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  • 1.
    Hassan Raza Naqvi, Syed
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    1 GS/s, Low Power Flash, Analog to Digital Converter in 90nm CMOS Technology2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The analog to digital converters is the key components in modern electronic systems. As the digital signal processing industry grows the ADC design becomes more and more challenging for researchers. In these days an ADC becomes a part of the system on chip instead of standalone circuit for data converters. This increases the requirements on ADC design concerning for example speed, power, area, resolution, noise etc. New techniques and methods are going to develop day by day to achieve high performance ADCs.

    Of all types of ADCs the flash ADC is not only famous for its data conversion rate but also it becomes the part of other types of ADC for example pipeline and multi bit Sigma Delta ADCs. The main problem with a flash ADC is its power consumption, which increases in number of bits. This thesis presents the comparison of power consumption of different blocks in 1Gbps flash ADCs for 2, 4 and 6 bits in a 90nm CMOS technology. We also investigate the impact on power consumption by changing the design of decoder block.

  • 2.
    Li, Jia
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    10G GPON Management System Study and Implementation2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis includes the GPON management system concept study and implementation work to translate the command line interface management mechanism to a user friendly GUI (graphic user interface). The original system was developed in C program with a client-server structure. The new system retains the same communication structure and protocol interface between the OLT PON card and user workstations. On the workstation side, a new GUI management client application is developed in Java to offer the similar functionalities as the original one, and a totally new graphic real-time system traffic statistics function is integrated to make it easier for user to monitor system traffic information in real time.

     

    The main object of this project is to study the GPON specifications, and understand GPON system working procedure and traffic transmission principle. On the other hand, ‘original system management application’ study is necessary including third party documentation reading and C code understanding. This study has resulted in the development of a new application in Java with third party user libraries and plug-ins. This new application has been tested using basic function tests executed in the GPON lab environment.

  • 3.
    Halling, Jon
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    1553-Simulator. In-/uppspelning av databusstrafik med hjälp av FPGA2002Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At Saab Aerospace in Linköping, components for measurement systems to the fighter aircraft JAS 39 Gripen are developed. In this activity you sometimes want to record the traffic transmitted on the data busses that connects different sys-tems. This traffic on the data busses is using the military standard MIL-STD-1553.

    This project has aimed to create a system for recording and sending 1553-data. The system is used on an ordinary personal computer, equipped with a recon- figurable I/O card that among others has a programmable logic circuit (FPGA). The recorded data are stored on a hard drive. The system has a graphical user interface, where the user can configure different methods of filtering the data, and other preferences.

    The completed system has currently the capacity to record one channel. This works excellent and the system basically meets all the requirements stated at the start of the project. By using this system instead of the commercial available systems on the market one will get a competitive alternative. If the system where to be developed further, with more channels, it would get even more price worth. Both in case of price per channel, but also in functionality. This is because it is possible to design exactly the functions the user demands. But the current version is already fully functional and competitive compared to commercial systems.

  • 4.
    Pakiam Eliason, Barbro
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Communications Studies, Art and Visual Communication . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    2000-talets änglasymbol: en djupanalys2002Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The contemporary angel-symbol is deeply rooted in our cultural history, with connotations and implications leading to that inner transitional space where all creative activity takes place. This essay investigates the history of the depiction of angels, visions of angels both ancient and modern, and includes psychological aspects of symbols as such. A closer look at surrounding symbols of angels will hopefully result in a greater understanding of the role of the angel-symbol within the context of visual culture, seen in the light of our own symbolic universe.

  • 5.
    Erni, Jonas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Smedberg, Kåre
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    2011 års uppdatering av Skuldsaneringslagen (2006:548): En granskning av hur uppdateringen påverkat enskilda näringsidkare och borgenärer2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The Government considered despite the introduction of the 1994 debt rescheduling act (1994:334) that a solution was needed to the problem that individual traders neither could be granted debt relief or corporate restructuring to thus be able to continue operations if they got into financial insolvency. Therefore in 2007 a special investigator was added to investigate and make proposals for debt relief for individual traders. This study was the basis for the Government bill that the Parliament in October 2010 decided upon.

    The main issue

    What impact has the new debt rescheduling act meant for traders as well as creditors?

    Purpose

    Our purpose of the bachelor thesis is to explore if the new debt rescheduling act (2006:548) has achieved the expected goals, the study will also investigate if the new debt rescheduling act has resulted in any other effects.

    Method

    The study's purpose is answered by a personal interview and several questionnaires that have been collected for the empirical material. The processing of the empirical material was made by a qualitative method. Referrals and propositions have also been used to help answer the bachelor thesis purpose, when the reference frame and the conclusion were set against each other.

    Conclusion

    The actual impact of the new debt rescheduling act (2006:548) is that individual traders can get debt relief if the insolvency was because the trader could not work for a long period of time and therefore ended up in financial trouble. In an insolvency situation the age of the debts are not considered in the same way as before, which meant that a debtor can apply for debt relief in an earlier stage. That this would contribute to deterioration in payment behavior and elevated interest rates appears unchanged. At the change of a criterion such as the age of the debt, a clear effect on the number of debt applications can be seen.

  • 6.
    Lennartsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Educational Science (IUV).
    2+2=5! Orsaker till barns svårigheter i matematikinlärning och lämpliga åtgärder.2001Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om matematiksvårigheter.

    Jag ville att mina studier skulle leda till att jag blir bättre på att bemöta elever som har svårt med matematik och därför valde jag att utgå från följande frågeställningar: Vad kan det finnas för orsaker till att elever har matematiksvårigheter? Vilka svårigheter har eleverna och hur kan man arbeta för att hjälpa dem.

    Genom att läsa litteratur och intervjua sju lärare har jag sökt svar på mina frågor. Under arbetets gånghar jag fått reda på en mängd olika faktorer som kan orsaka matematiksvårigheter. Många av dessa kan härledas till elevens omgivning och det verkar handla om att det inte enbart är en aspekt som gör att en elev får matematiksvårigheter.

    Svårigheter som framkommit handlar bl.a. om att eleverna har svårt med sin taluppfattning, svårt att lära sig tabeller, svårigheter att kunna bedöma rimlighet, svårt med positionssystemet och språkliga svårigheter. Det gäller att inte fokusera för mycket på vilka svårigheter eleven har utan istället försöka förstå hur eleven tänker och utifrån det försöka hjälpa eleven.

    Vad det gäller åtgärder har jag fått massor med exempel på hur man kan arbeta. Det finns inte en viss metod man kan använda utan det är bra att ha en bank av tips på hur man kan arbeta. Det centrala är att man utgår från den enskilda eleven och försöker finna lämpliga åtgärder. Det är också viktigt att man försöker få eleven delaktig i sitt eget lärande.

    Under skrivandets gång känns det som om jag har fått mycket ny kunskap vilket förhoppningsvis gjort mig bättre rustad för att möta elever som har svårare för matematik än andra.

  • 7.
    Hofvendahl, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    2.4 GHz Power Amplifier with Cartesian Feedback for WLAN2002Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This final year project describes the linearisation method Cartesian feedback and the design of such a feedback with a 2.4GHz power amplifier.

    To investigate the functionality of the Cartesian feedback ideal blocks with no current consumption were made and then gradually analog circuits were introduced into the feedback. The Cartesian feedback design consists of a subtracter, a modulator and a preamplifier in the top path and a demodulator and a filter in the feedback path. The blocks that are discussed in this report are the subtracter and the modulator unit. The circuits are designed in a 0.35µm SiGe BiCMOS technology.

