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  • 1.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Business models and product designs that prolong the lifetime of construction workwear: Success, failure and environmental impacts2024In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 206, article id 107602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The workwear market is growing, but ways to reduce its environmental impacts remain unexplored. We investigate product designs and business models that prolong the lifetime of construction workwear in the Swedish context. Lifecycle Assessments, user interviews, focus groups, user trials, user survey, provider interviews, and participatory workshops were combined to (i) understand the status quo of the workwear market, (ii) develop six product designs and business models for circular workwear, and (iii) assess and trial them in practice. This was done from a user, customer, provider, and environmental perspective. All product design and business model innovations (design for durability, design for repair, design for washing, repair-as-a-service, washing-and-repair-as-a-service, workwear-as-a-service) are expected to improve environmental performance, however, some approaches proved ineffective due to lacking user acceptance or economic viability. Insights into the workwear industry's status quo and entirely novel knowledge on workwear consumption, challenges, and opportunities for an extended workwear lifetime in a circular economy are reported.

  • 2.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Arellano Divina, Felen II
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electric Material Handling: Assessment of the environmental impacts of two electric material handling machines2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is part of the research project Electric Material Handling, which aims to develop fossil- and emission-free system solution demonstrations of non-road mobile machinery while maintaining productivity and customer acceptance. The report includes the life cycle assessments made by Linköping University, presenting the estimated environmental impacts of the system solutions of electrified machines in two applications.

    The project is financed by Vinnova (project no. 2021-01787), and the project coordinator is Volvo Construction Equipment (VCE). Besides the authors, Niklas Lindblom, Bobbie Frank och Richard Alm (VCE) have also contributed to the progress of the work presented in this report.

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  • 3.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Karlsson, Rune
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kalantari, Joakim
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafikanalys och logistik, TAL.
    Energioptimala godstransporter ur ett nationellt systemperspektiv: en metod för utvärdering av potential för minskad energianvändning2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study is to contribute to an energy-efficient transport system by presenting a new approach for analysis of energy use which could be a complement to conventional decision support systems. Energy use in the transport sector is a central aspect to consider in order to meet national goals of reduced climate impact. This study presents a method for estimating minimal energy use in a goods transport system from a national system perspective. In this study, this problem is defined as the Minimum Energy Problem (MEP). The purpose is to describe a method for MEP and apply the method for an analysis of the Swedish goods transport system. Study of MEP gives an estimation of a theoretical potential for reduced energy use in the goods transport system and a reference for evaluations of different types of measures. 

    The basic idea is to use a national freight model as an optimisation tool by replacing cost parameters with parameter values for energy use and CO2 emissions. The principle means that an existing model can be reused. The method is applied for analysis of the Swedish goods transport system by using Samgods. Samgods is the Swedish national freight model, owned by the Swedish Transport Administration, and used for analyses of the goods transport system to give decision basis for e.g., infrastructure investments, policy changes and long-term forecasts. 

    The Swedish goods transport system is studied with respect to scenarios for minimal energy use with a focus on today’s existing infrastructure, vehicles and transport demand, as specified in Samgods. The results are compared with cost-minimisation scenarios which could be assumed to simulate the goods transport system in practice. Scenarios could be used to analyse system effects of different measures. The general applicability of the proposed methodology is illustrated by scenario analyses representing changed conditions for road transport and a case of minimization with respect to carbon dioxide emissions.

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  • 4.
    Lundberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Genell, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Ihs, Anita
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Infrastruktur, INFRA.
    Wennström, Jonas
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    Indikatorer för Trafikverkets uppföljning av underhåll på belagda vägar: leveranskvaliteter för de transportpolitiska målen2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One way for the Swedish Transport Administration (STA) to follow up the effects of maintenance on state roads is by using indicators. The indicators described in this report are defined as second-order indicators and are built up using underlying data. The indicators describe, in a comprehensive and transparent way, how the STA meets delivery quality parameters for punctuality, capacity, robustness, usability, safety, and environment and health. 

