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  • 1.
    Grönwall, Christina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Content-Based Model Matching using Geometric Features2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an approach that utilizes efficient geometric feature extraction and a matching method that takes articulation into account. It is primarily applicable for man-made objects. First the object is analyzed to extract geometric features, dimensions and rotation are estimated and typical parts, so-called functional parts, are identified. Examples of functional parts are a box's lid, a building's chimney, or a battle tank's barrel. We assume a model library with full annotation. The geometric features are matched with the model descriptors, to gain fast and early rejection of non-relevant models. After this pruning the objectis matched with relevant, usually few, library models. We propose a sequential matching, where the number of functional parts increases in each iteration. The division into parts increases the possibility for correct matching result when several similar models are available. The approach is exemplifi…ed with an vehicle recognition application, where some vehicles have functional parts.

  • 2.
    Härkegård, Ola
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Glad, Torkel
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Backstepping Design for Flight Path Angle Control2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A nonlinear approach to flight path angle control is presented. Using backstepping, a globally stabilizing control law is derived. Although the nonlinear nature of the lift force is considered, the pitching moment to be produced is only linear in the measured states. Thus, the resulting control law is much simpler than if feedback linearization had been used. The free parameters that spring from the backstepping design are used to achieve a desired linear behavior around the operating point.

  • 3.
    Hu, Xiao-Li
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Basic Convergence Result for Particle Filtering2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic nonlinear filtering problem for dynamical systems is considered. Approximating the optimal filter estimate by particle filter methods has become perhaps the most common and useful method in recent years. Many variants of particle filters have been suggested, and there is an extensive literature on the theoretical aspects of the quality of the approximation. Still a clear cut result that the approximate solution, for unbounded functions, converges to the true optimal estimate as the number of particles tends to infinity seems to be lacking. It is the purpose of this contribution to give such a basic convergence result for a rather general class of unbounded functions. Furthermore, a general framework, including many of the particle filter algorithms as special cases, is given.

  • 4.
    Hu, Xiao-Li
    et al.
    Chinese Academy of Sciences, China.
    Schön, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Basic Convergence Result for Particle Filtering2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic nonlinear filtering problem for dynamical systems is considered. Approximating the optimal filter estimate by particle filter methods has become perhaps the most common and useful method in recent years. Many variants of particle filters have been suggested, and there is an extensive literature on the theoretical aspects of the quality of the approximation. Still a clear cut result that the approximate solution, for unbounded functions, converges to the true optimal estimate as the number of particles tends to infinity seems to be lacking. It is the purpose of this contribution to give such a basic convergence result for a rather general class of unbounded functions. Furthermore, a general framework, including many of the particle filter algorithms as special cases, is given.

  • 5.
    Bergman, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Bayesian Approach to Terrain-Aided Navigation1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The terrain-aided navigation problem is a highly nonlinear estimation problem with application to aircraft navigation and missile guidance. In this work the Bayesian approach is used to estimate the aircraft position. With a quantization of the state space an implementable algorithm is found. Problems with low excitation, rough terrain and parallel position hypothesis are handled in a reliable way. The algorithm is evaluated using simulations on real terrain databases.

  • 6.
    Bergman, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Bayesian Approach to Terrain-Aided Navigation II1997Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The terrain-aided navigation problem is a highly nonlinear estimation problem with application to aircraft navigation and missile guidance. In this work the Bayesian approach is used to estimate the aircraft position. With a quantization of the state space an implementable algorithm is found. Problems with low excitation, rough terrain and parallel position hypothesis are handled in a reliable way. The algorithm is evaluated using simulations on real terrain databases.

  • 7.
    Moberg, Stig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhr, Jonas
    ABB AB, Crane Systems, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Benchmark Problem for Robust Control of a Multivariable Nonlinear Flexible Manipulator2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A benchmark problem for robust feedback control of a manipulator is presented. The system to be controlled is an uncertain nonlinear two link manipulator with elastic gear transmissions. The gear transmission is described by nonlinear friction and elasticity. The system is uncertain according to a parametric uncertainty description and due to uncertain disturbances affecting both the motors and the tool. The system should be controlled by a discrete-time controller that optimizes performance for given robustness requirements. The control problem concerns only disturbance rejection. The proposed model is validated by experiments on a real industrial manipulator.

  • 8.
    Moberg, Stig
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Öhr, Jonas
    ABB AB, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Benchmark Problem for Robust Feedback Control of a Flexible ManipulatorA benchmark problem for robust feedback control of a flexible manipulator2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A benchmark problem for robust feedback control of a flexible manipulator is presented. The system to be controlled is a four-mass system subject to input saturation, nonlinear gear elasticity, model uncertainties, and load disturbances affecting both the motor and the arm. The system should be controlled by a discrete-time controller that optimizes performance for given robustness requirements. Four suggested solutions are presented, and even though the solutions are based on different design methods, they give comparable results.