    The result of the Cartesian feedback showed an increase in 1dB compression point by 6.2dBm and the IMD was improved by 17dB.

  • 8.
    Kang, Shi-Yun
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Wen, Hsiang-Chih
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    2.4G ~ 10.4G Hz CMOS programmable Frequency Divider2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis is as a final project in the Division of Computer Engineering at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Linköpings University, Sweden.

    The purpose of the project is to design a wide frequency range programmable frequency divider used in a PLL circuit for ultra wide band system. 0.18 um tsmc CMOS technology is used in this project.

    A brief introduction of PLL circuits and UWB specifications are given in the report and the circuit design issue is presented. Post-layout simulation results are shown in the later part of the report.

    The focus of this project is to make the frequency divider work well in wide range and high speed. Therefore, how to shorten feedback circuits’ latency and how to reduce complexity of the circuits are the main problems. Logic gate merged technique is used to reduce transistor number and carefully drawing layout makes the circuit work well in post-layout simulation.

  • 9.
    Johansson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    3 kap. 19 § IL - Tioårsregeln: En utvärdering mot bakgrund av neutralitetsprincipen i svensk skattelagstiftning2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att, utifrån ovan ställda problemställning, genomföra en utvärdering av Sveriges beskattningsrätt i enlighet med 3 kap. 19 § IL, sett i ljuset av neutralitetsprincipen i svensk skatterätt. Uppsatsen syftar även till att problematisera lagregeln ur ett vidare perspektiv och ge ökad kunskap och förståelse för lagregelns existens och tillämpning, bland annat i förhållande till de svenska skatteavtalen.

  • 10.
    Schenkel, Pontus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Sundin, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    36 § avtalslagen – till konsumentens värn?: Högsta domstolens domskäls förenlighet med syftet enligt prop. 1975/76: 812015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Provision 36 of the Swedish Contract Act (SFS 1915:218) was introduced in 1976 in order to ensure legal protection for consumers in their relation to traders. The requisit ”unreasonably” however, on the one hand, is claimed to be too imprecise to be percceived to be legally secure for contractors. On the other hand, there is the perception that the meaning of the general clause is to leave room for a legally freer assessment. The purpose of this essay is to, with the data which can be provided by legislative history and the jurisprudence of the Supreme Court, examine the grounds, which are determined to fulfill the original purpose of the general clause, are satisfactory from a legally certain aspect. In the legislative history, we can see that the inquiry established that, the introduction of a general clause in the Swedish Contract Act, would be a valuable addition from a legally secure and predictable perspective. Then the inquiry deemed that an adjustment of unfair terms would be preferable, in case contracts shall be regulated using the general clause. Whether a term can be considered unfair, the inquirys opinion was that, the content of the agreement, the circumstances that existed when the contract was agreed, later occured conditions and the circumstances in general, had to be taken in account. The majority of the respondents concurred in the inquriys opinion about the reading of the general clause. However, according to the respondents assessments, the word ”unreasonably”, was preferable to the word ”unfair”. The rapporteur and the Council on Legislation considered the inquiry having reported to vaguely on the reading of the general clause, but they agreed with the respondents that the word ”unreasonably” was to prefer instead of ”unfair”. From the court cases, which are presented for in the essay, it is possible to determine that the most prominent grounds established by the Supreme Court, is predictability, the inferior position of the consumer and the clarity of contractual terms. In a predominantly number of court cases we believe the Supreme Court´s verdicts to be consistent with the purpose which permeated the legislative history. A few verdicts, however, are ambiguous, since we believe that the Supreme Court's reasoning, in the assessment of certain contractual terms of clarity, is inconsistent. We have found that the consequence of this is that there are far too high demands on the consumer, to the extent that it is required by him, to have firsthand knowledge of current legislation. Another problem with provision 36 of the Swedish Contract Act, seems to be that its enforcement in some cases leads to conflict with legal principles, for instance, the principle of predictability and the within contract law established principle, "pacta sunt servanda".

  • 11.
    Josefsson, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D camera with built-in velocity measurement2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In today's industry 3D cameras are often used to inspect products. The camera produces both a 3D model and an intensity image by capturing a series of profiles of the object using laser triangulation. In many of these setups a physical encoder is attached to, for example, the conveyor belt that the product is travelling on. The encoder is used to get an accurate reading of the speed that the product has when it passes through the laser. Without this, the output image from the camera can be distorted due to a variation in velocity.

    In this master thesis a method for integrating the functionality of this physical encoder into the software of the camera is proposed. The object is scanned together with a pattern, with the help of this pattern the object can be restored to its original proportions.

  • 12.
    Rasmus, Siljedahl
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    3D Conversion from CAD models to polygon models2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the design and implementation of an application that converts CAD models into polygon models. When going from CAD models to 3D polygon models a conversion of the file type has to be performed. XperDI uses these polygon models in their tool, called sales configurator, to create a photo realistic environment to be able to have a look at the end product before it is manufactured. Existing tools are difficult to use and is missing features that is important for the Sales Configurator. The purpose of this thesis is to create a proof of concept application that converts CAD models into 3D polygon models. This new lightweight application is a simpler alternative to convert CAD models into polygon models and offers features needed for the intended use of these models, that the alternative products do not offer.

  • 13.
    Waernér, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Graphics Technologies for Web Applications: An Evaluation from the Perspective of a Real World Application2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Web applications are becoming increasingly sophisticated and functionality that was once exclusive to regular desktop applications can now be found in web applications as well. One of the more recent advances in this field is the ability for web applications to render 3D graphics. Coupled with the growing number of devices with graphics processors and the ability of web applications to run on many different platforms using a single code base, this represents an exciting new possibility for developers of 3D graphics applications.

    This thesis aims to explore and evaluate the technologies for 3D graphics that can be used in web applications, with the final goal of using one of them in a prototype application. This prototype will serve as a foundation for an application to be included in a commercial product. The evaluation is performed using general criteria so as to be useful for other applications as well, with one part presenting the available technologies and another part evaluating the three most promising technologies more in-depth using test programs.

    The results show that, although some technologies are not production-ready, there are a few which can be used in commercial software, including the three chosen for further evaluation; WebGL, the Java library JOGL and Stage 3D for Flash. Among these, there is no clear winner and it is up to the application requirements to decide which to use. The thesis demonstrates an application built with WebGL and shows that fairly demanding 3D graphics web applications can be built. Also included are the lessons learned during the development and thoughts on the future of 3D graphics in web applications.

  • 14.
    Lundqvist, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision.
    3D mapping with iPhone2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, 3D models of cities are created from aerial images using a camera rig. Images, together with sensor data from the flights, are stored for further processing when building 3D models. However, there is a market demand for a more mobile solution of satisfactory quality. If the camera position can be calculated for each image, there is an existing algorithm available for the creation of 3D models.

    This master thesis project aims to investigate whether the iPhone 4 offers good enough image and sensor data quality from which 3D models can be created. Calculations on movements and rotations from sensor data forms the foundation of the image processing, and should refine the camera position estimations.

    The 3D models are built only from image processing since sensor data cannot be used due to poor data accuracy. Because of that, the scaling of the 3D models are unknown and a measurement is needed on the real objects to make scaling possible. Compared to a test algorithm that calculates 3D models from only images, already available at the SBD’s system, the quality of the 3D model in this master thesis project is almost the same or, in some respects, even better when compared with the human eye.

