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  • 99401.
    Öhman, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Modulgenerator för Matchade Transistorpar2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete syftar till att implementera en modulgenerator som automatiskt genererar ett matchat differentialpar. Detta för att enkelt kunna generera detta vanlig förekommande byggblock utan att behöva rita om allt från grunden.

    Modulgeneratorn som konstruerats klarar att skapa upp till 2x2 transistor block matchad layout med eller utan sköld. Programmet skapar med hjälp av indata från konstruktören en skräddarsydd layout som kan användas som byggblock i integrerade kretsar.

    Examensarbetet är slutfört och har genomgått omfattande testning

    The aim of this thesis is to implement a module generator that automatically generates a matched differential pair. That is, to easily create new pairs without having to draw everything from scratch.

    The module generator is able to create matched layouts with up to 2x2 transistor blocks with or without a guard-ring. The program uses a number of input parameters from the user to customize the layout. Hence, the generated blocks can be used in a large range of analog integrated circuits.

  • 99402.
    Öhman, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Studies on the pH gradient in normal and ichthyotic human skin1998Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In search for pathogenetic mechanisms underlying hyperkeratosis, we examined the pH gradient across the stratum corneum in normal and ichthyotic skin. Twenty students and employees, (12 men and 8 womenaged 25-69 years) served as controls. Patients with ichthyoses were recruited from the outpatient clinic (13 men aged 12-71 years). Diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical examination and serum lipid electrophoresis.

    For recording pH values, a flat glass electrode was repeatedly applied to the skin during tape stripping of volar forearm skin. Before stripping, surface pH (mean±SD) was higher in autosomal dominant ichthyosis vulgaris (IV) (5.2±0.3; n=7) than in x-linked recessive ichthyosis (XRI) (4.6±0.2; n=6) and healthy control skin (4.5±0.2; n=7). This comparision was made between men since a sex difference was observed when comparing men and women in the control group (4.5±0.2; n=7 for men and 5.3±0.5 for women).

    Removal of stratum corneum, which required 170-200 strippings in ichthyotic skin and 100-120 strippings in healthy control skin, dicsclosed markedly different pH variations in the two types of ichthyoses. The major abnormality in IV skin was that a neutral pH was attained already after half the total number of strippings through the hyperkeratotic stratum corneum, which may reflect a lack of acidickeratohyalin breakdown products in this condition.This in contrast to XRI where the pH gradient was less steep and eventually plateaued at pH 6.2-6.6 instead of at 6.7-7.0 as in normal skin. A likely explanation is the accumulation of cholesterol sulfate in lower stratum corneum which occurs in XRI.

    Our results suggest that the 'acid mantle' of normal skin, which penetrates deep into the stratum corneum, is the combined result of cornification-associated organic acids and back-diffusion of of acid material from the surface. Since comeocyte desquamation involves many pH dependent enzymes, abnormalities in the transcomeal pH gradient might play a role in the pathogenesis of ichthyoses.

  • 99403.
    Öhman, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of dermatology and venereology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Dermatology and Venerology in Östergötland.
    The pH gradient in the epidermis evaluated by serial tape stripping2006In: Handbook of non-invasive methods and the skin / [ed] Gary L. Grove ,Gregor B.E. Jemec and Jorgen Serup, Boca Raton, Florida: Taylor & Francis , 2006, 2, p. 421-427Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Inbunden

                Handbook of Non-Invasive Methods and the Skin       

    Engelska, 2006Firmly established as the leading international reference in this field, Non-Invasive Methods and the Skin broke new ground with its comprehensive coverage of methods used in both clinical and experimental dermatology. Completely revised and updated, containing more than twice as much information, the Second Edition continues the tradition. The authors' thorough research and clear organization make this book a baseline reference for those using noninvasive biophysical methods to study the skin.  Arranged by physical modality and structured to provide educational and practical information, the second edition, like its predecessor, will prove to be of value to young researchers and senior scientists alike. The coverage of major evaluation and measurement methods share a consistent format, including scope, sources of error, application, and validity. This edition incorporates 69 revised chapters with more than 90 new chapters covering topics such as computer technique, imaging techniques, skin friction, barrier functions, and more.New chapters provide coverage of: computers, computer techniques, and image analysis imaging techniques, including clinical photography legal situations and guidelines behind instrumental use skin friction barrier functions important new techniques such as in vitro confocal microscopy, OCT, and Raman spectroscopy veterinary/animal research use of methods  The truly interdisciplinary, international panel of contributors includes experts from the specialties of dermatology, bioengineering, pathology, manufacturing engineering, medical physics, pharmacology, microbiology, neurology, surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, cardiovascular research, and pharmacy from academic institutions and hospitals in countries such as Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom, the United States, Japan, Israel, Taiwan, and Singapore. The revision is extensive and covers a broad spectrum of methods while providing the same caliber of authoritative information that made the previous edition so popular. Application oriented, practical, and instructive, this Second Edition will meet the needs of the researchers today, and in years to come.

  • 99404. Öhman, Inger
    et al.
    Vitols, S
    Luef, Gerhard
    Söderfeldt, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology.
    Tomson, Torbjörn
    Topiramate kinetics during delivery, lactation, and in the neonate: Preliminary observations2002In: Epilepsia, ISSN 0013-9580, E-ISSN 1528-1167, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1157-1160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To study the pharmacokinetics of topiramate (TPM) during delivery, lactation, and in the neonate. Methods: TPM concentrations in plasma and breast milk were measured with fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) in five women with epilepsy treated with TPM during pregnancy and lactation. Blood samples were obtained at delivery from mothers, from the umbilical cord, and from the newborns on three occasions (24, 48, and 72 h) after delivery. Blood and breast milk also were collected from mothers 2 weeks, and 1 and 3 months postpartum. Blood samples also were drawn from the infants during breast-feeding. Three of the mother-infant pairs were studied both at delivery and during lactation, two contributed with data from delivery only. Results: The umbilical cord plasma/maternal plasma ratios were close to unity, suggesting extensive transplacental transfer of TPM. The mean milk/maternal plasma concentration ratio was 0.86 (range, 0.67-1.1) at 2-3 weeks after delivery. The milk/maternal plasma concentration ratios at sampling 1 and 3 months after delivery were similar (0.86 and 0.69, respectively). Two to 3 weeks after delivery, two of the breast-fed infants had detectable (>0.9 ╡M) concentrations of TPM, although below the limit of quantification (2.8 ╡M), and one had an undetectable concentration. Conclusions: Our limited data suggest free passage of TPM over the placenta and an extensive transfer into breast milk. Breast-fed infants had very low TPM concentrations, and no adverse effects were observed in the infants.

  • 99405.
    Öhman, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    Åldersblandad undervisning: ur ett lärarperspektiv2003Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrunden till min uppsats är att man i slutet på 1970-talet började införa åldersblandade klasser med pedagogiska motiv. Det avgörande var inte som tidigare att det var för få elever för att bilda en åldershomogen klass utan tanken var att det skulle föra med sig andra fördelar.

    Syftet med min studie är att undersöka hur lärare me d erfarenhet från både åldershomogen och åldersblandad undervisning upplever utvecklingen av deras lärarroll och arbetssätt i och med att de bytt organisationsform. Jag har även försökt att i min litteraturgenomgång ge fler exempel på vad som kan påverka undervisningens utformning.

    Övergripande nämner de lärare som jag intervjuat att deras roll har gått från den traditionella lärarrollen då man undervisar inför hela klassen till att man istället är handledare till eleverna. Eftersom det i en åldersblandad klass är en större naturlig kunskapsspridning på eleverna måste även graden av individualisering öka. Det finns dock inte något enkelt svar på hur mycket av undervisningens utformning som styrs av klassens sammansättning och vad som påverkas av andra faktorer. Eftersom organisationsformen passar olika individer olika bra så blir det svårt att ge ett entydigt svar på om åldersblandade eller åldershomogena klasser är det bästa.