  • 9.
    Borga, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Binary Competition Tree for Reinforcement Learning1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A robust, general and computationally simple reinforcement learning system is presented. It uses a channel representation which is robust and continuous. The accumulated knowledge is represented as a reward prediction function in the outer product space of the input- and output channel vectors. Each computational unit generates an output simply by a vector-matrix multiplication and the response can therefore be calculated fast. The response and a prediction of the reward are calculated simultaneously by the same system, which makes TD-methods easy to implement if needed. Several units can cooperate to solve more complicated problems. A dynamic tree structure of linear units is grown in order to divide the knowledge space into a sufficiently number of regions in which the reward function can be properly described. The tree continuously tests split- and prune criteria in order to adapt its size to the complexity of the problem.

  • 10.
    Edström, Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Causal Propagation Algorithm for Switched Bond Graphs using Bicausality1998Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Change Detection and Segmentation Toolbox for Matlab1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the algorithms implemented in a Matlab toolbox for change detection and data segmentation. Functions are provided for simulating changes, choosing design parameters and detecting abrupt changes in signals.

  • 12.
    McKelvey, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Combined State-Space Identification Algorithm Applied to Data From a Modal Analysis Experiment on a Separation System1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses identification of state-space models from impulse response or initial value experiments. Kung's geometrical realization algorithm is combined with classical nonlinear parametric optimization to improve the quality of the estimated state-space model. These ideas are applied on real data originating from a modal analysis experiment on a separation system. The results indicate that the parametric optimization step increases the model quality significantly compared with the initial model the realization algorithm provides.

  • 13.
    Ljung, Lennart
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comment on Leakage in Adaptive Algorithms1992Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    By "leakage" in adaptive control and adaptive signal processing algorithm is understood that a pull term towards a given parameter value is introduced. Leakage has been introduced both as trick to be able to prove certain convergence results as an ad hoc means for obtaining less drifting parameters. Leakage is the same as regularization and we explain what benefits - from an estimation point of view - this gives.

  • 14.
    Hansen, Peo
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A Common Market, a Common ‘Problem’: Migration andEuropean Integration Before and After the Launching of the Single Market2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Since the ratification of the Amsterdam Treaty in 1999 the European Union is emerging as a key actor within migration policy. But in order to understand the current development it is important to have a clear picture of the EU’s historical trajectory in the field of migration. In this paper the discussion thus focus esexclusively on the pre-Amsterdam era. It sets out with a brief historical overview of the early decades of European integration and accounts for labour migration’s crucial function in the founding logic of the EEC. While supranational competence over migration policy was very limited during this period, the discussion shows that the way in which competence was allocated between supranational and national levels would be highly consequential for the future development. Following this, the major part of the paper is devoted to an examination of the Community’s transformation during the second half of 1980s and the first half of the 1990s. The measures introduced under the banner of the Single Market, particularly those pertaining to the free movement of persons, instigated a development whereby immigration and asylum would be progressively treated as ‘common’ Community matters. Equally important, the paper shows that Community activity in the area of migration also addressed a range of other matters, many of which went beyond the issue of people moving across external and internal borders. From then on, Brussels began to address the situation of ethnic minorities of migrant background, thus bringing the growing problems of ethnic exclusion and racism on to the EU agenda. On the whole, it was the question of how to better ‘integrate’ ‘legal immigrants’ and ethnic minorities into Community societies that received the most attention. In this fashion, the present paper examines the EU’s interventions in the area of immigration and asylum together with its efforts in the realm of migrant ‘integration’. Although very few accounts have undertaken to analyze jointly the EU’s approaches to immigration and migrant ‘integration’, this paper demonstrates that in order to provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues in question, these policy areas need to be approached as inextricably intertwined and as mutually conditioning.