  • 15.
    Wikström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    3D Model of Fuel Tank for System Simulation: A methodology for combining CAD models with simulation tools2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering aircraft systems is a complex task. Therefore models and computer simulations are needed to test functions and behaviors of non existing systems, reduce testing time and cost, reduce the risk involved and to detect problems early which reduce the amount of implementation errors. At the section Vehicle Simulation and Thermal Analysis at Saab Aeronautics in Linköping every basic aircraft system is designed and simulated, for example the fuel system. Currently 2-dimensional rectangular blocks are used in the simulation model to represent the fuel tanks. However, this is too simplistic to allow a more detailed analysis. The model needs to be extended with a more complex description of the tank geometry in order to get a more accurate model.

    This report explains the different steps in the developed methodology for combining 3-dimensional geometry models of any fuel tank created in CATIA with dynamic simulation of the fuel system in Dymola. The new 3-dimensional representation of the tank in Dymola should be able to calculate fuel surface location during simulation of a maneuvering aircraft. 

    The first step of the methodology is to create a solid model of the fuel contents in the tank. Then the area of validity for the model has to be specified, in this step all possible orientations of the fuel acceleration vector within the area of validity is generated. All these orientations are used in the automated volume analysis in CATIA. For each orientation CATIA splits the fuel body in a specified number of volumes and records the volume, the location of the fuel surface and the location of the center of gravity. This recorded data is then approximated with the use of radial basis functions implemented in MATLAB. In MATLAB a surrogate model is created which are then implemented in Dymola. In this way any fuel surface location and center of gravity can be calculated in an efficient way based on the orientation of the fuel acceleration vector and the amount of fuel.

    The new 3-dimensional tank model is simulated in Dymola and the results are compared with measures from the model in CATIA and with the results from the simulation of the old 2-dimensional tank model. The results shows that the 3-dimensional tank gives a better approximation of reality and that there is a big improvement compared with the 2-dimensional tank model. The downside is that it takes approximately 24 hours to develop this model.

  • 16.
    Schlaug, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    3D Modeling in Augmented Reality2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project aims to make 3D modeling easy through the use of augmented reality. Black and white markers are used to augment the virtual objects. Detection of these is done with help from ARToolKit, developed at University of Washington.

    The model is represented by voxels, and visualised through the marching cubes algorithm. Two physical tools are available to edit the model; one for adding and one for removing volume. Thus the application is similar to sculpting or drawing in 3D.

    Thee resulting application is both easy to use and cheap in that it does not require expensive equipment.

     

  • 17.
    Dahlin, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Modeling of Indoor Environments2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the aid of modern sensors it is possible to create models of buildings. These sensorstypically generate 3D point clouds and in order to increase interpretability and usability,these point clouds are often translated into 3D models.In this thesis a way of translating a 3D point cloud into a 3D model is presented. The basicfunctionality is implemented using Matlab. The geometric model consists of floors, wallsand ceilings. In addition, doors and windows are automatically identified and integrated intothe model. The resulting model also has an explicit representation of the topology betweenentities of the model. The topology is represented as a graph, and to do this GraphML isused. The graph is opened in a graph editing program called yEd.The result is a 3D model that can be plotted in Matlab and a graph describing the connectivitybetween entities. The GraphML file is automatically generated in Matlab. An interfacebetween Matlab and yEd allows the user to choose which rooms should be plotted.

  • 18.
    Gardström, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    3D Navigation for Real-Time MRI using Six Degree of Freedom Interaction Devices2003Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time MRI scanning is used to visualize tissue and organs in motion. The real-time approach requires new interaction techniques to facilitate interaction with the scanning plane. The aim of this thesis is to investigate the use of input with six degrees of freedom – 6DOF. An overview over existing 6DOF input devices is given. Three devices are chosen for implementation and evaluation, Flock of Birds, SpaceBall and SpaceMouse.

    A simulator application is developed to test the different input devices. The simulator purpose is to imitate the real-time scanning situation. To be able to evaluate speed andaccuracy of the different interaction techniques, methods for measuring time and error are developed. A statistical survey is done on two different tasks to gather data of the interaction. The data is analyzed and the result is that the test subjects find the SpaceMouse superior to the other devices thanks to its kinesthetic feed-back properties and ergonomic benefits. However, the statistical data shows that Flock of Birds is the fastest device and no great difference is showed in accuracy between Flock of Birds and SpaceMouse. SpaceBall was the device that generated the least satisfying data.

  • 19.
    Markström, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Position Estimation of a Person of Interest in Multiple Video Sequences: People Detection2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In most cases today when a specific person's whereabouts is monitored through video surveillance it is done manually and his or her location when not seen is based on assumptions on how fast he or she can move. Since humans are good at recognizing people this can be done accurately, given good video data, but the time needed to go through all data is extensive and therefore expensive. Because of the rapid technical development computers are getting cheaper to use and therefore more interesting to use for tedious work.

    This thesis is a part of a larger project that aims to see to what extent it is possible to estimate a person of interest's time dependent 3D position, when seen in surveillance videos. The surveillance videos are recorded with non overlapping monocular cameras. Furthermore the project aims to see if the person of interest's movement, when position data is unavailable, could be predicted. The outcome of the project is a software capable of following a person of interest's movement with an error estimate visualized as an area indicating where the person of interest might be at a specific time.

    This thesis main focus is to implement and evaluate a people detector meant to be used in the project, reduce noise in position measurement, predict the position when the person of interest's location is unknown, and to evaluate the complete project.

    The project combines known methods in computer vision and signal processing and the outcome is a software that can be used on a normal PC running on a Windows operating system. The software implemented in the thesis use a Hough transform based people detector and a Kalman filter for one step ahead prediction. The detector is evaluated with known methods such as Miss-rate vs. False Positives per Window or Image (FPPW and FPPI respectively) and Recall vs. 1-Precision.

    The results indicate that it is possible to estimate a person of interest's 3D position with single monocular cameras. It is also possible to follow the movement, to some extent, were position data are unavailable. However the software needs more work in order to be robust enough to handle the diversity that may appear in different environments and to handle large scale sensor networks.

  • 20.
    Johansson, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Position Estimation of a Person of Interest in Multiple Video Sequences: Person of Interest Recognition2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Because of the increase in the number of security cameras, there is more video footage available than a human could efficiently process. In combination with the fact that computers are getting more efficient, it is getting more and more interesting to solve the problem of detecting and recognizing people automatically.

    Therefore a method is proposed for estimating a 3D-path of a person of interest in multiple, non overlapping, monocular cameras. This project is a collaboration between two master theses. This thesis will focus on recognizing a person of interest from several possible candidates, as well as estimating the 3D-position of a person and providing a graphical user interface for the system. The recognition of the person of interest includes keeping track of said person frame by frame, and identifying said person in video sequences where the person of interest has not been seen before.

    The final product is able to both detect and recognize people in video, as well as estimating their 3D-position relative to the camera. The product is modular and any part can be improved or changed completely, without changing the rest of the product. This results in a highly versatile product which can be tailored for any given situation.

  • 21.
    Karhu, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3-D Positioning in Large Warehouses using Radio-frequency identification2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In large warehouses, there are a lot of articles that needs do be kept track of. As the number of articles grows larger, the administrative complexity increases. Thus, a solution that automatically keeps track of the position of each article in real-time is of interest. That is, if an item in the warehouse is moved, no manual administration should be needed to know the new position of the item.

