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  • 1.
    Forsberg, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Taxbro, Knut
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Norrköping. Ryhov Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Elander, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Norrköping. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, ANOPIVA US. Nykoping Hosp, Sweden.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Idh, Jonna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Västervik Hospital, Västervik, Sweden.
    Berkius, Johan
    Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Västervik Hospital, Västervik, Sweden.
    Ekman, Andreas
    Kalmar Hosp, Sweden; Linnaeus Univ, Sweden.
    Hammarskjöld, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Niward, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Risk factors for ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infection in COVID-19, a retrospective multicenter cohort study in Sweden2024In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 226-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Ventilator-associated lower respiratory tract infections (VA-LRTI) increase morbidity and mortality in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Higher incidences of VA-LRTI have been reported among COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The primary objectives of this study were to describe clinical characteristics, incidence, and risk factors comparing patients who developed VA-LRTI to patients who did not, in a cohort of Swedish ICU patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19. Secondary objectives were to decipher changes over the three initial pandemic waves, common microbiology and the effect of VA-LTRI on morbidity and mortality.Methods: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective cohort study of all patients admitted to 10 ICUs in southeast Sweden between March 1, 2020 and May 31, 2021 because of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure due to COVID-19 and were mechanically ventilated for at least 48 h. The primary outcome was culture verified VA-LRTI. Patient characteristics, ICU management, clinical course, treatments, microbiological findings, and mortality were registered. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine risk factors for first VA-LRTI.Results: Of a total of 536 included patients, 153 (28.5%) developed VA-LRTI. Incidence rate of first VA-LRTI was 20.8 per 1000 days of IMV. Comparing patients with VA-LRTI to those without, no differences in mortality, age, sex, or number of comorbidities were found. Patients with VA-LRTI had fewer ventilator-free days, longer ICU stay, were more frequently ventilated in prone position, received corticosteroids more often and were more frequently on antibiotics at intubation. Regression analysis revealed increased adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) for first VA-LRTI in patients treated with corticosteroids (aOR 2.64 [95% confidence interval [CI]] [1.31-5.74]), antibiotics at intubation (aOR 2.01 95% CI [1.14-3.66]), and days of IMV (aOR 1.05 per day of IMV, 95% CI [1.03-1.07]). Few multidrug-resistant pathogens were identified. Incidence of VA-LRTI increased from 14.5 per 1000 days of IMV during the first wave to 24.8 per 1000 days of IMV during the subsequent waves.Conclusion: We report a high incidence of culture-verified VA-LRTI in a cohort of critically ill COVID-19 patients from the first three pandemic waves. VA-LRTI was associated with increased morbidity but not 30-, 60-, or 90-day mortality. Corticosteroid treatment, antibiotics at intubation and time on IMV were associated with increased aOR of first VA-LRTI.

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  • 2.
    Montelin, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Camporeale, Angela
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Anna
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Angelin, Martin
    Umea Univ, Sweden; Danderyd Hosp, Sweden.
    Hogvall, Jonas
    Karlstad Cent Hosp, Sweden.
    Östholm, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Vading, Malin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Giske, Christian G.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Tangden, Thomas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Treatment, outcomes and characterization of pathogens in urinary tract infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacterales: a prospective multicentre study2024In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Treatment options for urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacterales are limited. Moreover, evidence to support therapeutic decisions is lacking. This study assessed current treatment strategies and patient and pathogen characteristics in relation to clinical and microbiological outcomes.Methods: Patients with UTI caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacterales were prospectively recruited by investigators at 15 infectious disease hospital departments. Data were collected on patient characteristics, treatments, clinical and microbiological cure 10-14 days after the end of treatment, and relapse within 3 months. Bacterial isolates were subjected to MIC determination and WGS.Results: In total, 235 patients (107 febrile UTI, 128 lower UTI) caused by Escherichia coli (n = 223) and Klebsiella spp. (n = 12) were included. Clinical and microbiological cure rates were 83% and 64% in febrile UTI, and 79% and 65% in lower UTI. Great variability in treatments was observed, especially in oral therapy for febrile UTI. No difference was seen in clinical outcomes with piperacillin/tazobactam (n = 28) compared with carbapenems (n = 41). Pivmecillinam was frequently used in lower UTI (n = 62), and was also associated with high clinical cure rates when used as initial therapy (10/10) or follow-up (7/8) for febrile UTI. Recurrent infection, diabetes mellitus and urogenital disease were associated (P < 0.05) with clinical failure and relapse. In E. coli, ST131 was significantly associated with relapse, and haemolysin with microbiological failure or relapse.Conclusions: Antibiotic treatments were highly variable. Patient and pathogen factors were identified as potential determinants of disease presentation and outcomes and may prove useful to guide individualized treatment and follow-up.

  • 3.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Söderlund, Robert
    Department of Microbiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Lotta
    Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wikström, Camilla
    Department of Microbiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ljung, Helena
    Department of Microbiology, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Claesson, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology.
    Börjesson, Stefan
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Department of Animal Health and Antimicrobial Strategies, National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    An investigation of household dogs as the source in a case of human bacteraemia caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius2023In: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology, ISSN 2000-8686, E-ISSN 2000-8686, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 2229578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a commensal and an opportunistic pathogen in dogs, and is also an opportunistic pathogen in humans. Here we report about a case of bacteraemia with a fatal outcome in a 77-year-old co-morbid male likely caused by a S. pseudintermedius and the investigation into the possible transmission from the two dogs in the patient's household. The two dogs carried the same S. pseudintermedius strain, but this dog strain was unrelated to the strain from the patient. In contrast to the patient strain, the dog strain showed reduced susceptibility to several antibiotics and both dogs had received antibiotic treatment prior to sampling. So, it is conceivable that these treatments can have eliminated the patient's strain between the transmission event and the dog sampling. It is also worth noting that the patient strain was positive for the expA gene, which encodes an exfoliative toxin closely related to the S. aureus exfoliative toxin B. This toxin has been linked to canine pyoderma, but its effect on humans remains unknown. Transmission of S. pseudintermedius was confirmed in the household between the dogs. However, we could not verify that the dogs were the source for the S. pseudintermedius in the patient.

  • 4.
    Sundén-Cullberg, Jonas
    et al.
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Chen, Puran
    Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Häbel, Henrike
    Division of Biostatistics, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Skorup, Paul
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Janols, Helena
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Infectious Diseases, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rasmuson, Johan
    Infection and Immunology, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Niward, Katarina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Chatzidionysiou, Katerina
    Rheumatology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Asgeirsson, Hilmir
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blennow, Ola
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Parke, Åsa
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svensson, Anna-Karin
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Muvva, Jagadeeswara Rao
    Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ljunggren, Hans-Gustav
    Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Horne, Anna-Carin
    Theme of Children’s and Women’s Health, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ådén, Ulrika
    Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Henter, Jan-Inge
    Childhood Cancer Research Unit, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sönnerborg, Anders
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Vesterbacka, Jan
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nowak, Piotr
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine Huddinge, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lampa, Jon
    Rheumatology Division, Department of Medicine Solna, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Anakinra or tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with severe covid-19 at high risk of deterioration (IMMCoVA): A randomized, controlled, open-label trial2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 12, article id e0295838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Anakinra and tocilizumab are used for severe Covid-19, but only one previous randomized controlled trial (RCT) has studied both. We performed a multi-center RCT comparing anakinra or tocilizumab versus usual care (UC) for adults at high risk of deterioration.

    Methods: The study was conducted June 2020 to March 2021. Eligibility required ≥ 5 liters/minute of Oxygen to maintain peripheral oxygen saturation at ≥ 93%, CRP > 70 mg/L, ferritin > 500 μg/L and at least two points where one point was awarded for lymphocytes < 1x 109/L; D-dimer ≥ 0.5 mg/L and; lactate dehydrogenase ≥ 8 microkatal/L. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1:1 to receive either a single dose of tocilizumab (8 mg/kg) or anakinra 100 mg IV QID for seven days or UC alone. The primary outcome was time to recovery.