  • 15.
    Emanuelsson, Pär
    et al.
    Ericsson AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, TCSLAB - Theoretical Computer Science Laboratory. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comparative Study of Industrial Static Analysis Tools (extended version)2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost all software contains defects. Some defects are found easily while others are never found, typically because they emerge seldom or not at all. Some defects that emerge relatively often even go unnoticed simply because they are not perceived as errors or are not suffciently severe. Software defects may give rise to several types of errors, ranging from logical/functional ones (the program sometimes computes incorrect values) to runtime errors (the program typically crashes), or resource leaks (performance of the program degrades possibly until the program freezes or crashes). Programs may also contain subtle security vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malicious attackers to gain control over computers.    Fixing defects that suddenly emerge can be extremely costly in particular if found at the end of the development cycle, or worse: after deployment. Many simple defects in modern programming languages can be found by modern compilers, e.g. in statically typed languages. But the predominating method for finding defects is testing. Testing has the potential of finding most types of defects, however, testing is costly and no amount of testing will find all defects. Testing is also problematic because it can be applied only to executable code, i.e. rather late in the development process. Alternatives to testing, such as data°ow analysis and formal verification, have been known since the 1970s but have not gained widespread acceptance outside academia|that is, until recently; lately several commercial tools for detecting runtime error conditions at compile time have emerged. The tools build on static analysis and can be used to find runtime errors as well as resource leaks and even some security vulnerabilities statically, i.e. without executing the code. This paper is a survey and comparison of three market leading static analysis tools: PolySpace Verifier, Coverity Prevent and Klocwork K7. The list is by no means exhaustive, and the list of competitors is steadily increasing, but the three tools represent state-of-the-art in the field at the moment.

    The main objective of this study is (1) to identify significant static analysis functionality provided by the tools, but not addressed in a normal compiler, and (2) to survey the underlying supporting technology. The goal is not to provide a ranking of the tools; nor is it to provide a comprehensive survey of all functionality provided by the tools. Providing such a ranking is problematic for at least two reasons: Static analysis is generally only part of the functionality provided by the tool; for instance, Klocwork K7 supports both refactoring and software metrics which are not supported by the two other tools. Even if restricting attention only to static analysis functionality the tools provide largely non-overlapping functionality. Secondly, even when the tools seemingly provide the same functionality (e.g. detection of dereferencing of null pointers) their solutions are often not comparable; each tool typically finds defects which are not found by any of the other tools.

    Studying the internals of commercial and proprietary tools is not without problems|in particular, it is impossible to get full information about technical solutions. However, some technical information is publicly available in manuals and white papers; some of the tools also originate from academic tools which have been extensively described in research journals and conference proceedings. While technical solutions may have changed since then, we believe that such information is still largely valid. We have also consulted representatives from all three providers with the purpose to validate our descriptions of the tools. Still it must be pointed out that the descriptions of suggested technical solutions is subject to a certain amount of guessing in some respects.

    The rest of the report is organized as follows: In Section 2 we define what we mean by the term static analysis and survey some elementary concepts and preconditions; in particular, the trade off between precision and analysis time. Section 3 contains a description of basic principles of static analysis. In Sections 4{6 we survey the static analysis functionality provided by PolySpace Verifier/Desktop, Coverity Prevent and Klocwork K7 focusing in particular on the support for the C and C++ programming languages. Section 7 addresses the complementary issue of programming guidelines such as those of The Motor Software Reliability Association (MISRA). Section 8 contains a qualitative comparison of the three tools summing up their relative merits and shortcomings. The section also surveys several industrial evaluations of the tools over time at Ericsson, in particular involving the products from Coverity and Klocwork. Section 9 contains conclusions.

  • 16.
    Lindskog, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sjöberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comparison Between Semi-Physical and Black-Box Neural Net Modeling: A Case Study1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers identification of a solar-heated house. Using prior physical knowledge and a semi-physical modeling procedure, a set of physically motivated regressors are determined. With these as inputs a reasonable neural network model of the plant is estimated

  • 17.
    Hagenblad, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Klein, Inger
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Comparison of Two Methods for Stochastic Fault Detection: the Parity Space Approach and Principal Component Analysis2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares two methods for fault detection and isolation in a stochastic setting. We assume additive faults on input and output signals, and stochastic unmeasurable disturbances. The first method is the parity space approach, analyzed in a stochastic setting. The stochastic parity space approach is similar to a Kalman filter, but uses an FIR fiter, while the Kalman filter is IIR. This enables faster response to changes. The second method is to use PCA, principal component analysis. In this case no model is needed, but fault isolation will be more difficult. The methods are illustrated on a simulation model of an F-16 aircraft. The fault detection probabilities can be calculated explicitly for the parity space approach, and are verified by simulations. The simulations of the PCA method suggest that the residuals have similar fault detection and isolation capabilities as for the stochastic parity space approach.