    Radio detection and ranging (RADAR) is a ranging technique that doesn’t need to communicate with an object to find the distance to it, instead signals are sent and when they are reflected off the object and returned to the sender, the distance to the object may be calculated. However, you cannot tell two equally shaped objects apart purely based on RADAR techniques. There are many other techniques for ranging, sound navigation and ranging (SONAR) is another example, but they all lack the possibility of detecting the identity of the object.

    So, in order to find a specific item’s position, some kind of  communication with the item is necessary. Radiofrequency identification (RFID) is a neat technology with which this is possible. An RFID reader can send radio signals out in the air, and objects that are in the vicinity of the reader and are tagged with an RFID tag can receive that signal and respond with it’s unique identification number. This way, the RFID reader can identify the RFID tagged object from a distance. There are also a variety of ways to approximate the distance between reader and tag. Unfortunately this is a rather difficult task, especially in indoor  environments.

    There are already some existing products on the market that uses RFID for different kinds of positioning. In this thesis, the theory behind positioning, the fundamentals of RFID and different positioning solutions will be analysed and presented.

    A number of tests were carried out with an RFID system within the ultra-high frequency (UHF) band, which is around 866 MHz. The test system only supported range estimation based on the received signal strength indicator (RSSI) and the test results showed that narrowband RSSI measurements are highly disturbed by multipath propagation which make the overall positioning performance insufficient. Further analysis of time based range estimation techniques, such as time of arrival (TOA), time of flight (TOF) and time difference of arrival (TDOA), revealed that better positioning accuracy is possible, especially if ultra-wide bandwidth (UWB) is used.

  • 22.
    Johansson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    3D Reconstruction of Human Faces from Reflectance Fields2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human viewers are extremely sensitive to the appearanceof peoples faces, which makes the rendering of realistic human faces a challenging problem. Techniques for doing this have continuously been invented and evolved since more than thirty years.

    This thesis makes use of recent methods within the area of image based rendering, namely the acquisition of reflectance fields from human faces. The reflectance fields are used to synthesize and realistically render models of human faces.

    A shape from shading technique, assuming that human skin adheres to the Phong model, has been used to estimate surface normals. Belief propagation in graphs has then been used to enforce integrability before reconstructing the surfaces. Finally, the additivity of light has been used to realistically render the models.

    The resulting models closely resemble the subjects from which they were created, and can realistically be rendered from novel directions in any illumination environment.

  • 23.
    Lång, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    3D Teleconferencing: The construction of a fully functional, novel 3D Teleconferencing system2009Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes the work done to develop a 3D teleconferencing system, which enables remote participants anywhere in the world to be scanned in 3D, transmitted and displayed on a constructed 3D display with correct vertical and horizontal parallax, correct eye contact and eye gaze. The main focus of this report is the development of this system and especially how to in an efficient and general manner render to the novel 3D display. The 3D display is built out of modified commodity hardware and show a 3D scene for observers in up to 360 degrees around it and all heights. The result is a fully working 3D Teleconferencing system, resembling communication envisioned in movies such as holograms from Star Wars. The system transmits over the internet, at similar bandwidth requirements as concurrent 2D videoconferencing systems.

  • 24.
    Stål, Jenny
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D visualisering av Silverdal2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag äger Skanska ett antal tomter i området Silverdal, Stockholm, som ska bebyggas med kontor och bostadshus. Bostadshusen och kontorsbyggnaderna ska sedan säljas. Skanska vill därför göra en visualisering av området och använda som underlag vid försäljningen. Examensarbetets syfte är att ta fram en förenklad terrängmodell över Silverdal med hjälp av

    programmet Autodesk 3D studio max 9. Byggnaderna visualiseras genom gråa fyrkanter för att man ska få en bild av hur byggnaderna kommer att ligga i miljöerna.

    Allt som allt så anser jag att projektet gått bra efter att beslutet tagits att endast några fasta vinklar skulle färdigställas.

  • 25.
    Steen, Alexander
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Widegren, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Visualization for Pre-operative Planning of Orthopedic Surgery2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a master thesis on 3D visualization for pre-operation planning of orthopedic surgery done for Sectra Medical Systems AB. The focus is on visualizing clinically relevant data for planning a Total Hip Replacement (THR). The thesis includes a pre-study and the implementation of a prototype using the Sectra IDS7 workstation.

  • 26.
    Ernvik, Aron
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    3D visualization of weather radar data2002Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are 12 weather radars operated jointly by smhi and the Swedish Armed Forces in Sweden. Data from them are used for short term forecasting and analysis. The traditional way of viewing data from the radars is in 2D images, even though 3D polar volumes are delivered from the radars. The purpose of this work is to develop an application for 3D viewing of weather radar data.

    There are basically three approaches to visualization of volumetric data, such as radar data: slicing with cross-sectional planes, surface extraction, and volume rendering. The application developed during this project supports variations on all three approaches. Different objects, e.g. horizontal and vertical planes, isosurfaces, or volume rendering objects, can be added to a 3D scene and viewed simultaneously from any angle. Parameters of the objects can be set using a graphical user interface and a few different plots can be generated.

    Compared to the traditional 2D products used by meteorologists when analyzing radar data, the 3D scenes add information that makes it easier for the users to understand the given weather situations. Demonstrations and discussions with meteorologists have rendered positive reactions. The application will be installed and evaluated at Arlanda airport in Sweden.

  • 27.
    Arvidsson, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D Visualization Package for OpenModelica2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A 3D representation of a physical phenomena is often a good way to present it. It’s often easier to see an event in an animation rather than just read data tables. The goal of this thesis is to create an application that visualizes a physical simulation in Modelica. This thesis explains how the OMVisualize application was developed. To create the OMVisualize the OpenSceneGraph library was used. The OpenSceneGraph is a 3D package written in C++ that is used in many different applications from game to scientific applications.

  • 28.
    Dunström, Hampus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Holmberg, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Jannering, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Karlsson, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lundberg, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Tuhkala, Hannes
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wallström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    3D-Kopiering: Registrering och meshning av punktmoln för utskrift2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The technology to be able to print 3D objects has been available for many years, but it is only recently that 3D printers have been made available for regular consumers. There is one issue though: to be able to use the 3D printer either knowledge of CAD software or 3D models made by others are needed. By using a system for 3D copying a real object can instead be copied. This report presents a bachelor project that was done by seven students studying engineering programs in computer science or software technology at Linköping University, 2017. The goal of the project was to develop a system that could take several point clouds as input and then register them to a complete point cloud. Then use this point cloud to generate a 3D mesh to be printed on a 3D printer. The 3D printer will then be able to print the object. In the early stages of the project the main focus was to develop an already existing system. This goal was then renegotiated since the existing system contained several errors. The project resulted in 3DCopy, a software system that registers point clouds and from these point clouds generates a 3D mesh.

  • 29.
    Chau, Chieu Vinh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D-modeling of Norrköping2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The interest for a detailed and high solution city model has been large within the project” Optical signature analysis” at the department for Sensor Technology in FOI, Linköping. Thus, a textured 3D-model over Norrköping is needed, which later can be imported into simulation software to study optical signature in urban environment.

    The aim with this thesis work is to be able to use the result as a multi-used 3D-model within applications of the Swedish defence force for future usage. It is important to have a realistic representation of the environment so that the exercises can be planned and analyzed at the current position.