    Results: Recruitment was ended prematurely when tocilizumab became part of usual care. Out of a planned 195 patients, 77 had been randomized, 27 to UC, 28 to anakinra and 22 to tocilizumab. Median time to recovery was 15, 15 and 11 days. Rate ratio for recovery for UC vs anakinra was 0.91, 0.47 to 1.78, 95% [CI], p = 0.8 and for UC vs tocilizumab 1.13, 0.55 to 2.30; p = 0.7. There were non-significant trends favoring tocilizumab (and to limited degree anakinra) vs UC for some secondary outcomes. Safety profiles did not differ significantly.

    Conclusion: Premature closure of trial precludes firm conclusions. Anakinra or tocilizumab did not significantly shorten time to clinical recovery compared to usual care. (IMMCoVA, NCT04412291, EudraCT: 2020-00174824).

  • 5.
    Wahlgren, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Forsberg, Gustaf
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Divanoglou, Anestis
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Niward, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Levi, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Two-year follow-up of patients with post-COVID-19 condition in Sweden: a prospective cohort study2023In: The Lancet Regional Health: Europe, E-ISSN 2666-7762, Vol. 28, article id 100595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Few studies have reported the long-term health effects of COVID-19. The regional population-based Linkoping COVID-19 study (LinCoS) included all patients hospitalised due to COVID-19 during the first pandemic wave. Four months post-discharge, over 40% (185/433) experienced persisting symptoms and activity/ participation limitations, indicating post-COVID-19 condition (PCC). The present follow-up study aimed to determine the long-term recovery among these patients 24 months post-admission.Methods This prospective cohort study included all patients from LinCoS with PCC at four months post-discharge. We repeated the same structured interview at a 24-month follow-up to identify persisting symptoms and their impact on daily life. Intercurrent health issues were identified by reviewing medical records.Findings Of 185 patients with PCC at 4 months post-discharge, 181 were alive at the 24-month assessment and 165 agreed to participate. Of those, 21% (35/165) had been readmitted to hospital for various causes in the interim period. The majority of patients (139/165, 84%) reported persisting problems affecting everyday life at 24 months. Significant improvements were seen in the prevalence and magnitude of some symptoms/limitations compared with four months post-discharge. Cognitive, sensorimotor, and fatigue symptoms were the most common persisting symptoms at 24 months. No clear difference was evident between individuals treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU-treated individuals. Approximately half of those who were on sick leave related to PCC at four months after infection were on sick leave at 24 months.Interpretation This is one of the first studies to report 2-year outcomes in patients with PCC following COVID-19 hospitalisation. Despite some improvements over time, we found a high prevalence of persisting symptoms and a need for long-term follow-up and rehabilitation post COVID-19 infection.

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  • 6.
    Karlsson, Matilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Steinvall, Ingrid
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Elmasry, Moustafa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Hand and Plastic Surgery.
    Wound infection among children with moderate burns – An explorative review of the association between reported frequency and diagnosis2023In: Burns, ISSN 0305-4179, E-ISSN 1879-1409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The Linkoping burn centre in Sweden has, even though being a high income country, reported high burn wound infections (BWI) frequencies in scalded children compared to similar populations in other parts of the world.

    Aim: The aim was to investigate possible explanations for differences in frequency of BWI among children with partial thickness burns treated at the Linköping burn centre in Sweden, and that reported in other studies.

    Method: In order to investigate what BWI criteria that were used in similar studies a literature search on PubMed Central was done along with a retrospective analysis of children previously diagnosed as infected to confirm or reject the high infection frequency reported earlier.

    Result: Of the 34 selected publications reporting on BWI frequency 16 (47%) did not define a criteria for the BWI diagnosis and almost a third did not report on wound culturing. Of those who did report the use a third do not mention any bacterial growth found is these cultures. The retrospective analysis on children at the centre did not show any decrease in infection frequency even with some disagreement on onset for the BWI.

    Conclusion: The reporting of criteria and diagnosis of burn wound infection is highly variable making it difficult to interpret results and come to conclusions. The high frequency of BWI at the centre might be a result of close monitoring due to study participation, use of clean instead of sterile routine at dressing changes or low thresholds for the diagnosis in respect to changes in infection markers.

  • 7.
    Welén, Karin
    et al.
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rosendal, Ebba
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Gisslén, Magnus
    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Infectious Diseases, Region Västra Götaland, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lenman, Annasara
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Freyhult, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, National Bioinformatics Infrastructure Sweden, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fonseca-Rodríguez, Osvaldo
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bremell, Daniel
    Institute of Biomedicine, Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stranne, Johan
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Niward, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Repo, Johanna
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Robinsson, David
    Department of Urology, Region of Jönköping, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Jonsson Henningsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Department of Clinical Microbiology, Region Jönköping County, Jönköping, Sweden.
    Styrke, Johan
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology & Andrology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Angelin, Martin
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lindquist, Elisabeth
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Allard, Annika
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Becker, Miriam
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Section of Virology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rudolfsson, Stina
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology & Andrology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Buckland, Robert
    Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology & Andrology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Camilla Thellenberg
    Department of Radiation Sciences, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Bjartell, Anders
    Division of Urological Cancers, Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anna C
    Department of Translational Medicine, Infectious Diseases Research Unit, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Connolly, Anne-Marie Fors
    The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Överby, Anna K
    The Laboratory for Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden, Umeå, Sweden; Department of Clinical Microbiology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Andreas
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology & Andrology, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; Wallenberg Center for Molecular Medicine (WCMM), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A Phase 2 Trial of the Effect of Antiandrogen Therapy on COVID-19 Outcome: No Evidence of Benefit, Supported by Epidemiology and In Vitro Data2022In: European Urology, ISSN 0302-2838, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 285-293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Men are more severely affected by COVID-19. Testosterone may influence SARS-CoV-2 infection and the immune response. Objective: To clinically, epidemiologically, and experimentally evaluate the effect of antiandrogens on SARS-CoV-2 infection. Designs, settings, and participants: A randomized phase 2 clinical trial (COVIDENZA) enrolled 42 hospitalized COVID-19 patients before safety evaluation. We also conducted a population-based retrospective study of 7894 SARS-CoV-2–positive prostate cancer patients and an experimental study using an air-liquid interface three-dimensional culture model of primary lung cells. Intervention: In COVIDENZA, patients were randomized 2:1 to 5 d of enzalutamide or standard of care. Outcome measurements: The primary outcomes in COVIDENZA were the time to mechanical ventilation or discharge from hospital. The population-based study investigated risk of hospitalization, intensive care, and death from COVID-19 after androgen inhibition. Results and limitations: Enzalutamide-treated patients required longer hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] for discharge from hospital 0.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20–0.93) and the trial was terminated early. In the epidemiological study, no preventive effects were observed. The frail population of patients treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in combination with abiraterone acetate or enzalutamide had a higher risk of dying from COVID-19 (HR 2.51, 95% CI 1.52–4.16). In vitro data showed no effect of enzalutamide on virus replication. The epidemiological study has limitations that include residual confounders. Conclusions: The results do not support a therapeutic effect of enzalutamide or preventive effects of bicalutamide or ADT in COVID-19. Thus, these antiandrogens should not be used for hospitalized COVID-19 patients or as prevention for COVID-19. Further research on these therapeutics in this setting are not warranted. Patient summary: We studied whether inhibition of testosterone could diminish COVID-19 symptoms. We found no evidence of an effect in a clinical study or in epidemiological or experimental investigations. We conclude that androgen inhibition should not be used for prevention or treatment of COVID-19. 