  • 18.
    Johannesson, Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedbrant, Johan
    Center of Technology Transfer, Institute of Technology, Linköping Universitgy, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Bengt
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Health and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A computer simulation model for cost-effectiveness analysis of cardiovascular disease prevention1991Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a computer simulation model for cost-effectiveness analysis of cardiovascular disease prevention is presented. The computer simulation model was written in Turbo Pascal to be used on an IBM-PC compatible. The model was based on the 8-year logistic multivariate risk equations for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke from the Framingham heart study, but the regression coefficients can easily be changed if local data exists. The main advantages of the model are that it is easy to use, transparent, and flexible. The model was mainly developed for scientific purposes, but should be useful also for educational purposes and clinical decision analysis. The modelling approach should also be useful in many other medical areas.

  • 19.
    Gunnarsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Blom, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Concept of Power Control in Cellular Radio Systems1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the rapid expansion of the cellular radio systems market, and the need for wireless multimedia services, the available resources have to be utilized efficently. A common strategy is to control the transmitter powers of the mobiles and base stations. However, when applying power control to real systems, a number of challenges are prevalent. The performance is limited by time delays, nonlinearities and the availability of measurements and adequate quality measures. In this paper we present a Power Regulator concept, which comprises an Unknown Input Observer, a Quality Mapper and a Power Control Algorithm. The applicability of the concept is exemplified using frequency hopping GSM, and simulations indicate benefits of employing the proposed concept.

  • 20.
    Kaijser, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Contraction Theorem for Markov Chains on General State Spaces2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Let {X(n), n=0,1,2,...} denote a Markov chain on a general state space and let f be a nonnegative function. The purpose of this paper is to present conditions which will imply that f(X(n)) tends to 0 a.s., as n tends to infinity. As an application we obtain a result on "synchronisation for random dynamical systems". At the end of the paper we also present a result on  "convergence in distribution" for random dynamical system on complete, separable, metric spaces, a result, which is a generalisation of  a similar result for random dynamical systems on compact, metric spaces.

  • 21.
    Ericson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Converse to the Sampling Theorem1982Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Various forms of the sampling theorem assure that any signal x(t) which satisfies a certain bandwidth limitation can be uniquely reconstructed from its values at equally spaced sample points. Inherent in all these results is that the reconstruction is invariant under timeshifts. Our present result is that if such a time shift invariance is required, a certain bandwidth limitation is not only a sufficient but also a necessary condition for reconstruction of a signal from its sample values.

  • 22.
    Löfberg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Convex Relaxation of a Minimax MPC Controller2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model predictive control (MPC) for systems with bounded disturbances is studied. A minimax formulation with optimization of the worst-case scenario is defined and conservatively approximated using a relaxation (the S-procedure), yielding a semidefinite optimization problem. Possible extensions are discussed and it is argued that the approach constitutes a promising framework for minimax MPC.

  • 23.
    Berntsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mpinganzima, Lydie
    National University of Rwanda, Box 117, Butare, Rwanda.
    A Data Assimilation Approach to Coefficient Identification2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermal conductivity properties of a material can be determined experimentally by using temperature measurements taken at specified locations inside the material. We examine a situation where the properties of a (previously known) material changed locally. Mathematically we aim to find the coefficient k(x) in the stationary heat equation (kTx)x = 0;under the assumption that the function k(x) can be parametrized using only a few degrees of freedom.

    The coefficient identification problem is solved using a least squares approach; where the (non-linear) control functional is weighted according to the distribution of the measurement locations. Though we only discuss the 1D case the ideas extend naturally to 2D or 3D. Experimentsdemonstrate that the proposed method works well.

     

     

     

     

  • 24.
    Carvalho Bittencourt, André
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Saarinen, Kari
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Sander Tavallaey, Shiva
    ABB Corporate Research.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Data-Driven Method for Monitoring of Repetitive Systems: Applications to Robust Wear Monitoring of a Robot Joint2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for monitoring of systems that operate in a repetitive manner. Considering that data batches collected from a repetitive operation will be similar unless in the presence of an abnormality, a condition change is inferred by comparing the monitored data against a nominal batch. The method proposed considers the comparison of data in the distribution domain, which reveals information of the data amplitude. This is achieved with the use of kernel density estimates and the Kullback-Leibler distance. To decrease sensitivity to unknown disturbances while increasing sensitivity to faults, the use of a weighting vector is suggested which is chosen based on a labeled dataset. The framework is simple to implement and can be used without process interruption, in a batch manner. The method was developed with interests in industrial robotics where a repetitive behavior is commonly found. The problem of wear monitoring in a robot joint is studied based on data collected from a test-cycle. Real data from accelerated wear tests and simulations are considered. Promising results are achieved where the method output shows a clear response to the wear increases.

