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  • 951.
    Wikberg, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Eliciting Knowledge from Experts in Modeling of Complex Systems: Managing Variation and Interactions2007Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The thematic core of the thesis is about how to manage modeling procedures in real settings. The view taken in this thesis is that modeling is a heuristic tool to outline a problem, often conducted in a context of a larger development process. Examples of applications, in which modeling are used, include development of software and business solutions, design of experiments etc. As modeling often is used in the initial phase of such processes, then there is every possibility of failure, if initial models are false or inaccurate. Modeling often calls for eliciting knowledge from experts. Access to relevant expertise is limited, and consequently, efficient use of time and sampling of experts is crucial. The process is highly interactive, and data are often of qualitative nature rather than quantitative. Data from different experts often vary, even if the task is to describe the same phenomenon. As with quantitative data, this variation between data sources can be treated as a source of error as well as a source of information. Irrespective of specific modeling technique, variation and interaction during the model development process should be possible to characterize in order to estimate the elicited knowledge in terms of correctness and comprehensiveness. The aim of the thesis is to explore a methodological approach on how to manage such variations and interactions. Analytical methods tailored for this purpose have the potential to impact on the quality of modeling in the fields of application. Three studies have been conducted, in which principles for eliciting, controlling, and judging the modeling procedures were explored. The first one addressed the problem of how to characterize and handle qualitative variations between different experts, describing the same modeling object. The judgment approach, based on a subjective comparison between different expert descriptions, was contrasted with a criterion-based approach, using a predefined structure to explicitly estimate the degree of agreement. The results showed that much of the basis for the amalgamation of models used in the judgment-approach was concealed, even if a structured method was used to elicit the criteria for the independent experts’ judgment. In contrast, by using the criterion-based approach the nature of the variation was possible to characterize explicitly. In the second study, the same approach was used to characterize variation between, as well as within, different modeling objects, analogical to a one-way statistical analysis of variance. The results of the criterion-based approach indicated a substantial difference between the two modeling subjects. Variances within each of the modeling tasks were about the same and lower than the variance between modeling tasks. The result supports the findings from the first study and indicates that the approach can be generalized as a way of comparing modeling tasks. The third study addressed the problem of how to manage the interaction between experts in team modeling. The aim was to explore the usability of an analytical method with on-line monitoring of the team communication. Could the basic factors of task, participants, knowledge domains, communication form, and time be used to characterize and manipulate team modeling? Two contrasting case studies of team modeling were conducted. The results indicated that the taxonomy of the suggested analytical method was sensitive enough to capture the distinctive communication patterns for the given task conditions. The results also indicate that an analytical approach can be based on the relatively straightforward task of counting occurrences, instead of the relatively more complex task of establish sequences of occurrence.

    Delarbeten
    1. Managing Variation in Content and Structure of Expert Data in Modeling
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Managing Variation in Content and Structure of Expert Data in Modeling
    Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12682 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-10-25 Skapad: 2007-10-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-01-13
    2. Characterizing Differences between Modeling Tasks
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Characterizing Differences between Modeling Tasks
    Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12683 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-10-25 Skapad: 2007-10-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-01-13
    3. Participant Interaction and Roles in Modeling of Complex Tasks
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Participant Interaction and Roles in Modeling of Complex Tasks
    Manuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12684 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-10-25 Skapad: 2007-10-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2010-01-13
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  • 952.
    Willyams, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Are mindless robots less threatening?: The role of transparency about robots’ lack of human-like psychological capabilities2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of social robots is often seen as a solution for handling future challenges such as caring for a growing population of elderly people. However, previous research has shown that robots can be perceived as threatening and for a successful implementation of robots in society we are dependent on the public’s acceptance of the technology. This thesis investigates whether transparency about robots’ lack of human-like psychological capabilities can reduce the perceived damage of robots on humans and human identity (henceforth “perceived damage”), and whether the effect of such transparency is moderated by the human-like appearance of the robot. Ninety-two study participants, randomly assigned to either a transparent or neutral condition, were presented with pictures and descriptions of four robots that varied in human-likeness. The capabilities of the robots were differently described in the two conditions, using either non-psychological (e.g., “programmed responses”) or psychological terminology (e.g., “respond in natural manner”). Participants subsequently filled in a scale measuring perceived damage. The results showed that the transparent condition was associated with lower perceived damage than the non-transparent condition for the most human-like robot. There was no significant interaction effect between transparency and human-like appearance. The findings suggest that transparency about robots' lack of human-like psychological capabilities can have a positive effect on perceived damage when the robot has a very human-like appearance. However, further research is needed to investigate whether transparency reduces perceived damage in real-world interactions with robots. 

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    Willyams2023
  • 953.
    Winkle, Katie
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    McMillan, Donald
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap, Sweden.
    Arnelid, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Genus. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Balaam, Madeline
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Harrison, Katherine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Genus. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Johnson, Ericka
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Genus. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Leite, Iolanda
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Feminist Human-Robot Interaction: Disentangling Power, Principles and Practice for Better, More Ethical HRI2023Ingår i: Proceedings of the 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction / [ed] Ginevra Castellano, Laurel Riek, Maya Cakmak, Iolanda Leite, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2023, s. 72-82Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) is inherently a human-centric field of technology. The role of feminist theories in related fields (e.g. Human-Computer Interaction, Data Science) are taken as a starting point to present a vision for Feminist HRI which can support better, more ethical HRI practice everyday, as well as a more activist research and design stance. We first define feminist design for an HRI audience and use a set of feminist principles from neighboring fields to examine existent HRI literature, showing the progress that has been made already alongside some additional potential ways forward. Following this we identify a set of reflexive questions to be posed throughout the HRI design, research and development pipeline, encouraging a sensitivity to power and to individuals' goals and values. Importantly, we do not look to present a definitive, fixed notion of Feminist HRI, but rather demonstrate the ways in which bringing feminist principles to our field can lead to better, more ethical HRI, and to discuss how we, the HRI community, might do this in practice.

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  • 954.
    Wirebrand, Joacim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Kommunikativt Designarbete: Kommunikation och Kunskapsöverföring vid Visualiseringsskapande2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns ett flertal studier som på påvisar hur kommunicerande mellan designers, både experter och noviser, och hur de förhåller sig till visualiseringar Arvola & Artman, 2006; Segelström., 2009 & Tholander, Karlgen, Ramberg, & Sökjer, 2008). Det finns även studier som jämför designutförande mellan expertdesigners och designnoviser Ahmed, Wallace, & Blessing, 2003; Ball, Ormerod, & Morley, 2004; Ho, 2001 & Kavalki & Gero, 2002), men någon uttalad standard för designers beteende och kommunicerande vid visualsieringsskapande finns inte och i nya studier observeras hela tiden nya fenomen. Det finns även få studier som undersöker hur individer helt ovana vid design förhåller sig till visualiseringar och hur de kommunicerar kunskap mellan varandra vid visualiseringsskapande.

    Denna studie utfördes som en fallstudie på Migrationsverket i Norrköping. Syftet med arbetet var dels att utforska hur individer som är ovana vid designarbete kommunicerar kunskap mellan varandra vid skapandet av visualiseringar inom tjänstedesign. Studien syftade även till att undersöka hur individer ovana vid designarbete förhåller sig till visualiseringarna de skapar vid kommunicerade med resterande gruppmedlemmar. För att studera detta hölls två workshops där fyra individer som aldrig hade hört talas om tjänstedesign, två individer ifrån medborgarskapsenheten och två individer ifrån kundtjänst, tillsammans fick skapa customer jouney maps och service system maps. Workshoptillfällena spelades in med videokamera och det inspelade materialet användes för att analysera konversation och interaktion mellan deltagarna och deras förhållningssätt till visualiseringarna.

