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  • 1.
    Björk, Josefin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture.
    Lindholm, Carolin
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture.
    Skillnaden mellan konstnärer och konstnärer: En studie om vilken roll den icke västerändske konstnären har i det svenska kulturlivet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I vår uppsats vill vi belysa de icke västerländska konstnärernas roll i det svenska kulturlivet. Med hjälp av en postkolonial teori vill vi titta närmare på hur de och deras konst bli bemött och vilka förutsättningar de har att verka inom kultursektorn på samma villkor som de etniskt svenska konstnärerna. Konst är gränsöverskridande, men trots det så görs det skillnad på konst och konst, vi att undersöka varför, i förhållande till vår teori.

  • 2.
    Léb Lehrman, Susanne
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Algebrant, Marita
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "Jag är inte tyst och jag kan höja rösten"2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 15 points / 22,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker hur kvinnliga chefer inom offentlig sektor upplever sina möjligheter och hinder i karriären . Kvinnor i maktposition har motsägelsefulla roller vilket i sig kan upplevas som ett dilemma.

    Sex kvinnor på höga chefspositioner inom en offentlig sektor i Sverige deltog. Intervjuer genomfördes med en semistrukturerad intervjuguide baserad på följande områden: struktur, interaktion, individrelatering och symboler. Intervjuguidens struktur och analysen av intervjuerna baserades på en könsteoretisk modell enligt doing gender perspektiv. Doing gender perspektivet användes för att beskriva de praktiker som var av betydelse för den maktstruktur som fanns i organisationen.

    Analysen av de könsskapande processer som påvisades i organisationen, visade att det främst var värdering av kunskap, värdering av kvinnligt och manligt ledarskap och förutsättningarna för att utföra ledarskapet som utgjorde hinder eller möjligheter för kvinnornas karriär. Organisationen, med dess konserverade hierarkiska system, var också en barriär för kvinnorna.

  • 3.
    Björkman, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Architecture for a remote diagnosis system used in heavy-duty vehicles2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The diagnosis system of a Scania vehicle is an indispensable tool for workshop personnel and engineers in their work. Today Scania has a system for fetching diagnostic information from field test vehicles remotely and store them in a database, so called remote diagnosis. This saves the engineers much time by not having to visit every vehicle. The system uses a Windows based on-board PC in the vehicle called an Interactor. The Interactor has a telematic unit for communication with Scanias Fleet Management System and the CAN-bus in the vehicle. In the next generation of the Interactor, its telematic unit is to be replaced by a Linux based telematic unit called the Communicator 200 (C200). The purpose of this master project is to create a new architecture for a remote diagnosis system that uses the new telematic unit Communicator 200.


    The thesis gives an analysis of the current remote diagnosis system used at Scania and proposes an architecture for a new generation remote diagnosis system using the C200. Also a system for demonstrating how to perform remote diagnosis over the C200 has been built. The thesis describes the operation and how the demonstration system was implemented.

  • 4.
    Toivo, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Change Management and Supply Chain Management: Employee issues in implementation processes of SCM - The action and re-action related to changes in each stage of an implementation process2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Competition on today’s market is fierce. Providing a defect-free product is no more a competitive advantage. Now money and focus is put on managing the supply chain, a competitive tool to thriving in today’s business climate. There are two distinct flow pipelines: the order information transfer pipeline and the product transfer pipeline, both dependent on the collaboration efforts of individuals.

    Evolving within supply chain management equals integrating the supply chain from basic to complex; from baseline or functional to internal or external. Bringing focus to where it is found to be lacking, this literary study highlights and connects issues that may arise during implementation of external supply chain integration. The focal point is thus on employee reactions to change, with each stage of implementation that the implementation issues connect to. Simultaneously, the study provides (pre)requisites to management during the different stages, which would support the implemented transition in its different phases.

    The result of this study is a Manger Model that gives an overview of each of the implementation stages, the requisites for management and issues regarding employees at each of the stages. Constructed to be applicable to more than just external integration the model encompasses all the gathered models and theories through a discussion of not only the complexity of the internal and the external supply chain, but also the complex nature of the individuals caught within the implementation, both from the manager’s as well as the employee’s point of view.

  • 5.
    Schönning, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Det konkurrenskraftiga subjektet: -En analys av Allians för Sveriges skolpolitik2007Student paper other, 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inför riksdagsvalet 2006 uttryckte Allians för Sverige sitt missnöje mot den dåvarande Socialdemokratiska regeringens skolpolitik. Alliansen, det vill säga de fyra borgerliga partierna, stod då i opposition till den Socialdemokratiska regeringen och påvisade att deras politik skulle verka för en mer hållbar skolpolitik för kunskap och ordning i skolan.  Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka föreställning om kunskap och det lärande subjektet i grundskolan det vill säga eleven, som finns i de delar av Allians för Sveriges dokument som behandlar skolfrågor. För att belysa bakgrund och historisk kontext används två perspektiv på skola och utbildning; ett kollektivt och ett individuellt. I Allians för Sveriges skolpolitik märks spänningar mellan dessa perspektiv vilket får konsekvenser för synen på kunskap och subjekt. Frågeställningarna handlar om vad som görs önskvärt respektive problematiskt hos framtida medborgare/elever i Allians för Sveriges skolpolitik. Den teoretiska utgångspunkt och metodologiska ansats som använts för studien är socialkonstruktionistisk och betonar således både språkets och den kontextuella betydelsen för subjektets konstruktion av meningsskapande.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Automating a test strategy for a protocoldecoder tool2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within Ericsson AB, integration and verification activities is done on the network level in order to secure the functionality of the network. Protocol analysers are used to capture the traffic in the network. This results in many log files, which needs to be analysed. To do this, a protocol decoder tool called Scapy/LHC is used. Scapy/LHC is a framework that allows the users to write their own script to retrieve the data they need from the log files. The Scapy/LHC framework is incrementally developed as open source within Ericsson when there are needs for more functionality. This is often done by the users, outside normal working tasks. Because of this, there is almost no testing done to verify that old and new functionality works as expected, and there is no formal test strategy in use today.


    The goal of this master’s thesis is to evaluate test strategies that are possible to use on the Scapy/LHC framework. To make the time needed for the testing process as short as possible, the test strategy needs to be automated. Therefore, possible test automation tools shall also be evaluated.


    Two possible test strategies and two possible test automation tools are evaluated in this thesis. A test strategy, where the scripts that are written by the users are used, is then selected for implementation. The two test automation tools are also implemented. The evaluation of the implemented test strategy shows that it is possible to find defects in the Scapy/LHC framework in a time efficient way with help of the implemented test strategy and any of the implemented test automation tools.

  • 7.
    Åström, Jennie
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Tvåsamhället: Om att förhålla sig till normer som skaver2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on single peoples construction of their lifes in relation to normative heterosexual coupledom. It is based on five interviews made with single women and men at the age of 24 to 51 who live by themselves. The queer theory which puts the heteronormativity in question is used as a theoretical framework. Discourse psychology functions as an analytic approach. It focuses on the use of language in the construction of reality in a world of determinant discourses. The thesis shows how the life of singles is made understandable where the interviewee´s constructs their reality by either creating their own life's as possible ways of living and distance themselves from coupledom or by striving for the twosome way of living. This is done by a construction of gender and age performance as different in the single and the twosome life. It also shows paradoxes where discourses of advantage independence meet discourses that construct twosome relationships as the only place for the development of real masculinity or of a special form of preferable femininity. The construction of gender and age as performed different in the single and the couple life provides an understanding of the interviewee's creation of self-image in relation to normative heterosexual coupledom.

  • 8.
    Hakim, Ali
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Characterization of Hard Metal Surfaces after Various Surface Process Treatments2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate how material surfaces are affected by various surface treatments and how this relates to the adhesion of the coating. The materials that were studied were WC-Co and Cermets and the surface treatments used were polishing, grinding with coarser and finer abrasive grains, and finally wet blasting and dry blasting. Focus was on deformations and residual stresses in the surface, surface roughness and cracks. The test methods used for examining the samples included surface roughness measurements, residual stress measurements, adhesion tests using Rockwell indentation and SEM images of the surface and the cross section.

    The results concluded that polishing gives very good adhesion. Additionally, the adhesion for ground surfaces was good for WC-Co but very poor for Cermets. Furthermore, it was observed that finer abrasive grains did not result in better adhesion. In fact, the coarser grains gave slightly better results. Finally, it was concluded that wet blasting has a clear advantage over dry blasting and results in much better adhesion, especially for the Cermets. The results for the WC-Co were a bit inconsistent and so further research is required.

