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  • 1.
    Molaei, Arman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Faradic Side Reactions at Novel Carbon Flow-Through Electrodes for Desalination Studied in a Static Supercapacitor Architecture2023In: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 2200119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technique to combine desalination and energy storage. The efficiency of charge storage process, which is equivalent to the desalination process, depends strongly on the presence of Faradic side reactions on the electrode. Herein, the performance of a new low-cost designed flow-through electrode with porous carbon nanoparticles (CP) coating on carbon-fiber paper (CFP) is evaluated. The CP layer enables high capacitance while the CFP core makes fluid dynamics along and across the electrode. The electrodes are evaluated by studying the effective operational CDI parameters, such as operational voltage, degassing of electrolyte, and salt concentration. The Faradic side reaction and its effect on charge efficiency (CE) are evaluated which are estimated to decrease to 46% by liquid flow bringing dissolved oxygen from the air-electrolyte interface to the electrode. The CE enhances to 59% with a salt concentration of 1 m. By purging N-2 gas, CE is much higher (>85%) with a maximum efficiency of 97% at 0.6 V. Three regimes of the complex kinetic of side reactions are found involving various species such as O-2, H2O2, H-2, and carbon oxidation and the implication of those regimes for real applications are discussed.

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  • 2.
    Molaei, Arman
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Functionalized Porous Carbon Fiber Electrodes for Applications in Electrochemical Flow Cells2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of metals in close-loop cooling or heating systems originates from tiny leakages at joints releasing oxygen into the thermal fluids. The presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) in thermal fluids, such as water with various additives forms a rust coating and some rust particles are released in the fluids and accumulate in an undesired place. Overall, these phenomena decrease the efficiency of heat exchangers and boilers in energy systems. There are various techniques to remove DO but each has drawbacks either related to their efficiency, cost, or minimum DO level reachable. Herein, we propose an electrochemical technique to achieve a low-cost and efficient deoxygenation. We investigate both the fundamentals and make a proof of concept for a deoxygenation electrolyser that consumes the DO through the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). First, we designed a simple and low-cost flow-through electrode by adding macro-porous carbon fiber papers (CFPs) with calibrated loads of carbon microporous particles (CPs) to combine both a high surface area and an open structure for good fluid dynamics. Then, the faradic performance of carbon electrodes is evaluated in a designed static deoxygenation electrolyser that shows three regimes of complex kinetic side reactions involving various species such as O2, H2O2, H2O, and anodic carbon oxidation. The functionalization of redox-active quinone molecules operating by electron mediators over the anode electrode is developed to improve the ORR efficiency and remove the issue of degradation of the carbon anode. Finally, we investigate the use of a new electrocatalytic polymer poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthro-line) (BBL) to drive the ORR toward water instead of forming H2O2. The combination of both the polymer catalyst at the cathode and the quinone molecules designs a path for an efficient deoxygenation electrolyser that could become a key device to slow down corrosion rate and improve the efficiency in energy systems.

    List of papers
    1. New low-cost, flow-through carbon electrodes characterized in brackish water
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>New low-cost, flow-through carbon electrodes characterized in brackish water
    2023 (English)In: Chemické zvesti, ISSN 0366-6352, E-ISSN 1336-9075, Vol. 77, p. 1941-1950Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a simple and low-cost flow-through electrode for electrochemical cells used for instance in capacitive desalination. We have coated macro-porous carbon fiber papers with various loads of carbon microporous particles to combine both a high surface area and an open structure for good fluid dynamics. In this first study, we restrict our investigation to the charging/discharging behavior, the identification of side reactions, and the effect of geometry on the diffusion of ions. The electrochemical performance was first investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanic charge-discharge techniques. The specific capacitance increases by three orders of magnitude upon adding the carbon particles. Then, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed the presence of charge transfer phenomena and modification in the mass transport by the diffusion process for the coated electrode.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Slovenskâa akadâemia vied; Springer, 2023
    Keywords
    Flow-through electrode; Desalination; Supercapacitors; Carbon fiber paper; And Carbon paste
    National Category
    Other Chemical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-190796 (URN)10.1007/s11696-022-02596-0 (DOI)000895049500002 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University; Linkoping University; [VR 2016-05990]; [KAW 2018.0058]; [P52023-1]; [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2023-01-03 Created: 2023-01-03 Last updated: 2024-02-06Bibliographically approved
    2. Faradic Side Reactions at Novel Carbon Flow-Through Electrodes for Desalination Studied in a Static Supercapacitor Architecture
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Faradic Side Reactions at Novel Carbon Flow-Through Electrodes for Desalination Studied in a Static Supercapacitor Architecture
    2023 (English)In: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 2200119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technique to combine desalination and energy storage. The efficiency of charge storage process, which is equivalent to the desalination process, depends strongly on the presence of Faradic side reactions on the electrode. Herein, the performance of a new low-cost designed flow-through electrode with porous carbon nanoparticles (CP) coating on carbon-fiber paper (CFP) is evaluated. The CP layer enables high capacitance while the CFP core makes fluid dynamics along and across the electrode. The electrodes are evaluated by studying the effective operational CDI parameters, such as operational voltage, degassing of electrolyte, and salt concentration. The Faradic side reaction and its effect on charge efficiency (CE) are evaluated which are estimated to decrease to 46% by liquid flow bringing dissolved oxygen from the air-electrolyte interface to the electrode. The CE enhances to 59% with a salt concentration of 1 m. By purging N-2 gas, CE is much higher (>85%) with a maximum efficiency of 97% at 0.6 V. Three regimes of the complex kinetic of side reactions are found involving various species such as O-2, H2O2, H-2, and carbon oxidation and the implication of those regimes for real applications are discussed.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley, 2023
    Keywords
    capacitive deionization; desalination; hydrogen peroxide; oxygen reduction reactions; supercapacitors
    National Category
    Other Chemical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-190625 (URN)10.1002/aesr.202200119 (DOI)000892761400001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [VR 2016-05990]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2018.0058]; Swedish Energy Agency [P52023-1]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoeping University [2009-00971]

    Available from: 2022-12-19 Created: 2022-12-19 Last updated: 2024-01-10
  • 3.
    Molaei, Arman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ahmed, Ahmed
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ail, Ujwala
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    New low-cost, flow-through carbon electrodes characterized in brackish water2023In: Chemické zvesti, ISSN 0366-6352, E-ISSN 1336-9075, Vol. 77, p. 1941-1950Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a simple and low-cost flow-through electrode for electrochemical cells used for instance in capacitive desalination. We have coated macro-porous carbon fiber papers with various loads of carbon microporous particles to combine both a high surface area and an open structure for good fluid dynamics. In this first study, we restrict our investigation to the charging/discharging behavior, the identification of side reactions, and the effect of geometry on the diffusion of ions. The electrochemical performance was first investigated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanic charge-discharge techniques. The specific capacitance increases by three orders of magnitude upon adding the carbon particles. Then, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed the presence of charge transfer phenomena and modification in the mass transport by the diffusion process for the coated electrode.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
1 - 3 of 3
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Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
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  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
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