    Resultaten ifrån studien visar att deltagarna använde sig av två huvudsakliga metoder för att kommunicera kunskap. Aningen genom yttranden eller genom frågor och svar. Deltagarnas yttranden var korta och nämndes vid tillfällen i diskussioner där deltagare ansåg att de hade kunskap som kunde bidra till utvecklingen av visualiseringarna. Vid kommunicerande av kunskap genom frågor och svar var det vanligast att deltagare ifrån den ena enheten frågar deltagare ifrån den andra enheten hur de förhåller sig till de sökande och hur deras arbetsuppgifter ser ut. Resultaten visar även att deltagarna använde sig av visualiseringarna för att referera till händelser i tjänsteförloppet eller för att uppmärksamma resterande deltagare om felaktigheter som hade uppstått i visualiseringen. Deltagarna arbetade iterativt i sitt visualiseringsskapande och alla designbeslut kring utvecklingen av visualiseringarna fattades gemensamt.

    I studiens slutsatser påpekas visualiseringars kommunikativa förmågor inom designgrupper och hur deltagarna använder sig av visualiseringarna för att effektivt kommunicerande med varandra. Ytterligare påvisas effekten visualiseringar kan ha på strukturen för kommunicerande och informationsutbyte och att deltagarnas strävan efter att fatta gemensamma beslut ledde till att de utbildade varandra kring de ämnen och processer som visualiserades.

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  • 955.
    Wirebrand, Joacim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Trygghet och kommunikation inom äldrevården: En intervjustudie av tre rollers behov2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie har trygghet och kommunikation inom äldrevården undersökts. Studien utfördes med syftet att undersöka hur kommunikation och informationsdelning mellan äldre vårdboende, deras anhöriga och deras vårdpersonal ser ut idag. Studien syftade även till att undersöka vilka faktorer som påverkar de äldre vårdboendes och deras anhörigas trygghetskänsla. Förhoppningen var att bredda kunskapen kring fenomenen trygghet och kommunikation inom äldrevården och att resultaten ska kunna främja utvecklingen av kommunikations- och anhörigportaler.

    Datainsamlingen utgjordes av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Intervjudeltagarna bestod av tre olika målgrupper som tillsammans formade vad som valdes att kallas för en omsorgscirkel. Intervjudeltagarna formade tillsammans fyra omsorgscirklar varav tre innefattade en äldre vårdboende, en eller två anhöriga till den vårdboende och en vårdpersonal som regelbundet var i kontakt med den vårdboende. Den fjärde omsorgscirkeln saknade vårdpersonal och bestod därmed utav en äldre vårdboende och en anhörig till den vårdboende. Under intervjuerna fick deltagarna frågor rörande trygghet och vilka faktorer de uppfattade som viktiga för att känna sig trygga, men även frågor kring kommunikation och hur dagens kommunikation ser ut, samt hur deltagarnas inställning till ytterligare kommunikationshjälpmedel såg ut.

    Resultatet visar att tillsynen är den viktigaste faktorn för att deltagarna skall känna sig trygga. För de äldre vårdboende var tillsynen direkt viktig för deras upplevda trygghetskänsla och för de anhöriga var det viktigt att veta att de vårdboende fick god tillsyn vilket bidrog till ökad trygghet för de anhöriga. God omvårdnad, vänligt bemötande ifrån personalen, att de äldre vårdboende blir serverade mat och att vårdpersonalen hjälper till att sköta hygienen var andra faktorer som upplevdes som viktiga för trygghetskänslan hos deltagarna.

    Majoriteten av deltagarna upplevde kommunikationen i omsorgscirklarna som god. Mycket av detta berodde på att flera av de anhöriga bodde nära vårdboendet och besökte därmed vårdboende och kom i kontakt med de vårdboende och vårdpersonalen några gånger i veckan.  Mycket telefonkontakt bidrog också till en god kommunikation. Alla deltagare var därför inte intresserade av nya kommunikationshjälpmedel, då de upplevde kommunikationen i dagsläget som väl fungerande. Ett problem för de ointresserade deltagarna var även rädslan för att mer teknik skulle bli för komplex att hantera. Att kommunikationen upplevdes som bra hos deltagarna innebär dock inte att kommunikationen inom äldrevården generellt är stabil. Resultat ifrån studien visar att hur kommunikation och informationsdelning sköts mellan vårdpersonal och anhöriga är väldigt individuellt. Anhöriga som har sämre kontakt med vårdboenden blir därmed möjligen lidande och ett mer systematiskt och generellt sätt att sköta kommunikation och informationsdelningen på skulle kunna vara positivt. Fem deltagare var dock positivt inställda till nya kommunikationsstöd och såg fördelar med en eventuell kommunikations- eller anhörigportal. Tre av dessa trodde att en kommunikations- eller anhörigportal skulle kunna bidra till en ökad trygghet hos dess användare. Kommunikationen mellan vårdboende och vårdpersonal upplevdes också som god hos deltagarna i studien. Detta berodde dels på den goda stämningen och det vänliga bemötandet som de vårdboende tycktes uppleva ifrån vårdpersonalen, men även på grund av smidigheten i att kontakta vårdpersonalen via trygghetslarmet. Användandet av trygghetslarmet som kommunikationshjälpmedel kan dock sätta andra vårdboende i risk för att inte få den akuta hjälp de kan tänkas behöva vid en eventuell krissituation. 

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    Trygghet och kommunikation inom äldrevården
  • 956.
    Witschard, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, ISOVIS Research Group, Sweden.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Linnaeus University, Department of Computer Science and Media Technology, ISOVIS Research Group, Sweden.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    SimBaTex: Similarity-based Text Exploration2021Ingår i: Posters of the 23rd EG/VGTC Conference on Visualization (EuroVis '21) / [ed] Jan Byška, Stefan Jänicke, and Johanna Schmidt, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2021, s. 5-7Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural language processing in combination with visualization can provide efficient ways to discover latent patterns of similarity which can be useful for exploring large sets of text documents. In this poster abstract, we describe the ongoing work on a visual analytics application, called SimBaTex, which is based on embedding technology, dynamic specification of similarity criteria, and a novel approach for similarity-based clustering. The goal of SimBaTex is to provide search-and-explore functionality to enable the user to identify items of interest in a large set of text documents by interactive assessment of both high-level similarity patterns and pairwise similarity of chosen texts.

  • 957.
    Witschard, Daniel
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Jusufi, Ilir
    Blekinge Inst Technol, Sweden.
    Kucher, Kostiantyn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Visually Guided Network Reconstruction Using Multiple Embeddings2023Ingår i: Proceedings of the 16th IEEE Pacific Visualization Symposium (PacificVis '23), visualization notes track, IEEE, 2023, IEEE , 2023, s. 212-216Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Embeddings are powerful tools for transforming complex and unstructured data into numeric formats suitable for computational analysis tasks. In this paper, we extend our previous work on using multiple embeddings for text similarity calculations to the field of networks. The embedding ensemble approach improves network reconstruction performance compared to single-embedding strategies. Our visual analytics methodology is successful in handling both text and network data, which demonstrates its generalizability beyond its originally presented scope.

  • 958.
    Wockatz, Philip
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    "WOW. FOR VOLVO": cognition and affect combining forces to measure the immeasurable2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    How can an experience have such an impact that it can be described with the words “wow effect”? Though not a scientific term, it is often used vividly in the business world as an aspirational goal. The purpose of this thesis was to explore the structure behind positive experiences that lead to a so-called “wow effect” by combining cognitive theories and consumption-based emotion theories to create a method for assessing satisfaction in postpurchase experience.

    In collaboration with the Volvo Car Corporation, this thesis aimed to identify the relevant antecedents for such a possible experience and create a method for measuring it. The automobiles product category has shown high levels of variation in affect (Oliver, 1993) and as such, it has become increasingly important for automobile companies to be able to identify relevant antecedents of positive affect.

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  • 959. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Woltjer, Rogier
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, CSELAB - Cognitive Systems Engineering Laboratory. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system.
    Functional Modeling of Constraint Management in Aviation Safety and Command and Control2009Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has shown that the concept of constraint management is instrumental in understanding the domains of command and control and aviation safety. Particularly, functional modeling as a means to address constraint management provides a basis for analyzing the performance of socio-technical systems. In addition to the theoretical underpinnings, six studies are presented.