  • 99406.
    Öhman, K. Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    The kallikrein-kinin system in primary hypertension: dynamics of circulating components of the kallikrein-kinin system in relation to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system1997Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Kinins are potent vasodilatory and blood pressure lowering peptides, with additional effects on renal handling of electrolytes and water. The kallikrein-kinin system consists of two separate entities, one confined to the circulation and the other to both tissues and the circulation. The role of the plasma system and the circulating part of the tissue system in circulatory homeostasis and electrolyte and metabolism is unclear, as well as the pathogenetic involvement of these systems in primary hypertension.

    The aims of the studies were to investigate the possible participation of the plasma kallikrein~ kinin system and the circulating components of the tissue kallikrein-kinin system in the regulation of blood pressure, electrolyte and water balance; possible differences between normotensive and primary hypertensive subjects with respect to these systems; relations between the kallikrein-kinin systems and the renin angiotensin-aldosterone system; evidence of regulated release of prorenin and the possible participation of the kallikrein-kinin systems in the conversion of prorenin to renin.

    Twentyseven patients with primary hypertension and 16 normotensive control subjects were given furosemide 80 mg p.a. in the first study. In the following 3 studies 15 hypertensive and 15 normotensive subjects participated. Graded i.v. infusion of angiotensin 11 during 3h, i.v. infusion of 2000ml 0.9% sodium chloride during 4h, and fludrocortisone 0.2 mg o.d. p.a. during 7 days were administered in separate protocol.

    1. Plasma prekallikrein levels did not differ between normotensive and hypertensive subjects. Furosemide increased plasma prekallikrein, angiotensin II had no effect and sodium chloride infusion and fludrocortisone administration reduced plasma prekallikrein. 2. Tissue kallikrein in plasma did not change during these experiments. 3. There were minute differences between normotensive and hypertensive subjects in the activation of both the plasma and the tissue kallikrein-systems and in their relation to blood pressure levels and renal sodium and water handling. 4. Alterations of prorenin levels in plasma evoked by changes in blood pressure, angiotensin II levels, electrolyte and water balance were parallel with those of renin and without any signs of separate specific regulatory mechanisms. 5. There were no signs that the plasma or circulating tissue kallikrein-kinin system participated in the conversion of prorenin to renin. 6. There were no clear functional relations between endogenous mineralocorticoids and circulating tissue kalikrein or plasma prekallikrein.

    In conclusion: The data demonstrate alterations in the activity of the plasma kallikrein-kinin system, related to electrolyte and volume balance; differences between normotensive and hypertensive subjects, the pathophysiological relevance of which remains to be elucidated; minor differences in the reactivity of circulating tissue kallikrein in hypertensive subjects, but no obvious participation of the circulating components of the tissue system. Hypertensives have higer renin/prorenin ratio there are no signs of specific regulation of prorenin release or participation of circulating kallikreins in the conversion of prorenin to renin. Some of these differences may have relevance to the abnormal blood pressure levels in patients with primary hypertension.

  • 99407.
    Öhman, Peter
    et al.
    Centrum för forskning om ekonomiska relationer, Mittuniversitetet i Sundsvall.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Tagesson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    Riskbedömningar inom bank och revision relaterade till två typfel2015In: Trovärdighet och förtroende i ekonomiska relationer / [ed] Peter Öhman, Heléne Lundberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 145-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99408.
    Öhman, Sten
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Diagnostic methods for demonstration of intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulines within the central nervous system1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based upon studies of quantitative and qualitative determinations of immunoglobulins A, G, and M (lgA, IgG, and IgM) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in serum. Inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and infections (e.g. meningitis) affecting the central nervous system are characterized by intrathecal synthesis of immunoglobulins, and therefore determinations of them in CSF are important diagnostic tools.

    A non-linear relationship between the CSF/serum ratios of IgG, IgA, IgM, and albumin was found in patients with damaged blood-CSF barrier, but in whom no intrathecal synthesis orimmunoglobulins was expected. On the basis of this non-linear relationship a new kind of formula, the extended indices (lgA-EI, IgG-EI, and IgM-EI), was developed to giveimproved estimates of intrathecal synthesis.

    These formulae were evaluated together with other proposed formulae and with agarose isoelectrofocusing, to determine their diagnostic sensitivities in different neurological diseases. The main advantage with the extended indices, compared to other formulae, was a lower rate offalse positive tests, without affecting the diagnostic sensitivities for intrathecal immunoglobulin synthesis.

    A method based on ultracentrifugation is presented, where the distribution of monomeric and dimeric IgA in CSF and serum can be determined quantitatively. Both total and Ilerpes simplex virus specific lgA antibodies were estimated with respect to the physical form of lgA.

    For determination of CSF-IgM the sampling should be performed with an atraumatic Sprotte needle to minimise pre-analytical errors owing to contamination with serum or interstitial fluid.

  • 99409.
    Öhman, William
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Ta det piano med klaveret: Åtgärdsproblematik vid konservering av hammarklaver från 1770-talet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis I explore the preservation problems occurring in English square pianos from 1770. I have investigated three aspects:

    1. Which materials do the instruments normally consist of?
    2. Which are the common types of damage?
    3. What conservation ethics are widely considered among instrument conservators and restorers?

    With the information from these three questions have I formulated treatment suggestions and general aspects to be aware of when preserving early square pianos. The most important suggestion is not to make any treatment without reflection. It´s also important to be aware of problems regarding storage, humidity, emissions, materials and tuning when preserving an early square piano. I consider these aspects in formulating treatment suggestions to conserve instruments as historical documents and to restore them to playable state. The treatment suggestions can also help and guide conservators without special knowledge of instruments toward better preservation of early square pianos. This thesis aims therefore to improve the care of this fragile cultural heritage.

  • 99410.
    Öhman-Danforth, Marina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Slöjdundervisning och matematisk kunskap: Hur elever och lärare använder skisser och matematiska beräkningar i slöjd i grundskola och grundsärskola2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Elever i grundskolans- och grundsärskolans slöjdundervisning använder matematik som ett redskap för att föra sitt arbete framåt. I Lgr 11 står det att eleven i sin undervisning ska möta två- och tredimensionella skisser samt genomföra matematiska beräkningar kopplat till skisser, modeller, mönster och arbetsbeskrivningar. Rapporten för Nationell utvärdering i slöjd 2013, visade dock att så inte alltid är fallet. Denna kvalitativa studie är genomförd på två skolor, genom lektionsobservationer i åk 4-9 samt intervjuer med elever och ett flertal slöjdlärare i kommunen. Syftet med uppsatsen är att ta reda på elevers och lärares uppfattning om hur skisser och matematiska beräkningar används i slöjdundervisningen samt hur detta stämmer med gjorda observationer. Resultatet visar på att elever på högstadiet alltid genomför och använder tvådimensionella skisser alt. skiss med vyplacering. Det gällde dock inte för elever på mellanstadiet, inte heller att eleverna fick möta tredimensionella skisser, inte ens på högstadiet. Resultatet visar att både lärare och elever oftast använder matematiskt talspråk istället för adekvata matematiska begrepp, att slöjdlärare inte alltid har tillräcklig egen matematisk kunskap som krävs för att hjälpa elev att genomföra ett visst slöjdarbete och att många slöjdlärare inte heller förväntar sig att explicit undervisa i utförande av matematiska beräkningar. Elever utför många matematiska ickeverbala handlingar vilket förekommer naturligt för eleverna ju äldre de blir, eller ju djupare matematisk kunskap man besitter. Yngre elever visar oftare motstånd för att använda sig av matematik som redskap. Studien visar att elever, utan andra krav från lärare, använder den matematik man behärskar, vilket visar sig vara ca tre årskurser under den egna årskursen. Detta skulle kunna vara en möjlig förklaring till det motstånd som yngre elever påvisar, då de ännu inte har befäst grundläggande matematiska kunskaper.