  • 9.
    Gullberg, Erik
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Construction of a system for heterologous production of carbonic anhydrase from Plasmodium falciparum in Pichia pastoris2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Malaria is one of the biggest current global health problems, and with the increasing occurance of drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains, there is an urgent need for new antimalarial drugs. Given the important role of carbonic anhydrase in Plasmodium falciparum (PfCA), it is a potential novel drug target. Heterologous expression of malaria proteins is problematic due to the unusual codon usage of the Plasmodium genome, so to overcome this problem a synthetic PfCA gene was designed, optimized for expression in Pichia pastoris. This gene was also modified to avoid glycosylation, and cloned into the vector pPICZαA under the control of the methanol inducible promoter AOX1. To facilitate export of the protein into the growth medium, the gene was fused in-frame with the α-factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The construct was successfully integrated in the genome of P. pastoris GS115, and attempts were made to express the protein and purify it using immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography.In this work, no expression of the PfCA protein could be detected, so further research should focus on optimization of expression conditions, or redesign of the expression vector.

  • 10.
    Larsson, Anneli
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute.
    Profile and perceptions of biogas as automobile fuel: A study of Svensk Biogas2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental- and health perspective, biogas and other biomass-based fuels have several advantages; nevertheless the majority of motorists fill their cars with petroleum-based fuels. This thesis is designed to explore the profile of biogas in relation to its perceptions. It is a study concerning the communication between the biogas producing company Svensk Biogas and their biogas users and non biogas users. To obtain a thorough understanding of the profile and perceptions of biogas a qualitative approach was considered appropriate. Biogas users and non-users were interviewed at gasoline stations, while Svensk Biogas was interviewed as a group.

    The three interview segments were analyzed and compared in order to identify patterns, similarities and differences. Based on research data the thesis concludes that the profiling arguments of biogas correlates to that biogas is the most environmentally friendly fuel, the least expensive fuel, and locally produced. Furthermore, the company profile of Svensk Biogas is equal to sustainable alternative, locally produced, trustworthy, environmentally friendly and climate smart [klimatsmart]. Given the arguments of the company profile, environmental values seem to be the core communicating value. Profiling Svensk Biogas happens through events and by using communication material such as company logotype.

    Motorists have an overall positive perception of biogas. Biogas users states environmental benefits as the key argument behind their commitment. Non-users are positive toward biogas although expressing a lack of knowledge confusing biogas with ethanol and bio-fuels in general. According to motorists the negative perceptions, in addition to the prerequisites of biogas, are connected to insufficient infrastructure of biogas filling stations, a short range of the biogas tank, a high investment cost of a biogas car, a biogas price increase, scarcity of cars, and information (lack of information and misleading information).

    The overall perception of Svensk Biogas among biogas users is positive. Biogas users express a negative perception concerning the Svensk Biogas filling stations and also wish for a lower biogas price. Non-users express modest perceptions of the company. This research also concludes that perceptions of the biogas producer are correlated to the perceptions of biogas. Furthermore, biogas producer, users and non-users wish to be directed by political decisions, guiding them toward environmentally friendly fuel alternatives.

  • 11.
    Larsson, John-Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Evaluation of Flux and Timing Calibration of the XMM-Newton EPIC-MOS Cameras in Timing Mode2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    XMM-Newton is a X-ray telescope launched december 1999, by the European Space Agency, ESA. On board XMM-Newton are two EPIC-MOS X-ray detectors. The detectors are build by Charged Coupled Devices (CCDs), of Metal Oxide Semi-conductor type. The EPIC-MOS cameras have four science operating modes. This project aims to evaluate the calibration for one of these four modes, the timing mode.

    The evaluation is divided into two parts. The first part is the evaluation of the flux calibration, performed by analysing various observation made in timing mode. The second part is the evaluation of timing properties by performing timing analysis of XMM-Newton observations of the Crab nebula compared to observations made in the radio wavelengths.

  • 12.
    Torstensson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics.
    Computation of Mileage Limits for Traveling Salesmen by Means of Optimization Techniques2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many companies have traveling salesmen that market and sell their products.This results in much traveling by car due to the daily customer visits. Thiscauses costs for the company, in form of travel expenses compensation, and environmentaleffects, in form of carbon dioxide pollution. As many companies arecertified according to environmental management systems, such as ISO 14001,the environmental work becomes more and more important as the environmentalconsciousness increases every day for companies, authorities and public.The main task of this thesis is to compute reasonable limits on the mileage ofthe salesmen; these limits are based on specific conditions for each salesman’sdistrict. The objective is to implement a heuristic algorithm that optimizes thecustomer tours for an arbitrary chosen month, which will represent a “standard”month. The output of the algorithm, the computed distances, will constitute amileage limit for the salesman.The algorithm consists of a constructive heuristic that builds an initial solution,which is modified if infeasible. This solution is then improved by a local searchalgorithm preceding a genetic algorithm, which task is to improve the toursseparately.This method for computing mileage limits for traveling salesmen generates goodsolutions in form of realistic tours. The mileage limits could be improved if theinput data were more accurate and adjusted to each district, but the suggestedmethod does what it is supposed to do.

  • 13.
    Ousbäck, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture.
    Rökstenens och futharkens platonska kosmologi: Spåren av antikens idégods hos järnålderns skandinaviska krigarelit2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats gör framför allt en textanalys av Rökstenen baserad på en modern historiesyn av den sena järnålderns förhållanden i Skandinavien. Med en sådan kontexuell bakgrund kan ett sameuropeiskt, senantikt idégods användas i en komparativ analys. Utgångspunkten är att Rökstenen manifisterar ett kosmologiskt budskap och att denna kosmologi är en variant av den under perioden alenarådande platonska harmoniska kosmologin. Även futharken analyseras från samma utgångspunkt.

  • 14. Nors, Niclas
    et al.
    Rehnström, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    SMS-baserat alarm med positionering: GPS based alarm with positioning2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates how to design a low-cost, versatile event messaging system using SMS. A typical use case is a fire alarm or intrusion detector when equipped with appropriate sensors. With a GPS receiver connected, the actual position is included in the message, allowing for use as theft alarm in e.g. a car or in mobile home.

  • 15.
    Zyto, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    "Thailand, here I come": En kritisk diskursanalys över svenskars förhållande till resmålet Thailand2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den globala turismnäringen har kommit att bli en av världens mest lukrativa branscher. Hundratusentals svenskar turistar i Thailand varje år. Vad representerar Thailand i turistens ögon? Hur ser turisten på sig själv i förhållande till det han/hon möter och hur förhåller sig turisten till det lokala och globala? Uppsatsen utgår från en kritisk hållning till fenomenet turism. Teorier om Postkolonialism och Orientalism samt kritisk turismforskning blir därmed centrala i förståelsen av det undersökta materialet. Materialet som studeras i uppsatsen innefattas av resdagboksinlägg från hemsidan Resdagboken.se. Som metod används den kritiska diskursanalysen.

    Materialet visar på vissa specifika teman; ”Det trygga äventyret”, ”Att inte vara som alla andra turister”, ”Sol, bad konsumtion och lättja”, ”Erotik”, samt ”Tilltalet till dem där hemma”. Genom belysandet av turismens bakomliggande strukturer och hur man genom det skrivna ordet uttrycker föreställningar om andra och sig själv, försöker författaren till uppsatsen bredda förståelsen för turismen som global företeelse.

  • 16.
    Blomfeldt, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Haverstad, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Sensorfusion av GPS och IMU för en racingtillämpning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS AB is a Swedish company that develops and sells inertial sensor systems. A new product is under research which basically is an aided inertial navigation system where unwanted drift is eliminated. This can be done by integrating a GPS reciever into the system and fuse measurement data from GPS and IMU. Such a product is useful in racing, where engineers always are searching for the optimal performance and the shortest lap times. Today the only feedback the engineers and mechanics get from their work is the driver’s comments and lap times. It would be of great help if it was possible to see the behaviour of the car directly in technical terms. The focus of this master thesis is fusing a GPS receiver and an IMU using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). The main task of the EKF is to estimate the errors of the intertial measurements and correct the measurements to eliminate drift in velocity and position. To verify the system, data collection was done togheter with the team G2 Racing and Tony Ring. The measurements were done in Tony’s Ferrari F430 Pista during two days at the Paul Ricard circuit in southern France. From the results possibilites to further estimate interesting entities were evaluated.

