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  • 1.
    Fernandes, Rui D. V.
    et al.
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Pranovich, Alina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zille, Andrea
    Univ Minho, Portugal.
    Hallberg, Tomas
    Div Electromagnet Warfare, Swedish Def Res Agcy FOI, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Järrendahl, Kenneth
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iridescence Mimicking in Fabrics: A Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy Study2024In: BIOMIMETICS, ISSN 2313-7673, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) photonic crystals (PCs), with five different sizes (170, 190, 210, 230 and 250 nm), were applied onto three plain fabrics, namely polyamide, polyester and cotton. The PC-coated fabrics were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy and two UV/Vis reflectance spectrophotometric techniques (integrating sphere and scatterometry) to evaluate the PCs' self-assembly along with the obtained spectral and colors characteristics. Results showed that surface roughness of the fabrics had a major influence on the color produced by PCs. Polyamide-coated fabrics were the only samples having an iridescent effect, producing more vivid and brilliant colors than polyester and cotton samples. It was observed that as the angle of incident light increases, a hypsochromic shift in the reflection peak occurs along with the formation of new reflection peaks. Furthermore, color behavior simulations were performed with an illuminant A light source on polyamide samples. The illuminant A simulation showed greener and yellower structural colors than those illuminated with D50. The polyester and cotton samples were analyzed using scatterometry to check for iridescence, which was unseen upon ocular inspection and then proven to be present in these samples. This work allowed a better comprehension of how structural colors and their iridescence are affected by the textile substrate morphology and fiber type.

  • 2. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Pranovich, Alina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modelling appearance printing: Acquisition and digital reproduction of translucent and goniochromatic materials2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Colour perception is fundamental to our everyday experiences, allowing us to communicate and interpret visual information effectively. Yet, replicating these experiences accurately poses a significant challenge, particularly in the context of full-colour 3D printing. Advances in this field have revolutionised the fabrication of customised prosthetic body parts, such as eyes, teeth, and skin features, with profound implications for medical and aesthetic applications.

    The key to successful 3D printing lies in the digital preview of objects before fabrication, enabling users to assess colour reproduction and quality. However, accurately representing colour in a digital environment is complex, as it depends on numerous factors, including illumination, object shape, surface properties, scene context, and observer characteristics. Traditional methods of previewing conventional 2D prints overlook this complexity.

    This thesis addresses this challenge by focusing on two types of materials: semitransparent polymers commonly used in 3D printing, and goniochromatic colorants employed in printing to introduce unique effects unattainable with conventional inks for 2D printing. For semitransparent materials, we developed an empirical function to represent colour based on sample thickness, enabling efficient digital representation. Additionally, we adapted a colour measuring device to identify two key material parameters, absorption and scattering coefficients, essential for accurate colour reproduction.

    Goniochromatic materials, such as thin film-coated mica particles, are slightly more complicated and less predictive in terms of their final colour appearance. Although not yet used in 3D printing, these particles used in conventional printing introduce colour variation while rotating the print. We found that goniochromatic properties can be expressed with an empirically found function after collecting angle-dependent light reflecting properties of the sample. We used this function and showed how prints with goniochromatic materials can be efficiently previewed on a computer monitor.

    List of papers
    1. Surface Discretisation Effects on 3D Printed Surface Appearance
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface Discretisation Effects on 3D Printed Surface Appearance
    2020 (English)In: CEUR-WS.org, 2020Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial resolution of 3D printing is finite. The necessary discretisation of an object before printing produces a step-like surface structure that influences the appearance of the printed objects. To study the effect of this discretisation on specular reflections, we print surfaces at various oblique angles. This enables us to observe the step-like struc- ture and its influence on reflected light. Based on the step-like surface structure, we develop a reflectance model describing the redistribution of the light scattered by the surface, and we study dispersion effects due to the wavelength dependency of the refractive index of the material. We include preliminary verification by comparing model predictions to photographs for different angles of observation.