  • 25.
    Carvalho Bittencourt, André
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Saarinen, Kari
    ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden.
    Sander-Tavallaey, Shiva
    ABB Corporate Research Västerås, Sweden.
    A Data-Driven Method for Monitoring Systems that Operate Repetitively: Applications to Robust Wear Monitoring inan Industrial Robot Joint2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for condition monitoring of systems that operate in a repetitive manner. A data driven method is proposed that considers changes in the distribution of data samples obtained from multiple executions of one or several tasks. This is made possible with the use of kernel density estimators and the Kullback-Leibler distance measure between distributions. To increase robustness to unknown disturbances and sensitivity to faults, the use of a weighting function is suggested which can considerably improve detection performance. The method is very simple to implement, it does not require knowledge about the monitored system and can be used without process interruption, in a batch manner. The method is illustrated with applications to robust wear monitoring in a robot joint. Interesting properties of the application are presented through a real case study and simulations. The achieved results show that robust wear monitoring in industrial robot joints is made possible with the proposed method.

  • 26.
    Falkeborn, Rikard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Decomposition Algorithm for KYP-SDPs2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a structure exploiting algorithm for semidefinite programs derived from the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma, where some of the constraints appear as complicating constraints is presented. A decomposition algorithm is proposed, where the structure of the problem can be utilized. In a numerical example, where a controller that minimizes the sum of the H2-norm and the H-norm is designed, the algorithm is shown to be faster than SeDuMi and the special purpose solver KYPD.

  • 27.
    Wallin, Ragnar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gillberg, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Decomposition Approach for Solving KYP-SDPs2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Semidefinite programs originating from the Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma are convex optimization problems and there exist polynomial time algorithms that solve them. However, the number of variables is often very large making the computational time extremely long. Algorithms more efficient than general purpose solvers are thus needed. In this paper a generalized Benders decomposition algorithm is applied to the problem to improve efficiency.

  • 28.
    Nyberg, Mattias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Frisk, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Vehicular Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Derivation of the Minimal Polynomial Basis Approach to Linear Residual Generation2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental part of a fault diagnosis system is the residual generator. Here a new method, the minimal polynomial basis approach, for design of residual generators for linear systems, is presented. The residual generation problem is transformed into a problem of finding polynomial bases for null-spaces of polynomial matrices. This is a standard problem in established linear systems theory, which means that numerically efficient computational tools are generally available. It is shown that the minimal polynomial basis approach can find all possible residual generators and explicitly those of minimal order.

  • 29.
    Glad, S. T.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Differential Algebra Representation of the RGA2000Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Extentions of the RGA (relative gain array) technique to nonlinear systems are considered. The steady-state properties are given by an array of nonlinear functions. It is shown that the corresponding dynamic description can be calculated using a reduction algorithm from differential algebra.

  • 30.
    Nikkar, Samira
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordström, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A dual consistent summation-by-parts formulation for the linearized incompressible Navier-Stokes equations posed on deforming domains2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, well-posedness and dual consistency of the linearized incompressible Navier-Stokes equations posed on time-dependent spatial domains are studied. To simplify the derivation of the dual problem, the second order formulation is transformed to rst order form. Boundary conditions that simultaneously lead to well-posedness of the primal and dual problems are derived.

    We construct fully discrete nite di erence schemes on summation-byparts form, in combination with the simultaneous approximation technique. We prove energy stability and discrete dual consistency. Moreover, we show how to construct the penalty operators such that the scheme automatically adjusts to the variations of the spatial domain, and as a result, stability and discrete dual consistency follow simultaneously.

    The method is illustrated by considering a deforming time-dependent spatial domain in two dimensions. The numerical calculations are performed using high order operators in space and time. The results corroborate the stability of the scheme and the accuracy of the solution. We also show that linear functionals are superconverging. Additionally, we investigate the convergence of non-linear functionals and the divergence of the solution.

  • 31.
    Axehill, Daniel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Dual Gradient Projection Quadratic Programming Algorithm Tailored for Mixed Integer Predictive Control2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this work is to derive a Mixed Integer Quadratic Programming algorithm tailored for Model Predictive Control for hybrid systems. The Mixed Integer Quadratic Programming algorithm is built on the branch and bound method, where Quadratic Programming relaxations of the original problem are solved in the nodes of a binary search tree. The difference between these subproblems is often small and therefore it is interesting to be able to use a previous solution as a starting point in a new subproblem. This is referred to as a warm start of the solver. Because of its warm start properties, an algorithm that works similar to an active set method is desired. A drawback with classical active set methods is that they often require many iterations in order to find the active set in optimum. So-called gradient projection methods are known to be able to identify this active set very fast. In the algorithm presented in this report, an algorithm built on gradient projection and projection of a Newton search direction onto the feasible set is used. It is a variant of a previously presented algorithm by the authors and makes it straightforward to utilize the previous result, where it is shown how the Newton search direction for the dual MPC problem can be computed very efficiently using Riccati recursions. As in the previous work, this operation can be performed with linear computational complexity in the prediction horizon. Moreover, the gradient computation used in the gradient projection part of the algorithm is also tailored for the problem in order to decrase the computational complexity. Furthermore, is is shown how a Riccati recursion still can be useful in the case when the system of equations for the ordinary search directino is inconsistent. In numerical experiments, the algorithm shows good performance, and it seems like the gradient projection strategy efficiently cuts down the number of Newton steps necessary to compute in order to reach the solution. When the algorithm is used as a part of an MIQP solver for hybrid MPC, the performance is still very good for small problems. However, for more difficult problems, there still seems to be some more work to do in order to get the performance of the commercial state-of-the-art solver CPLEX.