    For the final result to be as good as possible, the thesis work has been concentrated and limited into a smaller area, i.e. the quarter of Svärdet at Nya torget. Thereafter the thesis work has been divided into different stages: photographing, laser measurement, photomontage, modeling and texturing.

    One of the most important and extensive stages is to make the high solution and detailed texture pictures with photomontage. These pictures are first created with photographing and then be performed into panorama pictures. Further, the thesis work has been performed with suitable software, such as 3ds Max and Photoshop CS.

    The finished 3D-model will be supplied as a 3ds-file and max-file, where the textured pictures from the model have been moved into a folder to facilitate future works, for example in classification of texture-pictures.

  • 30.
    Helgesson, Robin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
    Dudzina, Ela
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
    3D-Teknik: ett användbart hjälpmedel för möbelkonservering?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to explain how the various 3D-technologies can serve as a practical aid in applied furniture conservation. The thesis deals with various techniques to scan and print, presents a selection of previous research relevant to the topic, and provides insight into the practical case studies.

    The technical development of 3D printing and scanning is advancing rapidly which raises the question whether the technology can be a useful tool in the field of conservation. The thesis presents a number of case studies where 3D technology has been used for documentation and restoration of various objects. These techniques have been compared with conventional methods.

    PLA is a printing fillament, perhaps primarily intended for commercial use. The work examines this material and its compatibility with other materials. After aging, the fillament undergoes a structural and color test. The results show that PLA is sensitive to UV-radiation and temperatures above 60°C. We believe that 3D technology can, in many cases, serve as a useful tool for furniture preservation.

  • 31.
    Haraldsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    3D-visualisering av molekylmodeller2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Naturvetenskapen är abstrakt, speciellt inom kemin. Atomer och molekyler är osynliga och måste åskådliggöras med strukturer och modeller. Modeller kan man bygga för hand med hjälp av kulor och pinnar eller så kan man visualisera modeller på datorn. För det första är det intressant att veta hur modeller visualiseras i läroböcker. För det andra hur eleverna tolkar visualiseringarna. För det tredje vilken attityd eleverna har till 3D-visualisering. En förstudie för identifikation av innehållsligt fokus utfördes. Vidare analyserade jag läroböcker genom att till att börja med identifiera de bilder som används i respektive bok i de avsnitt där dipol och geometrisk form behandlas och därefter följer en analys av de utvalda bilderna. Mot bakgrund av ovanstående resonemang har jag undersökt hur elever tolkar dipol och geometrisk form genom bildanalys av läroboksbilder och interaktiva 3D-modeller. Elever fick svara på enkäter med öppna frågor som sedan bearbetades för att se skillnader och likheter vad eleverna visualiserat. Vidare utformades en enkät utefter likertsystemet för att undersökta elevernas attityd till 3D-visualisering. Undersökningen visar dessutom hur eleverna läser en lärobok eftersom en fråga var utformad för att ge svar på det. Resultatet av min undersökning blir alltså att förstudien visar att elever anser dipol abstrakt. Läroböcker visar relativt många modeller och olika varianter av modeller. Vidare använder man sig av de konventionella symbolerna δ- och δ+. De flesta visar en bild från vardagen. Enligt min undersökning finns det vissa skillnader och likheter på hur eleverna tolkar läroboksbilder och 3D-visualisering. Eleverna är positiva till 3D-visualisering och de anser att det abstrakta blivit mer konkret med 3D-visualisering.

  • 32.
    Nilsson, John
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    3D-visualisering av moln2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Moln har många egenskaper som gör dem till väldigt utmanande objekt att åskådliggöra i datorgrafikapplikationer. Dess form är högst oregelbunden och med svårdefinierade gränser. De har transparenta egenskaper och ljuset sprids i molnen och skapar ljusfenomen som är svåra att beskriva. Till detta kommer även att alla människor har en klar uppfattning hur moln ser ut och kan därför lätt upptäcka om de renderade molnen inte ser ut som förväntat.

    Målet med denna rapport är att hitta ett bra sätt att modellera tredimensionella moln samt rendera dessa i realtid. Det presenterade resultatet beskriver en enkel men effektiv modelleringsmetod där ellipsoider används. Dessa moln visualiseras därefter med en mängd billboardar. Denna renderingsmetod ger bra prestanda och hanterar objekt inuti moln på ett bra sätt.

  • 33.
    Winell, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    3D-visualisering av robotsimulering2001Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visualization is a rapidly growing area of computer graphics. Due to the very progressive development of computer technology and especially 3D-graphic boards yesterdays imagination of visualizations, today is a reality.

    At Saab Bofors Dynamics in Linköping missile systems are developed. Through the development, different subsystems are simulated before the manufacturing starts. The results of these simulations have to be visualized to get a meaning. The visualizations can be symbolic or more real looking 3D-visualizations.

    During the work an investigation of available tools for computer visualizations on the market has been conducted. The outcome of the investigation has later been the foundation for the selection of tools to solve the visualization task.

    One 3D-visualization application for general 3D-visualization has then been developed using two different 3D-APIs, and the experiences of these have then been analyzed.

  • 34.
    Andersson, Tim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lind, Kristoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3D-visualization of residential buildings in Manstorp2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In real estate ads in both newspapers and on the Internet, there are more and more computer modeled houses for sale. We believe that this is one of the biggest markets for visualization today. When time and technology are ready, we expect that visualization will be used a lot more to create projects where people can “trust” in what is being visualized. For our final thesis we wanted to work with

    Visualization, our concentration within the Construction Engineering program at Linköping University. We managed to do this with the construction company Peab in Linköping, who wanted to make their marketing of their project Manstorp in Linghem more efficient. The pictures that the hired architect firm used to visualize the property with were not sufficient enough, according to Peab, in giving the true picture of the area. The goal for our thesis was to create more realistic and living images, and thereby help Peab sell all of the real estates before completing the constructions.

    We were continuously given material from Peab and the architect firm White in order to visualize a realistic set of pictures for potential clients. One of computer visualizations biggest advantages is that it is easy to modify the models according to changes in the material given. Compared to classic design methods such as hand-drawn sketches, physical models and computer manipulated pictures it was easy for us to change features such as color, displacement and size. We wanted to show how the cooperation between people who visualizes, construction companies and architects could work, where problems could evolve and which solutions and methods are to be preferred.

    The goal was to create a model of the exterior and interior of the individual buildings in their final environment and display this with pictures on Peab’s and the real estate agent’s website. We achieved this goal and the result can be seen at:

    http://www.peab.se/Bostader_lokaler/Bostader/ostergotland/Linkoping/Manstorp

  • 35.
    Sanjuan, Joseba
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3G Energy-Efficient Packet Handling Kernel Module for Android2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile devices is increasing due to the constant development of more advanced and appealing applications and computing features. However, these new features are very power hungry leading to short battery lifetimes. Research shows that a major reason for fast battery depletion is the excessive and inefficient use of the wireless interfaces. This thesis studies how we can attempt to increase the battery lifetime of the devices without having to sacrifice the usage of these advanced features in some applications.

    The thesis focuses on adapting the traffic pattern characteristics of mobile communication using a widespread wireless communication technology like 3G. Traffic pattern adaptation is performed at packet level in kernel space in Android. The data transfers are scheduled with the knowledge of the energy consumption characteristics of 3G. The performed measurements indicate that our solution can provide energy savings ranging from 7% to 59%.

    This work confirms that 3G conscious scheduling of network traffic reduces energy consumption, and that, both applications and energy saving libraries are potential directions to be further studied.