    National Category
    Media Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173601 (URN)
    Conference
    Colour and Visual Computing Symposium 2020 (CVCS 2020), Gjøvik, Norway, 16-17 September, 2020
    Funder
    EU, Horizon 2020, 814158
    Available from: 2021-02-25 Created: 2021-02-25 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Optical properties and appearance of fused deposition modelling filaments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical properties and appearance of fused deposition modelling filaments
    2021 (English)In: Advances in Printing and Media Technology - Printing in the Digital Era : Proceedings of the 47th International Research Conference of iarigai, International Association of Research Organizations for the Information, Media and Graphic Arts Industries , 2021, Vol. 47, p. 134-140Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The appearance of 3D-printed objects is affected by numerous parameters. Specifically, the colour of each point on the surface is affected not only by the applied material, but also by the neighbouring segments as well as by the structure underneath it. Translucency of the 3D printing inks is the key property needed for reproduction of surfaces resembling natural materials. However, the prediction of colour appearance of translucent materials within the print is a complex task that is of great interest. In this work, a method is proposed for studying the appearance of translucent 3D materials in terms of the surface colour. It is shown how the thickness of the printed flat samples as well as the background underneath affect the colour. By studying diffuse reflectance and transmittance of layers of different thicknesses, apparent, spectral optical properties were obtained, i.e., extinction and scattering coefficients, in the case of commercially available polylactic acid (PLA) filaments for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) printers. The coefficients were obtained by fitting a simplistic model to the measured diffuse reflectance as a function of layer thickness. The results were verified by reconstructing reflected spectra with the obtained parameters and comparing the estimated colour to spectrophotometer measurements. The resulting colour differences in terms of the CIEDE2000 standard are all below 2.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    International Association of Research Organizations for the Information, Media and Graphic Arts Industries, 2021
    Series
    Advances in Printing and Media Technology, ISSN 2409-4021
    Keywords
    3D printing, appearance, optical properties, PLA filaments, translucency
    National Category
    Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-181549 (URN)10.14622/Advances_47_2021 (DOI)978-3-948039-02-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    47th IARIGAI International Conference on “Advances in Print and Media Technology”, 19/09/2021 → 24/09/2021
    Available from: 2021-12-01 Created: 2021-12-01 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Angular dependent reflectance spectroscopy of RGBW pigments
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Angular dependent reflectance spectroscopy of RGBW pigments
    Show others...
    2022 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional printing relies primarily on subtractive color mixing techniques. In this case, optical color mixing is achieved by one of the established halftoning methods that use Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (CMYK) primaries on a reflective white substrate. The reason behind the subtractive color mixing in printing is the high absorbance of available pigments used in inks. A new type of mica-based pigments that exhibit high reflectivity at Red, Green, Blue and White (RGBW) spectral bands was recently introduced by Merck (SpectravalTM). Printing with RGBW primaries on black background allows additive color mixing in prints. While offering excellent color depth, the reflected spectra of such pigments vary with the angles of incidence and observation. As a result, new approaches in modelling the appearance of prints as well as strategies for color separation and halftoning are needed. The prior optical characterization of the reflective inks is an essential first step. For this purpose, we have used SpectravalTM pigments to prepare acrylic based inks, which we applied on glass slides by screen printing. In this work, we measured the relative spectral bidirectional reflection distribution of Red, Green, Blue and White reflective inks. The measurements were conducted on an experimental set up consisting of a goniometer, spectrometer, and a xenon light source. Based on the measurements, we simulate the reflectance spectra under diffuse illumination and demonstrate ratios of red, green, and blue spectral components for different observation angles of individual inks and their combinations.