  • 99411. Öhngren, G
    et al.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Touching voices with the tactilator1992In: Second international conference on Tactile Aids, Hearing Aids Cochlear Implants: Improving speech communication for profoundly hearing impaired children and adults.,1992, 1992Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 99412. Öhngren, G
    et al.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Touching voices with the tactilator1992In: XXI International Conference of Audiology,1992, 1992Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 99413. Öhngren, G
    et al.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Touching voices with the tactilator1992In: International Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0020-7594, E-ISSN 1464-066X, Vol. 27, p. 89-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99414. Öhngren, G
    et al.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Touching voices with the tactilator (poster presentation)1992In: The XXV Internationa Congress of Psychology,1992, 1992Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 99415. Öhngren, G
    et al.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Kan taktilering tränas?(Can tactiling be trained?)1987Report (Other academic)
  • 99416. Öhngren, G
    et al.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Tactiling: A usable support system for speechreading?1989Report (Other academic)
  • 99417. Öhngren, G
    et al.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Tactiling: A Usable support sytem for speechreading?1992In: British Journal of Audiology, ISSN 0300-5364, E-ISSN 1471-2849, Vol. 26, p. 167-173Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99418. Öhngren, G.
    et al.
    Rönnberg, Jerker
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences, Cognitive Psychology.
    Tactiling: a trainable supportsystem for speechreading?1990In: STL-QSPR, Vol. 2-3, p. 69-77Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99419.
    Öhr, Jonas
    et al.
    ABB, Sweden.
    Moberg, Stig
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wernholt, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hanssen, Sven
    ABB, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jens
    ABB, Sweden.
    Persson, Sofie
    ABB, Sweden.
    Sander-Tavallaey, Shiva
    ABB, Sweden.
    Identification of Flexibility Parameters of 6-axis Industrial Manipulator Models2006In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Noise and Vibration Engineering, 2006, p. 3305-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for identification of flexibility parameters of a 18 DOF (degrees offreedom) robot prototype model is proposed. Experiments show the strengthof the method and the results indicates that flexibilities in the bearings and thearms, taken together, are of the same order as the flexibilities in the gears.

  • 99420.
    Öhr, Jonas
    et al.
    ABB, Sweden.
    Moberg, Stig
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wernholt, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hanssen, Sven
    ABB, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jens
    ABB, Sweden.
    Persson, Sofie
    ABB, Sweden.
    Sander-Tavallaey, Shiva
    ABB, Sweden.
    Identification of Flexibility Parameters of 6-axis Industrial Manipulator Models2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for identification of flexibility parameters of a 18 DOF (degrees offreedom) robot prototype model is proposed. Experiments show the strengthof the method and the results indicates that flexibilities in the bearings and thearms, taken together, are of the same order as the flexibilities in the gears.

  • 99421.
    Öhrberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Samverkan mellan kommun och näringsliv: en fallstudie av Växtkraft Kinda2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen syftar till att undersöka hur kommunal samverkan med det lokala näringslivet utformas utifrån teorier kring governance, policynätverk samt public-private partnerships. Detta genomförs utifrån en fallstudie av projektet ”Växtkraft och företagarutveckling” som är en del av den ekonomiska föreningen Växtkraft Kinda. I uppsatsen undersöks faktorer som gemensamma mål, resursutbyte, ömsesidigt beroende samt förtroende och vilken betydelse dessa har för samverkan. Dessutom granskas hur kontakterna mellan aktörerna är utformade samt vilken betydelse inflytande och konkurrens har i samarbetet.

    I uppsatsen kommer jag fram till att det existerar gemensamt formulerade mål även om de till viss del varierar mellan aktörerna. De resurser som utbyts är förutom de ekonomiska även tid, kunskap, kontakter samt lokaler. Kommunens representanter menar att resursutbytet främst sker i informella miljöer medan näringslivsrepresentanterna anser att resursutbytet äger rum i formella miljöer. Tre av de fem intervjuade anser att det finns ett ömsesidigt beroende mellan kommun och näringsliv samt att det är en omständighet som verkar som en drivande- och positiv kraft i samarbetet. Samtliga intervjuade uppger att förtroende är en viktig komponent i projektet men förtroendet är något mindre bland näringslivsrepresentanterna. De intervjuade uppger även att det finns en viss konkurrens mellan aktörerna inom projektet men att samarbete dominerar. Det finns dock vissa skillnader mellan kommunens och det lokala näringslivets uppfattningar om samarbetet. Kommunens representanter beskriver samarbetet i formella termer medan näringslivsrepresentanterna anser att det skall betraktas som en formell organisation. Dessutom menar kommunen att aktörernas inflytande beror på engagemang och kompetens medan näringslivet anser att storlek och position är avgörande faktorer.

  • 99422.
    Öhrberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Inte ett leende före jul: En studie om lärares bemötande av elever2008Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vilken betydelse har det hur lärare bemöter elever i skolan? Spelar bemötandet någon roll för hur eleverna värderar sig själva och för deras motivation i skolan? Syftet med denna studie är att belysa gymnasieelevers uppfattningar om vilken betydelse lärares bemötande av dem haft under deras grundskoletid. Fokus ligger på bemötandets betydelse för självkänsla, motivation och lärande men även hur eleverna vill bli bemötta framkommer.

    Som teoretisk utgångspunkt presenteras dels en syn på hur självkänslan utvecklas och till viss del styr hur individen lever sitt liv, dels en idé om att det är lärares förhållningssätt som styr elevers motivation.

    Metoden som använts är gruppintervju och nio gymnasieelever har intervjuats i tre grupper med tre i varje. Anledningen till att gymnasieelever valdes som informanter var att de antogs ha lite distans till sin grundskoletid och därmed lättare kunde diskutera betydelsen av lärares bemötande.

    De slutsatser som dras i studien är att elever vill att lärare med sitt bemötande ska bekräfta dem på tämligen primära vis; genom att hälsa på dem även utanför klassrummet, tilltala dem med deras namn, uppmärksamma dem och verkligen lyssna på dem. Nästan samtliga informanter föredrog lärare som har ett strängt bemötande gentemot eleverna och anledningen till det var att det ansågs leda till ordning i klassrummet och att undervisningen fungerade bättre. När det gäller bemötande som påverkar självkänslan framkom att den känsla beröm gav uppfattades som något bestående medan negativ kritik inte ansågs ha betydelse på lång sikt. Bemötanden som anses betydelsefulla för informanternas motivation och lärande är främst lärares kompetens i sitt ämne och i att lära ut den samt lärares beröm eller negativa kritik. Relationen nämns även den som främjande för lärande.

  • 99423.
    Öhrblad, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Berglund, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Component Meshing Methodology2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve results that are reliable when using the finite element method one has to use an acceptable element mesh with respect to the shape and size of the elements. As a help to produce an acceptable mesh there are quality criteria that must be fulfilled in most pre-processors.

    One objective with this thesis is to perform a sensitivity study that can be used as a basis for a Mesh guideline for chassis parts which is requested from engineers at Volvo 3P. The software used in the sensitivity study is ANSA as pre-processor, Nastran as solver and Metapost as post-processor.

    In the first part of the sensitivity study three different models are used for studying quality criteria such as aspect ratio, skewness, mid point alignment, mid point deviation and element size. Solid elements of second order, which are used in the three models, can be generated in two ways, which constitutes another part of the sensitivity study. They may either be generated from the beginning or can be converted from first order elements. This means geometrically that if second order elements where generated from the beginning the element mesh would follow the shape of the component in a better way compared to the other method.

    Recently a pre- and post-processing program called SimLab was introduced on the market. Since SimLab supports geometry import from several CAD-systems without loss of feature information, the automatic element mesh generation is supposed to be better as the mesh generator has access to more information concerning the geometry. An evaluation of SimLab is the second major objective of the thesis. More specifically, the evaluation concerns the possibility of using the software at Volvo 3P.