  • 32.
    Niyobuhungiro, Japhet
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A duality approach for optimal decomposition in real interpolation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We use our previous results on subdifferentiability and dual characterization of optimal decomposition for an infimal convolution to establish mathematical properties of exact minimizers (optimal decomposition) for the K–,L–, and E– functionals of the theory of real interpolation. We characterize the geometry of optimal decomposition for the couple (p, X) on Rn and provide an extension of a result that we have establshed recently for the couple (2, X) on Rn. We will also apply the Attouch–Brezis theorem to show the existence of optimal decomposition for these functionals for the conjugate couple.

  • 33.
    Edström, Krister
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Dymola Primer1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a beginner's guide to the simulation and modeling environment Dymola. Dymola is presented by means of a simple hybrid example system which is modeled and simulated.

  • 34.
    Landelius, Tomas
    et al.
    n/a.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Dynamic Tree Structure for Incremental Reinforcement Learning of Good Behavior1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the idea of learning by reinforcement, within the theory of behaviorism. The reason for this choice is its generality and especially that the reinforcement learning paradigm allows systems to be designed, which can improve their behavior beyond that of their teacher. The role of the teacher is to define the reinforcement function, which acts as a description of the problem the machine is to solve. Gained knowledge is represented by a behavior probability density function which is approximated with a number of normal distributions, stored in the nodes of a binary tree. It is argued that a meaningful partitioning into local models can only be accomplished in a fused space consisting of both stimuli and responses. Given a stimulus, the system searches for responses likely to result in highly reinforced decisions by treating the sum of the two normal distributions on each level in the tree as a distribution describing the system's behavior at that resolution. The resolution of the response, as well as the tree growing and pruning processes, are controlled by a random variable based on the difference in performance between two consecutive levels in the tree. This results in a system that will never be content but will indefinitely continue to search for better solutions.

  • 35.
    Abrahamsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Saab Military Aircraft, Sweden.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    McKelvey, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Finite Element Model Updating Formulation Using Frequency Responses and Eigenfrequencies1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel frequency and modal domain formulation of the model updating problem is presented. Deviations in discrete frequency responses and eigenfrequencies, between the model to be updated and a reference model, constitute the criterion function. A successful updating thus results in a model with the reference's input-output relations at selected fre- quencies. The formulation is demonstrated to produce a criterion function with a global minimum having a large domain of attraction with respect to stiffness and mass variations. The method relies on mode grouping and uses a new extended modal assurance criterion number (eMAC) for identifying related modes. A quadratic objective with inexpensive evaluation of approximate Hessians give a rapid convergence to a minimum by the use of a regularized Gauss-Newton method. Physical bounds on parameters and complementary data, such as structural weight, are treated by imposing set constraints and linear equality constraints. Efficient function computation is obtained by model reduction using a moderately sized base of modes which is recomputed during the minimization. Statistical properties of updated parameters are discussed. A verification example show the performance of the method.

  • 36.
    Helmersson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Finite Frequency Method for µ-Analysis1994Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses a method for assuring an upper bound of the structured singular value (µ), by treating the frequency as a real parametric uncertainty on continuous time systems. Using this approach a complete frequency interval can be covered in one µ-computation. By subdividing the frequency range and using a pruning scheme an efficient and accurate method is obtained for computing an upper bound of a dynamic system. The method is composed of existing µ-methods and branch and bound schemes.

  • 37.
    Rietz, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A first laboratory exercise in topology optimization using matlab2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this laboratory exercise is to give you experience with the use of topology optimization as a first design tool in doing a construction. A 99 line topology optimization code written in Matlab will be used. The code is available at

    http://www.topopt.dtu.dk

    The details are explained in the paper “A 99 line topology optimization code writter in Matlab” which is published in the journal “Structual and Multidisciplinary Optimization” by Ole Sigmund, dept. of solid mechanics at Technical University of Denmark. The matlab code is also included as an appendix.