  • 17.
    Petters, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    "Efter nu aktuell händelse så upplever hon stor skuld och skam"- Konstruktionen av den kvinnliga rattfylleristen i frivårdens personutredningar2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, approximately 17 500 drunk drivers are sued in Sweden. Of these, only 10 percent are women. The women are therefore considered a minority. In this study, I have taken interest in how the female drunk driver is constructed implemented by the probation service. By using critical discourse analysis I have found that the woman in these investigations is contributed the role of a deviant in two senses. She deviates because she is a woman who has committed a criminal deed and also because she often has problems with alcohol as well. I have found that the woman, because of these deviations, is depicted as a victim, both for the situation she is in and for her own actions.

  • 18.
    Johannesson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Phosphorus retention in a constructed wetland - the role of sediment accretion2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A low-loaded constructed wetland was investigated with respect to phosphorus retention. Since the main long-term phosphorus retention mechanism is sedimentation and sediment accretion, the study focused on these processes. The purpose of the study was 1) to investigate how the calculated value of phosphorus retention (Pin – Pout), corresponded with the measured amount of phosphorus in the sediment, 2) to find out where in the wetland the phosphorus had accumulated, and in what form it was retained, and 3) to investigate the role of vegetation. The calculated value was 12 kg ha-1 and the measured value was 104 kg ha-1, which indicated the importance of internal phosphorus circulation, where plants probably take phosphorus from the underlying clay. Hence, vegetation could possibly increase the total phosphorus content in the wetland. The composition of phosphorus in the sediment was analysed using sequential fractionation. The dominating form of phosphorus in the sediment was iron-bound phosphorus (29 %). In total, 48 % of the phosphorus was stable, i.e. tightly bound in the sediment, and 35 % was relatively stable. The bioavailable fraction, which could cause eutrophication in downstream waters, was 17 % of the total phosphorus content, or 41 kg ha-1. The amount of total phosphorus was significantly higher near the inlet, compared to the outlet, which is explained by rapid sedimentation of particulate phosphorus entering the wetland. The phosphorus amount near the inlet represented 80 % of the total phosphorus load – which indicates the importance of internal circulation of phosphorus, both biological and geochemical.

  • 19.
    Falk, Conny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Blomkvist, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Flexibla fixturer i bearbetande maskiner2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis was conducted at Linköping University and Saab Aerostructures DPS, Linköping, and focuses on the possibilities of flexible fixturing in machining applications. The thesis is part of the research project "Koofix", which is collaboration between Linköping University and a number of companies.

    The thesis is aimed towards small batch production which, for Saab Aerostructures DPS, means diverse part geometry and that parts are manufactured in very small numbers, sometimes just one piece. The result of this is that expensive dedicated fixtures are made for most parts. By introducing more flexible fixturing methods to this kind of production the cost of fixtures and tooling will be reduced, and make the production more efficient.

    New flexible fixturing methods has been presented and evaluated through the thesis, which has resulted in three different concepts. These concepts have been the result of literature screening and study of current manufacturing process at Saab Aerostructures DPS. The concepts has been evaluated according to there ability to meet Saab Aerostructures DPS needs and a final concept has been chosen. The concept that is considered being the best solution employs an adjustable frame to encompass several different part geometries. This concept allows the workpiece to be machined in a single step and the fixture can be adjusted to fit workpieces with different geometries. On other concept considered in the thesis employs electromagnet with adjustable elements and is capable of fixing more complex geometries. The concept also allows the fixture to be adjusted between different products to be machine by the CNC-machine itself. Also a concept that’s not a fixture itself but a method that allows a simpler fixture to be used has been developed. This concept uses adhesives to combine extra material to the part, which allows for less complex fixtures to be used in the machining process.

    The concepts with the adjustable frame and the electromagnet and adjustable elements are both using the machines control system to locate the detail by probing before the machining process starts. Probing is done by equipping the spindle with a touch trigger probe which measures pre-programmed contact points and calculates exact part position.

  • 20.
    Warth, Benedikt
    Linköping University, The Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Design and Application of Software Sensors in Batch and Fed-batch Cultivations during Recombinant Protein Expression in Escherichia coli2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software sensors are a potent tool to improve biotechnological real time process monitoring and control. In the current project, algorithms for six partly novel, software sensors were established and tested in a microbial reactor system. Eight batch and two fed-batch runs were carried out with a recombinant Escherichia coli to investigate the suitability of the different software sensor models in diverse cultivation stages. Special respect was given to effects on the sensors after recombinant protein expression was initiated by addition of an inducer molecule. It was an objective to figure out influences of excessive recombinant protein expression on the software sensor signals.

    Two of the developed algorithms calculated the biomass on-line and estimated furthermore, the specific growth rate by integration of the biomass changes with the time. The principle of the first was the application of a near infrared probe to obtain on-line readings of the optical density. The other algorithm was founded on the titration of ammonia as only available nitrogen source. The other two sensors analyzed for the specific consumption of glucose and the specific production of acetate and are predicted on an in-line HPLC system.

    The results showed that all software sensors worked as expected and are rather powerful to estimate important state parameters in real time. In some stages, restrictions may occur due to different limitation affects in the models or the physiology of the culture. However, the results were very convincing and suggested the development of further and more advanced software sensor models in the future.

  • 21.
    Svensson, Marlene
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    A CFD Investigation of a Generic Bump and its Application to a Diverterless Supersonic Inlet2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a Master Thesis done at the Swedish Defence Research Agency with the purpose to design and investigate how different geometries of a compression surface integrated with an intake affects the performance such as distortion, boundary layer diversion, pressure recovery and deceleration of speed.

    The work was divided in two parts. In the first part, CFD calculations using the FOI developed Edge 4.1 code were made for the compression surfaces alone. In the second part the most promising design was integrated with an intake. Two more bumps with the intake were modelled and the three geometries were compared to the intake without bump. Surface flow, deceleration of Mach number, pressure recovery, mass flow, boundary layer diversion, lift and drag were the factors chosen to be examined, boundary layer diversion and pressure recovery being the two most vital.

  • 22.
    Salevid, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Language and Culture.
    Jean Daniel, Europa och vi själva: För en offentlig europeisk arena i Sverige2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det svenska medlemskapet i EU har vidgat gränserna och skapat ett nytt retoriskt rum, där nivåer och sektorer och deras respektive plats i ett nytt geopolitiskt sammanhang ofta fungerar annorlunda än i folkhemmet.

    Hur ser detta retoriska rum ut, om jag undersöker två journalistiska modeller, en europeisk-meridional och en anglosaxisk, med exempel från Frankrike och Sverige? Detta undersöker denna franska uppsats på magisternivå, som här erbjuds i svensk översättning. Uppsatsen lades fram vid Institutionen för språk och kultur, Linköpings Universitet, den 16 november 2006.

    Frankrike anses av många i Sverige som ett modernt land, men – ack, så traditionellt… Le Nouvel Observateur är en arena där denna och andra uppfattningar går att verifiera, eftersom tidningen fortsätter att komma ut en gång i veckan sedan 1964. Moderna Tider, för sin del, var en av många svenskar uppskattad intellektuell arena under perioden 1994- 2002. Förhoppningsvis kan dessa båda tidskrifter och deras historia hjälpa oss att bättre förstå några intellektuella och journalistiska förutsättningar i ett par av Europas länder.

    «Skulle problemet med det franska språket, för en del, kunna förknippas med de skilda värden som erbjuds av frankofonin, respektive english-speaking world? Värden som från båda sidor har en naturlig tendens att uppfattas som en «diskursiv hegemoni – frågorna kan inte ställas på annat sätt»?

  • 23.
    Karelid, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Image Enhancement over a Sequence of Images2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This Master Thesis has been conducted at the National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL) in Linköping. When images that are to be analyzed at SKL, presenting an interesting object, are of bad quality there may be a need to enhance them. If several images with the object are available, the total amount of information can be used in order to estimate one single enhanced image. A program to do this has been developed by studying methods for image registration and high resolution image estimation. Tests of important parts of the procedure have been conducted. The final results are satisfying and the key to a good high resolution image seems to be the precision of the image registration. Improvements of this part may lead to even better results. More suggestions for further improvementshave been proposed.