    In this feasibility study, a knowledge overview of the selected indicators is presented. Suggestions are also given on how the indicators can be implemented in the STA's pavement management system. The indicators studied were Safety, Comfort, Structural Condition, Rolling Resistance, Noise, Air Quality, Goods Damage, Surface Damage, Vehicle Wear, and Health Risk. Many aspects must be considered when introducing an indicator. Along with validation, it is extremely important that the indicator will be accepted and used. There are many ways to use an indicator, however, it is not ideal to only consider absolute values for a composite indicator. Relative differences in annual follow-ups are preferable to determine whether strategies have the intended effect.

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  • 5.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Neramballi, Abhijna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bäck, Max
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tirumalasetty, Vishnu Teja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Systemic improvement of lifecycle performance by leveraging product and service interdependencies – A case of a product for wind power generation systems2022In: CIRP annals, ISSN 0007-8506, E-ISSN 1726-0604, Vol. 71, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Products and services are mutually dependant throughout the lifecycle, and the interdependencies present potential for exploitation to decrease the environmental impacts. However, effective yet practical support to realize this potential in industry is insufficient. This paper presents a procedure with a knowledge base that help uncover important latent interdependencies, partly implemented as an Excel-based tool, concretizing systemic lifecycle engineering. The procedure has been validated with an elevator and the related services for wind turbines, in collaboration with a manufacturer in Europe, showing potential environmental improvements quantitatively. Also, the importance of maintenance in renewable energy systems is discussed.

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  • 6.
    Carlsson, Raul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Certifiering.
    Nevzorova, Tatiana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Certifiering.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Boyer, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    TRACE CERTAINTY - TRAnsitioning to a Circular Economy via CERTificAtion in INdusTrY: Testing metrics for measuring the circularity while metrics are being standardized: PROJECT FINAL REPORT Reference Number 2020-044102022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the results and the learnings of a project that had the aim to develop a protocol for measuring circularity for products. The project was centered around an assessment of the real-world example of a lubrication cleaning and recirculation system by SKF RecondOil. The process of assessment required that the team match circularity in principle (how circularity can be measured in theory) with circularity in practice (how circularity can be measured in a real system). In the process, the team identified different ways to measure circularity based on drafted circularity principles (from ongoing ISO work on circularity). In the end, these alternatives were to be practically verifiable and certifiable. Learnings are to be fed into ongoing work on developing international standards (ISO) for assessing circularity. In the progress of the work, a framework for understanding and measuring circularity for the system at hand was developed including: a heuristic (diagram) describing a system of interest and a list of chosen circular economy principles see Figure 3. It is thought that the heuristic and list of principles could be used to guide an entity in the process of first, creating their system model, and then, making sense of and applying principles.

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  • 7.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vieira, Tiago
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Fordonsemissionsmodellen PHEM: förstudie om att inkludera vägytans betydelse för rullmotstånd och bränsleförbrukning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling resistance is an important component for the calculation of vehicle fuel consumption and emissions. This report presents a possible method development for the emissions model PHEM to consider the effect of road surface characteristics on rolling resistance. With this development it is possible to have a more comprehensive application of PHEM. The importance of the road surface influence of fuel consumption has previously been done with the VETO model in which it is possible to specify road surface properties. Therefore, VETO is considered appropriate to analyse how road surface characteristics affect fuel consumption. PHEM does not offer the same possibilities. 

    The four alternative methods explored in this report are: (1) change PHEM’s source code to include the same possibilities to consider road surface characteristics as VETO, (2) to externally, with another model, calculate rolling resistance and include it as input variable in PHEM, (3) substitute the rolling resistance model in PHEM with an equivalent model from VETO, and (4) use a reference case from VETO to PHEM and make additional corrections to the results obtained from PHEM by using VETO. The alternatives (1) to (3) change the rolling resistance model yet retain all the other parts from PHEM while alternative (4) requires additional simulations. Alternatives (3) and (4) do not require modifications to PHEM’s source code.

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  • 8.
    Eriksson, Olle
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Förenklad bränsleförbrukningsfunktion: fokus på vägytans betydelse2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel consumption of a road vehicle is affected by many factors. To analyze fuel consumption easier and faster, without making actual measurements, it is desirable to describe the relation between fuel consumption and the factors affecting it, through a function or a model. There are fuel consumption models, but they can be based on complicated functions that are difficult to use. They are usually not expressed as a sum of components or offer no possibility to easily discuss separate components and their single contribution to the fuel consumption. There are also fuel consumption functions which give similar results as a sum of components. The report uses one such function as a starting point and simplify it slightly to make it a sum of components. The simplification is evaluated by different measures of how much the results differs from the original function, but at the same time show how much more useful the model becomes due to its ability to deliver information of separate components. 