    Results show a surprising insensitivity regarding the criteria and that the method of generating second order elements from the beginning is to be preferred. SimLab is a new program with big potential and the conclusion is that it is possible to use it at Volvo 3P.

  • 99424.
    Öhrling, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Arbetsvärdering: en möjlig väg till jämställdhet i arbetslivet? En kvalitativ studie av ett arbetsvärderingsprojekt med jämställdhetssyfte i en kommun.2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    The purpose of this degree project is to study a work evaluation project in a municipality, on the basis of key participants. The municipality is the employer, per-forming the workplace project and the chief objective is to reach gender equality between the employees. Equal pay for equal work. Through work evaluation is it pos-sible to find out which of a lot of different jobs, which have equal requirements. The jobs, which have equal requirements, should have equal pay.

    According to Swedish law, all employers need to analyse and survey their salary/wage distribution, to identify and remedy sexual discrimination concerning that area. One way to do that is to do a work evaluation and to study the result. Studying the result was what the municipality was doing, when got in contact with it. My focus is to find out what the central issues, problems and hinders are, or can occur when an employer is trying to follow the law.

    This study is based on qualitative research. The empirical material (interviews and ob-servations) from key participants, who took part in the project in the municipality, is presented through excerpts. They speak about different problems and other aspects they have experienced during the work process with the result from the evaluation project. The material is then analysed in the light of different theories. The theories treat areas as gender and organisation.

    For example is not al of the involved unions of the same opinion about the project. Money is one aspect that the key persons talk about and the circumstances around how to reach the goals of the project is another subject. The result of the study has shown that it could be useful within the project to have greater concern about the system of gender and to stronger point out the gains of ex-tended gender equality. Thou a lot of money are needed if equal pay for equal work should be reached, the gain in efficiency from the employed might compensate that.

  • 99425.
    Öhrling, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Fem svenska medeltida cisterciensklosters interaktion med omvärlden: Ett studium av medeltida brev från 1100- och 1200-talen.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats har fem svenska cistercienskloster undersökts med avseende på deras samspel med det omgivande samhället. Undersökningens huvudsakliga källor utgörs av bevarade medeltida brev från 1100- och 1200-talen. Undersökningen har visat att de fem klostren interagerade med sina omgivningar på flera sätt. Enligt breven skedde det främst på så sätt att personer utanför klostrens murar genom sina testamenten donerat egendomar eller pengar till munkarna och nunnorna, ofta med önskan om att få bli begravda där. Även rikets kungar, lokala biskopar samt påvar har varit i kontakt med  klosteranläggningarna; givit dem beskydd, donerat egendomar, tillhandahållit information och givit förmaningar. Donationer till klostren kunde leda till att vissa av Cisterciensorden regler blev åsidosatta. Enstaka skillnader mellan munk- och nunnekloster med avseende på vad som beskrivs i källmaterialet har framkommit. Undersökningens resultat har diskuterats också i förhållande till den information som återfinns i litteratur om Cisterciensorden och dess klosters samspel med omgivningen.

  • 99426.
    Öhrling, Magdalena
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Gån fördenskull ut": Fredrik och Märtha Ysander - missionärer i Sydindien 1925-19502011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fredrik och Märtha Ysander var i Svenska Kyrkans Missions tjänst mellan år 1923 och år 1956. Större delen av denna tid tillbringade de på missionssjukhuset i Tirupattur på den sydindiska slätten. Fredrik var läkare och Märtha var under en tid föreståndare för sjukhusets blindskola. Föreliggande uppsats har som syfte att beskriva deras liv på denna plats och i denna tid med betoning på arbete och vardag, deras förhållande till den omgivande kulturen och den inhemska befolkningen samt syn på missionsuppdraget. Uppsatsen har delvis formen av en biografi. Resultaten av undersökningen visar att arbetet innebar, förutom det rent medicinska, att delta i möten och konferenser som behandlade missionens inre angelägenheter. Fredrik var också under lång tid chef för sjukhuset och ledde då det medicinska arbetet och sjukhusets utveckling. När det var alltför hett på slätten reste man till den svenska semesterkolonin i Kodaikanal, där man vilade ut och umgicks med kollegor. Fredriks och Märthas förhållande till den indiska kulturen och de människor de kom i kontakt med var inte helt okomplicerat. Till en början var det svårt framför allt för Märtha att riktigt trivas, men med tiden ändrades hennes inställning och hon kom att känna sig hemma i Tirupattur. Fredriks syn på missionsuppdraget under alla år i tjänst var i grunden detsamma. Han ansåg att läkarmissionens uppdrag var att vittna om, att bereda en väg till och att utså en längtan efter Kristus genom att utföra barmhärtiga gärningar i Hans namn. Detta är också en förkunnelse i sig. Hos Fredrik fanns redan från början en stark längtan att gå ut som missionär. Hos Märtha växte denna längtan fram under årens lopp. Det livsval de gjorde innebar bland annat att kontakten med släkt och vänner länge var hänvisad till brev. Under några år var Fredrik och Märtha också åtskilda från sina barn. De var kvar i Sverige, bland annat för att studera, då föräldrarna reste ut till Indien för en sista period.

  • 99427.
    Öhrn, Annica
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Measures of Patient Safety: Studies of Swedish Reporting Systems and Evaluation of an Intervention Aimed at Improved Patient Safety Culture2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unsafe health care delivery results in millions of patients suffering from injuries or death worldwide. A Swedish study estimated the prevalence of preventable adverse events as high as 8.6% in hospital care, which demonstrates that patient safety is no less a problem in Sweden than elsewhere. Reporting of adverse events has become an integral part of patient safety work. The aim of reporting is to identify patient safety problems and provide background data and information for efforts to improve patient safety. However, adverse events in health care can be captured and measured using different methods and stored in disparate systems that are not fully integrated. This makes it difficult to obtain a complete coherent picture of the frequency and nature of various types of adverse events. Another difficulty is to distinguish between adverse events and accepted complications of medical care.

    The overall aim of this thesis is to generate knowledge for improved understanding of how patient safety can be measured in terms of reporting adverse events and improved by targeting patient safety culture with an intervention implemented in a Swedish county council. Three research questions have been derived from the aim: (1) To what extent can analysis of patient claims contribute to an understanding of the magnitude of the patient safety problem? (2) To what extent do data captured from different reporting systems in Sweden differ? (3) To what extent can a structured intervention that fosters learning on patient safety issues and encourages leadership commitment improve the patient safety culture in a Swedish county council from a five-year perspective?

    The research is based on studies of three national reporting systems: Lex Maria to the National Board of Health and Welfare; patient claims to the County Councils´ Mutual Insurance Company; and medical data reported to the National Swedish Spine Register (Swespine). Data have also been assembled as part of an evaluation within the Patient Safety Dialogue intervention.

    This thesis indicates that different Swedish reporting systems provide disparate views and have many discrepancies regarding data quality and coverage of adverse events. Patient claims seem to be an important source of information that can complement information from incident reporting systems and quality registries in health care to provide an understanding of the magnitude of the patient safety problem.

    The research also shows that a structured intervention that fosters learning on patient safety issues and encourages leadership commitment can improve the culture of patient safety. However, a longer period of time and focused efforts might be required to achieve improvements across all departments within a Swedish county council.

    List of papers
    1. Reporting of Sentinel Events in Swedish Hospitals: A Comparison of Severe Adverse Events Reported by Patients and Providers
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reporting of Sentinel Events in Swedish Hospitals: A Comparison of Severe Adverse Events Reported by Patients and Providers
    2011 (English)In: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, ISSN 1553-7250, E-ISSN 1938-131X, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 495-501Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mandatory and voluntary reporting of adverse events is common in health care organizations but a more accurate understanding of the extent of patient injury may be obtained if additional sources are used. Patients in Sweden may file a claim for economic compensation from the national insurance system if they believe they have sustained an injury. The extent and pattern of reporting of serious adverse events in a mandatory national reporting system was compared with the reporting of adverse events on the basis of patient claims.