              First, a functional analysis of an exercise conducted by a team of electricity network emergency managers is used to show that a team function taxonomy can be used to analyze the mapping between team tasks and information and communication technology to assess training needs for performance improvement. Second, an analysis of a fire-fighting emergency management simulation is used to show that functional modeling and visualization of constraints can describe behavior vis-à-vis constraints and inform decision support design. Third, analysis of a simulated adversarial command and control task reveals that functional modeling may be used to describe and facilitate constraint management (constraining the adversary and avoiding being constrained by the adversary).

              Studies four and five address the domain of civil aviation safety. The analysis of functional resonance is applied to an incident in study four and an accident in study five, based on investigation reports. These studies extend the functional resonance analysis method and accident model. The sixth study documents the utility of this functional modeling approach for risk assessment by evaluating proposed automation for air traffic control, based on observations, interviews, and experimental data.

              In sum, this thesis adds conceptual tools and modeling methods to the cognitive systems engineering discipline that can be used to tackle problems of training environment design, decision support, incident and accident analysis, and risk assessment.

    Delarbeten
    1. A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A case study of information and communication technology in emergency management training
    2006 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1471-4825, E-ISSN 1741-5071, Vol. 3, nr 4, s. 332-347Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the roles of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in training for effective emergency management and inter-organisational coordination. Collocation can encourage the development of common ground and trust and, in turn, result in greater efficiency and effectiveness. We expect to find communication and artefact use during collocated training that cannot readily transfer to the ICT used to link distributed work settings. This expectation makes the reliance on ICT and distributed work during emergency management operations suspect. To test these claims, we observed a large-scale, real-time exercise designed to facilitate cooperation among electricity and telecommunications companies. The exercise scenario was similar to the January 2005 windstorm that left much of southern Sweden without electricity or telephone service and revealed the need for better cooperation among utility providers. The observations suggest that while collocation is clearly beneficial, a mismatch in ICT use between collocated training and distributed emergency management operations is likely to be detrimental for preparedness.

    Nyckelord
    emergency management; training; artefact use; collocated work; distributed work; real-time exercise; inter-organisational coordination; cooperation; information technology; communications; ICT; Sweden; electricity companies; telecommunications companies
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12838 (URN)10.1504/IJEM.2006.011300 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2007-12-19 Skapad: 2007-12-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-10-12
    2. Representation of spatio-temporal resource constraints in network-based command and control
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Representation of spatio-temporal resource constraints in network-based command and control
    2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Naturalistic decision making and macrocognition: Ed.: Schraagen, J.M.C., Militello, L., Ormerod, T., & Lipshitz, R., Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing Limited , 2008, s. 351-371Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate Publishing Limited, 2008
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17587 (URN)987-0-7546-7020 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-04-03 Skapad: 2009-04-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-05-19
    3. Functional modeling of agile command and control
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Functional modeling of agile command and control
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: 14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), Washington, DC, USA: DOD CCRP , 2009Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A critical element to successful command and control (C2) is developing and updating an accurate and lucid model of the interdependencies between functional units, e.g., multiple platoons of artillery and tanks. Two of the challenges to this understanding are (1) the adoption of a detailed description of interdependency and the associated understanding of interdependent functions (Brehmer, 2007) and (2) the application of that description to both own and opponent forces’ opportunities and vulnerabilities to provide for agility (Alberts, 2007). This paper documents a straightforward approach to modeling functional interdependency that addresses these challenges. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM; Hollnagel, 2004) is shown to describe the C2 functions of the DOODA loop (Brehmer, 2007) and the tactical and operational functions of military activity. FRAM models are applied to own and opponent forces in a computer-based dynamic war-game (DKE) to reveal and characterize both agile and unsuccessful C2 practice.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Washington, DC, USA: DOD CCRP, 2009
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan data- och informationsvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17588 (URN)
    Konferens
    14th International Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium, Washington D.C,USA June 15-17, 2009
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-04-03 Skapad: 2009-04-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-13Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Comparing a multi-linear (STEP) and systemic (FRAM) method for accident analysis
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Comparing a multi-linear (STEP) and systemic (FRAM) method for accident analysis
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis: Theory, Methods and Applications. / [ed] Martorell, S., Guedes Soares, C., & Barnett, J., London, UK: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009, s. 19-26Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Accident models and analysis methods affect what accident investigators look for, which contributing factors are found, and which recommendations are issued. This paper contrasts the Sequentially Timed Events Plotting (STEP) method and the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) for accident analysis and modelling. The main issues addressed in this paper are comparing the established multi-linear method (STEP) with the systemic method (FRAM) and evaluating which new insights the latter systemic method provides for accident analysis in comparison to the former established multi-linear method. Since STEP and FRAM are based on a different understandings of the nature of accidents, the comparison of the methods focuses on what we can learn from both methods, how, when, and why to apply them. The main finding is that STEP helps to illustrate what happened, whereas FRAM illustrates the dynamic interactions within socio-technical systems and lets the analyst understand the how and why by describing non-linear dependencies, performance conditions, variability, and their resonance across functions.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    London, UK: Taylor & Francis Group, 2009
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17595 (URN)10.1016/j.ress.2010.06.003 (DOI)000266027000003 ()978-0-415-48513-5 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    European Safety and Reliability Association Annual Conference (ESREL), September 2008, Valencia, Spain.
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-04-05 Skapad: 2009-04-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-06-04
    5. An analysis of functional resonance of the Alaska Airlines flight 261 accident
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>An analysis of functional resonance of the Alaska Airlines flight 261 accident
    2009 (Engelska)Ingår i: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17636 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-04-06 Skapad: 2009-04-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-13
    6. Functional modeling for risk assessment of automation in a changing air traffic management environment
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Functional modeling for risk assessment of automation in a changing air traffic management environment
    2008 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference Working on Safety, Crete, Greece, 2008Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-17638 (URN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2009-04-06 Skapad: 2009-04-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2009-05-19
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  • 960.
    Wrede, Åsa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap.
    Att hantera vad och var samtidigt: Är det befogat att fraktionera den epiepisodiska bufferten från den centrala exekutiven i arbetsminnet?2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien har två experiment utförts med tyngdpunkt på arbetsminnets komponenter. Experimenten utgår från Baddeleys teori om arbetsminnet som är uppdelat på exekutiva funktioner för kontroll av olika undersystem, en fonologisk loop för auditiv information, ett visuospatialt skissblock för visuell information och en episodisk buffert för integrering av olika typer av information. För att testa dessa komponenter mot varandra utformades ett bildbaserat test för den episodiska bufferten. I experiment 2 ingick även två väletablerade test för kontroll av chunking och Stroop-effekten. Syftet var att kontrollera om det finns något samband mellan den episodiska bufferten och de andra komponenterna i Baddeleys min-nesmodell. I experimenten deltog 25 studenter som frivilliga försökspersoner. Resultaten visar att det finns en korrelation mellan Stroop-testet och testet för den episodiska bufferten vilket tyder på att de exekutiva funktionerna spelar en stor roll i arbetsminnets episodiska buffert.

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  • 961.
    Wängelin, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Ett nytt Friendlyreader: implementationen av ett gränssnitt med fokus på språkteknologiska funktioner2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete var att implementera ett fungerande verktyg för att underlätta läsning av text med fokus riktat mot språkteknologiska funktioner. Det digitala verktyget Friendlyreader är framtaget för att underlätta läsning av text för individer med lässvårigheter, som exempelvis kan bero på dyslexi eller en funktionsnedsättning. Detta arbete har genom en förstudie kartlagt vilken funktionalitet som efterfrågas och finns tillgänglig hos liknande verktyg som ämnar att underlätta läsning. Detta har legat till grund för implementationen av ett funktionellt gränssnitt som bygger på språkteknologiska funktioner som tillhandahålls från en fjärrservern genom SAPIS REST API. Under implementationen togs beslutet att göra funktionaliteten samverkande för att skapa ett mer flexibelt verktyg. Detta innebär att text som exempelvis blivit förenklad även kan bli sammanfattad, funktionaliteten utgår således från textens aktuella utformning och inte dess original. Implementationen genomgick tester där all funktionalitet med fokus på språkteknologi fick ett godkänt resultat.