    There are direct effects such as unevenness affecting fuel consumption and indirect effects such as unevenness affecting speed which affects air resistance and fuel consumption. The major part of this report concerns direct effects, but the indirect effects are to some extent also commented. 

    The models are approximations. One may need to weigh usability and accuracy and choose a model easier to use but with poorer accuracy. For the chosen model, the simplified fuel consumption function works well for passenger cars and trucks. Only part of the simplification is recommended for trucks with trailer. The report presents the simplified function and comparisons with the original function. Examples are provided to see if maintenance can be motivated from an energy perspective with the simplified function. These are compared to results with the original function.

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  • 9.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jacobson, Herbert
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Legal, environmental and economic issues with functional sales: A case of indoor lighting2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 298, article id 126713Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional sales is a business model that has steadily seen increased use. This article features, from a life cycle perspective and in a novel way, its legal, environmental, and economic implications. Functional sales has been highlighted to have the potential for promoting the use of more resource-efficient technologies, which may have a positive impact on the provided solution’s environmental and economic performance. However, there are, to our knowledge, few articles published regarding the legal aspects of functional sales and still no laws regulating this type of business model, which can pose barriers to implementing functional sales. Functional sales is in uncharted territory in the legal sphere, and the lack of legal regulation can only, to a certain extent, be overcome by a contract. A contract must consider the relationship to be long-term, and evaluation is important.

    In this paper, two different techniques for acquiring lighting representing product sales and functional sales are compared. The case for functional sales is based on the legal foundation of an existing public procurement, while the case for product sales is a likely alternative for lighting purposes. The study shows that there is a trade-off between environmental consequence and economic benefit and that qualitative aspects can be difficult to include in the contract and evaluation.

    The conclusion is that the ordinary purchase is supported by long-established rules and regulations so that such a legal transaction (acquisition) is quite conventional and uneventful. However, if the business model changes without a proper legal foundation, the parties of such contracts will find themselves in a legal wilderness, where the outcome of civil litigations is unpredictable. There are ways to circumvent these difficulties, which is demonstrated in this article, as well as the principal advantages of functional sales.

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  • 10.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Miljöbedömning av att återanvända grus vid underhåll av grusvägar2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige finns det ca 300 000 km grusväg varav drygt 90% är skogsbilvägar och enskilda vägar. För att bibehålla en god trafikkomfort och framkomlighet behöver vägarna underhållas, där bland annat nytt grus behöver tillföras med jämna mellanrum. En del av den grus som tillförs slitytan hamnar i vägkanten på grund av väderförhållande, vissa typer av vinterväghållning och att trafiken sprätter ut den. Genom att återvinna denna mängd går det att minska behovet av jungfruligt material, vilket i sig innebär att mindre grus behöver utvinnas och att färre transporter behövs från grusuttag till vägar som ska underhållas.I denna rapport presenteras en livscykelstudie över vilken effekt en återanvändning av grus vid kantskärning kan ha på global uppvärmning och energianvändning vid underhåll av grusvägar.

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  • 11.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vieira, Tiago
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    The effect of water and snow on the road surface on rolling resistance2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rolling resistance is due to the interaction between road surface and tires and forms part of the driving resistance that a vehicle needs to overcome to move forward. Those of the road surface properties that are seen as most important for rolling resistance are macro texture and unevenness along the road. But water and snow on the road surface also contribute to the rolling resistance. Precipitation that remains on the road means that the wheels need to be driven through and displace water or snow, and this leads to increased resistance. In addition, water cools more efficiently than air, which has an effect on the behavior of the tires as their viscoelastic properties are temperature dependent. The tires work at a lower temperature in the presence of precipitation, which in itself increases the resistance. 

    Speed, temperature and water depth are the explanatory variables often found in the literature to describe the effect on rolling resistance due to water on the road surface. It has been shown that rolling resistance increases with increasing speed, increasing water depth and decreasing tire temperature. The results indicate that the effect can be significant, with measurements showing an increase of 30 to 40 percent of the rolling resistance coefficient depending on the speed and thickness of the water film. However, the literature in the area is relatively limited, and the reason for this is probably linked to the difficulties that exist in measuring and modeling the rolling resistance effect in water. These difficulties are due to, among other things, measuring the depth of the water film and the temperature of the tires and that the temperature of the tires needs to be stable during measurements. 

