radiotherapy does not seem to increase survival despite reducing reducing local recurrences.

  • 8796.
    Bergenheim, Fannie
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Barnboksskrivande: - En kvalitativ studie om framställande ochpublicering av barnböcker2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how a children's book is suggested to be prepared in order to be accepted for publication by a publishing house in Sweden today.

    My questions was first to clarify the concept of a "children's book". Secondly, to understand if there are any guidelines to follow regarding the design and illustration of a children´s book, and how to proceed with the best chances of getting a mauscript published.

    To answer the question, I have chosen to use a qualitative method containing questionnaire items involving eleven Swedish publishers of children's literature.

    My results show that children's books includes all literature that has an target audience of people between 0-18 years of age. The most important thing is that the book's material is appropriate to the target group's level of mental perceptions and emotional competence. The material which then is submitted to the publisher will need to be of the highest quality and the author must investigate a consistent niche in order to submit the material to a publisher.

  • 8797.
    Bergenholm, Linnéa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Modeling as a Tool to Support Self-Management of Type 1 Diabetes2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an auto-immune disease characterized by insulin-deficiency. Insulin is a metabolic hormone that is involved in lowering blood glucose (BG) levels in order to control BG level to a tight range. In T1D this glycemic control is lost, causing chronic hyperglycemia (excess glucose in blood stream). Chronic hyperglycemia damages vital tissues. Therefore, glycemic control must be restored.

    A common therapy for restoring glycemic control is intensive insulin therapy, where the missing insulin is replaced with regular insulin injections. When dosing this compensatory insulin many factors that affect glucose metabolism must be considered. Linkura is a company that has developed tools for monitoring the most important factors, which are meals and exercise. In the Linkura meal and exercise tools, the nutrition content in meals and the calorie consumption during exercise are estimated. Another tool designed to aid control of BG is the bolus calculator. Bolus calculators use input of BG level, carbohydrate intake, and insulin history to estimate insulin need. The accuracy of these insulin bolus calculations suffer from two problems. First, errors occur when users inaccurately estimate the carbohydrate content in meals. Second, exercise is not included in bolus calculations. To reduce these problems, it was suggested that the Linkura web tools could be utilized in combination with a bolus calculator.

    For this purpose, a bolus calculator was developed. The bolus calculator was based on existing models that utilize clinical parameters to relate changes in BG levels to meals, insulin, and exercise stimulations. The bolus calculator was evaluated using data collected from Linkura's web tools. The collected data showed some inconsistencies which cannot be explained by any model.  The performance of the bolus calculator in predicting BG levels using general equations to derive the clinical parameters was inadequate. Performance was increased by adopting an update-algorithm where the clinical parameters were updated daily using previous data. Still, better model performance is prefered for use in a bolus calculator.  

    The results show potential in developing bolus calculator tools combined with the Linkura tools. For such bolus calculator, further evaluation on modeling long-term exercise and additional safety features minimizing risk of hypoglycemia are required.

  • 8798.
    Bergenholtz, Gunnar
    et al.
    Varsaparken Gothenburg.
    Axelsson, Susanna
    Varsaparken, Gothenburg.
    Davidson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Statens beredning för medicinsk utvärdering, Stockholm.
    Frisk, Fredrik
    Varsaparken, Gothenburg.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Varsaparken, Gothenburg.
    Kvist, Thomas
    Varsaparken, Gothenburg.
    Norlund, Anders
    Varsaparken, Gothenburg.
    Petersson, Arne
    Varsaparken, Gothenburg.
    Portenier, Isabelle
    Varsaparken, Gothenburg.
    Sandberg, Hans
    Varsaparken, Gothenburg.
    Tranæus, Sofia
    Varsaparken, Gothenburg.
    Mejare, Ingegerd
    Varsaparken, Gothenburg.
    Treatment of pulps in teeth affected by deep caries - A systematic review of the literature.2013In: Singapore dental journal, ISSN 0377-5291, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: This systematic review assesses the effect of methods commonly used to manage the pulp in cases of deep caries lesions, and the extent the pulp chamber remains uninfected and does not cause pulpal or periapical inflammatory lesions and associated tooth-ache over time.

    STUDY DESIGN: An electronic literature search included the databases PubMed, EMBASE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Reviews from January 1950 to March 2013. In addition, hand searches were carried out. Two reviewers independently evaluated abstracts and full-text articles. An article was read in full if at least one of the two reviewers considered the abstract potentially relevant. Altogether, 161 articles were read in full text. Of these, 24 studies fulfilled established inclusion criteria. Based on studies of at least moderate quality, the quality of evidence of each procedure was rated in four levels according to GRADE.

    RESULTS: No study reached the high quality level. Twelve were of moderate quality. The overall evidence was insufficient to assess which of indirect pulp capping, stepwise excavation, direct excavation and pulp capping/partial pulpotomy, pulpotomy or pulpectomy is the most effective treatment approach for teeth with deep caries.

    CONCLUSIONS: Because of the lack of good studies it is not possible to determine whether an injured pulp by deep caries can be maintained or whether it should be removed and replaced with a root canal filling. Both randomized studies and prospective observational studies are needed to investigate whether a pulp exposed to deep caries is best treated by measures intended to preserve it or by pulpectomy and root filling.

  • 8799.
    Bergenhök, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    "Schyst språk-Inget bråk"-en utvärdering av ett språk- och attitydprojekt1999Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbetes syfte har varit att beskriva och utvärdera"Schyst språk-Inget bråk"projektet som genomfördes på Solhagaskolan i Ryd, Linköping under läsåret 1998-99. Det startades p.g.a. att elevernas språk och beteende inte gick att tolerera längre och för att förbättra stämningen på skolan. Man hade en arbetsgrupp bestående av tre ur personalen som också var de ansvariga. Dessa tre tog kontakt med olika institutioner i närsamhället, som bildade en samverkansgrupp, för att alla som träffar barnen skulle vara enade mot samma mål. På skolan delades barnen in i kompisgrupper från sexårs till femte klass, där de ibland gjorde aktiviteter ihop under året. Man hade även en hel del samlingar med alla elever på skolan där syftet var att skapa en känsla av gemenskap på skolan. För att kunna nå mitt syfte har jag gjort en enkätutvärdering i två klasser, intervjuat de tre i arbetsgruppen och två ur samverkansgruppen, jag har även läst litteratur om att förebygga mobbning och våld i skolor. Slutsatser jag har dragit är bl.a. att elevernas tankar kring projektet skiljer sig åt en del beroende på årskurs och kön, lärarna har i stort sett varit nöjda med arbetet i projekt, samt att resultatet är att eleverna har blivit medvetna om hur det låter när de säger dumma saker och att det har blivit lugnare på skolan.

  • 8800.
    Bergenius, Johan
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Hydén, Dag
    Linköping University.
    Larsby, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Technical Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Möller, Claes
    Linköping University.
    Ödkvist, Lars
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Frenzels brillor eller datoriserad otoneurologi1990Conference paper (Other academic)
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