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  • 8.
    Melin, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Haase, Ismene
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, ANOPIVA US.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Claesson, Carina
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Tobieson, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology.
    Cryopreservation of autologous bone flaps following decompressive craniectomy: A new method reduced positive cultures without increase in post-cranioplasty infection rate.2022In: Brain & spine, ISSN 2772-5294, Vol. 2, article id 100919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Cranioplasty (CP) after decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a common neurosurgical procedure. Implementation of European Union (EU) directives recommending bacterial cultures before cryopreservation, lead to increased number of autologous bone flaps being discarded due to positive cultures. A new method for handling bone flaps prior to cryopreservation, including the use of pulsed lavage, was developed.

    RESEARCH QUESTION: The aim was to evaluate the effect of a new method on proportion of positive bacterial cultures and surgical site infection (SSI) following CP surgery.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty-one bone flaps from 53 consecutive DC surgery patients were retrospectively included and the study period was divided into before and after method implementation. Patient demographics, laboratory and culture results, type of CP and occurrence of SSI were analyzed.

    RESULTS: Twenty-six and 18 bone flaps were available for analysis during the first and second period, respectively. The proportion of positive bacterial cultures was higher in the first period compared to the second (n ​= ​9(35%) vs 0(0%); p ​= ​0.001), and thus the use of custom made implants was considerably higher in the first study period (p ​= ​0.001). There was no difference in the frequency of post-cranioplasty SSI between the first and second study period (n ​= ​3 (11.5%) vs 1 (4.8%), p ​= ​0.408).

    DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The new method for handling bone flaps resulted in a lower frequency of positive bacterial cultures, without increased frequency of post-cranioplasty SSI, thus demonstrating it is safe to use, allows compliance with the EU-directives, and may reduce unnecessary discarding of bone flaps.

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  • 9.
    Forsberg, Gustaf
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Divanoglou, Anestis
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Levi, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Ekqvist, David
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Niward, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Improved 60-day survival but impaired general health in Swedish ICU-COVID patients: An ambidirectional population-based study2022In: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 66, no 5, p. 569-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Survival among critically ill COVID-19 patients varies between countries and time periods. Mortality rates up to 60% have been reported in intensive care units (ICUs). Standard-of-care has evolved throughout the pandemic. The purpose of the study was to explore management and mortality of COVID-19 ICU-patients during the first pandemic wave and assess their post-ICU health status. Methods We conducted an exploratory observational ambidirectional population-based study of ICU-patients with COVID-19 in a Swedish county during 1 March-30 June 2020. Primary outcome was 60-day mortality with secondary outcomes including treatments, complications, self-reported general health and dyspnoea post-discharge. Patients were consecutively divided into equal tertiles with cut-offs on April 4 and April 20, 2020, to analyse time trends. Results One hundred patients, median age was 63 years, were included, and 60-day mortality rate was 22%. Ninety-one percent had moderate/severe ARDS and 88% required mechanical ventilation. In the first tertile of patients 60-day mortality was 33%, declining to 15% and 18% in the following two. This reduction paralleled increased use of thromboprophylaxis, less steep rise of treated ICU-patients per day and expanded ICU resources. Four months post-discharge, 63% of survivors reported self-assessed decline in general health retrospectively compared to prior COVID-19. Conclusions In this cohort, the initial 60-day mortality quickly declined, despite continuous admittance of critically ill patients. This was parallel to adaptation to increased workload and more intense thromboembolic prophylaxis. A majority of survivors reported declined general health four months after discharge. Further studies on long-term health status of ICU-survivors are indicated.

  • 10.
    Wahlgren, Carl
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Divanoglou, Anestis
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Larsson, Melanie
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Nilsson, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Niward, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Birberg Thornberg, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Gudmundsson, Eva Lilliecreutz
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Levi, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Rehabilitation Medicine.
    Rehabilitation needs following COVID-19: Five-month post-discharge clinical follow-up of individuals with concerning self-reported symptoms2022In: eClinicalMedicine, E-ISSN 2589-5370, Vol. 43, article id 101219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This report describes and objectivizes reported problems among a cohort of previously hospitalized COVID-19 patients by clinical examination and determination of the required level of rehabilitation sevices.

    Methods This report forms part of the Linkoping COVID-19 Study (LinCoS) that induded 745 individuals from one of 21 Swedish healthcare regions, Region Ostergotland (RO), admitted to hospital for COVID-19 during March 1st-May 31st, 2020. In this descriptive ambidirectional cohort study, all 185 individuals who had reported concerning persisting symptoms were invited to a multi-professional dinical assessment of somatic, functional, affective, neuropsychological status and rehabilitation needs. Rehabilitation needs were assessed using three sub-scales of the Rehabilitation Complexity Scale-Extended.

    Findings Among the 158 (85.4%) cases consenting and included in the analysis, we found a broad array of symptoms and signs attributable to COVID-19 involving respiratory, visual, auditory, motor, sensory and cognitive functions that could be confirmed clinically at five months post-discharge. This translated into 16% [95% CI 13-20] of survivors (70/433) of the total regional cohort of hospitalised patients requiring further rehabilitative interventions at follow-up. Weakness in extremities was reported in 28.5% [21.6, 36.2] (45/158). On examination, clinically overt muscle weakness could be corroborated in 15 individuals (10.5%) [6.1, 16.4]. 48% [40, 56] (76/158) reported cognitive symptoms, while the physician noted overt cognitive impairments in only 3% [1.1, 7.5]. In neuropsychological testing, 37% [28-46] (45/122) performed 1.5 SD below the norm, indicating neurocognitive deficits. Fifty-five individuals (34.8%) [27.4, 42.8] reported new or aggravated pain. In three fourths of them, it exerted a moderate or worse detrimental effect on their ability to work.

    Interpretation Our study underscores the importance of providing extensive examination of cases with persisting problems after COVID-19, especially since symptoms such as fatigue and breathlessness are highly nonspecific, but may represent significant underlying functional impairments. Robust neurocognitive testing should be performed, as cognitive problems may easily be overlooked during routine medical consultation. In the Swedish context, most rehabilitative interventions could be provided in a primary care setting. A substantial minority of patients should be triaged to specialized rehabilitation services.

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  • 11.
    Holmbom, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection.
    Möller, Vidar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Kristinsdottir, Lóa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Maud
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rashid, Mamun-Ur
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Forum Östergötland.
    Berglund, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Risk factors and outcome due to extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli in community-onset bloodstream infections: A ten-year cohort study in Sweden2022In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 11, article id e0277054Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To study clinical outcome and risk factors associated with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in community-onset bloodstream infections (CO-BSI). Methods This was a population-based cohort study including patients with pheno- and genotype-matched ESBL-producing E. coli and non-ESBL- E. coli in urine and blood samples collected in 2009-2018 in southeast Sweden. Seventy-seven episodes of ESBL-UPEC satisfying the inclusion criteria were matched 1:1 with 77 non-ESBL-UPEC for age, gender, and year of culture. Results The most common ST-type and ESBL gene was ST131 (55%), and bla(CTX-M-15) (47%), respectively. Risk factors for ESBL-UPEC were: previous genitourinary invasive procedure (RR 4.66; p = 0.005) or history of ESBL-producing E. coli (RR 12.14; p = 0.024). There was significant difference between ESBL-UPEC and non-ESBL-UPEC regarding time to microbiologically appropriate antibiotic therapy (27:15 h vs. 02:14 h; p = &lt;0.001) and hospital days (9 vs. 5; p = &lt;0.001), but no difference in 30-day mortality (3% vs. 3%; p = &gt;0.999) or sepsis within 36 hours (51% vs. 62%; p = 0.623) was observed. Conclusion The predominant risk factors for ESBL-UPEC were history of ESBL-Ec infection and history of genitourinary invasive procedure. The overall mortality was low and the delay in appropriate antibiotic therapy did not increase the risk for 30-day mortality or risk for sepsis within 36 hours among patients infected with ESBL UPEC. However, these results must be regarded with some degree of caution due to the small sample size.