    Methods: Regional sentinel event reports were compared with malpractice claims data between 1996 and 2003. A sample consisting of 113 patients with deaths or serious injuries was selected from the malpractice claims data source. The medical records of these patients were reviewed by three chief medical officers.

    Results: Of the deaths or injuries associated with the 113 patients—25 deaths, 37 with more than 30% disability, and 51 with 16%-30% disability—23 (20%) had been reported by chief medical officers to the National Board of Health and Welfare as sentinel events. Most adverse events were found in orthopedic surgery, and orthopedic injuries had more serious consequences. None of the patient injuries caused by infections were reported as sentinel events. Individual errors were more frequent in cases reported as sentinel events.

    Conclusions: Adverse events causing severe harm are underreported to a great extent in Sweden despite the existence of a mandatory reporting system; physicians often consider them to be complications. Health care organizations should consider using a portfolio of tools—including incident reporting, medical record review, and analysis of patient claims—to gain a comprehensive picture of adverse events.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72589 (URN)
    Available from: 2011-11-29 Created: 2011-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    2. What can we learn from patient claims?: Analysing of patient injuries following orthopaedic surgery
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>What can we learn from patient claims?: Analysing of patient injuries following orthopaedic surgery
    2012 (English)In: Patient Safety in Surgery, ISSN 1754-9493, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Objective data on the incidence and pattern of adverse events after orthopaedic surgical procedures remain scarce, secondary to the reluctance for encompassing reporting of surgical complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the nature of adverse events after orthopaedic surgery reported to a national database for patient claims in Sweden.

    Methods: In this retrospective review data from two Swedish national databases during a 4-year period were analyzed. We used the "County Councils' Mutual Insurance Company", a national no-fault insurance system for patient claims, and the "National Patient Register at the National Board of Health and Welfare".

    Results: A total of 6,029 patient claims filed after orthopaedic surgery were assessed during the study period. Of those, 3,336 (55%) were determined to be adverse events, which received financial compensation. Hospital-acquired infections and sepsis were the most common causes of adverse events (n = 741; 22%). The surgical procedure that caused the highest rate of adverse events was "decompression of spinal cord and nerve roots" (code ABC**), with 168 adverse events of 17,507 hospitals discharges (1%). One in five (36 of 168; 21.4%) injured patient was seriously disabled or died.

    Conclusions: We conclude that patients undergoing spinal surgery run the highest risk of being severely injured and that these patients also experienced a high degree of serious disability. The most common adverse event was related to hospital acquired infections. Claims data obtained in a no-fault system have a high potential for identifying adverse events and learning from them.

    Keywords
    Insurance Claim Review, Medical Errors, Orthopaedics, Patient Safety, Patient Admission, Safety Management
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72590 (URN)10.1186/1754-9493-6-2 (DOI)
    Note

    On the day of the defence date the status of this article was "Manuscript".

    Available from: 2011-11-29 Created: 2011-11-29 Last updated: 2014-09-11Bibliographically approved
    3. Adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden: A comparison of patient claims data and national quality register (Swespine) data
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden: A comparison of patient claims data and national quality register (Swespine) data
    Show others...
    2011 (English)In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 82, no 6, p. 727-731Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Our knowledge of complications and adverse events in spinal surgery is limited, especially concerning incidence and consequences. We therefore investigated adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden by comparing patient claims data from the County Councils' Mutual Insurance Company register with data from the National Swedish Spine Register (Swespine).

    Methods: We analyzed patient claims (n = 182) to the insurance company after spine surgery performed between 2003 and 2005. The medical records of the patients filing these claims were reviewed and compared with Swespine data for the same period.

    Results: Two-thirds (119/182, 65%) of patients who claimed economic compensation from the insurance company were registered in Swespine. Of the 210 complications associated with these 182 claims, only 74 were listed in Swespine. The most common causes of compensated injuries (n = 139) were dural lesions (n = 40) and wound infections (n = 30). Clinical outcome based on global assessment, leg pain, disability, and quality of health was worse for patients who claimed economic compensation than for the total group of Swespine patients.

    Interpretation: We found considerable under-reporting of complications in Swespine. Dural lesions and infections were not well recorded, although they were important reasons for problems and contributed to high levels of disability. By analyzing data from more than one source, we obtained a better understanding of the patterns of adverse events and outcomes after spine surgery.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Informa, 2011
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72591 (URN)10.3109/17453674.2011.636673 (DOI)000297352700016 ()22066564 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-11-29 Created: 2011-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
    4. Patient safety dialogue: evaluation of an intervention aimed at achieving an improved patient safety culture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient safety dialogue: evaluation of an intervention aimed at achieving an improved patient safety culture
    2011 (English)In: Journal of patient safety, ISSN 1549-8425, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 185-92Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Patient Safety Dialogue, a local intervention inspired by walk round-style approaches, was implemented in 2005 in a Swedish county council to achieve a positive patient safety culture in health care. This paper evaluates the results and changes after 5 years of the Patient Safety Dialogue in 50 departments (37 medical and 13 psychiatric) in 3 hospitals.

    METHODS: The patient safety culture maturity was rated on 5 levels that correspond with the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework. The assessment was based on information supplied by the departments and discussions between clinical leaders and staff members with special patient safety assignments and representatives from a patient safety unit. Three patient safety areas were assessed: hospital-acquired infections, outcome measurements, and general patient safety. Each department was assessed 3 times: at baseline and at follow-ups at 18 and 36 months. Average scores were calculated for each of the 3 safety areas on all occasions. The departments were classified into 3 types of trajectories on the basis of the development of their scores over time.

    RESULTS: More than two-thirds of the departments attained higher scores in round 3 than in round 1. Seventy-eight percent of the departments in the general patient safety area were categorized as continuously improving or developing, compared with 68% for outcome measurement and 50% for hospital-acquired infection. Approximately one-third was categorized as nonimproving, with scores in round 3 lower than or equal to the scores in round 1. The medical departments had higher scores than the psychiatric departments in all rounds.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most of the 50 departments were evaluated to have improved their patient safety culture during the 5 years of the Patient Safety Dialogue, suggesting that the intervention is effective in supporting an improved patient safety culture. However, one-third of the departments did not improve during the 5-year study period.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Informa, 2011
    Keywords
    Safety, culture, program evaluation, safety management
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-72593 (URN)10.1097/PTS.0b013e318230e702 (DOI)21952549 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2011-11-29 Created: 2011-11-29 Last updated: 2013-10-25Bibliographically approved
  • 99428.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Patient Security.
    Andersson, Christer
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Patient Security.
    Elfström, Johan
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Patient Security. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Patient Security.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Patient Security.
    Framgång kräver ledningens stöd och resurser2007In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 104, no 4, p. 224-228Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 99429.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Elfström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Liedgren, Christer
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Reporting of Sentinel Events in Swedish Hospitals: A Comparison of Severe Adverse Events Reported by Patients and Providers2011In: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety, ISSN 1553-7250, E-ISSN 1938-131X, Vol. 37, no 11, p. 495-501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mandatory and voluntary reporting of adverse events is common in health care organizations but a more accurate understanding of the extent of patient injury may be obtained if additional sources are used. Patients in Sweden may file a claim for economic compensation from the national insurance system if they believe they have sustained an injury. The extent and pattern of reporting of serious adverse events in a mandatory national reporting system was compared with the reporting of adverse events on the basis of patient claims.

    Methods: Regional sentinel event reports were compared with malpractice claims data between 1996 and 2003. A sample consisting of 113 patients with deaths or serious injuries was selected from the malpractice claims data source. The medical records of these patients were reviewed by three chief medical officers.