  • 24.
    Alazawi, Salah
    et al.
    ISY, DATORSYSTEM, DI.
    Alilovic, Bojan
    ISY, DATORSSYTEM, DI.
    Konstruktion av Ethernet-baserad Qbussförlängare2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 points / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

     

    Syftet med var att konstruera ett bussförlängartkort till Qbussen som gör Ethernet-baserad kommunikation med I/O:t möjlig. Kortet ska kunna anslutas till standard 100 Mbits nätverksutrustning och klara autoförhandling och låsning av hastighet och duplex. Detta minskar på många ställen kabeldragningen väsentligt och det är därför önskvärt att SSAB:s egna I/O ska kunna köras så över Ethernet, antingen över vanliga nätverket eller på dedikerad kabel.

  • 25.
    Furedal, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    Analys, modellering och återskapande av fordonsdynamiska rörelser i tåg2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis was to analyse, model and finally generate dynamic vehicular motions in a train. The objective with the analysis was to find important motions for a realistic train experience. The motions from the analysis were then weighted against possibilities for generation in a motion platform.A dynamic motion model was created to model the selected motions. The model was implemented in a simulation environment, more specifically MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation environment was used to simulate the model and to generate outputs to control a motion platform. The motions of the motion platform depended on how the modelled motions were chosen to be generated. The motion model was validated by comparison of results from the model and measured values from a real train.Generation of motions was accomplished by implementation of the model in a motion platform. A virtual test track was constructed and used to test how the implemented model controlled the motion platform. The experience of the test track in the motion platform was evaluated by persons in a cabin mounted on the motion platform.

  • 26.
    Månsson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Implementering av TPU: En fallstudie om implementeringen av TPU på ABB Cewe-Control i Nyköping2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    If Swedish companies are to compete with companies in low-cost countries they have to achieve a more efficient production. The purpose of Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM) is to increase the company's profitability by increasing the productivity. TPM is a method that involves all employees and aims to prevent failures in order to increase the availability of existing equipment.

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate the implementation process of TPM and give recommendations for the further implementation process. The conclusion and the analysis are based on a case study done at a production department at ABB Cewe-Controls facilities in Nyköping. The case study consists mainly of qualitative data from participation observations, surveys and interviews.

    Commitment of the management is a key factor in the implementation process of TPM. The management of ABB Cewe-Control need to demonstrate their commitment in order for a change to happen. The case study shows that the commitment of both employee and management must be raised if the implementation process is to be successful. To avoid unnecessary conflicts or irritation in the further implementation process it is important to clarify responsibilities and roles in the implementation of TPU.

    The case study has also shown that the training during the implementation process has not been sufficient. Proper training is needed to be able to conduct the implementation process of TPM in an effective manner. Proper training is also needed to raise the motivation of the staff.

    Business Development is ABB’s methodology for the improvement work in the company. Business Development is a well-known concept in the organisation and has a well-defined connection with the company's strategic objectives. Because of this there is no reason why the improvement work and how it has been done should change. Business Development is a good foundation for the implementation of TPM and the improvement work in the future.

  • 27.
    Axelsson, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology.
    Studie av nyttan med teknisk dokumentation tillgänglig på handdator - utveckling av prototyp2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På sektionen Flygsystem/Teknik på Saab Aerotech har man gedigen erfarenhet av att ta fram underhållsinstruktioner för försvarsmaktens flygande system. En mängd olika typer av underhållsinstruktioner produceras inom avdelningen. Volymen på instruktionerna är stor och revisionsfrekvensen på olika delar varierar mellan 20 gånger per år till en gång var 18:de månad. Gemensamt för alla är att de presenteras och distribueras i tryckformat. Försvarsmakten har börjat digitalisera distributionen, men då instruktionen ska användas skrivs den ut på papper.

    Nu finns tekniken för att göra underhållsinstruktionerna mer intelligenta ur användarens perspektiv. Alltså att ge användaren ett effektivare och bättre verktyg. För sektionen är det mycket viktigt, inte minst ur affärssynpunkt, att följa med i teknikutvecklingen. Det är också viktigt att erbjuda kunden en produkt där all information som kan behövas finns samlad på ett smidigare sätt än i dagens system.

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att undersöka hur en publikation kan utvecklas och förbättras genom att utnyttja interaktivitet och multimedia; beskriva vilka krav produktionen av en sådan publikation ställer på hårdvara, mjukvara och personalkompetens; samt slutligen ta fram en prototyppublikation för handdator.

    Idéer om hur prototypen skulle kunna se ut utvecklades genom en användarcentrerad metod. Både slutanvändarna av publikationen samt producenterna av den analyserades liksom de bägge gruppernas uppgifter. Dessa idéer renodlades och prototypen utvecklades. Resultatet är en prototyp för hur en digital publikation kan se ut samt en beskrivning av vilka möjliga fördelar den ger användarna.

    Resultaten av analysen och erfarenheterna från prototyparbetet ledde fram till en idé om hur en utvecklingsprocess för strukturerad teknisk information kan se ut, samt vilka krav detta kommer att ställa på utvecklarna.

  • 28.
    Haraldsson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics.
    Combining unobtainable shortest path graphs for OSPF2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master), 25 points / 37,5 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The well-known Dijkstra's algorithm uses weights to determine the shortest path. The focus here is instead on the opposite problem, does there exist weights for a certain set of shortest paths? OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) is one of several possible protocols that determines how routers will send data in a network like the internet. Network operators would however like to have some control of how the traffic is routed, and being able to determine the weights, which would lead to the desired shortest paths to be used, would be a help in this task.The first part of this thesis is a mathematical explanation of the problem with a lot of examples to make it easier to understand. The focus here is on trying to combine several routing patterns into one, so that the result will be fewer, but more fully spanned, routing patterns, and it can e.g. be shown that there can't exist a common set of weights if two routing patterns can't be combined.The second part is a program that can be used to make several tests and changes to a set of routing patterns. It has a polynomial implementation of a function that can combine routing patterns. The examples that I used to combine routing patterns, showed that this will increase the likelihood of finding and significantly speed up the computation of a “valid cycle”.

  • 29.
    Ekman, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Forsberg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Kartläggning av familjecentralen i Hageby: ur ett samverkansperspektiv2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 points / 30 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have executed a chart of Hageby familycenter with focus on how interplay functions between the different units; ”öppen förskola/preschool”, child welfare center and social service. We have started with the themes recieved from two surveys respective two group interviews. These turned to partly the staff at the familycenter, partly the directorate. The central themes we recieved are purpose/goal, interplay, interplaycontracts, occupational roles, preventative work, secrecy/ethics and exercise of authority. In our analysis we have dicussed these, exemplified with quoteations from our informants and then “connected” our discussion to current litterature. The results of this study shows that cooperation is a good tool för preventative work with families and their different needs. The preventative work is also the primary aim at the familycenter. The conclusion this study applies is that cooperation between the authorities and the familycenter has been succesfull, partly because the employes has been more accesable for the families who visit the familycenter, partly because the role of social service has been defused. There are, however, some difficulties with the activity that can be blamed on too wide aims, “BVC” strained work situation and the increasing number of visitors, all this wich can lead to individuals in need of help and support not getting the attention or get hold of in the extent that would be desired.

  • 30.
    Vinkvist, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering.
    A feasibility study of building Set-top box user interfaces using Scalable Vector Graphics2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An IPTV Set-top box enables the possibility of doing much more than decodingtelevision content. Its Ethernet interface gives it the same possibilities to communicatewith the outside world as any network device. This enables a wide rangeof services from internet radio to acting as a digital media receiver in your homenetwork. These highly interactive services increase the demands for responsiveand visually attractive user interfaces.Due to the cost-sensitive market of IPTV STBs the preferred platform to developthe user interface is the HTML browser as it allows for fast developmenttimes and low costs. As a W3C standard it also offers high portability and hardwareabstraction making it easy to use more than one STB vendor. The cons ofHTML based GUIs are low performance and lacklustre graphics.This thesis aims to find out if SVG can be used to achieve rich, scalable and animatedgraphics with high performance and still keep the attractive characteristicsof HTML.To do this much effort was put into identifying the strenghts and weaknesses ofSVG. The lessons learned resulted in an SVG AJAX framework called TOIXSVGmaking it possible to develop SVG GUIs in the same manner as modern Rich InternetApplications, enabling component reuse to make sure development time scalespreferably with the scope and complexity of the user interface. Along with theframework several new widgets had to be developed to achieve the targeted functionality.As a proof of concept a mock-up GUI was created with the frameworkand widgets.