  • 36.
    Hall, Henning
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Luckey, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    3G Transmission Energy Savings through Adaptive Traffic Shaping Policies2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis will explore how two traffic shaping mechanisms can help preserve battery power while retaining a certain Quality of Service (QoS) in an Android based application developed for crisis management. The implemented user-space mechanisms will delay all elastic data requests in order to reduce the number of times the 3G transmission radio enters high power states. This lowers the QoS but extends the user equipment's battery life. The thesis will show that a shaping mechanism has the capability to reduce radio energy usage by up to 50% for the given Android application at the cost of added transmission delays by up to 134 seconds for background traffic. The study also presents two policies that help the application adapt to the current battery level and lower the QoS accordingly, namely one that has a lenient savings effect and one that has an aggressive savings effect.

  • 37.
    Händel, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    3G-masters miljöpåverkan: En studie av länsstyrelsens hantering av samråd enligt 12 kap. 6§ miljöbalken2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När rumsligt omvälvande projekt skall genomföras är det ofta konsekvenserna för naturmiljö, kulturmiljö, estetiska miljöaspekter som ger upphov till diskussioner. Uppförandet av telemaster till mobiltelefonsystemet 3G är ett infrastrukturprojekt som kommer att vara visuellt påtagliga på många platser i landskapet. I Sverige uppförs två stycken parallella mastsystem och detta har givit upphov till diskussioner kring projektets påverkan på vår omgivning. Uppsatsen studerar hur miljöpåverkan från ett stort infrastrukturprojekt, uppförandet av telemaster för 3G-systemet, behandlats av länsstyrelsen i samrådsärenden enligt 12 kapitlet 6§ miljöbalken, samt diskuterar kring hur handläggare på länsstyrelsen hanterar och upplever dessa ärenden.

    Studien visar att handläggare på de undersökta länsstyrelserna har begränsat mandat att minska antalet master genom samlokalisering. Önskemålen om att teleoperatörerna ska dela på själva masten är svåra att genomföra eftersom operatörerna inte har samverkansavtal. Laglig rätt att förplikta samlokalisering fanns inte under den studerade perioden. Det är vanskligt att säga om den sammantagna inverkan som masterna sägs ha kunnat begränsas på denna nivå. Det som identifierats som ett problem av aktörer som Boverket och PTS, d.v.s. antalet master, fastlades redan i ett tidigare skede.

    Samråden är inriktade på att undvika ur naturmiljösynpunkt olämpliga mastplaceringar. Dock utgör den fastslagna utbyggnaden av nätet och kravet på geografisk täckning att det kan uttryckas som att det för länsstyrelsen är inte en fråga om i fall masterna ska uppföras, utan om var. Lokaliseringen av masterna blir ett samspel mellan var operatörerna föredrar att placera master samt var det är lämpligt ut naturmiljösynpunkt. Den på nationell nivå fastlagda geografiska täckningskravet gör att bedömningen av masters påverkan på vissa landskap, där intrycket i landskapsbilden blir stort, upplevs svår av de intervjuade handläggarna. Bedömning av masters påverkan på just landskapsbilden kan upplevas som subjektiv.

    Det stora antalet anmälningar om samråd har resulterat i få förelägganden och förbud. MKB har endast använts i ett litet antal fall. Samråden synes mycket inriktade på att hitta alternativa lösningar innan förbud utfärdas. Landskapsbilden är den enskilda motivering till förbud som förekommer flest gånger.

  • 38.
    Hansson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Law and Legal Philosophy.
    § 500 California Corporations Code: en alternativ lösning till borgenärsskyddet vid värdeöverföringar?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar borgenärsskyddet vid värdeöverföringar. Det primära målet för begränsningar vid värdeöverföringar är att skydda borgenärer. Borgenärsskyddet i svensk rätt återfinns i 17 kap. 3 § aktiebolagslagen i form av beloppsspärren, som benämns som principen om skyddet för det bundna kapitalet, och försiktighetsregeln. De lege lata ger inte lagregeln något nämnvärt skydd för bolagets borgenärer. Framförallt kritiseras kravet på att aktiekapitalet inte fyller den funktion som lagstiftaren åsyftat. Behovet av en mer modern lösning kring borgenärsskyddet vid värdeöverföring bör således ses över. Vid studier av andra rättskällor finns flertalet lösningar i ett försök att på ett mer reellt sätt uppnå det primära syftet. En lösning som framförts i kalifornisk rätt är § 500 California Corporations Code, där lagstiftaren utformat två alternativa tester. En värdeöverföring får endast genomföras om aktiebolaget disponerar över behållna vinstmedel (retained earnings) eller, om bolaget inte disponerar över behållna vinstmedel, bolaget skall disponera över tillgångar som minst motsvarar en och en fjärdedel (1,25) av bolagets totala skulder samtidigt som omsättningstillgångarna minst skall motsvara dess kortfristiga skulder. Bolaget måste även efter värdeöverföringen vara solvent, jfr. § 501 California Corporations Code. Denna reglering är en strängare reglering än § 6.40 MBCA, en modellakt utarbetad i USA. Den kaliforniska modellens förtjänster ligger i att den i förväg kan förutse om en värdeöverföring är lovlig eller olovlig, samtidigt som den är mer flexibel ifråga om bolagets storlek eller branschtillhörighet. Bristerna med § 500 California Corporations Code har sin grund i att aktiebolag tätt inpå en konkurs kan disponera över behållna vinstmedel, samtidigt som modellen är relativt dålig på att förutspå om ett bolag efter en värdeöverföring skulle riskera att vara på obestånd. Jag har istället valt att kombinera § 500 Cal. Corp. Code (b) med den svenska försiktighetsregeln och ett explicit solvenskrav. Genom denna kombination skulle denna lösning vara väl applicerbar i svensk rätt och ett starkt alternativ till att ersätta den nu gällande regleringen i 17 kap. 3 § ABL.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Leila
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    Ortiz, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences.
    55+ - äldre anställdas föreställningar om att arbeta till pensionsålder och deras upplevelser av ett friskvårdsprojekt2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har genomförts på ett stålföretag som startade friskvårdsprojektet 55+ för anställda som är 55 år eller äldre. Syftet med denna studie är att få en bild över vad äldre anställda har för föreställningar om att arbeta till 65 och diskutera hur friskvårdsprojektet 55+ kan påverka deras förutsättningar att vara kvar i arbete till pensionsålder. I studien användes kvalitativ intervju som metod och undersökningsgruppen bestod av tio anställda på företaget.

    Förutsättningar som de intervjuade tog upp för att arbeta kvar rörde arbetet, hälsan, tajming med partner och ekonomin och många upplevde att de inte skulle kunna arbeta till 65 som de gör idag. Det fanns en besvikelse över att företaget inte längre erbjöd avtalspension i samma utsträckning som tidigare, eftersom de intervjuade mentalt hade förberett sig inför en pensionärstillvaro. Att de intervjuade från början inte var inställda på att arbeta till 65 kan ha påverkat deras upplevda förutsättningar i arbetet. De ställde dock om sina förväntningar och genom jämförelser med andra, såsom utländska kollegor, fann de sig i situationen. En osäkerhet över vad som gäller med pension fanns bland de intervjuade. Friskvårdprojektet kan ha fungerat hälsofrämjande, eftersom det för de intervjuade bidrog till ökad medvetenhet om hälsan. Det enligt oss största bidraget med friskvårdsprojektet var att deltagarna kände välbefinnande i att företaget satsade på just dem. Ett friskvårdprojekt kan därmed leda till ökad motivation hos äldre anställda att arbeta kvar till 65, men eftersom de intervjuade fortfarande upplevde hinder i arbetet skulle insatser även i arbetet kunna öka deras möjligheter och vilja att arbeta till 65.