    Results: Of the deaths or injuries associated with the 113 patients—25 deaths, 37 with more than 30% disability, and 51 with 16%-30% disability—23 (20%) had been reported by chief medical officers to the National Board of Health and Welfare as sentinel events. Most adverse events were found in orthopedic surgery, and orthopedic injuries had more serious consequences. None of the patient injuries caused by infections were reported as sentinel events. Individual errors were more frequent in cases reported as sentinel events.

    Conclusions: Adverse events causing severe harm are underreported to a great extent in Sweden despite the existence of a mandatory reporting system; physicians often consider them to be complications. Health care organizations should consider using a portfolio of tools—including incident reporting, medical record review, and analysis of patient claims—to gain a comprehensive picture of adverse events.

  • 99430.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Elfström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Thoracic Surgery. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tropp, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Spinal Surgery.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    What can we learn from patient claims?: Analysing of patient injuries following orthopaedic surgery2012In: Patient Safety in Surgery, ISSN 1754-9493, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Objective data on the incidence and pattern of adverse events after orthopaedic surgical procedures remain scarce, secondary to the reluctance for encompassing reporting of surgical complications. The aim of this study was to analyze the nature of adverse events after orthopaedic surgery reported to a national database for patient claims in Sweden.

    Methods: In this retrospective review data from two Swedish national databases during a 4-year period were analyzed. We used the "County Councils' Mutual Insurance Company", a national no-fault insurance system for patient claims, and the "National Patient Register at the National Board of Health and Welfare".

    Results: A total of 6,029 patient claims filed after orthopaedic surgery were assessed during the study period. Of those, 3,336 (55%) were determined to be adverse events, which received financial compensation. Hospital-acquired infections and sepsis were the most common causes of adverse events (n = 741; 22%). The surgical procedure that caused the highest rate of adverse events was "decompression of spinal cord and nerve roots" (code ABC**), with 168 adverse events of 17,507 hospitals discharges (1%). One in five (36 of 168; 21.4%) injured patient was seriously disabled or died.

    Conclusions: We conclude that patients undergoing spinal surgery run the highest risk of being severely injured and that these patients also experienced a high degree of serious disability. The most common adverse event was related to hospital acquired infections. Claims data obtained in a no-fault system have a high potential for identifying adverse events and learning from them.

  • 99431.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care.
    Ericsson, Carin
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine.
    Andersson, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care.
    Elfström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Health and Developmental Care.
    High Rate of Implementation of Proposed Actions for Improvement With the Healthcare Failure Mode Effect Analysis Method: Evaluation of 117 Analyses2018In: Journal of patient safety, ISSN 1549-8417, E-ISSN 1549-8425, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 17-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to investigate what kind of impact the Healthcare Failure Mode Effect Analysis (HFMEA) had on the organization in 1 county council in Sweden and to evaluate the method of working for multidisciplinary teams performing HFMEA. Three main outcome measures were used: the quality of the documentation from the HFMEAs, fulfillment of the primary goal of the HFMEA, and, finally, whether proposed actions for improvement were implemented.

    METHODS: The study involved retrospective analysis of the documentation from 117 performed HFMEAs from 3 hospitals in the county council of Östergötland, Sweden, and interviews or questionnaires with team leaders and managers between 2006 and 2010.

    RESULTS: A proposed change in the organizational structure was the most common issue in the analyses. Eighty-nine percent of the written reports were of high quality. A median of 10 serious risks were detected, and 10 proposed actions (median) were made. In 78% of the HFMEAs, all or a large part of these had been implemented a few years afterward. We were unable to find factors that promoted the rate of implementation of proposed actions. Seventy-eight percent of the managers were completely satisfied with the results of the HFMEA. The mean cost per risk analysis was &OV0556;1909.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most of the proposed actions were implemented. The use of HFMEA can be improved using fewer team leaders but with more experience. The work involved in writing a report can be reduced without loss of impact on the organization.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially.

  • 99432.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Security.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Patientsäkerhetsdialog: lärande och kunskapsspridning för förbättrad säkerhetskultur2010In: Implementering: teori och tillämpning inom hälso- och sjukvård / [ed] Per Nilsen, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, p. 263-Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågor kring implementering av forskningsbaserad kunskap i hälso- och sjukvårdens verksamhet får allt större uppmärksamhet. Det så kallade gapet mellan produktion av forskningsresultat och vad som nyttiggörs i vården diskuteras i dag som ett stort problem, såväl för samhället som för de individer som inte erbjuds bästa möjliga vård. Denna bok utgör en introduktion till teoribildning och forskningsrön inom flera kunskapsområden som har relevans för frågor kring implementering inom hälso- och sjukvården. Samtliga författare är verksamma som forskare vid den tvärvetenskapliga institutionen för medicin och hälsa vid Linköpings universitet. Boken vänder sig till studenter, lärare och forskare som intresserar sig för implementeringsfrågor samt till dem som arbetar praktiskt med implementerings- och förändringsarbete inom hälso- och sjukvård. Läs mer om redaktören Läs mer om doktorandkursen IMPLEMENTERING ht 2011 Linköpings Universitet

  • 99433.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Olai, Anders
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Spinal Surgery.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Patient Security. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tropp, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden: A comparison of patient claims data and national quality register (Swespine) data2011In: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 82, no 6, p. 727-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Our knowledge of complications and adverse events in spinal surgery is limited, especially concerning incidence and consequences. We therefore investigated adverse events in spine surgery in Sweden by comparing patient claims data from the County Councils' Mutual Insurance Company register with data from the National Swedish Spine Register (Swespine).

    Methods: We analyzed patient claims (n = 182) to the insurance company after spine surgery performed between 2003 and 2005. The medical records of the patients filing these claims were reviewed and compared with Swespine data for the same period.

    Results: Two-thirds (119/182, 65%) of patients who claimed economic compensation from the insurance company were registered in Swespine. Of the 210 complications associated with these 182 claims, only 74 were listed in Swespine. The most common causes of compensated injuries (n = 139) were dural lesions (n = 40) and wound infections (n = 30). Clinical outcome based on global assessment, leg pain, disability, and quality of health was worse for patients who claimed economic compensation than for the total group of Swespine patients.

    Interpretation: We found considerable under-reporting of complications in Swespine. Dural lesions and infections were not well recorded, although they were important reasons for problems and contributed to high levels of disability. By analyzing data from more than one source, we obtained a better understanding of the patterns of adverse events and outcomes after spine surgery.

  • 99434.
    Öhrn, Annica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center for Health and Developmental Care, Patient Safety.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Social Medicine and Public Health Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Patient safety dialogue: evaluation of an intervention aimed at achieving an improved patient safety culture2011In: Journal of patient safety, ISSN 1549-8425, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 185-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Patient Safety Dialogue, a local intervention inspired by walk round-style approaches, was implemented in 2005 in a Swedish county council to achieve a positive patient safety culture in health care. This paper evaluates the results and changes after 5 years of the Patient Safety Dialogue in 50 departments (37 medical and 13 psychiatric) in 3 hospitals.

    METHODS: The patient safety culture maturity was rated on 5 levels that correspond with the Manchester Patient Safety Assessment Framework. The assessment was based on information supplied by the departments and discussions between clinical leaders and staff members with special patient safety assignments and representatives from a patient safety unit. Three patient safety areas were assessed: hospital-acquired infections, outcome measurements, and general patient safety. Each department was assessed 3 times: at baseline and at follow-ups at 18 and 36 months. Average scores were calculated for each of the 3 safety areas on all occasions. The departments were classified into 3 types of trajectories on the basis of the development of their scores over time.