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  • 12.
    Edlund, Charlotta
    et al.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Sweden.
    Ternhag, Anders
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Stahlgren, Gunilla Skoog
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Sweden.
    Edquist, Petra
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Sweden.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Athlin, Simon
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Mansson, Emeli
    Vastmanland Hosp, Sweden; Vastmanland Hosp, Sweden.
    Tempe, Maria
    Sundsvall Harnosand Reg Hosp, Sweden.
    Bergstrom, Jakob
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Sweden.
    Giske, Christian G.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    The clinical and microbiological efficacy of temocillin versus cefotaxime in adults with febrile urinary tract infection, and its effects on the intestinal microbiota: a randomised multicentre clinical trial in Sweden2022In: The Lancet - Infectious diseases, ISSN 1473-3099, E-ISSN 1474-4457, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 390-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Use of third-generation cephalosporins, such as cefotaxime, is associated with an increased risk of selection for antimicrobial resistance, so alternative antibiotics need to be considered. The aim of the present study was to evaluate intestinal colonisation with third-generation cephalosporin-resistant pathogens following use of temocillin-an alternative antibiotic to cefotaxime that is potentially less prone to disturbing the intestinal microbiota-in empirical treatment of febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Methods We did a randomised, multicentre, superiority, open-label phase 4 trial in patients who had been admitted to inpatient care in 12 Swedish hospitals with suspected or diagnosed febrile UTI (complicated or uncomplicated). To meet inclusion criteria, a patient was required to have at least one sign or symptom of pyelonephritis (ie, flank pain; costovertebral angle tenderness; and changes to urinary frequency or urgency or dysuria), a fever of 38.0 degrees C or higher, and a positive urine dipstick (for nitrites, white blood cells, or both). Participants were also required to have an indication for intravenous antibiotic treatment. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either 2 g temocillin or 1-2 g cefotaxime, by local investigators opening consecutive sealed randomisation envelopes that were generated centrally in advance. Both drugs were administered intravenously every 8 h. The trial was open label for investigators and patients, but those doing the microbiological analyses were masked to the groups. Participants were treated with antibiotics for 7-10 days (or up to 14 days if they had bacteraemia), at least 3 days of which were on the study drug; at day 4 and later, participants who were showing improvement could be given an oral antibiotic (ciprofloxacin, ceftibuten, cefixime, or co-trimoxazole). Patients not showing improvement were regarded as having treatment failures. Rectal swabs were collected at three timepoints: at baseline (before the first dose), after the last dose of study drug, and 7-10 days after treatment stopped. The composite primary outcome was colonisation with Enterobacterales with reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins, or colonisation with toxin-producing Clostridioides difficile, or both, to evaluate disturbance of the intestinal microbiota. The study is registered in the EU Clinical Trials Register (EudraCT 2015-003898-15). Findings Between May 20, 2016, and July 31, 2019, 207 patients were screened for eligibility, of whom 55 patients were excluded. 152 participants were randomly assigned to groups: 77 (51%) patients received temocillin, 75 (49%) patients received cefotaxime. The composite primary endpoint was met by 18 (26%) of 68 participants receiving temocillin versus 30 (48%) of 62 patients receiving cefotaxime (risk difference -22% [95% CI -42% to -3%]), showing superiority of temocillin versus cefotaxime (ie, less disturbance of the intestinal microbiota). 43 adverse events were reported in 40 (52%) of 77 patients in the temocillin group, versus 46 adverse events in 34 (45%) of 75 patients in the cefotaxime group. Most events were of mild to moderate severity. 21 (27%) patients in the temocillin and 17 (23%) patients in the cefotaxime group had an adverse event that was considered to be associated with the study drug. Interpretation Temocillin was found to be less selective than cefotaxime of Enterobacterales with reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins, and it could therefore be a favourable alternative in the empirical treatment of febrile UTI. Use of this antibiotic could reduce hospital transmission and health-care-associated infections by these pathogens. Copyright (C) 2021 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Möller, Vidar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Berild, Dag
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gottfredsson, Magnus
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland; Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Holmbom, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Järvinen, Asko
    Helsinki Univ Hosp, Finland; Univ Helsinki, Finland.
    Kristjansson, Mar
    Landspitali Univ Hosp, Iceland; Univ Iceland, Iceland.
    Rydell, Ulf
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sönksen, Ute Wolff
    Statens Serum Inst, Denmark.
    Kolmos, Hans Joern
    Odense Univ Hosp, Denmark.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Antibiotic resistance among major pathogens compared to hospital treatment guidelines and antibiotic use in Nordic hospitals 2010-20182021In: Infectious Diseases, ISSN 2374-4235, E-ISSN 2374-4243, Vol. 53, no 8, p. 607-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The Nordic countries have comparable nationwide antibiotic resistance surveillance systems and individual antibiotic stewardship programmes. The aim of this study was to assess antibiotic resistance among major pathogens in relation to practice guidelines for hospital antibiotic treatment and antibiotic use in Nordic countries 2010-2018. Methods Antibiotic resistance among invasive isolates from 2010-2018 and aggregated antibiotic use were obtained from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Hospital practice guidelines were obtained from national or regional guidelines. Results Antibiotic resistance levels among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were similar in all Nordic countries in 2018 and low compared to the European mean. Guidelines for acute pyelonephritis varied; 2nd generation cephalosporin (Finland), 3rd generation cephalosporins (Sweden, Norway), ampicillin with an aminoglycoside or aminoglycoside monotherapy (Denmark, Iceland and Norway). Corresponding guidelines for sepsis of unknown origin were 2nd (Finland) or 3rd (Sweden, Norway, Iceland) generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, (Sweden) combinations of penicillin with an aminoglycoside (Norway, Denmark), or piperacillin-tazobactam (all Nordic countries). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus rates were 0-2% and empirical treatment with anti-MRSA antibiotics was not recommended in any country. Rates of penicillin non-susceptibility among Streptococcus pneumoniae were low (&lt;10%) except in Finland and Iceland (&lt;15%), but benzylpenicillin was recommended for community-acquired pneumonia in all countries. Conclusion Despite similar resistance rates among Enterobacteriaceae there were differences in practice guidelines for pyelonephritis and sepsis. National surveillance of antibiotic resistance can be used for comparison and optimization of guidelines and stewardship interventions to preserve the low levels of antibiotic resistance in Nordic countries.

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  • 14.
    Fransson, Marcus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Helldén, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Dernroth, Dzeneta
    Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ha, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Haglund, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Milos, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Kågedal, Bertil
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Case Report: Subtherapeutic Vancomycin and Meropenem Concentrations due to Augmented Renal Clearance in a Patient With Intracranial Infection Caused by Streptococcus intermedius2021In: Frontiers in Pharmacology, E-ISSN 1663-9812, Vol. 12, article id 728075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Streptococcus intermedius occasionally causes brain abscesses that can be life-threatening, requiring prompt antibiotic and neurosurgical treatment. The source is often dental, and it may spread to the eye or the brain parenchyma. We report the case of a 34-year-old man with signs of apical periodontitis, endophthalmitis, and multiple brain abscesses caused by Streptococcus intermedius. Initial treatment with meropenem and vancomycin was unsuccessful due to subtherapeutic concentrations, despite recommended dosages. Adequate concentrations could be reached only after increasing the dose of meropenem to 16 g/day and vancomycin to 1.5 g x 4. The patient exhibited high creatinine clearance consistent with augmented renal clearance, although iohexol and cystatin C clearances were normal. Plasma free vancomycin clearance followed that of creatinine. A one-day dose of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole led to an increase in serum creatinine and a decrease in both creatinine and urea clearances. These results indicate that increased tubular secretion of the drugs was the cause of suboptimal antibiotic treatment. The patient eventually recovered, but his left eye needed enucleation. Our case illustrates that augmented renal clearance can jeopardize the treatment of serious bacterial infections and that high doses of antibiotics are needed to achieve therapeutic concentrations in such cases. The mechanisms for regulation of kidney tubular transporters of creatinine, urea, vancomycin, and meropenem in critically ill patients are discussed.