    This matlab code should give understanding of the basics of a topology optimization program, and the user can easily modify the code

    The laboratory exercise is divided into two parts. The first part is about the design of bicycles and is intended to make you familiar with the methodology and the matlab code. The second part consists of a bunch of projects that can be treated in the same way as the bicycle. It is advisable to choose one of the projects in the second part.

  • 38.
    Nordström, Jan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Abbas, Qaisar
    Department of Information Technology, Division of Scientific Computing, Uppsala University, SE-751 05 Uppsala, Sweden.
    A. Erickson, Brittany
    Department of Geological Sciences, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92182-1020, USA.
    Frenander, Hannes
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Flexible Far Field Boundary Procedure for Hyperbolic Problems: Multiple Penalty Terms Applied in a Domain2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A new weak boundary procedure for hyperbolic problems is presented. We consider high order finite difference operators of summation-by-parts form with weak boundary conditions and generalize that technique. The new boundary procedure is applied at far field boundaries in an extended domain where data is known. We show how to raise the order of accuracy of the scheme, how to modify the spectrum of the resulting operator and how to construct non-reflecting properties at the boundaries. The new boundary procedure is cheap, easy to implement and suitable for all numerical methods, not only finite difference methods, that employ weak boundary conditions. Numerical results that corroborate the analysis are presented.

  • 39.
    Haglund, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Health, Activity, Care. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Behrbohm Fallsberg, Margareta
    Consultant, Stensudden, SE-585 96 Linköping Sweden.
    Eeg-Olofsson, Anne-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Follow-up of an Occupational Therapy Programme based on Problem-Based Learning (PBL)2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A follow-up study explored how graduate occupational therapists valued quality aspects of their undergraduate education on a Problem-Based Learning (PBL) occupational therapy programme. One hundred and fifty of 195 graduates completed a questionnaire. The survey focused on factors such as: specific occupational therapy content combined with practical skills and preparation for future work; problem-solving and critical thinking; ability to communicate and collaborate; personal and professional development; and life-long learning. The respondents rated items after considering them from two aspects: acquired skills and objective importance. The main results show that the respondents rated their skills as above average in the quality aspects of the programme. A discrepancy was evident between the rated acquired skills and the rated importance of key qualities of the curriculum.

    Student –centred learning with PBL is evaluated as having value but is rejected.

  • 40.
    Nordberg, Klas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A fourth order tensor for representation of orientation and position of oriented segments2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a fourth order tensor defined on projective spaces which can be used for the representation of medium-level features, e.g., one or more oriented segments. The tensor has one part which describes what type of local structures are present in a region, and one part which describes where they are located. This information can be used, e.g., to represent multiple orientations, corners, and line-endings. The tensor can be defined for arbitrary signal dimension, but the presentation focuses on the properties of the fourth order tensor for the case of 2D and 3D image data. A method for estimating the proposed tensor representation by means of simple computations directly from the structure tensor is presented. Given a simple matrix representation of the tensor, it can be shown that there is a direct correspondence between the number of oriented segments and the rank of the matrix provided that the number of segments is three or less. The \publication also presents techniques for extracting information about the oriented segments which the tensor represent. Finally, it shown that a small set of coefficients can be computed from the proposed tensor which are invariant to changes of the coordinate system.

  • 41.
    Wallén, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Framework for Analysis of Observer-Based ILC2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A framework for Iterative Learning Control (ILC) is proposed for the situation when the ILC algorithm is based on an estimate of the controlled variable obtained from an observer-based estimation procedure. Under the assumption that the ILC input converges to a bounded signal, a general expression for the asymptotic error of the controlled variable is given. The asymptotic error is then exemplified by an ILC algorithm applied to a flexible two-mass model of a robot joint.

  • 42.
    Schön, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Karlsson, Rickard
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Törnqvist, David
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gustafsson, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Framework for Simultaneous Localization and Mapping Utilizing Model Structure2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic nonlinear ltering problem for dynamical systems is considered. Approximating the optimal lter estimate by particle lter methods has become perhaps the most common and useful method in recent years. Many variants of particle lters have been suggested, and there is an extensive lit- erature on the theoretical aspects of the quality of the approximation. Still,a clear cut result that the approximate solution, for unbounded functions, converges to the true optimal estimate as the number of particles tends to innity seems to be lacking. It is the purpose of this contribution to give such a basic convergence result.