    RESULTS: More than two-thirds of the departments attained higher scores in round 3 than in round 1. Seventy-eight percent of the departments in the general patient safety area were categorized as continuously improving or developing, compared with 68% for outcome measurement and 50% for hospital-acquired infection. Approximately one-third was categorized as nonimproving, with scores in round 3 lower than or equal to the scores in round 1. The medical departments had higher scores than the psychiatric departments in all rounds.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most of the 50 departments were evaluated to have improved their patient safety culture during the 5 years of the Patient Safety Dialogue, suggesting that the intervention is effective in supporting an improved patient safety culture. However, one-third of the departments did not improve during the 5-year study period.

  • 99435.
    Öhrn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Patient Security.
    Tropp, Hans
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.
    Scheer, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Neuroscience and Locomotion, Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Orthopaedic Centre, Department of Orthopaedics Linköping.
    Horn, Bengt
    Rutberg, Hans
    Elfström, Johan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Care, Thoracic Surgery.
    Flest vårdskador inom ortopedi, visar Patientförsäkringen. Skadepanorama och vårdkonsumtion för denna patientgrupp har klartlagts.2006In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 103, p. 534-539Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

       

  • 99436.
    Öhrn, Philip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Åstrand, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Direct Lift Control of Fighter Aircraft2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Direct lift control for aircraft has been around in the aeronautical industry for decades but is mainly used in commercial aircraft with dedicated direct lift control surfaces. The focus of this thesis is to investigate if direct lift control is feasible for a fighter aircraft, similar to Saab JAS 39 Gripen, without dedicated control surfaces.

    The modelled system is an aircraft that is inherently unstable and contains nonlinearities both in its aerodynamics and in the form of limited control surface deflection and deflection rates. The dynamics of the aircraft are linearised around a flight case representative of a landing scenario. Direct lift control is then applied to give a more immediate relation from pilot stick input to change in flight path angle while also preserving the pitch attitude.

    Two different control strategies, linear quadratic control and model predictive control, were chosen for the implementation. Since fighter aircraft are systems with fast dynamics it was important to limit the computational time. This constraint motivated the use of specialised methods to speed up the optimisation of the model predictive controller.

    Results from simulations in a nonlinear simulation environment supplied by Saab, as well as tests in high-fidelity flight simulation rigs with a pilot, proved that direct lift control is feasible for the investigated fighter aircraft. Sufficient control authority and performance when controlling the flight path angle were observed. Both developed controllers have their own advantages and which strategy is the most suitable depends on what the user prioritises. Pilot workload during landing as well as precision at touch down were deemed similar to conventional control.

  • 99437.
    Öhrn, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Sjöblom, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Underhållskoncept: tillståndsbaserat underhåll på smörj- och hydrauloljesystem2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This report describes our ten week long thesis work which is the last task in our education in mechanical engineering at Linköpings University. The project has been performed at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB’s service department. The company which is located in Finspång produces, sells and provides service for steam and gas turbines around the world.

    The purpose of this project is to help Siemens develop their maintenance programs for two of the auxiliary systems which are a part of the complete steam turbine system. These are lube and control oil systems.

    The project is restricted to two of Siemens maintenance products, No Stop Check (NSC) and the annual Safety Inspection (SI). Some parts of the major and limited overhauls have also been investigated.

    During the work different maintenance concepts have been investigated and evaluated. Focus has been centered on finding possible solutions that allow maintenance work while the steam turbine system is running. The economical consequences are enormous if the turbine has to be shut down. This due to today’s expanded capacity of the plants.

    Many discussions and interviews have taken place during the project. Information has also been obtained from documents, literature and the Internet. A Failure Mode and Effect Criticality Analysis (FMECA) has also been input for the task, especially while maintenance measures and concepts were discussed.

    The present maintenance that Siemens supplies are mostly based on time and experience. We have tried to implement a more condition based maintenance. A lot of time has therefore been spent finding methods for reliable measuring of the machinery condition.

    The work has generated a lot of different recommendations for the future maintenance. These are more or less condition based and tailor-made for Siemens steam turbine systems. We hope that these propositions will be used in the future maintenance work and also to give some new ideas on how to develop the condition based maintenance at Siemens.

  • 99438.
    Öhrström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Cluster Analysis with Meaning: Detecting Texts that Convey the Same Message2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Textual duplicates can be hard to detect as they differ in words but have similar semantic meaning. At Etteplan, a technical documentation company, they have many writers that accidentally re-write existing instructions explaining procedures. These "duplicates" clutter the database.

    This is not desired because it is duplicate work. The condition of the database will only deteriorate as the company expands. This thesis attempts to map where the problem is worst, and also how to calculate how many duplicates there are.

    The corpus is small, but written in a controlled natural language called Simplified Technical English. The method uses document embeddings from doc2vec and clustering by use of HDBSCAN* and validation using Density-Based Clustering Validation index (DBCV), to chart the problems. A survey was sent out to try to determine a threshold value of when documents stop being duplicates, and then using this value, a theoretical duplicate count was calculated.

  • 99439.
    Öhrström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    The Indie Developer’s guide to immersive tweens and animation: What you need to know as a programmer to animate and increase immersion2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Some games are grabbing your attention more than others. Some even do it so well people even lose track of time and their surroundings.

    Why does this happen? And how can the effect be harnessed for your own game?

    This report studies what immersion is and subjects related to it, such as richness and flow, and then how and what kind of easy animations and effects that build on these concepts that you can create in a 2D puzzle game. Most of the effects, animations and ideas can probably be carried over to other game types without much difficulty if you want a more immersive product.

    In the end, the player experience is tested by two surveys to see if players were immersed, PANAS and IEQ. The results go over what kind of effects were implemented and the surveys showed that most players were a bit immersed and that they enjoyed the graphics of the game.

  • 99440.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN).
    Growing into Voting: Election Turnout among Young People and Habit Formation2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis contains an introduction and four essays that together address the issues of turnout and habitual voting. Although voting is less unequal than other forms of political participation, it is still biased in favour of more socially affluent citizens.  One way to achieve more equal participation is to increase the general turnout. This is the implication of the `law of dispersion', formulated by Tingsten in 1937, which states that as turnout increases, participatory equality also increases. In Essay I, co-written with Mikael Persson and Maria Solevid, we revisit Tingsten's law and find new empirical support for it.

    One possible path to improving general turnout is the formation of voting habits. It is argued by some scholars that voting is a habit formed early on in life, when young people encounter their first elections after coming of age. It is, however, still a matter of debate as to whether voting is an act of habit. Three of the four essays in this thesis tackle this question in various ways. In Essay II, I study voting among young people who encounter their first election in different social contexts depending on their age, and how these differing contexts affect their propensity to vote in their first and second election. In Essay III, I examine whether experiencing a European Parliament election with a low turnout as a first election affects the likelihood of casting a vote in a subsequent national parliamentary election. In Essay IV, co-written with Sven Oskarsson, we study student mock elections, which constitute the first, albeit hypothetical, election experience for many young people.

    The main result is that the first election a young person faces is not as important as has been claimed in previous research. Regardless of whether the initial experience takes place in a context that encourages turnout or the first election encountered is a low-stimulus election that fails to draw crowds to the polls, there is no substantial impact on turnout in subsequent elections. One implication of this finding is that lowering the voting age is not likely to increase voting rates, not even in the longer term.

    List of papers
    1. Voter Turnout and Political Equality: Testing the ‘Law of Dispersion’ in a Swedish Natural Experiment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Voter Turnout and Political Equality: Testing the ‘Law of Dispersion’ in a Swedish Natural Experiment
    2013 (English)In: Politics, ISSN 0263-3957, E-ISSN 1467-9256, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 172-184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    According to the ‘law of dispersion’, the level of inequality in political participation is higher when voter turnout is low. We empirically test this hypothesis by evaluating levels of voter turnout in the 2010 Swedish election to the Västra Götaland county council and in the 2011 re-election for the same county council. The re-election voter turnout was reduced by almost half, from 80.6 per cent to 44.1 per cent. Our results support the law of dispersion: the level of inequality in participation substantially increased between young and old, rich and poor, low and high educated and politically interested and uninterested.