  • 31.
    Collin, Angelica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammarberg, Matilda
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Röstfaktorer som avslöjar ironi: Akustiska likheter och skillnader mellan sinnesstämningar2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The word irony is defined as an utterance where the meaning is the opposite of the words. This report is a continuing study of Peder Palmér's study What is ironic speech: to find the auditory clues (2013). The basis for this follow-up study consists of recordings with three different talkers with five sentences in five different moods: happiness, anger, seriousness, irony and sarcasm. Thirty men and women aged 18 to 60 years have been listening to the sentences and categorized them based on interpreted mood. The authors have measured fundamental frequency and intensity, and used these measurements as a basis to elucidate the perception of irony and the ability to perceive mood based on changes in fundamental frequency and intensity. The fundamental frequency has also been compared between the three talkers. An acoustic comparison between the different moods forms the basis for the analysis, which can provide information about the importance of acoustic parameters, as well as other factors such as context, when identifying different moods. The aim is to examine whether the moods that are most similar from an acoustic perspective are the ones that the test subjects most often fail to distinguish. The results show that it is difficult to solely from acoustic parameters interpret mood. Fundamental frequency and intensity appear to be of some importance when confusing irony with other moods. No differences were found between men and women's ability to detect irony and sarcasm based solely on acoustic parameters.

  • 32.
    Danielsson Schöld, Hanna
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Om skatterättslig tillgångspaketering2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När reglerna om skattebefrielse för kapitalvinster på näringsbetingade andelar infördes år 2003, öppnades även en möjlighet för företag att genom ett så kallat paketeringsförfarande överlåta tillgångar skattefritt. Paketeringsförfarandet går till på så sätt att tillgången läggs in i ett dotterbolag, paketeringsbolag, vilket sedan avyttras till en extern förvärvare. Om andelarna i dotterbolaget är kapitalandelar som utgör näringsbetingade andelar blir vinsten undantagen från beskattningen. Det finns dock två lagrum som reglerar när andelar ska anses utgöra lagerandelar, vilka inte är näringsbetingade. Det är den särskilda regeln i 27 kap. 6 § IL som reglerar under vilka omständigheter som andelar i fastighetsförvaltande bolag utgör lagerandelar och den allmänna lagerregeln i 17 kap. 3 § IL. Tillämpningen av 27 kap. 6 § IL och möjligheten att gå runt regeln genom en mellanbolagslösning har numera bekräftats i så pass många rättsfall, vars domslut även tycks ha fått stöd i doktrin, att förutsebarhet kan anses föreligga för sådana förfaranden. Angående tillämpningen av 17 kap. 3 § IL på andelar i paketeringsbolag är det numera klarlagt att andelar i paketeringsbolag endast kan utgöra lagerandelar enligt den allmänna lagerregeln om andelarna kan anses ingå i en värdepappersrörelse. Något som inte framgår, och som enligt min mening skulle behöva klargöras för att förutsebarhet ska kunna anses föreligga, är dock huruvida andelar i paketeringsbolag kan anses ingå i en av det andelsägande bolaget redan bedriven värdepappersrörelse. En viss brist i förutsebarheten kan även anses föreligga avseende när skalbolagsreglerna kan komma att aktiveras, delvis på grund av hur reglerna är utformade. Huruvida ett paketeringsförfarande utgör en ekonomiskt fördelaktig överlåtelse- respektive förvärvsmetod eller inte kan bero på ett flertal faktorer på köpar- respektive säljarsidan samt på egenskaper hos tillgången. Två exempel på sådana faktorer är förekomsten av balanserade underskott och huruvida tillgången är en avskrivningsbar sådan. Paketering kan dock vara att överväga även på andra grunder än av skattemässiga skäl, t.ex. om parterna vill skriva ett optionsavtal avseende fast egendom. Den valmöjlighet av skattekonsekvenser som paketering ger upphov till tycks medföra såväl nackdelar som fördelar i skattesystemet. Valmöjligheten, inklusive dess fördelar och nackdelar, tycks ha uppmärksammats av lagstiftaren och har lämnats som den är. Att valmöjligheten har lämnats som den är behöver inte innebära att den är helt motiverad, utan är troligen en konsekvens av en brist på klara ändringsmöjligheter som varken skulle göra för mycket eller för lite.

  • 33.
    Broman, Elias
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hägglund, Maria
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A study of dechlorination of organic matter in forest soil using 36Cl as a tracer2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the Fukushima Daiichi power plant incident sea water was used in an attempt to cool reactor Unit 3. Since sea water contains an excessive amount of chloride, 36Cl has likely been formed and spread in the environment. Because of the long residence time and the presumed high mobility in water there is an increased interest to learn more about the biogeochemical cycle of chlorine from a radiation risk assessment perspective. Chlorine occurs in inorganic form as chloride (Clin) or bound to organic matter as organic chlorine (Clorg) and is commonly found in the environment due to both anthropogenic and natural processes. Though there are still uncertainties regarding all of the components of the chlorine cycle in soil, the chlorination of organic matter has been exemplified by research. The reverse process, Clorg mineralizing into Clin, has however not been thoroughly investigated. For this study the objective was to observe at what rate Clorg mineralizes into Clin, this by using 36Cl as a tracer in forest soil. 36Cl was added to the soil and 36Clorg was formed over a period of approximately 100 days. After chlorination the samples were incubated in different conditions and the amount of 36Clorg was observed over a period of time (180 days). The result showed no evident dechlorination during the experiment period which indicates that Clorg can be stable in the organic horizon in forest soil.

  • 34.
    Ericson, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Skatteförfarandet och skatteprocessen i ljuset av 2013 års "Ne bis in idem"-domar: Är det nuvarande rättsläget tillräckligt förutsebart och uppfyller den föreslagna lagstiftningen grundläggande rättssäkerhetskrav?2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med min uppsats är, dels att utreda vilka huvudsakliga konsekvenser som 2013 års praxis angående ”Ne bis in idem” föranlett för den svenska skatteprocessen, dels att analysera vilka resningsmöjligheter som föreligger för enskilda som drabbats av Sveriges konventions­överträdelser. Ett ytterligare syfte med uppsatsen är att analysera huruvida lagförslagen i SOU 2013:62 uppfyller grund­läggande rättssäkerhetskrav samt att föreslå ändringar till nyss nämnda lagförslag.

    Innan år 2013 bedömde Högsta domstolen att systemet med dubbla sanktioner inom ramen för skilda förfaranden var förenligt med principen ”Ne bis in idem”, eftersom det saknades ”klart stöd” för att underkänna hela det svenska systemet. I NJA 2013 s. 502 fann Högsta domstolen att det numera finns ”tillräckligt stöd” för att underkänna hela det svenska systemet. Högsta domstolens nya ställningstagande innebär att såväl mervärdeskatt som inkomstskatt och arbetsgivaravgifter omfattas av förbudet mot dubbelbestraffning och dubbelprövning av lagöverträdelser som grundar sig på samma faktiska omständigheter och som riktats mot samma rättssubjekt. I förevarande framställning har jag därför utrett vad 2013 års praxis innebär respektive vilka sammanhängande frågor som fortfarande söker svar.

    I NJA 2013 s. 746 fann Högsta domstolen dessutom att rättsläget förändrades redan den 10 februari 2009. Att rättsläget förändrades vid nyss nämnda brytpunkt har i efterföljande avgöranden vid såväl Högsta domstolen som vid Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen visat sig vara avgörande för huruvida personer beviljats resning. I denna framställning har jag därför analyserat vilka omständigheter som enligt 2013 års praxis varit avgörande för att resning ska beviljas vid Högsta domstolen respektive Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen.

    I september 2013 lämnades betänkandet av utredningen om rättssäkerhet i skatteförfarandet (RIS-utredningen) över till regeringen som en direkt följd av 2013 års förändrade rättsläge. Flertalet remissinstanser bl.a. Ekobrottsmyndigheten, Domstolsverket och Skatteverket har lämnat remissyttranden med tudelad kritik. Förevarande framställning innehåller en konsekvens­analys av RIS-utredningens lagförslag. Framställningen innehåller även en analys av huruvida lagförslagen uppfyller grundläggande rättssäkerhetskrav om förutsebarhet och lika­behandling. Jag har i min framställning kommit fram till att lagförslaget inte uppfyller kraven på förutsebarhet eller att lika fall ska behandlas lika. I framställningen föreslår jag därför utifrån ett de lege ferenda-resonemang hur några utvalda risker som ett genomförande av SOU 2013:62 skulle innebära kan undanröjas.