    Keywords
    RGB printing, BRDF, spectroscopy, special effect inks
    National Category
    Media Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189566 (URN)
    Conference
    48th Iarigai conference, Greenville SC, USA, Sept. 19-21 2022
    Available from: 2022-10-26 Created: 2022-10-26 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
    4. Dot Off Dot Screen Printing with RGBW Reflective Inks
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dot Off Dot Screen Printing with RGBW Reflective Inks
    Show others...
    2023 (English)In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 67, no 3, article id 030404Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in pigment production resulted in the possibility to print with RGBW primaries instead of CMYK and performing additive color mixing in printing. The RGBW pigments studied in this work have the properties of structural colors, as the primary colors are a result of interference in a thin film coating of mica pigments. In this work, we investigate the angle-dependent gamut of RGBW primaries. We have elucidated optimal angles of illumination and observation for each primary ink and found the optimal angle of observation under diffuse illumination. We investigated dot off dot halftoned screen printing with RGBW inks on black paper and in terms of angle-dependent dot gain. Based on our observations, optimal viewing condition for the given RGBW inks is in a direction of around 30◦ to the surface normal. Here, the appearance of the resulting halftoned prints can be estimated well by Neugebauer formula (weighted averaging of the individual reflected spectra). Despite the negative physical dot gain during the dot off dot printing, we observe angularly dependent positive optical dot gain for halftoned prints. Application of interference RGBW pigments in 2.5D and 3D printing is not fully explored due to the technological limitations. In this work, we provide colorimetric data for efficient application of the angle-dependent properties of such pigments in practical applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    The Society for Imaging Science and Technology, 2023
    National Category
    Media Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198934 (URN)10.2352/J.ImagingSci.Technol.2023.67.3.030404 (DOI)001080972400007 ()2-s2.0-85164955722 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Research Institute of Sweden

    Available from: 2023-11-03 Created: 2023-11-03 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
    5. Printing with tonalli: Reproducing Featherwork from Precolonial Mexico Using Structural Colorants
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Printing with tonalli: Reproducing Featherwork from Precolonial Mexico Using Structural Colorants
    Show others...
    2023 (English)In: Colorants, ISSN 2079-6447, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 632-653Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two of the most significant cases of extant 16th-century featherwork from Mexico are the so-called Moctezuma’s headdress and the Ahuizotl shield. While the feathers used in these artworks exhibit lightfast colors, their assembly comprises mainly organic materials, which makes them extremely fragile. Printed media, including books, catalogs, educational materials, and fine copies, offer an accessible means for audiences to document and disseminate visual aspects of delicate cultural artifacts without risking their integrity. Nevertheless, the singular brightness and iridescent colors of feathers are difficult to communicate to the viewer in printed reproductions when traditional pigments are used. This research explores the use of effect pigments (multilayered reflective structures) and improved halftoning techniques for additive printing, with the objective of enhancing the reproduction of featherwork by capturing its changing color and improving texture representation via a screen printing process. The reproduced images of featherwork exhibit significant perceptual resemblances to the originals, primarily owing to the shared presence of structural coloration. We applied structure-aware halftoning to better represent the textural qualities of feathers without compromising the performance of effect pigments in the screen printing method. Our prints show angle-dependent color, although their gamut is reduced. The novelty of this work lies in the refinement of techniques for printing full-color images by additive printing, which can enhance the 2D representation of the appearance of culturally significant artifacts.