    Keywords
    voter turnout, voter participation, political equality, law of dispersion, re-elections
    National Category
    Political Science (excluding Public Administration Studies and Globalisation Studies)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124361 (URN)10.1111/1467-9256.12012 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-01-27 Created: 2016-01-27 Last updated: 2018-08-14
  • 99441.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB) Stockholm.
    Invandrade och valdeltagande2006In: Valets mekanismer / [ed] Hanna Bäck & Mikael Gilljam, Malmö: Liber, 2006, 1, p. 61-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 99442.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB).
    Svenskt valdeltagande under hundra år2012Report (Other academic)
  • 99443.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB).
    Valdeltagande vid omvalen 20112012Report (Other academic)
  • 99444.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statistiska centralbyrån (SCB).
    Vilka valde att välja?: Deltagandet i valen 20142015Report (Other academic)
  • 99445.
    Öhrvall, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Institutet för Näringslivsforskning (IFN).
    Voter Turnout2015In: Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics / [ed] Jon Pierre, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015, 1, p. 229-245Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For several decades, Sweden has had a relatively high voter turnout, both in relation to the first half of the 20th century and in comparison with other countries. Still, even in this high-turnout context substantial differences in turnout can be found when comparing different population groups. Demographic characteristics and socioeconomic resources are related to the propensity to vote. A more general conclusion is that voter turnout is associated with a higher level of equality in participation. The increase in turnout in recent Swedish elections has led to a more equal participation. 

  • 99446. Öhrwall, G
    et al.
    Flink, R.F.
    Tchaplyguine, M.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Physical Chemistry .
    Lundwall, M
    Marinbo, R.R.T.
    Naves de Brito, A
    Sorensen, S.L.
    Gisselbrecht, M
    Feifel, R
    Rander, T
    Lindblad, A
    Schulz, J
    Borve, K.J.
    Saethre, L.J.
    Mårtensson, N
    Svensson, S
    Björneholm, O
    The electronic structure of free water clusters probed by Auger electron spectroscopy2005In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 123, p. 054310-054310Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 99447.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Collaborative Innovation for Entering Emerging Markets2010In: Proceedings of the 3rd ISPIM Innovation Symposium: Managing the Art of Innovation: Turning Concepts into Reality / [ed] Huizingh K.R.E., Conn S., Torkkeli M. and Bitrain I., ISPIM , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to investigate collaborative innovation in business networks for small environmental technology companies entering an emerging market (EM). Export of environmental technology solutions to emerging economies involves high investment opportunities and high growth potential, but also high risk. For example, large-scale demonstrator equipment proving the function of the environmental technology solution might be needed, which usually requires cooperation between several companies and supporting actors. Results from empirical studies presented in this paper confirm the difficulties to export environmental technology solutions to EMs for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Collaboration in business networks appears to be an efficient means to take on larger assignments, and business models built on principles of product service systems (PSS) where the technology can be integrated, and functionality is of main focus. A preliminary business development process model for small firms’ environmental technology export to EMs is developed and presented.

  • 99448.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Collaborative product development and IT communication infrastructures: a study in the Swedish aerospace industry1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The internet and internet related technologies, especially web technology, provide new means for improved communication between different geographically separated organizations in collaborative system development projects. With focus on the aerospace industry and complex systems engineering, this research has three goals:

    1. To study the need for communication between the parties in collaborative system development projects,
    2. To assess the use of web-based communication between these parties, and
    3. To suggest a model for analyzing effects of use of internet and web-based communication.

    The study has lead to the following results. First, a need for improved communication between parties in joint development programs was identified. A typical system development project lasts several years, includes about one hundred engineers simultaneously working on different sites, exchanging hundreds of thousands of pages of text, tables and figures between them. In every participating company, development integrates engineers from several technical disciplines, from conceptual design to test and integration, marketing and sales personnel, the purchasing department for all contractual issues, and manufacturing and production process specialists. Efficient communication is required if it shall be possible to reduce total development cost and time, and improve process or number of engineering changes, and facilitate project management. Second, it was found that while the internet is used for many other business applications, it is rarely used in complex product development.

    There are several explanations. Companies hesitate to further invest in new IT tools, since cost reduction programs prevail in most companies. Moreover, due to the fast developing and still immature internet related technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about its potential and limitations. Therefore, IS/IT project objectives tend to be unclear and not solidly established with the company strategy. As a consequence, internally driven IS/IT projects are not empowered enough in terms of financial and organizational support, to meet these unclear objectives. On the other hand, externally driven IS/IT projects are often subject to renegotiations between buyer and software provider.

    Several small-scale web communication solutions were found implemented within organizations. However, the underdeveloped internet infrastructure renders involvement of externa! parties, such as customers and suppliers, and required scalability difficult. Another explanation can be that the company's product development function is traditionally a well-protected core activity. There is a natural resistance against using an open network such as the internet to communicate product development information with other organizations. The decision to implement web­ based communication is therefore strategic, and concerns which information that should be shared, to which party, and to what extent.

    The conclusion is that there is a need for better decision support for IT investments, and for better knowledge about the consequence of using web-based tools in collaborative system development. Therefore, an analysis model combining qualitative and quantitative studies is suggested in order to investigate the impact of web-based communication on the collaborative system development process, from the perspective of both buyer and supplier organizations.

  • 99449.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Interorganizational IT Support for Collaborative Product Development2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As product complexity increases and markets become more global, companies tend to collaborate with customers, suppliers and partners in business process activities previously carried out within a single firm. This is observed notably also in product development. Product development is an information and communication intense activity, and collaborative product development requires efficient communication between the participating firms, both during an ongoing project and afterwards when the product is in service. When more than one firm is involved, questions linked to business aspects regarding what information to share and how to communicate the information between the firms become important. With changing partners and competing supply chains this is a delicate management issue.

    The objective of this dissertation is to assess characteristics of communication in collaborative product development, in order to identify requirements for supporting IT tools.

    Empirically, the research was conducted in two parts. Part I was conducted in the aircraft industry, where a systems integrator firm’s relationship to its major suppliers was investigated. In Part II, collaborative product development between a buyer and several suppliers organized in networks was investigated. These studies were complemented with studies of IS/IT development and implementation projects. Theoretically, it is based on the literature on product development, supply chain management, and IT support for business relationships.

    Concerning the buyer-supplier dyad it was found that there was not one collaborative product development process in common between the firms, but rather coordination between the firms’ processes. Concerning the relationship between buyer and supplier network, it was found that one of the suppliers represents the network in a dyadic buyer-supplier relationship. Within the supplier network, the firms conducted interorganizational integrated product development, which means that the functions were represented by several firms. This implied that management practices must respect the special characteristic of small and medium-sized firms in collaboration.

    The investigation of information and communication in collaborative product development in dyads and networks led to a list of requirements on IOIS. The findings were concluded in a matrix that presents characteristics of product development in general, product development in dyads, and product development in supplier networks, and a mapping of the requirements on IOIS.

    Since the business relationship is the major difference between product development in-house and collaborative product development, it was considered appropriate to take a supply chain view on the requirements for an IOIS. It was found that support is needed both for the procurement and the product development process. Moreover, it was found that project management support can significantly improve the efficiency of the development process. Improvements of the effectiveness regard support for the product life cycle, and for the long-term relationship between the parties.

    It was concluded that an IOIS for collaborative product development should be based on standard technology and support standard formats, in order to make it possible for a firm to simultaneously manage its own systems and proprietary information, and exchange information with partners when needed. 

  • 99450.
    Öhrwall Rönnbäck, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Berg, Per-Olof
    Stockholm School of Entrepreneurship.
    Svensk innovationskraft: Visionen måste vara starkare än motståndet2004Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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