  • 40.
    Hossain, Mohammad Billal
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    6-9 GHz Low-Noise Amplifier Design and Implementation2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Low-noise amplifier design (LNA) is a critical step when designing a receiver front- end. For the broadband technologies and particularly ultra-wideband (UWB) system, designing the LNA becomes more challenging. This master thesis mainly focuses on the LNA design for the European UWB recommendation, i.e. LNA covering the 6 - 9 GHz spectrum. Moreover, better understandings of the design process in correlation with the implementing of the LNA on a printed circuit board (PCB) were expected.

    The LNA was manufactured, assembled and measured with network analyzer. This report presents a complete functional design of an UWB LNA. 

  • 41.
    Englund, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    7 § Skuldebrevslagen och moderna betalningsmetoder2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lag (1936:81) om skuldebrev är en av få lagar som reglerar betalning. Skuldebrevslagen stiftades på 1930-talet, när de flesta betalningar gjordes med hjälp av sedlar och mynt. Idag sker emellertid betalningar ofta genom moderna betalningsmetoder såsom girering, konto- och kreditkortbetalning och e- betalning. 7 § Skuldebrevslagen reglerar betalningar av skulder ställda i en utländsk valuta, och paragrafen ger gäldenären en rätt att, istället för den avtalade valutan, betala i en gångbar valuta på betalningsorten. I uppsatsen utreds vilken funktion som 7 § Skuldebrevslagen kan och bör fylla när betalning görs via en modern betalningsmetod. Ändamålet med 7 § Skuldebrevslagen skall analyseras mot bakgrund av 1930-talets ekonomiska verklighet och utifrån denna analys skall vidare undersökas vilken funktion paragrafen fyller i dagens samhälle. Moderna betalningsmetoder omfattas av paragrafens tillämpningsområde eftersom dessa till stor del har samma funktion som traditionella former för betalning. En modifiering av 7 § Skuldebrevslagen skulle dock, enligt författarens mening, vara eftersträvansvärd eftersom den riskfördelning som paragrafen innebär till viss del blir oklar och kan medföra tillämpningsproblem när betalning görs via moderna betalningsmetoder.

  • 42.
    Aamir, Syed Ahmed
    Linköping University. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    A 65nm, Low Voltage, Fully Differential, SC Programmable Gain Amplifier for Video AFE2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to rapid growth of home entertainment consumer market, video technology has been continuously pushed to deliver sharper pictures with higher resolution. This has brought about stringent requirements on the video analog front end, which often coupled with the low power and low voltage regulations had to deal with short channel effects of the deep submicron CMOS processes.

    This thesis presents the design of a fully differential programmable gain amplifier, as a subcircuit of a larger video digitizing IC designed at division of Electronic Systems. The switched capacitor architecture of the PGA does not only buffer the signal, but performs compensation for the sync-tip of analog video signal.

    The pseudo differential OTA eliminates tail current source and maintains high signal swing and has efficient common mode feedforward mechanism. When coupled with a similar stage provides inherent common moode feedback without using an additional SC-CMFB block.

    The PGA has been implemented using a 65 nm digital CMOS process. Expected difficulties in a 1.2 V OTA design make themselves evident in 65 nm, which is why cascaded OTA structures were inevitable for attaining gain specification of 60 dB. Nested Miller compensation with a pole shifting source follower, stabilizes the multipole system. The final circuit attains up to 200 MHz bandwidth and maintains high output swing of 0.85 V. High slew rate and good common mode and power supply rejection are observed. Noise requirements require careful design of input differential stage. Although output source follower stabilized the system, it reduces significant bandwidth and adds to second order non-linearity.

  • 43.
    Thorarensen, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    A Back-End for the SkePU Skeleton Programming Library targeting the Low-Power Multicore Vision Processor Myriad 22016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The SkePU skeleton programming library utilises algorithmic skeletons to offer a high-level approach for creating parallel applications. By using different back-ends, SkePU applications can run on multicore systems, GPGPU systems, and computer clusters.

    Myriad 2 is a low-power multicore vision processor for embedded systems, capable of running parallel applications energy-efficiently. Myriad 2 is heterogeneous, containing two different processor architectures and memories with different characteristics.

    In this thesis, we implement a back-end for SkePU, that allows SkePU applications to run on Myriad 2. We describe how the back-end is designed and evaluate the performance of SkePU applications running on Myriad 2. By conducting a series of benchmarks, we show that our back-end achieves enough performance to make SkePU a useful tool for creating applications for Myriad 2. We also show that SkePU applications can run more energy-efficiently on Myriad 2, compared to a GPGPU system.

  • 44.
    Mahmoud, Nawrous Ibrahim
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    A Backstepping Design of a Control System for a Magnetic Levitation System2003Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this thesis is the design of a control law for a magnetic levitation system, which in this case is the system 33-210. The method used is backstepping technique and specifically adaptive observer backstepping due to parameter uncertainties and lack of access to all the states of the system. The second state of the system, the speed of the steel ball, was estimated by a reduced order observer. The model used gave us the opportunity to estimate a parameter which in the literature is denoted virtual control coefficient. Backstepping method gives us a rather straight forward way to design the controlling unit for a system with these properties. Stabilization of the closed-loop system is achieved by incorporating a Lypapunov function, which were chose a quadratic one in this thesis. If thederivative of this function is rendered negative definite by the control law, then we achieve stability. The results of the design were evaluated in simulations and real-time measurements by testing the tracking performance of the system. The simulation results were very promising and the validations in real-time were satisfying. Note that this has been done in previous studies; the new aspect here is the limitation of the voltage input. The real-time results showed that the parameter estimation converges only locally.

  • 45.
    Danner, Torrin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Statistics.
    A Bayesian Multilevel Model for Time Series Applied to Learning in Experimental Auctions2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Establishing what variables affect learning rates in experimental auctions can be valuable in determining how competitive bidders in auctions learn. This study aims to be a foray into this field. The differences, both absolute and actual, between participant bids and optimal bids are evaluated in terms of the effects from a variety of variables such as age, sex, etc. An optimal bid in the context of an auction is the best bid a participant can place to win the auction without paying more than the value of the item, thus maximizing their revenues. This study focuses on how two opponent types, humans and computers, affect the rate at which participants learn to optimize their winnings.

    A Bayesian multilevel model for time series is used to model the learning rate of actual bids from participants in an experimental auction study. The variables examined at the first level were auction type, signal, round, interaction effects between auction type and signal and interaction effects between auction type and round. At a 90% credibility interval, the true value of the mean for the intercept and all slopes falls within an interval that also includes 0. Therefore, none of the variables are deemed to be likely to influence the model.

    The variables on the second level were age, IQ, sex and answers from a short quiz about how participants felt when the y won or lost auctions. The posterior distributions of the second level variables also found to be unlikely to influence the model at a 90% credibility interval.