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  • 15.
    Welen, Karin
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Overby, Anna K.
    Umea Univ, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Ahlm, Clas
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Freyhult, Eva
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Robinsson, David
    Dept Urol, Sweden.
    Jonsson Henningsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Region Jonkoping Cty, Sweden.
    Stranne, Johan
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bremell, Daniel
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Angelin, Martin
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Lindquist, Elisabeth
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Buckland, Robert
    Umea Univ, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Camilla Thellenberg
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Pauksens, Karlis
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Sweden.
    Bill-Axelsson, Anna
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Akre, Olof
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Ryden, Cecilia
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Wagenius, Magnus
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Bjartell, Anders
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Anna C.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Styrke, Johan
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Repo, Johanna
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Balkhed Östholm, Åse
    Region Jonkoping Cty, Sweden.
    Niward, Katarina
    Region Jonkoping Cty, Sweden.
    Gisslen, Magnus
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Josefsson, Andreas
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden; Umea Univ, Sweden.
    COVIDENZA - A prospective, multicenter, randomized PHASE II clinical trial of enzalutamide treatment to decrease the morbidity in patients with Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial2021In: Trials, E-ISSN 1745-6215, Vol. 22, no 1, article id 209Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The main goal of the COVIDENZA trial is to evaluate if inhibition of testosterone signalling by enzalutamide can improve the outcome of patients hospitalised for COVID-19. The hypothesis is based on the observation that the majority of patients in need of intensive care are male, and the connection between androgen receptor signalling and expression of TMPRSS2, an enzyme important for SARS-CoV-2 host cell internalization. Trial design: Hospitalised COVID-19 patients will be randomised (2:1) to enzalutamide plus standard of care vs. standard of care designed to identify superiority. Participants: Included participants, men or women above 50 years of age, must be hospitalised for PCR confirmed COVID-19 symptoms and not in need of immediate mechanical ventilation. Major exclusion criteria are breast-feeding or pregnant women, hormonal treatment for prostate or breast cancer, treatment with immunosuppressive drugs, current symptomatic unstable cardiovascular disease (see Additional file 1 for further details). The trial is registered at Umea University Hospital, Region Vasterbotten, Sweden and 8 hospitals are approved for inclusion in Sweden. Intervention and comparator: Patients randomised to the treatment arm will be treated orally with 160 mg (4x40 mg) enzalutamide (Xtandi (R)) daily, for five consecutive days. The study is not placebo controlled. The comparator is standard of care treatment for patients hospitalised with COVID-19. Main outcomes: The primary endpoints of the study are (time to) need of mechanical ventilation or discharge from hospital as assessed by a clinical 7-point ordinal scale (up to 30 days after inclusion). Randomisation: Randomisation was stratified by center and sex. Each strata was randomized separately with block size six with a 2:1 allocation ratio (enzalutamide + "standard of care": "standard of care"). The randomisation list, with consecutive subject numbers, was generated by an independent statistician using the PROC PLAN procedure of SAS version 9.4 software (SAS Institute, Inc, Cary, North Carolina) Blinding (masking): This is an open-label trial. Numbers to be randomised (sample size): The trial is designed to have three phases. The first, an exploration phase of 45 participants (30 treatment and 15 control) will focus on safety and includes a more extensive laboratory assessment as well as more frequent safety evaluation. The second prolongation phase, includes the first 100 participants followed by an interim analysis to define the power of the study. The third phase is the continuation of the study up to maximum 600 participants included in total. Trial Status: The current protocol version is COVIDENZA v2.0 as of September 10, 2020. Recruitment started July 29, 2020 and is presently in safety pause after the first exploration phase. Recruitment is anticipated to be complete by 31 December 2021.

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  • 16.
    Holmbom, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Andersson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Eklund, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Sobczynski, Pernilla
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Wilhelms, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Emergency Medicine in Linköping.
    Moberg, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primary Care Center, Primary Health Care Center Kärna.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Forum Östergötland.
    Balkhed Östholm, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Prehospital delay is an important risk factor for mortality in community-acquired bloodstream infection (CA-BSI): a matched case–control study2021In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 11, no 11, article id e052582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to identify prehospital and early hospital risk factors associated with 30-day mortality in patients with blood culture-confirmed community-acquired bloodstream infection (CA-BSI) in Sweden.

    Methods A retrospective case–control study of 1624 patients with CA-BSI (2015–2016), 195 non-survivors satisfying the inclusion criteria were matched 1:1 with 195 survivors for age, gender and microorganism. All forms of contact with a healthcare provider for symptoms of infection within 7 days prior CA-BSI episode were registered. Logistic regression was used to analyse risk factors for 30-day all-cause mortality.

    Results Of the 390 patients, 61% (115 non-survivors and 121 survivors) sought prehospital contact. The median time from first prehospital contact till hospital admission was 13 hours (6–52) for non-survivors and 7 hours (3–24) for survivors (p&amp;lt;0.01). Several risk factors for 30-day all-cause mortality were identified: prehospital delay OR=1.26 (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.47), p&amp;lt;0.01; severity of illness (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score) OR=1.60 (95% CI: 1.40 to 1.83), p&amp;lt;0.01; comorbidity score (updated Charlson Index) OR=1.13 (95% CI: 1.05 to 1.22), p&amp;lt;0.01 and inadequate empirical antimicrobial therapy OR=3.92 (95% CI: 1.64 to 9.33), p&amp;lt;0.01. In a multivariable model, prehospital delay &amp;gt;24 hours from first contact remained an important risk factor for 30-day all-cause mortality due to CA-BSI OR=6.17 (95% CI: 2.19 to 17.38), p&amp;lt;0.01.

    Conclusion Prehospital delay and inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy were found to be important risk factors for 30-day all-cause mortality associated with CA-BSI. Increased awareness and earlier detection of BSI in prehospital and early hospital care is critical for rapid initiation of adequate management and antibiotic treatment.All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as supplemental information.

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  • 17.
    Holmbom, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Möller, Vidar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Giske, Christian G.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Rashid, Mamun-Ur
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Forum Östergötland.
    Hällgren, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Balkhed Östholm, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Low incidence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in south-east Sweden: An epidemiologic study on 9268 cases of bloodstream infection2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 3, article id e0230501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of bloodstream infections (BSI) in a Swedish setting, with focus on risk factors for BSI-associated mortality. Methods A 9-year (2008-2016) retrospective cohort study from electronic records of episodes of bacteremia amongst hospitalized patients in the county of Ostergotland, Sweden was conducted. Data on episodes of BSI including microorganisms, antibiotic susceptibility, gender, age, hospital admissions, comorbidity, mortality and aggregated antimicrobial consumption (DDD /1,000 inhabitants/day) were collected and analyzed. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was defined as resistance to at least three groups of antibiotics. MDR bacteria and MRSA, ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci not fulfilling the MDR criteria were all defined as antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria and included in the statistical analysis of risk factors for mortality Results In all, 9,268 cases of BSI were found. The overall 30-day all-cause mortality in the group of patients with BSI was 13%. The incidence of BSI and associated 30-day all-cause mortality per 100,000 hospital admissions increased by 66% and 17% respectively during the nine-year study period. The most common species were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Enterococcus faecalis. Independent risk factors for 30-day mortality were age (RR: 1.02 (CI: 1.02-1.03)) and 1, 2 or &gt;= 3 comorbidities RR: 2.06 (CI: 1.68-2.52), 2.79 (CI: 2.27-3.42) and 2.82 (CI: 2.31-3.45) respectively. Almost 3% (n = 245) of all BSIs were caused by AMR bacteria increasing from 12 to 47 per 100,000 hospital admissions 2008-2016 (p = 0.01), but this was not associated with a corresponding increase in mortality risk (RR: 0.89 (CI: 0.81-0.97)). Conclusion Comorbidity was the predominant risk factor for 30-day all-cause mortality associated with BSI in this study. The burden of AMR was low and not associated with increased mortality. Patients with BSIs caused by AMR bacteria (MDR, MRSA, ESBL and VRE) were younger, had fewer comorbidities, and the 30-day all-cause mortality was lower in this group.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Infection and Inflammation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Infection and Inflammation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Holmbom, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Infection and Inflammation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Hällgren, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Infection and Inflammation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Berg, Sören
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology, Infection and Inflammation. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Delay of appropriate antibiotic treatment is associated with high mortality in patients with community-onset sepsis in a Swedish setting2019In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 1223-1234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early appropriate antimicrobial therapy is crucial in patients with sepsis and septic shock. Studies often focus on time to first dose of appropriate antibiotics, but subsequent dosing is equally important. Our aim was to investigate the impact of fulfillment of early treatment, with focus on appropriate administration of first and second doses of antibiotics, on 28-day mortality in patients with community-onset severe sepsis and septic shock. A retrospective study on adult patients admitted to the emergency department with community-onset sepsis and septic shock was conducted 2012-2013. The criterion early appropriate antibiotic treatment was defined as administration of the first dose of adequate antibiotics within 1h, and the second dose given with less than 25% delay after the recommended dose interval. A high-risk patient was defined as a septic patient with either shock within 24h after arrival or red triage level on admittance according to the Medical Emergency Triage and Treatment System Adult. Primary endpoint was 28-day mortality. Of 90 patients, less than one in four (20/87) received early appropriate antibiotic treatment, and only one in three (15/44) of the high-risk patients. The univariate analysis showed a more than threefold higher mortality among high-risk patients not receiving early appropriate antibiotic treatment. Multivariable analysis identified early non-appropriate antibiotic treatment as an independent predictor of mortality with an odds ratio for mortality of 10.4. Despite that the importance of early antibiotic treatment has been established for decades, adherence to this principle was very poor.