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  • 962.
    Wästling, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Stepwise Teleportation as an Alternative to Continuous Motion in Virtual Reality2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    In the locomotion design space, artificial locomotion is most commonly used when navigating virtual spaces larger than the physical space provided. Some significant challenges to the use of artificial locomotion are however cybersickness and disorientation. Cybersickness is a phenomenon that creates discomfort for the user and is believed to be inflicted by continuous movement and its creation of vection. Contrarily, discrete locomotion interfaces like teleportation do not cause vection or cybersickness for the user. However, because of this, teleportation is unable to offer spatial updating, which is crucial for preventing disorientation. This thesis investigates an alternative to these interfaces that aims to combine their benefits while avoiding their drawbacks in an interface referred to as Stepwise teleportation that consist of short discrete translations, referred to as steps, in the direction chosen by the user.

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  • 963.
    Xu, Shan
    et al.
    Univ Virginia, VA 22903 USA.
    Xu, Chang
    Univ Virginia, VA 22903 USA.
    Mcintyre, Sarah
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Neurofysiologiska kliniken US.
    Gerling, Gregory J.
    Univ Virginia, VA 22903 USA.
    Subtle Contact Nuances in the Delivery of Human-to-Human Touch Distinguish Emotional Sentiment2022Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Haptics, ISSN 1939-1412, E-ISSN 2329-4051, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 97-102Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We routinely communicate distinct social and emotional sentiments through nuanced touch. For example, we might gently hold anothers arm to offer a sense of calm, yet intensively hold anothers arm to express excitement or anxiety. As this example indicates, distinct sentiments may be shaped by the subtlety in ones touch delivery. This work investigates how slight distinctions in skin-to-skin contact influence both the recognition of cued emotional messages (e.g., anger, sympathy) and the rating of emotional content (i.e., arousal, valence). By self-selecting preferred gestures (e.g., holding, stroking), touchers convey distinct messages by touching the receivers forearm. Skin-to-skin contact attributes (e.g., velocity, depth, area) are optically tracked in high resolution. Contact is then examined within gesture, between messages. The results indicate touchers subtly, but significantly, vary contact attributes of a gesture to communicate distinct messages, which are recognizable by receivers. This tuning also correlates with receivers arousal and valence. For instance, arousal increases with velocity for stroking, and depth for holding. Moreover, as shown here with human-to-human touch, valence is tied with velocity, which is the same trend as reported with brushes. The findings indicate that subtle nuance in skin-to-skin contact is important in conveying social messages and inducing emotions.

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  • 964.
    Xu, Wenqian
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Aavikko, Lotta
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Karnae, Eija
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Chen, Honglin
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland; Fudan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Arief, Muzawir
    Univ Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Motel-Klingebiel, Andreas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och samhälle, Avdelningen för åldrande och social förändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    An, Ning
    Hefei Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Navigating the COVID-19 pandemic: Learning experiences of an online Sino-Nordic doctoral summer school on aging2023Ingår i: Educational gerontology, ISSN 0360-1277, E-ISSN 1521-0472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the digital transformation of Higher Education, necessitating a rapid shift from in-person to remote teaching and learning. This study investigates the experiences of doctoral students in an online Sino-Nordic summer school on aging, implemented during the pandemic. A survey was conducted to collect and analyze data on participants experiences and perspectives. Findings reveal three thematic areas: doctoral students learning needs and preferences, contextual factors affecting their learning experiences, and their adaptations to online summer school. Student participants gained diverse insights and expanded their networks, but also faced challenges such as limited social interaction and scheduling conflicts. While some students embraced the online format, most preferred in-person participation as a supplementary or alternative approach in future summer schools. Recommendations for future improvements are creating an empowering learning environment, improving strategic planning and communication among organizing institutions, involving students and stakeholders in training design and implementation, maximizing the use of online features and tools, and optimizing time management.

  • 965.
    Yan, Lin
    et al.
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
    Masood, Talha Bin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Rasheed, Farhan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hotz, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Bei
    University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
    Geometry Aware Merge Tree Comparisons for Time-Varying Data with Interleaving Distances2023Ingår i: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics, ISSN 1077-2626, E-ISSN 1941-0506, Vol. 29, nr 8, s. 3489-3506Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Merge trees, a type of topological descriptor, serve to identify and summarize the topological characteristics associated with scalar fields. They present a great potential for the analysis and visualization of time-varying data. First, they give compressed and topology-preserving representations of data instances. Second, their comparisons provide a basis for studying the relations among data instances, such as their distributions, clusters, outliers, and periodicities. A number of comparative measures have been developed for merge trees. However, these measures are often computationally expensive since they implicitly consider all possible correspondences between critical points of the merge trees. In this paper, we perform geometry-aware comparisons of merge trees. The main idea is to decouple the computation of a comparative measure into two steps: a labeling step that generates a correspondence between the critical points of two merge trees, and a comparison step that computes distances between a pair of labeled merge trees by encoding them as matrices. We show that our approach is general, computationally efficient, and practically useful. Our general framework makes it possible to integrate geometric information of the data domain in the labeling process. At the same time, it reduces the computational complexity since not all possible correspondences have to be considered. We demonstrate via experiments that such geometry-aware merge tree comparisons help to detect transitions, clusters, and periodicities of a time-varying dataset, as well as to diagnose and highlight the topological changes between adjacent data instances.

  • 966.
    Yan, Lin
    et al.
    Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, USA.
    Masood, Talha Bin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sridharamurthy, Raghavendra
    Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India.
    Rasheed, Farhan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Natarajan, Vijay
    Department of Computer Science and Automation, Indian Institute of Science Bangalore, India.
    Hotz, Ingrid
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Wang, Bei
    Scientific Computing and Imaging Institute, University of Utah, USA.
    Scalar Field Comparison with Topological Descriptors: Properties and Applications for Scientific Visualization2021Ingår i: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 40, nr 3, s. 599-633Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In topological data analysis and visualization, topological descriptors such as persistence diagrams, merge trees, contour trees, Reeb graphs, and Morse–Smale complexes play an essential role in capturing the shape of scalar field data. We present a state-of-the-art report on scalar field comparison using topological descriptors. We provide a taxonomy of existing approaches based on visualization tasks associated with three categories of data: single fields, time-varying fields, and ensembles. These tasks include symmetry detection, periodicity detection, key event/feature detection, feature tracking, clustering, and structure statistics. Our main contributions include the formulation of a set of desirable mathematical and computational properties of comparative measures, and the classification of visualization tasks and applications that are enabled by these measures.

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  • 967.
    Yang, Mowei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    User experience design to support users in making sustainable decisions in the context of industrial robot operating software2023Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis demonstrates a Research through Design process for creating user experience design to support users in making sustainable decisions. The research and design were carried out in the context of industrial robot operating software, using ABB's RobotStudio as the design basis.

    After specifying the scope of sustainability in this paper to energy consumption, the main research question is: How might UX design facilitate users to use industrial robots in a sustainable way to reduce energy consumption? The design not only considers the user's experience, but also considers the business profit needs. Therefore, this thesis also conducts research from the perspective of economic sustainability. Theories such as the Kano model, user pleasure, and loss aversion are used.

    The design result is a redesigned UI prototype based on the future vision of RobotStudio. Eco-feedback and optimization proposals are used to present energy efficiency in terms of business profit, so that users can intuitively see the results of their actions on the interface. Limitations and future research considerations are further explored.

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    User Experience design to support users in making sustainable decisions in the context of industrial robot operating software
  • 968.
    Yasar, Ansar-Ul-Haque
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Jameel, Adeel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    A Computational Analysis of Driving Variations in a Distributed Simulated Driving Environment2007Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    This Master thesis report is the research conducted at the Linköping University (LiU) in the Cognitive Engineering group. This report describes and discusses the possible driving variations at T-intersections. In this study we tested how voice based command (GPS) system and traffic lights did influence the driving behavior. This computational study was conducted on a multi user driving simulation environment at Linköping University. A total of 12 groups each consisting of 4 persons participated in this study. The participants also completed a survey on paper with their valuable comments. To study the driving behavior we analyzed the conflict indicators at the Tintersection. We selected Post Encroachment Time (PET), speed and acceleration as good conflict indicators.