    This study shows that more research is required to be able to determine what variables affect the learning rate in competitive bidding auction studies

  • 46.
    Lindblad, Ulrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Thalin, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    A Behavioral Model of a DSP Processor with Scalable Structure2002Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree)Student thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In mobile digital devices, low power consumption is an important matter to reduce the need for a heavy and big battery. One way of reducing the power consumption is to construct the hardware so that the performance is optimal for the application. The demand of performance is dependent of the tasks that the device will be performing. This is where scalable structure of the hardware is an idea to solve the problem.

    This master thesis serve as a starting point for developing a digital signal processor with scalable structure. The digital signal processor is a common and important part of digital processing. Scalable struture is in this case adding and removing parts of the memory and/or the instruction set, and to make the data wordlength variable. The development is simplified by modeling it on an existing processor. The result of this master thesis is an instruction simulator written in C language. The simulator will be a model for development of the hardware.

  • 47.
    Furberg, Bibbi
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    A better DREAM?: Utvärdering och utveckling av en metod för analys av olyckor inom biltrafikdomänen.2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats är en del av trafiksäkerhetsprojektet FICA (Factors Influencing the Causation of Accidents and Incidents), vars målsättning är att genom en förståelse för förarbeteende kunna utveckla aktiv säkerhetsteknologi för fordon. Inom detta projekt kommer en metod för olycksanalys, DREAM (Driving Reliability and Error Analysis Method), att användas. Den här uppsatsen handlar om att utvärdera och utveckla denna analysmetod. Arbetet med metoden har främst gällt användbarhetsaspekter av DREAM. Även olika kvalitetsaspekter som till exempel replikerbarhet, har undersökts. Arbetet har skett genom ett antal studier där DREAM tillämpats på olycksmaterial. DREAM har bland annat testats genom en kooperativ utvärdering där testpersonerna fick"tänka högt"medan de utförde analysen. Arbetet resulterade i vissa förändringar i den befintliga metoden, samt i en manual till DREAM och mallar att fylla i vid en analys.

  • 48.
    Berg, Ulrika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    Svensson, Jennie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Economics.
    A big fish in a small pond -En studie av svenska företags samt EU-kommissionens perspektiv på konkurrens2002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Efter att en rad uppmärksammade nationella fusioner stoppats av EU-kommissionen har en debatt huruvida konkurrensreglerna ska tolkas och huruvida de är rättvisa utlösts. Utifrån denna bakgrund var uppsatsen syfte att skapa förståelse för olikheter i svenska företags respektive EU-kommissionens syn på konkurrenseffekter i fusionssammanhang. Författarna i denna studie hade för avsikt att beskriva de olika parternas syn på konkurrenseffekter samt analysera vad olikheternabaseras på. För att kunna besvara syftet genomfördes en kvalitativ studie med intervjuer som tillsammans med EU-kommissionens perspektiv i de olika fusionerna utgör grunderna i empirikapitlet. Teorikapitlet baseras på Porters branschstrukturanalys, PIMS och teori om olika marknadsstrukturer. Dessa teorier har därefter kopplats ihop med empirikapitlet och utmynnade således i en analys. Författarna har i denna studie kommit fram till att stora svenska företag har svårt att genom fusion eller förvärv stärka konkurrenspositionen för att kunna växa i Europa och övriga världen. Detta grundar sig i att svenska företag och EU-kommissionen definierar de relevanta produkt- samt geografiska marknaderna på olika sätt, vilket lett till att svenska företag samt EU-kommissionens syn på konkurrenseffekter skiljer sig åt. Svenska företag menar att det fortfarande skulle finnas substitut, rivalitet, förhandlingsstyrka hos köparna samt möjlighet till inträde på marknaden för övriga konkurrenter, medan EU- kommissionen hävdar motsatsen. Vidare gör företag gällande att de agerar som marknadsföljare på de marknader där målet är att utöka verksamheten. EU-kommission å andra sidan ser till graden av dominans på de marknader där företagen tillsammans skulle bli alldeles för starka, vilket leder fram till positionen som marknadsledare. Företag upplever inte att de genom fusionen skapar en marknadsstruktur där de får en monopolistisk situation. EU-kommissionen hävdar dock att denna form av fusion skulle leda till en så pass dominerande ställning att marknadsmakt och prisdiskriminering skulle kunna tillämpas. Kontentan av detta resonemang är att EU i nuläget inte är en öppen marknad med länder utan gränser och fri rörlighet för varor och kapital i fusionssammanhang. Det enda alternativet som finns för stora svenska företag idag är att gå samman med företag i Europa eller övriga världen.

  • 49.
    Jayachandra Pandiyan, Muneeswaran
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular genetics.
    A bioinformatics approach to investigate the function of non specific lipid transfer proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Plant non specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) enhance in vitro transfer of phospholipids between membranes. Our analysis exploited the large amount of Arabidopsis transcriptome data in public databases to learn more about the function of nsLTPs. The analysis revealed that some nsLTPs are expressed only in roots, some are seed specific, and others are specific for tissues above ground whereas certain nsLTPs show a more general expression pattern. Only few nsLTPs showed a strong up or downregulation after that the Arabidopsis plant had suffered from biotic or abiotic stresses. However, salt, high osmosis and UV-B radiation caused upregulation of some nsLTP genes. Further, when the coexpression pattern of the A.thaliana nsLTPs were investigated, we found that there were several modules of nsLTP genes that showed strong coexpression indicating an involvement in related biological processes. Our finding reveals that the nsLTPs gene was significantly correlated with lipase and peroxidase activity. Hence we concluded that the nsLTPs may play a role in seed germination, signalling and ligning biosynthesis.

  • 50.
    Kiflemariam, Jordanos
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    A Biomimetic Manganese Model for Artificial Photosynthesis: Q-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of a Novel Mn2(II,III) Complex2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In natural oxygen-producing photosynthesis solar energy is stored as chemical energy, in carbohydrates, fats and amino acids, using water as electron source. The large transmembrane protein complex, PSII, is the key enzyme in the light-driven reactions. Water oxidation is accomplished by a triad in PSII in which the Mn-cluster plays an important role. In the artificial photosynthetic system, nature’s photosynthesis will be mimicked such that hydrogen, a sustainable energy source, can be produced from solar energy and water alone. Since water oxidiation requires the catalytic activity of a Mn-cluster in photosynthesis, different artificially constructed manganese complexes are investigated.

    The dinuclear ([Mn2(II,III)L(µ-OAc)2]ClO4), where L is the X-anion of 2-(N,N-Bis(2-methylpyridyl)aminomethyl)-6-(N-(3,5-ditert-butylbenzyl-2-hydroxy)-N-(pyridylmethyl)aminomethyl)-4-methylphenol, an unsymmetric ligand with two coordinating phenolate groups, has been studied. The two Mn-ions are linked via a mono-µ-oxo bridge and two acetate ligands. Q-band Electron Paramagnetic Resonance was conducted on the Unsymmetric Mn2(II,III) Complex. Aquired results show that the complex has a 2600 Gauss broad signal (11 400-14 000 Gauss) with 14-17 lines at g~2 and hyperfines of 120 Gauss. This is consistent with previous X-band studies. Q-band spectra of the Unsymmetric Mn(II,III) display increased hyperfine resolution compared to Qband spectra of the symmetric complex, Mn2(bpmp)(µ-OAC)2. This is noticeable since Unsymmetric Mn2(II,III) and Mn2 (bpmp)(µ-OAC)2 partly overlap in low-frequency experiments (X-band EPR).

    Further investigations are yet to be expected. Nevertheless, the conducted thesis study provides important knowledge in the futuristic goal of building an artificial super-complex.

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