    Keywords
    Featherwork, Iridescence, Structural color, Screen printing, Effect pigments
    National Category
    Media Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-202037 (URN)10.3390/colorants2040033 (DOI)
    Available from: 2024-04-05 Created: 2024-04-05 Last updated: 2024-04-05Bibliographically approved
    6. Iridescence Mimicking in Fabrics: A Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy Study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iridescence Mimicking in Fabrics: A Ultraviolet/Visible Spectroscopy Study
    Show others...
    2024 (English)In: BIOMIMETICS, ISSN 2313-7673, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) photonic crystals (PCs), with five different sizes (170, 190, 210, 230 and 250 nm), were applied onto three plain fabrics, namely polyamide, polyester and cotton. The PC-coated fabrics were analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy and two UV/Vis reflectance spectrophotometric techniques (integrating sphere and scatterometry) to evaluate the PCs' self-assembly along with the obtained spectral and colors characteristics. Results showed that surface roughness of the fabrics had a major influence on the color produced by PCs. Polyamide-coated fabrics were the only samples having an iridescent effect, producing more vivid and brilliant colors than polyester and cotton samples. It was observed that as the angle of incident light increases, a hypsochromic shift in the reflection peak occurs along with the formation of new reflection peaks. Furthermore, color behavior simulations were performed with an illuminant A light source on polyamide samples. The illuminant A simulation showed greener and yellower structural colors than those illuminated with D50. The polyester and cotton samples were analyzed using scatterometry to check for iridescence, which was unseen upon ocular inspection and then proven to be present in these samples. This work allowed a better comprehension of how structural colors and their iridescence are affected by the textile substrate morphology and fiber type.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2024
    Keywords
    photonic crystals; structural coloration; iridescent effect; textiles; UV/Vis reflectance; IP-BRDF
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-201479 (URN)10.3390/biomimetics9020071 (DOI)001170222500001 ()38392117 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|FEDER [UID/CTM/00264/2020]; National Funds through Fundao para a Cincia e Tecnologia (FCT) [2022-03370]; Swedish Research Council [P2021-00040]; Swedish Energy Agency [.9220423]; Swedish Armed Forces research program AT [SFRH/BD/145269/2019]; FCT, MCTES, FSE

    Available from: 2024-03-12 Created: 2024-03-12 Last updated: 2024-04-05
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (png)
    presentationsbild
  • 3.
    Pranovich, Alina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dot Off Dot Screen Printing with RGBW Reflective Inks2023In: Journal of Imaging Science and Technology, ISSN 1062-3701, E-ISSN 1943-3522, Vol. 67, no 3, article id 030404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in pigment production resulted in the possibility to print with RGBW primaries instead of CMYK and performing additive color mixing in printing. The RGBW pigments studied in this work have the properties of structural colors, as the primary colors are a result of interference in a thin film coating of mica pigments. In this work, we investigate the angle-dependent gamut of RGBW primaries. We have elucidated optimal angles of illumination and observation for each primary ink and found the optimal angle of observation under diffuse illumination. We investigated dot off dot halftoned screen printing with RGBW inks on black paper and in terms of angle-dependent dot gain. Based on our observations, optimal viewing condition for the given RGBW inks is in a direction of around 30◦ to the surface normal. Here, the appearance of the resulting halftoned prints can be estimated well by Neugebauer formula (weighted averaging of the individual reflected spectra). Despite the negative physical dot gain during the dot off dot printing, we observe angularly dependent positive optical dot gain for halftoned prints. Application of interference RGBW pigments in 2.5D and 3D printing is not fully explored due to the technological limitations. In this work, we provide colorimetric data for efficient application of the angle-dependent properties of such pigments in practical applications.

  • 4.
    Trujillo-Vazquez, Abigail
    et al.
    Centre for Print Research, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.
    Abedini, Fereshteh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pranovich, Alina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parraman, Carinna
    Centre for Print Research, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.
    Klein, Susanne
    Centre for Print Research, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK.
    Printing with tonalli: Reproducing Featherwork from Precolonial Mexico Using Structural Colorants2023In: Colorants, ISSN 2079-6447, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 632-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two of the most significant cases of extant 16th-century featherwork from Mexico are the so-called Moctezuma’s headdress and the Ahuizotl shield. While the feathers used in these artworks exhibit lightfast colors, their assembly comprises mainly organic materials, which makes them extremely fragile. Printed media, including books, catalogs, educational materials, and fine copies, offer an accessible means for audiences to document and disseminate visual aspects of delicate cultural artifacts without risking their integrity. Nevertheless, the singular brightness and iridescent colors of feathers are difficult to communicate to the viewer in printed reproductions when traditional pigments are used. This research explores the use of effect pigments (multilayered reflective structures) and improved halftoning techniques for additive printing, with the objective of enhancing the reproduction of featherwork by capturing its changing color and improving texture representation via a screen printing process. The reproduced images of featherwork exhibit significant perceptual resemblances to the originals, primarily owing to the shared presence of structural coloration. We applied structure-aware halftoning to better represent the textural qualities of feathers without compromising the performance of effect pigments in the screen printing method. Our prints show angle-dependent color, although their gamut is reduced. The novelty of this work lies in the refinement of techniques for printing full-color images by additive printing, which can enhance the 2D representation of the appearance of culturally significant artifacts.