  • 35.
    Guzainuer, Maimaitiyiming
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Boundary Summation Equation Preconditioning for Ordinary Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients on Locally Refined Meshes2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with the numerical solution of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using finite difference (FD) methods. In particular, boundary summation equation (BSE) preconditioning for FD approximations for ODEs with constant coefficients on locally refined meshes is studied. Firstly, the BSE for FD approximations of ODEs with constant coefficients is derived on a locally refined mesh. Secondly, the obtained linear system of equations are solved by the iterative method GMRES. Then, the arithmetic complexity and convergence rate of the iterative solution of the BSE formulation are discussed. Finally, numerical experiments are performed to compare the new approach with the FD approach. The results show that the BSE formulation has low arithmetic complexity and the convergence rate of the iterative solvers is fast and independent of the number of grid points.

  • 36.
    Zaharans, Eriks
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Indoor robot localization and collaboration2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to create an indoor rescue scenario with multiple self-localizing robots that are able to collaborate for a victim search. Victims are represented by RFID tags and detecting them combined with an accurate enough location data is considered as a successful finding. This setup is created for use in a laboratory assignment at Linköping University.

    We consider the indoor localization problem by trying to use as few sensors as possible and implement three indoor localization methods - odometry based, passive RFID based, and our approach by fusing both sensor data with particle filter.The Results show that particle filter based localization performs the best in comparison to the two other implemented methods and satisfies the accuracy requirements stated for the scenario.

    The victim search problem is solved by an ant mobility (pheromone-based) approach which integrates our localization method and provides a collaborative navigation through the rescue area. The purpose of the pheromone mobility approach is to achieve a high coverage with an acceptable resource consumption.Experiments show that area is covered with approximately 30-40% overhead in traveled distance comparing to an optimal path.

  • 37.
    Aira, Naomi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lactate Dehydrogenase and Citrate Synthase activity in cardiac and skeletal muscle of lowland and highland tinamous2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tinamous (Tinamidae) have the smallest heart in relation to body mass compared to any other flying bird today (Bishop 1997). This means that heart size is likely to restrict aerobic metabolism. Tinamous inhabit areas from sea level to 4800 m a.s.l., which means that the high altitude living species, Nothoprocta ornata (NO), is exposed to hypoxia. In this study the activity of the two metabolic enzymes Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) and Citrate Synthase (CS) was measured and the ratio between the enzyme activities calculated to examine if the small heart of the tinamous affects their aerobic/anaerobic metabolism. The activity of the two enzymes was measured in the heart and the gastrocnemius muscle in the three species Nothoprocta ornata (NO), Nothoprocta perdicaria (NP) and Gallus gallus (GG). CS activity was significantly higher in the heart compared to the skeletal muscle and LDH activity was significant higher in the skeletal muscle than in the heart in all three species. The LDH/CS ratio was significantly higher in NO’s skeletal muscle than in chickens but there was no significant difference between species in the heart. The higher ratio in NO´s muscle could be a sign of a higher anaerobic metabolism that is used in the muscles to compensate for the small heart NO have. In conclusion, the Tinamous

  • 38.
    Feldt, Nina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Integrating geographic and information visualization for interactive exploration of statistical data2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fast growing quantity of statistical data with geographical reference, accessible on the Web, creates a growing demand for more powerful exploratory analysis techniques for investigation of socio-economic phenomena in association with their geographical location. Statistics Sweden provides large amounts of census data of economic, social, demographic, and other matters of interest to the governments, government departments, local authorities, businesses, and to the general public.

    The current techniques available to analyze these data sets are limited. Therefore, this diploma work was put together, with the intention of integrating methods used in geographic visualization and information visualization into a prototype tool for interactive exploration of statistical data. This report investigates the tools present today and describes the development of a new one called GeoWizard - a tailor-made easy-to-use application for Statistics Sweden's databases.

  • 39.
    Bäckström, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Wändin, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Spatial Hypertext Editing Tools for Wiki Web Systems2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis considers the provision of comprehensible and interpretable tools in the wiki web system. This implies that an extensive research has been made upon the system, i.e., a hypertext system at the Spatial Information Architecture Laboratory (SIAL) at RMIT University in Australia. The process to develop these tools is based on certain requirements due to the user.

    The wiki web system is becoming more and more common in communities, projects, education etc. Companies provide wiki systems to share project information as an online collaborative tool. Another way of using a wiki is as an encyclopaedia. This is currently done in Wikipedia which has been an online wiki encyclopaedia since 2001. This solution is an exceptional way to extract and share information quickly.

    The problem in a wiki is to get an interpretable overview of the whole system, as well as to organise the pages and the structure of the pages in a fine way. The problem is that the number of wiki pages, which are represented as hyperlinks in the system, quickly grown. Therefore, the user needs to be able to navigate within the system and this will require a map.

    The proposed solution is to provide such a map, namely, a global view of the system. Likewise, the user needs to be able to organize the information, and this will require special tools. The proposed solution is to provide such tools, namely, split and merge tools. In order to develop these tools, direct manipulation and usability should be taken into consideration

  • 40.
    Andersson, Jacob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zahirovic, Elvis
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    För- och Nackdelar med Molnbaserade Affärssystem2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Molnet är en ny revolution inom IT- världen. På senare år har teknologin kring molnbaserade tjänster utvecklats väsentligt och allt fler företag väljer att lägga hela eller delar av sitt affärssystem på molnet. Den grundläggande idén bakom molnet är att beräkningarna utförs på servrar och att informationen därefter strömmas vidare till användaren. De senaste tre åren har investeringarna gällande molnbaserade affärssystem börjat accelerera i allt högre takt. I dagsläget riktar sig molnbaserade affärssystem mot mindre företag som är i ett behov utav ett standardiserat affärssystem som inte kostar multum. Framtiden ser dock ljus ut och investeringarna kring molnbaserade affärssystem har ökat markant sedan 2010.

    Molnbaserade affärssystem har likt de allra flesta nya tekniker sina för- samt nackdelar. Vår undersökning grundar sig i att finna vilka för- samt nackdelar molnbaserade affärssystem för med sig, säkerhetsmässigt samt ekonomiskt för leverantör och kund. Studien har genomförts med en kvalitativ ansats. Det empiriska avsnittet bygger på semistrukturerade intervjuer som genomförts hos flera företag. Teoridelen står som begreppsgrund för den empiriska undersökningen. Intervjupersonernas svar visade vilka för- och nackdelar molnlösningar för med sig, med affärssystem i molnet i synnerhet. Vi jämför vår teoristudie med materialet från den empiriska undersökningen, för att nå svar på våra frågeställningar. Flera problem kan uppstå när ett lokalt affärssystem skall bytas ut eller migreras till ett molnbaserat affärssystem. Säkerheten är ett hett diskussionsämne, klart är att det finns säkerhetshål och att data som färdas mellan servrar på internet alltid är känsligare än data som transporteras lokalt inom en organisation. Säkerheten på molnet är relativt omfattande med diverse säkerhetscertifikat och krypteringar. Hemmasnickrade säkerhetslösningar är en omöjlighet och de flesta företagen följer ”best-practices”. Serverhallarna som information lagras på är byggda med mycket god säkerhet, vilket innebär att inga utomstående personer har tillgång till dessa. Ett stort problem är dock att informationen aldrig lagras lokalt (inom företaget), utan på molnet, vilket kan leda till en misstro hos molnleverantörernas kunder. Ur ett ekonomiskt perspektiv är molnbaserade affärssystem i dagsläget ett bra alternativ för mindre nystartade företag då den initiala kostnaden är låg och som kund betalar man utefter användning. Den initiala kostnaden är således lägre gentemot ett ”traditionellt”, lokalt affärssystem där hårdvara måste inhandlas och personal skall anställas för att sköta underhåll och drift.

  • 41.
    Hanson, Calle
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Adaptive level-of-detail representations for real-time simulation of natural environments2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is written to explore the possibility of generating planet shaped virtual worlds. Today’s computer games present more and more complex worlds but have yet to show us a complete spherical world in large scale. The thesis goes in to describing a data structure sufficient for the task as well as describing how to use the structure.