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  • 969.
    Ylirisku, Salu
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    The varieties of good design2018Ingår i: Advancements in the philosophy of design / [ed] Pieter E. Vermaas and Stéphane Vial, Cham: Springer, 2018, s. 51-70Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter explores the philosopher and logician Georg Henrik von Wright’s metaethical treatise of the varieties of goodness in the context of design. von Wright investigated the use of the notion of ‘good’ in language, and he identified six kinds of goodness: namely utilitarian goodness, instrumental goodness, technical goodness, medical goodness, hedonic goodness, and the good of man. We discuss these different kinds of goodness in relation to six design traditions that we identify, namely conceptual design, usability design, engineering design, ergonomics design, experience design and sustainability design. We argue that the design traditions are grounded in different appreciations of goodness, and that designers and design researchers can benefit from a more precise discernment of values that underpin design processes and design critique in different traditions. von Wright’s treatise serves as a point of departure for the appraisal of the multifaceted and relational character of the idea of good design and of the values of design. 

  • 970.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Löwgren, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Exploranation: A New Science Communication Paradigm2018Ingår i: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, ISSN 0272-1716, E-ISSN 1558-1756, Vol. 38, nr 3, s. 13-20Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Science communication is facing a paradigm shift, based on the convergence of exploratory and explanatory visualization. In this article, we coin the term exploranation to denote the way in which visualization methods from scientific exploration can be used to communicate results and how methods in explanatory visualization can enrich exploration.

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  • 971.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Rydell, Thomas
    Persson, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Röntgenkliniken i Linköping.
    Ernvik, Aron
    Forsell, Camilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ljung, Patric
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundström, Claes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Multi-Touch Table System for Medical Visualization2015Ingår i: Eurographics 2015: Dirk Bartz Prize, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Medical imaging plays a central role in a vast range of healthcare practices. While the usefulness of 3D visualizations is well known, the adoption of such technology has previously been limited in many medical areas. This paper, awarded the Dirk Bartz Prize for Visual Computing in Medicine 2015, describes the development of a medical multi-touch visualization table that successfully has reached its aim to bring 3D visualization to a wider clinical audience. The descriptions summarize the targeted clinical scenarios, the key characteristics of the system, and the user feedback obtained.

  • 972.
    Zetterman, Ellinor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Requirements of a dairy farm owneron a organizational software tool: Using interaction design to design and evaluate aprototype of an organizational tool for dairy farmers2023Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was conducted in collaboration with Agricam, a Swedish agritech company thatdevelops digital solutions to monitor animal health on dairy farms. The purpose of the study is toexamine the requirements dairy farmers have for a new digital planning tool Agricam isdeveloping, and to develop a design proposal that accommodates these requirements. Additionally,the study also aims to examine whether or not both the requirements of Agricam and those of theircustomers can be met simultaneously. The following research questions are posed: “What needsand requirements do dairy farmers have for a desktop-oriented organizational software tool?”,“How can interaction design be used to design a product that meets these needs andrequirements?”, and “Can interaction design be used to accommodate these needs andrequirements while still complying with stakeholder demands?” Through a case study of a singleSwedish dairy farm, requirements were identified and incorporated into a digital prototype usinginteraction design, mental models, and gestalt principles. The prototype was evaluated through afeedback interview with the dairy farm owner, as well as through a heuristic analysis. Theevaluation showed that the prototype sufficiently fulfilled the requirements of the dairy farm ownerwhile maintaining the requirements placed upon the planning tool from the stakeholder Agricam.

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  • 973.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Arvola, MattiasLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.Dahlbäck, NilsLinköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.Billing, ErikInstitutionen för informationsteknologi, Högskolan i Skövde.
    Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference: Linköping 2018, 11-12 October2018Proceedings (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Welcome to SweCog 2018 in Linköping!

    This booklet contains the program and short papers for oral and poster presentations at SweCog 2018, this year’s edition of the annual conference of the Swedish Cognitive Science Society. Following the SweCog tradition and its aim to support networking among researchers in cognitive science and related areas, contributions cover a wide spectrum of research.

    A trend in recent years, also reflected in this year’s conference program, is an increasing number of contributions that deal with different types of autonomous technologies, such as social robots, virtual agents or automated vehicles, and in particular people’s interaction with such systems. This clearly is a growing research area of high societal relevance, where cognitive science - with its interdisciplinary and human-centered approach - can make significant contributions.

    We look forward to two exciting days in Linköping, and we thank the many people who have contributed to the organization of this year’s SweCog conference, in particular of course all authors and reviewers! The organization of SweCog 2018 has been supported by the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Department of Culture Communication (IKK), and the Department of Computer Information Science (IDA) at Linköpping University, as well as Cambio Healthcare Systems and Visual Sweden.

    Tom Ziemke, Mattias Arvola, Nils Dahlbäc and Erik Billing

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    Proceedings of the 14th SweCog Conference : Linköping 2018, 11-12 October
  • 974.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Schaefer, Kristin E.
    US Army, MD USA.
    Endsley, Mica
    SA Technologies, CA USA.
    Situation awareness in human-machine interactive systems2017Ingår i: Cognitive Systems Research, ISSN 2214-4366, E-ISSN 1389-0417, Vol. 46Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This special issue brings together six papers on situation awareness in human-machine interactive systems, in particular in teams of collaborating humans and artificial agents. The editorial provides a brief introduction and overviews the contributions, addressing issues such as team and shared situation awareness, trust, transparency, timing, engagement, and ethical aspects. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 975. Beställ onlineKöp publikationen >>
    Zohrevandi, Elmira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Real-Time Visual Analytics Interfaces to Strengthen Human-Automation Collaboration2022Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Automation hjälper mänskliga operatörer att utföra uppgifter parallellt, på begränsad tid. Med mer avancerad automation och autonoma system förändras människans roll, och går över från mer direkt kontroll till övervakning- och intervention. I komplexa miljöer som flygledning, blir övervakningsuppgifter svåra att hantera under oväntade situationer eftersom operatören behöver ha en klar förståelse för olika strategier, deras konsekvenser, och fatta beslut om dem under en begränsad tid (inom ett par minuter). I sådana miljöer måste en visualiseringsdesigner noga överväga hur information ska presenteras för operatörerna. Ett felaktigt sätt att presentera information belastar operatörernas kognitiva resurser, vilket leder till ineffektivt beslutsfattande och en ökad risk för misslyckanden.  

    Genom att utforma ekologiska visuella analytiska gränssnitt tar denna avhandling upp problemet med beslutsfattande i realtid, i oplanerade situationer, inom området för flygledning. Syftet med denna avhandling har varit att tillämpa ekologiska designteorier på design och utvärdering av visuella representationer. Målet var att bättre stödja operatörers analytiska förmåga och beslutsfattande. Fyra nya visuella analysgränssnitt utformades, utvecklades och testades. För att förstå hur de visuella representationerna påverkade operatörernas beslutsprocesser genomfördes utvärderingsstudier med såväl flygledare som nybörjare utan domänerfarenhet för två av gränssnitten och resultaten analyserades.  

    Avhandlingen ger fyra bidrag till området flygledning och till området visualiseringsdesign. För det första bidrar den med kunskap om vilken information som ska visualiseras och hur man uppnår funktionella mål för att upptäcka och lösa konflikter i flygledning. För det andra, utvecklat genom en serie designstudier, föreslås ett interaktivt visuellt analytiskt gränssnitt. Det visualiserar information om det tillgängliga lösningsutrymmet för att lösa konfliktsituationer mellan luftburen trafik, samt visar trafikens komplexitet. Gränssnittet utformades för att stödja beslutsprocesser för att lösa konflikter och för att minska komplexitet i trafik. För det tredje bidrar den metod som utvecklats för att utvärdera gränssnittsdesignerna, med kunskap om hur gränssnitt skräddarsydda för säkerhetskritiska system kan testas. För det fjärde bidrar avhandlingen med resultat angående integrationen av ekologisk gränssnittsdesign med utveckling av visuella representationer. Den visar hur gränssnitten kan påverka nybörjare och operatörers (experters) beslutsfattande angående domänspecifika funktionella mål, samtidigt som gränssnitten tillåter dem att följa sina egna problemlösningsstrategier.   