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  • 19.
    Balkhed Östholm, Åse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Tärnberg, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Maud
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Hällgren, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Duration of travel-associated faecal colonisation with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae - A one year follow-up study2018In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a previous study, we found that 30% of individuals travelling outside Scandinavia acquired extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in their faecal flora. The aim of this study was to determine the duration of travel-associated faecal colonisation with ESBL-PE, to assess risk factors for prolonged colonisation and to detect changes in antibiotic susceptibility during prolonged colonisation.

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  • 20.
    Holmbom, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Giske, Christian G.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.; Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Claesson, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    14-Year Survey in a Swedish County Reveals a Pronounced Increase in Bloodstream Infections (BSI). Comorbidity: An Independent Risk Factor for Both BSI and Mortality2016In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: we assessed the incidence, risk factors and outcome of BSI over a 14-year period (2000-2013) in a Swedish county.

    Methods: retrospective cohort study on culture confirmed BSI among patients in the county of Östergötland, Sweden, with approximately 440,000 inhabitants. A BSI was defined as either community-onset BSI (CO-BSI) or hospital-acquired BSI (HA-BSI).

    Results: of a total of 11,480 BSIs, 67% were CO-BSI and 33% HA-BSI. The incidence of BSI increased by 64% from 945 to 1,546 per 100,000 hospital admissions per year during the study period. The most prominent increase, 83% was observed within the CO-BSI cohort whilst HA-BSI increased by 32%. Prescriptions of antibiotics in outpatient care decreased with 24% from 422 to 322 prescriptions dispensed/1,000 inhabitants/year, whereas antibiotics prescribed in hospital increased by 67% (from 424 to 709 DDD per 1,000 days of care). The overall 30-day mortality for HA-BSIs was 17.2%, compared to 10.6% for CO-BSIs, with an average yearly increase per 100,000 hospital admissions of 2 and 5% respectively. The proportion of patients with one or more comorbidities, increased from 20.8 to 55.3%. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for mortality within 30 days were: HA-BSI (2.22); two or more comorbidities (1.89); single comorbidity (1.56); CO-BSI (1.21); male (1.05); and high age (1.04).

    Conclusion: this survey revealed an alarming increase in the incidence of BSI over the 14-year study period. Interventions to decrease BSI in general should be considered together with robust antibiotic stewardship programmes to avoid both over- and underuse of antibiotics.

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  • 21. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Antibiotic consumption, Detection and Resistance Epidemiology2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae are emerging worldwide and they are frequently multi-drug resistant, thus limiting treatment options for infections caused by these pathogens.

    The overall aim of the thesis was to investigate ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a Swedish county.

    First, we developed a molecular method, a multiplex PCR assay for identification of SHV, TEM and CTX-M genes in clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae with an ESBL phenotype.

    From 2002 until the end of 2007 all isolates of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in Östergötland, Sweden were further investigated. The prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae was low, <1%, but increasing,while the antibiotic consumption remained unchanged. CTX-M enzymes, particularly CTX-M group 1, dominate in our region as well as in the rest of Europe.

    Furthermore, we have investigated antimicrobial susceptibility by performing MIC-testing in a large, well-characterized population of CTX-M-producing E. coli. Only three oral antimicrobial agents (fosfomycin, nitrofurantoin and mecillinam) demonstrated susceptibility above 90%. High susceptibility, >90%, was also demonstrated for carbapenems, colistin, tigecycline and amikacin. Sixty-eight per cent of ESBL-producing E. coli was multi-resistant, and the most common multi-resistance pattern was the ESBL phenotype with decreased susceptibility to trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and tobramycin. Isolates belonging to CTX-M group 9 are generally more susceptible to antibiotics than the CTX-M group 1-producing E. coli.

    Finally, a prospective multicentre case-control study examined the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in faecal samples before and after travel abroad and the risk factors of acquisition. Sixty-eight of 226 travellers (30%) had ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the faecal flora. The geographical area visited had the highest impact on acquisition, with highest the risk for travellers visiting the Indian subcontinent, followed by Asia and Africa north of the equator. Also, acquisition of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae during travel is associated with abdominal symptoms such as diarrhoea. Age also seemed to affect the risk of acquiring ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, the highest risks were found among travellers ≥ 65 years.

    This thesis has contributed to increased understanding of the epidemiology of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and their susceptibility to both beta-lactam and non-beta-lactam agents.