    We evaluate previously done work for planar worlds and use this as a base when defining our new structure. Since a lot of work has been done in this area for planar worlds there exist several well defined concepts that can either be used as is or with a few minor changes. But certain parts needs to be replaced by new concepts since what we want to describe differs much from traditional virtual worlds. The result is a structure that enables a user to interact in real-time with a planet shaped terrain surface.

  • 42.
    Alvarez Plata, Maria-José
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Road Traffic Safety in Developing Countries - Bolivia as an Example2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report discusses the road safety in Latin American developing countries, focusing mainly on Bolivia. To give the layman an overview, the general road traffic problem is explained. The factors on which road safety depends are described, as well as the degree in which the accident causes - human, vehicle and environment - are involved in a road crash.

    For the purpose of an uniform understanding of the term developing countries, they are defined from a traffic point of view. Thereafter, different definitions of the term crash are discussed. To make it possible to compare the countries with dissimilar crash definitions, the required adjustment factors are exposed. The countries are classified in three groups depending on the number of motor vehicles per 1000 inhabitants.

    Bolivia as the emphasis of the study is described in detail. First general facts are presented, so the reader knows what type of country Bolivia is. Secondly, the amplitude and sort of the network is explained. After this, the traffic incidents, i.e. number, type and cause, are summarised. To be able to propose some measures for the enhancement of the traffic situation it is essential to analyse the actual state. This is done in the next step.

    The most important existing regulations are described as well as the safety campaigns which were introduced in the past.

    Based on this, proposals to improve the safety are listed. As speeding and driving under the influence of alcohol are the main accident causes, countermeasures for them are proposed. These are classified into engineering, enforcement and education. The report ends with a discussion of implementation difficulties of such countermeasures. Eventually the conclusions from the paper are presented.

    Key words: Road safety, developing countries, Bolivia, accident, speeding, driving under the influence of alcohol, national road safety programme, countermeasures, engineering, enforcement, education

  • 43.
    Eriksson, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kvalitetsprocesser för Lagring och Distribution av Livsmedel på Schenker Coldsped2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the thesis is to make plans for how Schenker Coldsped should act to meet customer demands, in this case from Burger King, for the use of EFSIS standards (European Food Safety Inspection Service).

    EFSIS offers independent third party inspection services specially designed for food, beverage and related industries. The standard Schenker Coldsped aims to certify to is the

    EFSIS technical standard for the storage and distribution of foodstuffs. Coldsped is a part of Schenker Sverige AB. The company offers total solutions for transportation and storage of refrigerated and frozen products all over Europe. Coldsped has a total of 800 refrigerated vehicles and also offer storage of refrigerated and frozen products as well as product refinement such as preparation, thawing, sawing, packaging and labelling.

    To be allowed to handle foodstuffs, companies in Sweden are obligated to enact selfregulation applicable to their line of business. This supervision shall include a HACCPplan, which is a system for identifying, assessing and controlling risks of importance to food safety.

    By introducing the EFSIS technical standard for the storage and distribution of foodstuffs at Coldsped establishments, routines and knowledge will be documented. Consequently staff knowledge will be incorporated in the company’s ISO9001:2000 system, Isopeq, as well as being available in files in the corresponding department. A first step towards the implementation of EFSIS is the decision to incorporate the HACCP-plan into Isopeq, the company’s quality system.

    Advantages of working to the EFSIS technical standards are:

    •A safer handling of foodstuffs

    •More documented systems

    •A more effective organisation

    •A more effective and clear communication with new customers

    •Increased competitiveness My recommendation is to implement changes in line with my plan. This calls for:

    • Investment in existing plants

    •Personnel resources for the process

    •Planning the implementation in detail by coordinating resources

    •Join the CIES (an independent network for companies handling food) for benchmarking

  • 44.
    Karlsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Selegård, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rendering Realistic Augmented Objects Using a Image Based Lighting Approach2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Augmented Reality (AR), the combination of real and virtual worlds, is a growing area in computer graphics. Until now, most of the focus has been on placing synthetic objects in the right position with regards to the real world, and to explor the possibilities of human interaction within the two worlds. This thesis presents the fact that virtual objects must not only be placed correctly but also lit truthfully in order to achieve a good degree of immersion. Conventional rendering techniques such as ray-tracing and radiosity requires intensive calculations and preparations for satisfying results. Hence, they are less usable for AR that demands calculations to perform in real time. We present a framework for rendering the synthetic objects using captured lighting conditions in real time. We use improved standard techniques for shadowing and lighting that we adapt for the use in a dynamic AR system as well as recent techniques of image based lighting.

  • 45.
    Lindberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visual Inductosyn2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a project where modern visualization techniques are used to create an interactive and animated technical illustration of how the position measuring product Inductosyn works.

    The project is made on behalf of Inductosyn International, an engineering company in Valhalla, New York. The visualization is focused on the operating principle of the product and the technical benefits of using the product in the two application areas Air Surveillance

    Radar and Air Defence Systems. The purpose with the project is to create a series of applications the company can use as a complement in marketing to demonstrate the product and visualize its benefits to customers.

    This report covers the whole process from project background, choice of visualization platform, creating visualization concepts to the implementation and the final results.

  • 46.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kliniskt datainsamlingssystem med beslutsstöd - Användarutredning och gränssnitt för Sahlgrenskas akutintag2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     Extra high requirements are made on all systems in health care that they are functional and usable,´something, however, that is not always the case. At Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska University´Hospital many systems are in use at the same time and it happens that much overhead is caused by having to fill in the same information in different places. In addition, data that is gathered is to a large extent saved in free text format, which means that it cannot be used in a larger context such as research, quality control or for decision support. Data is saved in the patient file only for the treatment process of the individual patient.

    A data collecting system with decision support functionality could be a first step towards reducing Emergency Admissions’ costs and patients’ waiting times by providing a structured method of data collection. It is also possible that it could contribute to safer care for patients as the system could warn the staff on occasions where there may be a risk of a patient suffering from a serious, acute illness that might be difficult to diagnose.

    An analysis has been performed at Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska to distinguish possible users of a new system for collecting data with decision support. The results showed that the nurses in reception were the most suitable target group.

    A prototype of a user interface for gathering initial patient data at reception has been made at Emergency Admissions at Sahlgrenska. This prototype has decision support functionality for ranking the most probable diagnoses as well as providing advice on suitable tests and examinations to perform. The focus has been on usability and on adapting the system to the needs of the users.

    It is highly important that future users, the staff at Emergency Admissions, continue to participate in the future further development of the data gathering system so that their needs and requirements are not overshadowed by the new technology.

  • 47.
    Sleawa, Sleawa Binyamen
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Elevers missuppfattningar av ljudbegrepp och bearbetning av dessa inom fysikundervisning: En systematisk studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att kartlägga eventuella missuppfattningar av ljudbegrepp hos gymnasieelever, samt att lyfta fram olika arbetssätt med vilka dessa kan bearbetas. Som metod användes den systematiska litteraturstudien i vilken publicerad forskning i form av vetenskapliga artiklar undersöks. På grund av den ringa forskningen inom gymnasiet både nationellt och internationellt, inkluderades studier från olika delar av världen men också från olika skolnivåer. De inkluderade studierna hade sin fokus på fysikinnehåll likt den svenska gymnasieskolans. Efter vissa avgränsningar gällande materialinsamling blev antalet studier som utgjorde analysmaterialet tio stycken.

    Resultatet visar bland annat att elever kan bära på missuppfattningar både vad gäller ljudets natur och dess utbredning, samt missuppfattningar kopplade till hur frekvens, intensitet och hastighet är relaterade. Vad det gäller didaktiska åtgärder för att komma till rätta med elevers missuppfattningar visar resultatet att olika typer av klassrumsaktiviteter i vilka eleverna själva upptäcker, konfronterar och utvecklar sina icke vetenskapliga föreställningar, är en metod som visat framgång.

    I diskussionsdelen diskuteras studiernas tillförlitlighet genom att analysera deras syften kopplat till respektive metodval. Därefter sammanställs de mest tillförlitliga resultaten vad gäller de vanligaste missuppfattningarna samt de mest effektiva didaktiska åtgärderna kring bearbetning av dessa.

    Avslutningsvis ges förslag på områden där det finns behov av vidare forskning.