  • 5.
    Pranovich, Alina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Trujillo Vazquez, Abigail
    University of the West of England, United Kingdom.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Valyukh, Sergiy
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall
    Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Klein, Susanne
    University of the West of England, United Kingdom.
    Parraman, Carinna
    University of the West of England, United Kingdom.
    Angular dependent reflectance spectroscopy of RGBW pigments2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional printing relies primarily on subtractive color mixing techniques. In this case, optical color mixing is achieved by one of the established halftoning methods that use Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and Black (CMYK) primaries on a reflective white substrate. The reason behind the subtractive color mixing in printing is the high absorbance of available pigments used in inks. A new type of mica-based pigments that exhibit high reflectivity at Red, Green, Blue and White (RGBW) spectral bands was recently introduced by Merck (SpectravalTM). Printing with RGBW primaries on black background allows additive color mixing in prints. While offering excellent color depth, the reflected spectra of such pigments vary with the angles of incidence and observation. As a result, new approaches in modelling the appearance of prints as well as strategies for color separation and halftoning are needed. The prior optical characterization of the reflective inks is an essential first step. For this purpose, we have used SpectravalTM pigments to prepare acrylic based inks, which we applied on glass slides by screen printing. In this work, we measured the relative spectral bidirectional reflection distribution of Red, Green, Blue and White reflective inks. The measurements were conducted on an experimental set up consisting of a goniometer, spectrometer, and a xenon light source. Based on the measurements, we simulate the reflectance spectra under diffuse illumination and demonstrate ratios of red, green, and blue spectral components for different observation angles of individual inks and their combinations.

  • 6.
    Pranovich, Alina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall
    Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optical properties and appearance of fused deposition modelling filaments2021In: Advances in Printing and Media Technology - Printing in the Digital Era : Proceedings of the 47th International Research Conference of iarigai, International Association of Research Organizations for the Information, Media and Graphic Arts Industries , 2021, Vol. 47, p. 134-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The appearance of 3D-printed objects is affected by numerous parameters. Specifically, the colour of each point on the surface is affected not only by the applied material, but also by the neighbouring segments as well as by the structure underneath it. Translucency of the 3D printing inks is the key property needed for reproduction of surfaces resembling natural materials. However, the prediction of colour appearance of translucent materials within the print is a complex task that is of great interest. In this work, a method is proposed for studying the appearance of translucent 3D materials in terms of the surface colour. It is shown how the thickness of the printed flat samples as well as the background underneath affect the colour. By studying diffuse reflectance and transmittance of layers of different thicknesses, apparent, spectral optical properties were obtained, i.e., extinction and scattering coefficients, in the case of commercially available polylactic acid (PLA) filaments for Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) printers. The coefficients were obtained by fitting a simplistic model to the measured diffuse reflectance as a function of layer thickness. The results were verified by reconstructing reflected spectra with the obtained parameters and comparing the estimated colour to spectrophotometer measurements. The resulting colour differences in terms of the CIEDE2000 standard are all below 2.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7.
    Pranovich, Alina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gooran, Sasan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall
    Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark.
    Nyström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Surface Discretisation Effects on 3D Printed Surface Appearance2020In: CEUR-WS.org, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial resolution of 3D printing is finite. The necessary discretisation of an object before printing produces a step-like surface structure that influences the appearance of the printed objects. To study the effect of this discretisation on specular reflections, we print surfaces at various oblique angles. This enables us to observe the step-like struc- ture and its influence on reflected light. Based on the step-like surface structure, we develop a reflectance model describing the redistribution of the light scattered by the surface, and we study dispersion effects due to the wavelength dependency of the refractive index of the material. We include preliminary verification by comparing model predictions to photographs for different angles of observation.

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