    Studying the impact of snow on rolling resistance also involves some difficulties in that there are many different types of snow with varying properties and behavior during deformation. Data available is also limited and the relationships are not sufficiently developed so that they can be fully used to describe the behavior of the snow with respect to deformation and load. The complexity of the impact of snow on rolling resistance means that a combination of theoretical calculations and field studies is needed to determine the values of the components included. However, some studies have been carried out that aim to explain the impact of snow, both theoretical and via field measurements. The explanatory variables often used are snow depth, snow density and tire contact surface with road surface. In general, the results show that snow has a large effect on the resistance and that it should therefore be considered, especially in areas where snow remains on the ground for a long time.

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  • 12.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Environmental assessment of consequences from predictive maintenance with artificial intelligence techniques: Importance of the system boundary2020In: / [ed] Brissaud D., Zwolinski P., Paris H., Riel A.,, Elsevier, 2020, Vol. 90, p. 171-175Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses a case of maintenance planning that was researched in previous work and thereby improved using predictive maintenance with an artificial intelligence (AI) technique. In particular, the en- vironmental implications are presented using a life cycle assessment. Using AI to develop maintenance planning could be a feasible method that can outperform other strategies. However, the results of this analysis show that the economic and environmental performance depends largely on the assessment set- ting. Therefore, applying appropriate system boundaries and functional unit is of major importance to avoid sub-optimization when maintenance planning is developed.

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  • 13.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Environmental and economic assessment of using AI techniques for predictive maintenance in three case studies: Deliverable of Work Package 5 from SIMON project2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance process is important for keeping and improving, for example, availability and quality. It is also important for the sustainability aspect where a possible prolonged life of products can have a positive effect on environmental performance. With new opportunities provided by Industry 4.0 and the accessibility to a vast amount of data through the Internet of Things (IoT), maintenance can be further developed and improved with using new technologies, such as AI. This opportunity is explored in the project New Application of AI for Services in Maintenance towards a Circular Economy (SIMON). One of the objectives of SIMON is to evaluate the economic and environmental implications of applying AI techniques in maintenance service. This evaluation is compiled and presented in this report.

  • 14.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Environmental and economic assessment of using AI techniques for predictive maintenance in three case studies: Deliverable of Work Package 5 from SIMON project2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The maintenance process is important for keeping and improving, for example, availability and quality. It is also important for the sustainability aspect where a possible prolonged life of products can have a positive effect on environmental performance. With new opportunities provided by Industry 4.0 and the accessibility to a vast amount of data through the Internet of Things (IoT), maintenance can be further developed and improved with using new technologies, such as AI. This opportunity is explored in the project New Application of AI for Services in Maintenance towards a Circular Economy (SIMON). One of the objectives of SIMON is to evaluate the economic and environmental implications of applying AI techniques in maintenance service. This evaluation is compiled and presented in this report.

  • 15.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Funktionsförsäljning inomhusbelysning: ekonomiska och miljömässiga effekter2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Funktionsförsäljning är en affärsmodell där leverantören erbjuder och tar betalt för den funktion och nytta som produkten och/eller tjänsten levererar istället för att sälja en produkt. Leverantören tar under avtalsperioden ansvaret för att uppfylla den erbjudna funktionen. För att säkerställa god lönsamhet ligger det i funktionsförsäljarens intresse att erbjuda hållbara lösningar som kräver lite resurser för underhåll och drift. Därmed finns det också en potential till att resurseffektiviteten ökar, att miljöbelastningen minskar och att kundens värde av erbjudandet blir större än för traditionella produkter och tjänster.

    I denna rapport analyseras och jämförs kostnader och miljöeffekter sett i ett livscykelperspektiv av funktionsförsäljning respektive produktförsäljning. Det konkreta exemplet är belysning av ett klassrum.

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  • 16.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Taking external effects into consideration - the competitiveness of biofuel2001In: 1st World Conference and Exhibition on Biomass for Energy and Industry,2000, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

       

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