  • 48.
    Wiklund, Patrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kretsloppsanpassat energi- och avloppssystem för ett fritidshus2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En genomsnittlig villa på 149 m² i Sverige med direktverkande el för uppvärmning använder ungefär 23980 kWh el per år. Av detta så står uppvärmningen för ungefär 13480 kWh, eller 90,5 kWh/m². Att minska denna energianvändning är gynnsamt både för miljönoch ekonomin.Genom att utrusta ett hus på ungefär 161 m² med energisnål utrustning, luftvärmepumpar, bra isolering, ett effektivt ventilationssystem och solfångare så kan elanvändningenminskas med ungefär 20170 kWh per år, till en användning på ungefär 4900 kWh per år.Vad uppvärmningen beträffar så är detta en minskning från 14570 kWh (90,5kWh/m²) till ungefär 1400 kWh (9,4 kWh/m²). Skulle huset användas som ett fritidshus under åtta månader per år, så skulle elanvändningen bara hamna på ungefär 2500 kWh, vilket iförhållande till den uppskattade energianvändningen på 10035 kWh för motsvarande tidsperiod innebär en minskning på ungefär 7535 kWh. För värmens del så innebär detta en minskning från 3035 kWh (18,85 kWh/m²) till ungefär 256 kWh (1,6 kWh/m²).Varmvatten kan fås från solfångare. Om huset används under de åtta soligaste månaderna så skulle varmvattenbehovet nästan helt täckas med fyra solfångare av typ DAC-H 150L. Det som inte täcks av solfångarna kan en elektrisk varmvattenberedare täcka.För att ta tillvara på näringsämnena i toalettavfallet så kan en separationstoalett användas.En bonde som tar hand om toalettavfallet och använder det som gödning skulle tjäna ungefär 330 kr för varje person vars närsalter bonden omhändertar. Om skörden är god så motsvarar detta 9900 kr/ha. Det är mer än vad själva skörden ger.För att rena vattnet från bad, dusch och tvätt (BDT-vatten) så kan en IN-DRÄN infiltrationsbädd användas. Denna kommer att rena BDT-vattnet från närsalter, i de flesta avseenden bättre än ett kommunalt reningsverk. Om träd planteras runt biobädden så kande även rena vattnet från de närsalter som inte renas av biobädden, som annars skulle kunna orsaka övergödning.En stor del av elbehovet skulle kunna täckas med ett solcellssystem. Med ett system med 36 st solpaneler av typ PPAM Paladium, och en växelriktare av typ Sunny Tripower 8000 TL så skulle det produceras ungefär 7600 kWh/år. Det finns även möjlighet att få statligt solcellsstöd på upp till 45% av investeringskostnaden. Det innebär att bara 55% av priset behöver betalas med egna pengar. Dessutom så kan överskottet som solpanelerna producerar säljas.Den totala kostnaden för att energianpassa huset skulle uppskattningsvis hamna på ungefär 439100 kr utan solcellsstöd, samt 368100 kr med solcellsstöd. Då antas det att ingen mängdrabatt fås och att priserna inte är nedprutade. Det kan alltså potentiellt bliännu billigare än beräknat.Om solcellsstöd kan fås så är det fördelaktigt att ingå avtal om mikroproduktion med Vallentuna Energi, som tillämpar nettodebitering. Om huset är bebott året om så blir den uppskattade payback-tiden 6 år, och NPV-värdet blir 654966 kr. Om huset bara är bebott under åtta månader så blir motsvarande siffror 9,9 år respektive 231383 kr. Notera att dessa siffror gäller då det energianpassade huset jämförs med ett vanligt hus meddirektverkande el.Om solcellsstöd inte kan fås så är det bättre att ingå avtal om mikroproduktion med Telge Energi. De tillämpar inte nettodebitering, men de köper överskottselen för ett mycket fördelaktigt pris på 2,5 kr/kWh om solcellsstöd inte har erhållits. Om huset är bebott året om så blir den uppskattade payback-tiden 6,4 år och NPV-värdet blir 642716 kr. Om huset är bebott under åtta månader så blir siffrorna istället 10,2 år och 179914 kr.

  • 49.
    Jaque, Cassandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Johansson, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kromatografi av polära läkemedel och metaboliter med HILIC-teknik2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this project was to investigate if retention of polar compounds that are given to treat tuberculosis, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease and childhood leukemia could be obtained with HILIC separation. By varying different parameters for different types of columns the compounds were analyzed with the aim of finding guidelines for future method optimizations. To perform these analyzes three different columns were tested – ZIC-HILIC (silica-based with zwitterions), ZIC-pHILIC (polymer-based with zwitterions) and XBridge Amide (amide functions). The results were evaluated with selected quality measures. The parameters being varied were pH, temperature, flow rate, type of buffer and ionic strength. In addition, comparisons between isocratic and gradient separations were performed.

     

    Over 1 000 analyzes were conducted in which retention of 16 of total 18 substances were successfully obtained with HILIC. The columns that generated the best results in terms of greatest number of identified compounds were ZIC-HILIC and XBridge Amide. ZIC-pHILIC offered a wide pH range but generally gave inferior chromatography. The influence of the different parameters on the results has not been investigated in sufficient scope. This means that no specific methods for the different drug groups can be reported.

  • 50.
    Colakovic, Aida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att mäta kvalitet vid offentliga tjänsteupphandlingar: Hur kompetens och erfarenhet kan utvärderas samt vilka faktorer som ska beaktas vid utformning av proportionerliga och transparenta tilldelningskriterier2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tjänstekvalitet är ett omdiskuterat begrepp inom den offentliga upphandlingssektorn. Även om många upphandlande myndigheter understryker vikten av god kvalitet vid en tjänsteupphandling upplever de ändå svårigheter med att definiera kvalitet samt utforma och ställa krav i tydliga, relevanta och mätbara kriterier. Uppsatsen behandlar hur kvalitet kan mätas vid offentliga tjänsteupphandlingar. Det utreds hur kompetens och erfarenhet kan utvärderas samt vilka faktorer som ska beaktas för att utforma proportionerliga och transparenta utvärderingskriterier. Inledningsvis sker en redogörelse för faser i upphandlingsprocessen som är av vikt för upphandling av kvalitet och därefter utreds begreppet tjänstekvalitet. Kvalitet som upphandlingskriterium, dess problem, praxis vid referenstagning samt olika tillvägagångssätt för att mäta kvalitet redogörs även.Slutsatsen som kan dras av uppsatsens analys är att kvalitet kan mätas på ett flertal olika sätt men att det finns ett antal aspekter som den upphandlande myndigheten bör beakta. Praxis kring referenstagning i utvärderingsfasen visar på att det finns en tydlig distinktion bland landets kammarrätter avseende tolkningen av Lianakis-domen. När referenstagning används som ett utvärderingskriterium ska en grundlig genomgång göras över vilka kriterier som kan leda till ett mervärde för tjänsten. Beställaren ska utforma genomtänkta kriterier som tydligt påvisar hur väl leverantören kan utföra uppdraget. Beställaren bör alltid behålla kontrollen över referenstagning. Dessutom ska beställaren aldrig formulera flera kriterier i en och samma referensfråga. Erfarenhet bör även alltid sättas i tjänstens kontext, och det är där bör-kraven kan ha avgörande roll. Den upphandlande myndigheten ska även vara tydlig i sin poäng/betygssättning av referenstagning och bör-krav. Varje poängnivå ska ha en beteckning, och en beskrivning över vilka kriterier som genererar en viss poängsats ska även finnas med i förfrågningsunderlaget. Intervjuer är ett utvärderingskriterium som kan ge svar på frågor som beställaren aldrig kan få genom referenstagning. Turordningslistor som har förespråkats för att minska antalet intervjuobjekt är dock inte alltid fullt så tillämpbara. Incitament/bonus och viten kopplade till kundnöjdhet och tvåkuvertsystem är modeller som kan underlätta för myndigheter att prioritera och beakta kvalitet i högre mån. Kvalitetsuppföljning bör markeras tidigt i upphandlingsprocessen och utgöra ett ska-krav. Den upphandlande myndigheten ska inte heller begränsa antalet utvärderingskriterier i tron om att fler kriterier kan leda till en osäkrare bedömning. Det är beställarens kunskaper kring utvärderingsprocessen som är avgörande. Fler och avgränsade kriterier kan i många fall gynna en upphandling.

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