    List of papers
    1. Multiplex PCR amplification assay for the detection of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiplex PCR amplification assay for the detection of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae
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    2007 (English)In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 115, no 12, p. 1400-1408Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are often mediated by bla-SHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-negative bacteria. Numerous molecular typing methods, including PCR-based assays, have been developed for their identification. To reduce the number of PCR amplifications needed we have developed a multiplex PCR assay which detects and discriminates between bla-SHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M PCR amplicons of 747, 445 and 593 bp, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay allowed the identification of bla-SHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in a series of clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae with previously characterised ESBL phenotype. The presence of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes was confirmed by partial DNA sequence analysis. Apparently, the universal well-established CTX-M primer pair used here to reveal plasmid-encoded blaCTX-M genes would also amplify the chromosomally located K-1 enzyme gene in all Klebsiella oxytoca strains included in the study.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-41186 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0463.2007.00722.x (DOI)55314 (Local ID)55314 (Archive number)55314 (OAI)
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2024-01-10
    2. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and trends in antibiotic consumption in a county of Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and trends in antibiotic consumption in a county of Sweden
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    2010 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 42, no 11-12, p. 831-838Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have become an increasing problem. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and trends in antibiotic use in the county of Ostergotland, Sweden. From 2002 through 2007 there were 224 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and 23 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with an ESBL-phenotype identified among all Enterobacteriaceae isolated at the clinical laboratory. Trends in antibiotic consumption expressed as defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants and day (DID) were studied. The prevalence of ESBL-producing isolates among Enterobacteriaceae in our region is still low (andlt; 1%). Patients with ESBL-producing E. coli increased significantly (p andlt; 0.001) from 5 in y 2002 to 47 in y 2007. CTX-M group 1 was the dominant enzyme group in both E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole revealed that 58% of E. coli and 50% of K. pneumoniae isolates were multi-resistant. Antibiotic use remained unchanged from 2001 through 2009, but there was a trend towards increased use of drugs with low ESBL selection potential, which was probably due to the increased prevalence of ESBL producers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Informa Healthcare, 2010
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63145 (URN)10.3109/00365548.2010.498017 (DOI)000284168300006 ()
    Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
    3. In vitro activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vitro activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli
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    2011 (English)In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 981-987Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Beta-lactam antibiotics have been discussed as options for the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria if the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is low. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of different beta-lactam antibiotics against CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli. A total of 198 isolates of E. coli with the ESBL phenotype were studied. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of CTX-M genes and amplicon sequencing were performed. The MICs for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ertapenem, imipenem, mecillinam, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and temocillin were determined with the Etest. Susceptibility was defined according to the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were calculated. Isolates from CTX-M group 9 showed higher susceptibility to the beta-lactam antibiotics tested than isolates belonging to CTX-M group 1. More than 90% of the isolates belonging to CTX-M group 9 were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, piperacillin-tazobactam, and temocillin. The susceptibility was high to mecillinam, being 91%, regardless of the CTX-M group. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem, and 99% to ertapenem. This study shows significant differences in susceptibility to different beta-lactam antibiotics among the CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates and a significant difference for many antibiotics tested between the CTX-M-producing groups 1 and 9. The good in vitro activity of other beta-lactam antibiotics compared to carbapenems indicate that clinical studies are warranted in order to examine the potential role of these beta-lactam antibiotics in the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant ESBL-producing E. coli.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Science Business Media, 2011
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69787 (URN)10.1007/s10096-011-1183-4 (DOI)000292553500008 ()
    Available from: 2011-08-10 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
    4. High frequency of co-resistance in CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli to non-beta-lactam antibiotics, with the exception of amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, in a county of Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>High frequency of co-resistance in CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli to non-beta-lactam antibiotics, with the exception of amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, in a county of Sweden
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    2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of different antibiotics against CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in a county of Sweden, and to determine the occurrence of multi-resistance and plasmid- mediated quinolone resistance among these isolates. Methods: A total of 198 isolates of E. coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and mainly CTX-M genotype were studied. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for amikacin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, colistin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were determined with the Etest. Susceptibility was defined according to the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were calculated. Results: Ninety-five percent or more of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin. CTX-M group 9 was more susceptible than CTX-M group 1 to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Sixty-eight percent of the isolates were multi-resistant, and the most common multi-resistance pattern was ESBL phenotype with decreased susceptibility to trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Only 1 isolate carried a qnrS1 gene, but 37% carried aac(6')-Ib-cr. Conclusions: A high frequency of co-resistance between ESBL-producing E. coli and non-beta-lactam antibiotics was seen. On the other hand, very high susceptibility was seen for amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin. These data support the replacement of gentamicin and tobramycin, normally used in Sweden, with amikacin, for severe infections.

    Keywords
    Etest, minimum inhibitory concentration, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87612 (URN)10.3109/00365548.2012.734636 (DOI)000316693600005 ()23113731 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2013-01-19 Created: 2013-01-19 Last updated: 2024-01-10
    5. Travel-associated faecal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: incidence and risk factors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Travel-associated faecal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: incidence and risk factors
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 2144-2153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To study the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among the faecal flora during travel, with a focus on risk factors, antibiotic susceptibility and ESBL-encoding genes.

    Methods An observational prospective multicentre cohort study of individuals attending vaccination clinics in south-east Sweden was performed, in which the submission of faecal samples and questionnaires before and after travelling outside Scandinavia was requested. Faecal samples were screened for ESBL-PE by culturing on ChromID ESBL and an in-house method. ESBL-PE was confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Susceptibility testing was performed with the Etest. Individuals who acquired ESBL-PE during travel (travel-associated carriers) were compared with non-carriers regarding risk factors, and unadjusted and adjusted ORs after manual stepwise elimination were calculated using logistic regression.

    Results Of 262 enrolled individuals, 2.4% were colonized before travel. Among 226 evaluable participants, ESBL-PE was detected in the post-travel samples from 68 (30%) travellers. The most important risk factor in the final model was the geographic area visited: Indian subcontinent (OR 24.8, P < 0.001), Asia (OR 8.63, P < 0.001) and Africa north of the equator (OR 4.94, P  = 0.002). Age and gastrointestinal symptoms also affected the risk significantly. Multiresistance was seen in 77 (66%) of the ESBL-PE isolates, predominantly a combination of reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycosides. The most common species and ESBL-encoding gene were Escherichia coli (90%) and CTX-M (73%), respectively.

    Conclusion Acquisition of multiresistant ESBL-PE among the faecal flora during international travel is common. The geographical area visited has the highest impact on ESBL-PE acquisition.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Oxford University Press, 2013
    Keywords
    travel medicine, CTX-M, antibiotic resistance
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-97437 (URN)10.1093/jac/dkt167 (DOI)000323424100029 ()23674762 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden|FORSS-12368FORSS-36511FORSS-87551|ALF grants, Ostergotland County Council|LIO-10885LIO-16741LIO-61341LIO-127281|

    Available from: 2013-09-12 Created: 2013-09-12 Last updated: 2024-01-10Bibliographically approved
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    Extended-Spectrum ß-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae: Antibiotic consumption, Detection and Resistance Epidemiology
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    omslag
  • 22.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Tärnberg, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Monstein, Hans-Jürg
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hällgren, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Nilsson, Lennart E.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    High frequency of co-resistance in CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli to non-beta-lactam antibiotics, with the exception of amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, in a county of Sweden2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 271-278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of different antibiotics against CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli in a county of Sweden, and to determine the occurrence of multi-resistance and plasmid- mediated quinolone resistance among these isolates. Methods: A total of 198 isolates of E. coli with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) phenotype and mainly CTX-M genotype were studied. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for amikacin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, colistin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, tobramycin, trimethoprim, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were determined with the Etest. Susceptibility was defined according to the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were calculated. Results: Ninety-five percent or more of the isolates were susceptible to amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin. CTX-M group 9 was more susceptible than CTX-M group 1 to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Sixty-eight percent of the isolates were multi-resistant, and the most common multi-resistance pattern was ESBL phenotype with decreased susceptibility to trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. Only 1 isolate carried a qnrS1 gene, but 37% carried aac(6')-Ib-cr. Conclusions: A high frequency of co-resistance between ESBL-producing E. coli and non-beta-lactam antibiotics was seen. On the other hand, very high susceptibility was seen for amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecycline, and fosfomycin. These data support the replacement of gentamicin and tobramycin, normally used in Sweden, with amikacin, for severe infections.

  • 23.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Tärnberg, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Maud
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart E.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Hällgren, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Travel-associated faecal colonization with ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae: incidence and risk factors2013In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 68, no 9, p. 2144-2153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To study the acquisition of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) among the faecal flora during travel, with a focus on risk factors, antibiotic susceptibility and ESBL-encoding genes.

    Methods An observational prospective multicentre cohort study of individuals attending vaccination clinics in south-east Sweden was performed, in which the submission of faecal samples and questionnaires before and after travelling outside Scandinavia was requested. Faecal samples were screened for ESBL-PE by culturing on ChromID ESBL and an in-house method. ESBL-PE was confirmed by phenotypic and genotypic methods. Susceptibility testing was performed with the Etest. Individuals who acquired ESBL-PE during travel (travel-associated carriers) were compared with non-carriers regarding risk factors, and unadjusted and adjusted ORs after manual stepwise elimination were calculated using logistic regression.