    Delarbeten
    1. Design of a Real Time Visual Analytics Support Tool for Conflict Detection and Resolution in Air Traffic Control
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Design of a Real Time Visual Analytics Support Tool for Conflict Detection and Resolution in Air Traffic Control
    2020 (Engelska)Ingår i: EuroVis 2020 - Short Papers, Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2020Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Air traffic control is a safety critical high-risk environment where operators need to analyse and interpret traffic dynamics of spatio-temporal data in real-time. To support the air traffic controller in safely separating traffic, earlier research has applied real-time visualisation techniques that explore the constraints and solution spaces of separation problems. Traditionally, situation displays for conflict detection and resolution have used visualisations that convey information about the relative horizontal position between aircraft. Although vertical solutions for solving conflicts are common, and often a preferred among controllers, visualisations typically provide limited information about the vertical relationship between aircraft. This paper presents a design study of an interactive conflict detection and resolution support tool and explores techniques for real-time visualisation of spatio-temporal data. The design evolution has incorporated several activities, including an initial work domain analysis, iterative rounds of programming, design, and evaluations with a domain expert, and an evaluation with eight active controllers. The heading-time-altitude visualisation system is developed based on formulating and solving aircraft movements in a relative coordinate system. A polar-graph visualisation technique is used to construct a view of conflicting aircraft vertical solution spaces in the temporal domain. Using composite glyphs, the final heading-time-altitude visualisation provides a graphical representation of both horizontal and vertical solution spaces for the traffic situation.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Eurographics - European Association for Computer Graphics, 2020
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medieteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-179234 (URN)10.2312/evs.20201044 (DOI)
    Konferens
    EuroVis, Norrköping, Sweden, May 25-29, 2020
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Vetenskapsrådet
    Tillgänglig från: 2021-09-14 Skapad: 2021-09-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-09-14Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Design and Evaluation Study of Visual Analytics Decision Support Tools in Air Traffic Control
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Design and Evaluation Study of Visual Analytics Decision Support Tools in Air Traffic Control
    2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 230-242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Operators in air traffic control facing time- and safety-critical situations call for efficient, reliable and robust real-time processing and interpretation of complex data. Automation support tools aid controllers in these processes to prevent separation losses between aircraft. Issues of current support tools include limited what-if and what-else probe functionalities in relation to vertical solutions. This work presents the design and evaluation of two visual analytics interfaces that promote contextual awareness and support what-if and what-else probes in the spatio-temporal domain aiming to improve information integration and support controllers in prioritising conflict resolution. Both interfaces visualize vertical solution spaces against a time-altitude graph. The main contributions of this paper are: (a) the presentation of two interfaces for supporting conflict solving; (b) the novel representation of how vertical information and aircraft rate of climb and descent affect conflicts and (c) an evaluation and comparison of the interfaces with a traditional air traffic control support system. The evaluation study was performed with domain experts to compare the effects of visualization concepts on operator engagement in processing solutions suggested by the tools. Results show that the visualizations support operators ability to understand and resolve conflicts. Based on the results, general design guidelines for time-critical domains are proposed.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley, 2022
    Nyckelord
    Human-computer interfaces; interaction; information visualization; visual analytics; visualization
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-182019 (URN)10.1111/cgf.14431 (DOI)000729763500001 ()
    Tillgänglig från: 2022-01-03 Skapad: 2022-01-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-10-27
    3. Exploring Effects of Ecological Visual Analytics Interfaces on Experts' and Novices' Decision‐Making Processes: A Case Study in Air Traffic Control
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Exploring Effects of Ecological Visual Analytics Interfaces on Experts' and Novices' Decision‐Making Processes: A Case Study in Air Traffic Control
    2022 (Engelska)Ingår i: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 453-464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Operational demands in safety-critical systems impose a risk of failure to the operators especially during urgent situations. Operators of safety-critical systems learn to make decisions effectively throughout extensive training programs and many years of experience. In the domain of air traffic control, expensive training with high dropout rates calls for research to enhance novices' ability to detect and resolve conflicts in the airspace. While previous researchers have mostly focused on redesigning training instructions and programs, the current paper explores possible benefits of novel visual representations to improve novices' understanding of the situations as well as their decision-making process. We conduct an experimental evaluation study testing two ecological visual analytics interfaces, developed in a previous study, as support systems to facilitate novice decision-making. The main contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe the application of an ecological interface design approach to the development of two visual analytics interfaces. Second, we perform a human-in-the-loop experiment with forty-five novices within a simplified air traffic control simulation environment. Third, by performing an expert-novice comparison we investigate the extent to which effects of the proposed interfaces can be attributed to the subjects' expertise. The results show that the proposed ecological visual analytics interfaces improved novices' understanding of the information about conflicts as well as their problem-solving performance. Further, the results show that the beneficial effects of the proposed interfaces were more attributable to the visual representations than the users' expertise. 

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Chichester, United Kingdom: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2022
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Människa-datorinteraktion (interaktionsdesign)
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187151 (URN)10.1111/cgf.14554 (DOI)000842261500039 ()
    Konferens
    24th Eurographics/IEEE VGTC Conference on Visualization (EuroVis), Rome, ITALY, jun 12-17, 2022
    Anmärkning

    Funding: KAW Scholar Grant

    Tillgänglig från: 2022-08-08 Skapad: 2022-08-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-09-27Bibliografiskt granskad
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  • 976.
    Zohrevandi, Elmira
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Visualization of Complex Situations to Strengthen Human-Automation Collaboration2019Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 31ST EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON COGNITIVE ERGONOMICS: DESIGN FOR COGNITION (ECCE 2019), ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2019, s. 14-18Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation in todays world has helped human operators accomplish several tasks in limited time. Therefore, humans role in automated environments are shifting from operational tasks to supervisory tasks. In complex environments such as air traffic control, supervisory tasks become difficult to manage during unforeseen situations as the controller needs to have a clear understanding of different operational levels in the system and make decisions about them in a limited amount of time. For the operators working with highly complex information-rich automated systems, an improper way of presenting the information would waste operators cognitive resources resulting in inefficient decision making and increase in risk of failure. In this research proposal goals and plans are described for doing research on design and visualization of information specifically applied to high stake automated environments. The research project initially addresses the problem in the domain of air traffic control. The contribution of the project to the field so far has been design and development of an interactive tool, which visualizes the information about conflict solution space to facilitate decision making process. The research project is planned to be completed over the course of a four-year PhD studies.