  • 43.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Frequency Domain Analysis of a Second Order Iterative Learning Control Algorithm1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A frequency domain analysis method of a second order iterative learning control (ILC) algorithm is considered. Using the notion of iterative systems bounds for stability are presented in the frequency domain for the second order term. The bounds are found using a geometrical approach based on the special structure of the transfer matrix in the iterative system. Two examples are included showing how the analysis method can be used in an application.

  • 44.
    Nikkar, Samira
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordström, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A fully discrete, stable and conservative summation-by-parts formulation for deforming interfaces2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce an interface/coupling procedure for hyperbolic problems posedon time-dependent curved multi-domains. First, we transform the problem from Cartesian to boundary-conforming curvilinear coordinates and apply the energy method to derive well-posed and conservative interface conditions.

    Next, we discretize the problem in space and time by employing finite difference operators that satisfy a summation-by-parts rule. The interface condition is imposed weakly using a penalty formulation. We show how to formulate the penalty operators such that the coupling procedure is automatically adjusted to the movements and deformations of the interface, while both stability and conservation conditions are respected.

    The developed techniques are illustrated by performing numerical experiments on the linearized Euler equations and the Maxwell equations. The results corroborate the stability and accuracy of the fully discrete approximations.

  • 45.
    Fujimori, Atsushi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Gunnarsson, Svante
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Gain Scheduling Control of Nonlinear Systems along a Reference Trajectory2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a gain scheduling control of a nonlinear system in which the reference trajectory is given in advance. Multiple frozen operating times are chosen on the reference trajectory and a linear time invariant model is obtained at each operating time. A linear parameter varying model is then constructed by interpolating the region between the neighbor frozen operating times. A gain scheduling state feedback law is designed by a linear matrix inequality formulation. The effectiveness is demonstrated in a numerical simulation of a traing control of a two-link robot arm.

  • 46.
    Granström, Karl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lundquist, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Orguner, Umut
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Gaussian Mixture PHD Filter for Extended Target Tracking2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In extended target tracking, targets potentially produce more than one measurement per time step. Multiple extended targets are therefore usually hard to track, due to the resulting complex data association. The main contribution of this paper is the implementation of a Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter for tracking of multiple extended targets. A general modification of the PHD filter to handle extended targets has been presented recently by Mahler, and the novelty in this work lies in the realisation of a Gaussian mixture PHD filter for extended targets. Furthermore, we propose a method to easily partition the measurements into a number of subsets, each of which is supposed to contain measurements that all stem from the same source. The method is illustrated in simulation examples, and the advantage of the implemented extended target PHD filter is shown in a comparison with a standard PHD filter.

  • 47.
    Roll, Jacob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nazin, Alexander
    Institute of Control Sciences, Russia.
    Ljung, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A General Direct Weight Optimization Framework for Nonlinear System Identification2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The direct weight optimization (DWO) approach is a method for finding optimal function estimates via convex optimization, applicable to nonlinear system identification. In this paper, an extended version of the DWO approach is introduced. A general function class description - which includes several important special cases - is presented, and different examples are given. A general theorem about the principal shape of the weights is also proven.

  • 48.
    Markusson, Ola
    et al.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hjalmarsson, Håkan
    Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Norrlöf, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A General Framework for Iterative Learning Control2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this contribution we place ILC in the realm of numerical optimization. This clarifies the role played by the design variables and how they affect e.g. convergence properties. We give a model based interpretation of these design variables and also a sufficient condition for convergence of ILC which is similar in spirit to the sufficient and necessary condition previously derived for linear systems. This condition shows that the desired performance has to be traded against modelling accuracy. Finally, one of the main benefits of ILC when non-minimum phase systems are concerned, the possibility of non-causal control, is given a comprehensive coverage.

  • 49.
    Wiklund, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Knutsson, Hans
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Generalized Convolver1996Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A scheme for performing generalized convolutions is presented. A flexible convolver, which runs on standard workstations, has been implemented. It is designed for maximum throughput and flexibility. The implementation incorporates spatio-temporal convolutions with configurable vector combinations. It can handle general multilinear operations, i.e. tensor operations on multidimensional data of any order. The input data and the kernel coefficients can be of arbitrary vector length. The convolver is configurable for IIR filters in the time dimension. Other features of the implemented convolver are scattered kernel data, region of interest and subsampling. The implementation is done as a C-library and a graphical user interface in AVS (Application Visualization System).

  • 50.
    Fortell, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Generalized Normal Form and its Application to Sliding Mode Control1995Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper it is shown how a normal form, corresponding to that of affine state space systems, can be calculated for a dynamics defined in the differential algebraic framework. The construction of the normal form is based on a generalization of the Lie derivative where the state derivatives are eliminated using Grobner bases. It is also shown how the generalized normal form can be used in the context of sliding mode control.

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