    Results Of 262 enrolled individuals, 2.4% were colonized before travel. Among 226 evaluable participants, ESBL-PE was detected in the post-travel samples from 68 (30%) travellers. The most important risk factor in the final model was the geographic area visited: Indian subcontinent (OR 24.8, P < 0.001), Asia (OR 8.63, P < 0.001) and Africa north of the equator (OR 4.94, P  = 0.002). Age and gastrointestinal symptoms also affected the risk significantly. Multiresistance was seen in 77 (66%) of the ESBL-PE isolates, predominantly a combination of reduced susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and aminoglycosides. The most common species and ESBL-encoding gene were Escherichia coli (90%) and CTX-M (73%), respectively.

    Conclusion Acquisition of multiresistant ESBL-PE among the faecal flora during international travel is common. The geographical area visited has the highest impact on ESBL-PE acquisition.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Tärnberg, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Monstein, Hans-Jurg
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hällgren, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    In vitro activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli2011In: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0934-9723, E-ISSN 1435-4373, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 981-987Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beta-lactam antibiotics have been discussed as options for the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria if the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) is low. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of different beta-lactam antibiotics against CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli. A total of 198 isolates of E. coli with the ESBL phenotype were studied. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of CTX-M genes and amplicon sequencing were performed. The MICs for amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, aztreonam, cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, ertapenem, imipenem, mecillinam, meropenem, piperacillin-tazobactam, and temocillin were determined with the Etest. Susceptibility was defined according to the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were calculated. Isolates from CTX-M group 9 showed higher susceptibility to the beta-lactam antibiotics tested than isolates belonging to CTX-M group 1. More than 90% of the isolates belonging to CTX-M group 9 were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, ceftibuten, piperacillin-tazobactam, and temocillin. The susceptibility was high to mecillinam, being 91%, regardless of the CTX-M group. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem and meropenem, and 99% to ertapenem. This study shows significant differences in susceptibility to different beta-lactam antibiotics among the CTX-M-producing E. coli isolates and a significant difference for many antibiotics tested between the CTX-M-producing groups 1 and 9. The good in vitro activity of other beta-lactam antibiotics compared to carbapenems indicate that clinical studies are warranted in order to examine the potential role of these beta-lactam antibiotics in the treatment of infections caused by multiresistant ESBL-producing E. coli.

  • 25.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Tärnberg, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Maud
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johansson, Anita
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Monstein, Hans-Jurg
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Molecular Biological Techniques.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and trends in antibiotic consumption in a county of Sweden2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 0036-5548, E-ISSN 1651-1980, Vol. 42, no 11-12, p. 831-838Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last decade extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria have become an increasing problem. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and trends in antibiotic use in the county of Ostergotland, Sweden. From 2002 through 2007 there were 224 ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and 23 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates with an ESBL-phenotype identified among all Enterobacteriaceae isolated at the clinical laboratory. Trends in antibiotic consumption expressed as defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 inhabitants and day (DID) were studied. The prevalence of ESBL-producing isolates among Enterobacteriaceae in our region is still low (andlt; 1%). Patients with ESBL-producing E. coli increased significantly (p andlt; 0.001) from 5 in y 2002 to 47 in y 2007. CTX-M group 1 was the dominant enzyme group in both E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing of ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole revealed that 58% of E. coli and 50% of K. pneumoniae isolates were multi-resistant. Antibiotic use remained unchanged from 2001 through 2009, but there was a trend towards increased use of drugs with low ESBL selection potential, which was probably due to the increased prevalence of ESBL producers.

  • 26.
    Monstein, Hans-Jurg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, Division of cell biology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Laboratory Medicine, Department of Molecular Biological Techniques.
    Balkhed Östholm, Åse
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Nilsson, MV
    Nilsson, M
    Dornbusch, Kathrine
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology.
    Nilsson, Lennart
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Clinical Microbiology.
    Multiplex PCR amplification assay for the detection of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae2007In: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavica (APMIS), ISSN 0903-4641, E-ISSN 1600-0463, Vol. 115, no 12, p. 1400-1408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are often mediated by bla-SHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in Enterobacteriaceae and other Gram-negative bacteria. Numerous molecular typing methods, including PCR-based assays, have been developed for their identification. To reduce the number of PCR amplifications needed we have developed a multiplex PCR assay which detects and discriminates between bla-SHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M PCR amplicons of 747, 445 and 593 bp, respectively. This multiplex PCR assay allowed the identification of bla-SHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes in a series of clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae with previously characterised ESBL phenotype. The presence of blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M genes was confirmed by partial DNA sequence analysis. Apparently, the universal well-established CTX-M primer pair used here to reveal plasmid-encoded blaCTX-M genes would also amplify the chromosomally located K-1 enzyme gene in all Klebsiella oxytoca strains included in the study.

  • 27.
    Kågedal, Bertil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Helldén, Anders
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nezirevic Dernroth, Dzeneta
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Clinical Chemistry and Pharmacology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Andersen, Anders
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Växjö County Hospital, Swede.
    Ekman, Andreas
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Haglund, Mats
    Department of Infectious Diseases, Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Kataria, Bharti
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Oskarsson, Frida
    Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, Växjö County Hospital, Sweden.
    Tobieson, Lovisa
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Neurosurgery.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Inflammation and Infection. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Determination of glomerular filtration rate, a spin off aftercontrast-enhanced computed tomography among criticallyill patients − proof of conceptManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Recently, Gong et al. (Gong et al. 2022) showed, in nine heathy subjects, that plasma clearance of high doses of iohexol given as contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) could be used for determination of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We utilized high doses of iohexol from angiographic or other contrast enhanced CT given to critical ill patients for calculation of GFRiohexol and compared these data with standard low dose iohexol GFR determinations.

    Method Patients at intensive care units (ICUs) in Southeast Sweden intended for radiographic investigations that included injection of 45-120 ml of iohexol (Omnipaque) were included, and the concentration of iohexol in plasma was measured by HPLC. Iohexol clearance was calculated by the method of Bröchner-Mortensen. The following days was iohexol clearance determined using the standard low dose of 5 mL of iohexol. Sixteen patients admitted to ICUs were included in this pilot study.

    Results GFR after high dosing of iohexol at contrast enhanced CT could be measured for all sixteen critically ill patients. Patients with normal or increased renal function had neglectable iohexol concentrations the day following the CT scan. There was excellent correlation between GFR determination with high and standard low iohexol dosing among these 6 patients. Ten patients had decreased renal function and delayed elimination of iohexol, thus was not GFR measurement with low dose iohexol possible to analyse the day after CT scan with high dose iohexol.

    Conclusion This pilot study showed that GFR can be measured after high doses of iohexol at enhanced CT and compare well with the standard low dose of iohexol clearance determinations.

  • 28.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Tärnberg, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Monstein, Hans-Jurg
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Microbiology.
    Hällgren, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Infectious Diseases. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Heart and Medicine Centre, Department of Infectious Diseases in Östergötland.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Clinical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    In vitro susceptibility of CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli to non-beta-lactam agentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro activity of different antibiotics against CTX-M-producing Escherichia coli, to determine the occurrence of multiresistance and plasmid mediated quinolone resistance among these isolates.

    Methods: A total of 198 isolates of E. coli with ESBL phenotype and mainly CTX-M genotype, were studied. The MICs for amikacin, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, colistin, fosfomycin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, tigecycline, tobramycin, trimethoprim and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole were determined with the Etest. Susceptibility was defined according to the breakpoints of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). MIC(50) and MIC(90) values were calculated.

    Results: ≥95% of isolates were susceptible to amikacin, nitrofurantoin, colistin, tigecyclin, and fosfomycin. CTX-M group 9 was more susceptible than CTX-M group 1 to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and tobramycin. 68% of the isolates were multiresistant, and the most common multi-resistance pattern was ESBL-phenotype with decreased susceptibility to trimethoprim, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and  tobramycin. Only one isolate carried a qnrS1-gene, nine isolates carried aac(6’)-Ib-cr.

    Conclusions: The high frequency of multi-resistance found in this study is alarming and it is urgent to find strategies to limit the emergence and spread of these multi-resistant strains.

1 - 28 of 28
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