  • 977.
    Zohrevandi, Elmira
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westin, Carl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ynnerman, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Design and Evaluation Study of Visual Analytics Decision Support Tools in Air Traffic Control2022Ingår i: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 230-242Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Operators in air traffic control facing time- and safety-critical situations call for efficient, reliable and robust real-time processing and interpretation of complex data. Automation support tools aid controllers in these processes to prevent separation losses between aircraft. Issues of current support tools include limited what-if and what-else probe functionalities in relation to vertical solutions. This work presents the design and evaluation of two visual analytics interfaces that promote contextual awareness and support what-if and what-else probes in the spatio-temporal domain aiming to improve information integration and support controllers in prioritising conflict resolution. Both interfaces visualize vertical solution spaces against a time-altitude graph. The main contributions of this paper are: (a) the presentation of two interfaces for supporting conflict solving; (b) the novel representation of how vertical information and aircraft rate of climb and descent affect conflicts and (c) an evaluation and comparison of the interfaces with a traditional air traffic control support system. The evaluation study was performed with domain experts to compare the effects of visualization concepts on operator engagement in processing solutions suggested by the tools. Results show that the visualizations support operators ability to understand and resolve conflicts. Based on the results, general design guidelines for time-critical domains are proposed.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 978.
    Zohrevandi, Elmira
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Westin, Carl
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vrotsou, Katerina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lundberg, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Medie- och Informationsteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Exploring Effects of Ecological Visual Analytics Interfaces on Experts' and Novices' Decision‐Making Processes: A Case Study in Air Traffic Control2022Ingår i: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 41, nr 3, s. 453-464Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Operational demands in safety-critical systems impose a risk of failure to the operators especially during urgent situations. Operators of safety-critical systems learn to make decisions effectively throughout extensive training programs and many years of experience. In the domain of air traffic control, expensive training with high dropout rates calls for research to enhance novices' ability to detect and resolve conflicts in the airspace. While previous researchers have mostly focused on redesigning training instructions and programs, the current paper explores possible benefits of novel visual representations to improve novices' understanding of the situations as well as their decision-making process. We conduct an experimental evaluation study testing two ecological visual analytics interfaces, developed in a previous study, as support systems to facilitate novice decision-making. The main contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe the application of an ecological interface design approach to the development of two visual analytics interfaces. Second, we perform a human-in-the-loop experiment with forty-five novices within a simplified air traffic control simulation environment. Third, by performing an expert-novice comparison we investigate the extent to which effects of the proposed interfaces can be attributed to the subjects' expertise. The results show that the proposed ecological visual analytics interfaces improved novices' understanding of the information about conflicts as well as their problem-solving performance. Further, the results show that the beneficial effects of the proposed interfaces were more attributable to the visual representations than the users' expertise. 

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
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  • 979. Zulkafli, Zed
    et al.
    Perez, Katya
    Vitolo, Claudia
    Buytaert, Wouter
    Karpouzoglou, Timothy
    Public Administration and Policy Group, Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Dewulf, Art
    De Bièvre, Bert
    Clark, Julian
    Hannah, David M.
    Shaheed, Simrita
    User-driven design of decision support systems for polycentric environmental resources management2017Ingår i: Environmental Modelling & Software, ISSN 1364-8152, E-ISSN 1873-6726, Vol. 88, s. 58-73Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Open and decentralized technologies such as the Internet provide increasing opportunities to create knowledge and deliver computer-based decision support for multiple types of users across scales. However, environmental decision support systems/tools (henceforth EDSS) are often strongly science-driven and assuming single types of decision makers, and hence poorly suited for more decentralized and polycentric decision making contexts. In such contexts, EDSS need to be tailored to meet diverse user requirements to ensure that it provides useful (relevant), usable (intuitive), and exchangeable (institutionally unobstructed) information for decision support for different types of actors. To address these issues, we present a participatory framework for designing EDSS that emphasizes a more complete understanding of the decision making structures and iterative design of the user interface. We illustrate the application of the framework through a case study within the context of water-stressed upstream/downstream communities in Lima, Peru.

  • 980.
    Ågren, Isabella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system.
    Barns upplevda självförmåga och intresse för olika yrkesgrupper: en jämförelse mellan flickor och pojkar samt en utredning av en RIASEC-baserad utställnings påverkan2020Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Our interests and self-efficacy affects which paths we end up on in life, not the least career wise. Earlier studies have shown a difference of interest and self-efficay beliefs between women and men. The exhibition ”Jobblabb” aims to delimit these differences and help children to openly think about their interest and future occupations. The aim of this study is to investigate: firstly, if there is adifference between girls and boys in the sample of 11-year olds. Secondly, if the exhibition affects the way the students perceive their interests and self-efficacy within different activities. The method used for this analysis is a survey (called ICA-3) which is based on Hollands RIASEC types. The result showed no significant difference between the groups that had and had not visited the exhibition. However, there was a significant difference based on gender in the sample. Boys rated their interest and self-efficacy higher in realistic-activities than girls and girls rated their interest and self-efficacy higher in artistic-activities than boys, these results are in line with previous research. Lastly the study contributes suggestions for efficient career-counselling activities.

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  • 981.
    Ågren, Isabella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    The major organisation leap from ancient to futuristic: An explorative case study investigating a company in the shift towards smart ferries2022Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industries stand in front of a significant shift as we have entered the 4th industrial revolution,and society is becoming digitalised to a higher degree. Autonomous and smart ships may be emergingin the coming future within the maritime industry. Previous research has tried understanding thecompetencies needed to work with the autonomous ship. This case study aims to understand a shoreand ship organisation as their company stands on the verge of smart ships arriving. To understandthis, the a) present work has been explored, b) potential changes to the work tasks because of theautomation and c) how the organisation and crew members can meet the changes have been explored.The methods used are interviews, observations, thematic analysis, and hierarchical task analysis. Thestudy’s major findings were the importance of clear communication and a good relationship betweenthe ship and shore organisation.

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  • 982.
    Ågren, Isabella
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Exploring Humanlikeness and the Uncanny Valley with Furhat2022Ingår i: ACM International Conference on Intelligent Virtual Agents, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2022, artikel-id 29Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we explore gender, perceived humanlikeness, animacy, intelligence and likeability of a female and male Furhat robot, and test for uncanny valley effects. We found no gender differences for neither user nor Furhats in perceived humanlikness or likeability, but female users rated the Furhats higher on animacy and intelligence. The study showed a tendency to an uncanny valley effect, but somewhat surprisingly the Furhat robots were overall not perceived as humanlike.

  • 983.
    Åhlin, Maja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    En undersökning av hur personor kan skapa en gemensam grund och bli en kommunikationsartefakt i utvecklingsprojekt: Utvecklingsprocessen hos ett industriföretag som använder XLPM som grund för sitt utvecklingsarbete2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektkommunikation, det vill säga hur personerna inom projektgrupper kommunicerar med varandra, kan vara svårt och ineffektivt inom utvecklingsprojekt. Brister finns ofta vad det gäller den gemensamma grunden för kommunikationen samt kunskapen mellan medlemmarna i stora projektgrupper. Detta examensarbete undersöker explorativt hur personor kan användas, inom en version av XLPM, för att förbättra och effektivisera kommunikationen mellan personerna inom tekniska utvecklingsprojekt. Teorierna bakom forskningsfältet fokuserar på personor, gemensam grund, gränsföremål, medvetenhet uppmärksamhet och XLPM. I studien utfördes nio informella/intressent intervjuer med nio utvecklare, två semistrukturerade med en projektledare och 29 intervjuer med 29 användare av uppdragsgivarens produkter samt analys av en befintlig utvecklingsmetod hos uppdragsgivaren. Resultatet för denna undersökning är en utökad projektmodell som integrerar persona-metodiken i en version av XLPM. Modellen förväntas förbättra kommunikationen och besluten inom utvecklingsprojekten. Undersökningens resultat indikerar att det går att integrera persona-metodiken i en version av XLPM. 

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  • 984.
    Åkerstedt, Zandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system.
    Guided reflection in Simulator-Based Crisis Management Training: Examining the possibility to implement After Action Reviews in the CCRAAAFFFTING project2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Reflection is an important team learning activity, allowing team members to process feedback and to learn from experiences. Debriefing methods such as the After Action Review (AAR), proved to increase learning, can be used to guide teams through the process of reflection. This thesis, commissioned by the Creating Collaborative Resilience Awareness, Analysis and Action for Finance, Food and Fuel Systems in INteractive Games (CCRAAAFFFTING) project, aims to investigating how current post-exercise discussions within the CCRAAAFFFTING project support reflection and whether or not AAR could be implemented. This study used an explorative, semi-experimental research design, containing two conditions - the current post-exercise discussions (condition 1) and AAR’s (condition 2). Data was collected through observations and questionnaires. Due to issues regarding validity, data from questionnaires given to participants, as well as comparisons of participants' subjective experiences between the two conditions, could not be used to provide any support for choosing one post-exercise discussion over the other. However, observations showed that the current post-exercise discussion did not support reflection, thus, making it beneficial to implement AAR. Proper implementation of AAR could not only support team learning, but also organizational learning by facilitating the transference of knowledge back to participants home organizations. This transferred knowledge, if used right by the organizations, could help increased resilience. However, AAR cannot simply be implemented, and this thesis concludes with a list of identified recommendations.

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  • 985.
    Åsberg, Sanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Sökfrasanalys på Gula Sidorna2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [sv]

    Söktjänsten på Gula Sidorna innefattar sökningar på produkter, varor och tjänster och där görs tusentals sökningar varje dag. Enligt Eniro finns en del problem med söktjänsten och syftet med studien är att fastställa vilka dessa problem är och om systemet med språkteknologiska metoder kan förbättra träffarnas relevans, omfattning och rankning.

    Studiens huvudsakliga frågeställning är om det är möjligt att med språkteknologiska metoder förbättra sökningen på Gula Sidorna med avseende på träffarnas relevans och täckning samt rankning av dessa träffar, och vilka språkteknologiska metoder som i så fall mest höjer systemets kvalitet utifrån användningssynpunkt, inom ramarna för företagets intressen.

    Genom lingvistisk analys av en månads sökordssökningar på www.gulasidorna.eniro.se identifierades sju olika problemtyper utifrån hur väl träffarna matchade sökfrasens syntax och semantik. Med bakgrund i systemets existerande struktur och den typ av data som finns lagrad togs ett antal lösningsförslag fram utifrån teorier om språkteknologiska metoder i informationssökningssystem. Sju kortsiktiga och fem långsiktiga lösningar presenterades och dess effekter på prestationen vid en eventuell implementering diskuterades. Med nämnda förbättringsförslag som grund gavs förslag på hur rankningssystemet för Gula Sidorna skulle kunna förbättras.

    Slutsatser som kan dras utifrån resultaten är att de kortsiktiga lösningarna vid implementering bör kunna lösa drygt hälften av de identifierade problemen. Dock krävs vidare studier för att säkerställa att de långsiktiga lösningarna inte orsakar fler problem än de löser.

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  • 986.
    Åström, Adam
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Öberg, Albin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Elkjaer, Alice
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Bengtsson Malmborg, Hannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Jacobson, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Schwartz-Blicke, Oscar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Storsved, Viktor
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    En studie av hur en webbapplikation för annonsering av konsultuppdrag till studenter kan implementeras för att uppfattas som användbar2021Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 poäng / 18 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studentkonsultprojekt gör det möjligt för studenter att applicera sin kunskap i näringslivet samtidigt som det blir mindre kostsamt för företagen att anlita konsulter. Då jobbsökande via internet blir allt vanligare finns det ett behov av en webbapplikation för konsultuppdrag som kopplar samman studenter och företag. En av de viktigaste aspekterna för att skapa en konkurrenskraftig webbapplikation är användbarheten. Således är intentionen med denna studie att undersöka Hur kan en webbapplikation för konsultuppdrag mellan företag och studenter implementeras för att uppfattas som användbar av studenter? För att besvara frågeställningen har en webbapplikation för förmedling av konsulttjänster mellan företag och studenter utvecklats. Webbapplikationen baseras på en teoretisk grund där olika dimensioner av begreppet användbarhet analyserats. De dimensioner som lyfts är effektivitet, ändamålsenlighet och tillfredsställelse. I tillägg till detta har vikten av att specificera användare och de estetiska aspekternas påverkan på användbarhet behandlats. För att utvärdera om webbapplikationen upplevs som användbar testas den på tre testgrupper i tre olika skeden för att undersöka deras upplevelse av webbapplikationen. Testerna utgår från metoden thinking aloud tillsammans med enkäterna System Usability Scale (SUS) och Visual Aesthetics of Websites Inventory Short (VisAWI-S). SUS- och VisAWI-S-enkäterna gav indikationer på en starkt användbar applikation genom hela utvecklingsprocessen. Detta utifrån implementation av en design som främst utgick från principerna enkelhet och färgrikedom samt fokusområdena Synlighet av systemstatus, Igenkänning istället för återkallande, Flexibilitet och effektiv användning och Estetisk och minimalistisk design. Genom att analysera resultaten från thinking aloud-testerna kunde en tydlig minskning av negativa kommentarer identifieras mellan användartest 1-3. Utifrån dessa testresultat, dras slutsatserna att genom återkoppling relaterad till utförda aktioner, implementation av markörer och färgval med hänsyn till kontraster kan en webbapplikation för konsultjobb implementeras för att uppfattas som användbar av studenter.

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    En studie av hur en webbapplikation för annonsering av konsultuppdrag till studenter kan implementeras för att uppfattas som användbar
  • 987.
    Åström, Joakim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Towards improving automation with user input2021Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    As complex systems become more available, the possibility to leverage human intelligence to continuously train these systems is becoming increasingly valuable. Collecting and incorporating feedback from end-users into the system development processes could hold great potential for future development of autonomous systems, but it is not without difficulties A literature review was conducted with the aim to review and help categorize the different dynamics relevant to the act of collecting and implementing user feedback in system development processes. Practical examples of such system are commonly found in active and interactive learning systems, which were studied with a particular interest towards possible novel applications in the industrial sector. This review was complimented by an exploratory experiment, aimed at testing how system accuracy affected the feedback provided by users for a simulated people recognition system. The findings from these studies indicate that when and how feedback is given along with the context of use is of importance for the interplay between system and user. The findings are discussed in relation to current directions in machine learning and interactive learning systems. The study concludes that factors such as system criticality, the phase in which feedback is given, how feedback is given, and the user’s understanding of the learning process all have a large impact on the interactions and outcomes of the user-automation interplay. Suggestions of how to design feedback collection for increased user engagement and increased data assimilation are given.

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    fulltext
  • 988.
    Öberg, Kim
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Interaktiva och kognitiva system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    HORN - Hank and OpenDRIVE Road Networks: An editor for creating HANK scenarios while working with OpenDRIVE2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 12 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    HORN is a solution to the problem of how to implement scenarios in a more efficient way than was previously possible allowing researchers who wish to create scenarios for HANK the ability to quicker implement larger scenarios than was previously possible.

    OpenDRIVE is an open standard for road networks that is believed to be the way forward and Horn is an attempt at unifying OpenDRIVE scenarios with HANK - the driving simulator currently in use at Link\"{o}pings Universitet, thus futureproofing all work done to implement scenarios.

    Before HORN HANK scenarios were laboriously constructed with a really bad program or by hand and HORN tries to make the process far less painful.

    This thesis describes how to work with the Road Network Editor program HORN ("Hank and OpenDRIVE Road Networks") that was developed for working with HANK's scenarios as well as my experience implementing it and some of the fascinating rules for how to draw some exotic two dimensional geometries I found out about as I worked on HORN.

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    Horn - Hank and OpenDRIVE Road Networks
  • 989.
    Österholm, Anders
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    PyMorphic - a Morphic based Live Programming Graphical User Interface implemented in Python2006Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Programming is a very complex activity that has many simultaneous learning elements. The area of Live-programming offers possibilities for enhancing programming work by speeding up the feedback loop and providing means for reducing the cognitive load on the working memory during the task. This could allow for better education for novice programmers. In this work a number of systems with a shared aim of providing educational tools for scholars from compulsory level to undergraduate college were studied. The common approach in the majority of the tools was to use program abstractions like tangible morphs, playing cards, capsules for code segments, and visual stories. For the user these abstractions and tools offer better focus on the constructive and creative side of programming because they relieve the user from the cumbersome work of writing program code, but they also sacrifice some of the expressiveness of a low-level language.

    A Live programming system, called PyMorphic, based on the Morphic model was built in the Python programming language. Two different solutions, based on the Wx toolkit for Python, were constructed and evaluated. The results show that Morphic and Python go well together because Python is a programming language that allows for compact and dynamic code. PyMorphic was evaluated with the cognitive dimensions framework and theories on cognitive load and working memory. A user attitude test was performed and the results showed that the users had a positive attitude towards the PyMorphic system.

    The PyMorphic project is open-source and it is hosted on Sourceforge. The code can be downloaded from the project web-site: http://pymorphic.sourceforge.net. Anyone is welcome to take part in further development of PyMorphic.

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    FULLTEXT01
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