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  • 1.
    Lövfors, William
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Orebro Univ, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Rasmus
    Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Mika
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Bioinformatics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olofsson, Charlotta S.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Orebro Univ, Sweden; Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Nyman, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A comprehensive mechanistic model of adipocyte signaling with layers of confidence2023In: NPJ SYSTEMS BIOLOGY AND APPLICATIONS, ISSN 2056-7189, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adipocyte signaling, normally and in type 2 diabetes, is far from fully understood. We have earlier developed detailed dynamic mathematical models for several well-studied, partially overlapping, signaling pathways in adipocytes. Still, these models only cover a fraction of the total cellular response. For a broader coverage of the response, large-scale phosphoproteomic data and systems level knowledge on protein interactions are key. However, methods to combine detailed dynamic models with large-scale data, using information about the confidence of included interactions, are lacking. We have developed a method to first establish a core model by connecting existing models of adipocyte cellular signaling for: (1) lipolysis and fatty acid release, (2) glucose uptake, and (3) the release of adiponectin. Next, we use publicly available phosphoproteome data for the insulin response in adipocytes together with prior knowledge on protein interactions, to identify phosphosites downstream of the core model. In a parallel pairwise approach with low computation time, we test whether identified phosphosites can be added to the model. We iteratively collect accepted additions into layers and continue the search for phosphosites downstream of these added layers. For the first 30 layers with the highest confidence (311 added phosphosites), the model predicts independent data well (70-90% correct), and the predictive capability gradually decreases when we add layers of decreasing confidence. In total, 57 layers (3059 phosphosites) can be added to the model with predictive ability kept. Finally, our large-scale, layered model enables dynamic simulations of systems-wide alterations in adipocytes in type 2 diabetes.

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  • 2.
    Lövfors, William
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jönsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Olofsson, Charlotta S.
    Department of Physiology/Metabolic Physiology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg.
    Nyman, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    A comprehensive mechanistic model of adipocyte signaling with layers of confidence2022Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Adipocyte cellular signaling, normally and in type 2 diabetes, is far from fully studied. We have earlier developed detailed dynamic mathematical models for some well-studied, and partially overlapping, signaling pathways in adipocytes. Still, these models only cover a fraction of the total cellular response. For a broader coverage of the response, large-scale phosphoproteomic data is key. There exists such data for the insulin response of adipocytes, as well as prior knowledge on possible protein-protein interactions associated with a confidence level. However, methods to combine detailed dynamic models with large-scale data, using information about the confidence of included interactions, are lacking. In our new method, we first establish a core model by connecting our partially overlapping models of adipocyte cellular signaling with focus on: 1) lipolysis and fatty acid release, 2) glucose uptake, and 3) the release of adiponectin. We use the phosphoproteome data and prior knowledge to identify phosphosites adjacent to the core model, and then try to add the adjacent phosphosites to the model. The additions of the adjacent phosphosites is tested in a parallel, pairwise approach with low computation time. We then iteratively collect the accepted additions into a layer, and use the newly added layer to find new adjacent phosphosites. We find that the first 15 layers (60 added phosphosites) with the highest confidence can correctly predict independent inhibitor-data (70-90 % correct), and that this ability decrease when we add layers of decreasing confidence. In total, 60 layers (3926 phosphosites) can be added to the model and still keep predictive ability. Finally, we use the comprehensive adipocyte model to simulate systems-wide alterations in adipocytes in type 2 diabetes. This new method provide a tool to create large models that keeps track of varying confidence.Competing Interest StatementThe authors have declared no competing interest.

  • 3.
    Lövfors, William
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ekström, Jona
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jönsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Cedersund, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Nyman, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A systems biology analysis of lipolysis and fatty acid release from adipocytes in vitro and from adipose tissue in vivo2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 12, article id e0261681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lipolysis and the release of fatty acids to supply energy fuel to other organs, such as between meals, during exercise, and starvation, are fundamental functions of the adipose tissue. The intracellular lipolytic pathway in adipocytes is activated by adrenaline and noradrenaline, and inhibited by insulin. Circulating fatty acids are elevated in type 2 diabetic individuals. The mechanisms behind this elevation are not fully known, and to increase the knowledge a link between the systemic circulation and intracellular lipolysis is key. However, data on lipolysis and knowledge from in vitro systems have not been linked to corresponding in vivo data and knowledge in vivo. Here, we use mathematical modelling to provide such a link. We examine mechanisms of insulin action by combining in vivo and in vitro data into an integrated mathematical model that can explain all data. Furthermore, the model can describe independent data not used for training the model. We show the usefulness of the model by simulating new and more challenging experimental setups in silico, e.g. the extracellular concentration of fatty acids during an insulin clamp, and the difference in such simulations between individuals with and without type 2 diabetes. Our work provides a new platform for model-based analysis of adipose tissue lipolysis, under both non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic conditions.

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  • 4.
    Jönsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Castor Batista, Ana Paula
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Kjölhede, Preben
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Insulin and beta-adrenergic receptors mediate lipolytic and anti-lipolytic signalling that is not altered by type 2 diabetes in human adipocytes2019In: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 476, p. 2883-2908Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Control of fatty acid storage and release in adipose tissue is fundamental in energy homeostasis and the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. We here take the whole signalling network into account to identify how insulin and beta-adrenergic stimulation in concert controls lipolysis in mature subcutaneous adipocytes obtained from non-diabetic and, in parallel, type 2 diabetic women. We report that, and show how, the anti-lipolytic effect of insulin can be fully explained by protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)-dependent activation of the phosphodiesterase PDE3B. Through the same PKB-dependent pathway beta-adrenergic receptor signalling, via cAMP and PI3K alpha, is anti-lipolytic and inhibits its own stimulation of lipolysis by 50%. Through this pathway both insulin and beta-adrenergic signalling control phosphorylation of FOXO1. The dose-response of lipolysis is bell-shaped, such that insulin is anti-lipolytic at low concentrations, but at higher concentrations of insulin lipolysis was increasingly restored due to inhibition of PDE3B. The control of lipolysis was not altered in adipocytes from diabetic individuals. However, the release of fatty acids was increased by 50% in diabetes due to reduced reesterification of lipolytically liberated fatty acids. In conclusion, our results reveal mechanisms of control by insulin and beta-adrenergic stimulation - in human adipocytes - that define a network of checks and balances ensuring robust control to secure uninterrupted supply of fatty acids without reaching concentrations that put cellular integrity at risk. Moreover, our results define how selective insulin resistance leave lipolytic control by insulin unaltered in diabetes, while the fatty acid release is substantially increased.

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  • 5. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Karlsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Insulin Signalling in Human Adipocytes and its Interplay with beta-Adrenergic Control of Lipolysis2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    The prevalence of obesity has over the last 40 years nearly tripled and obesity is one of the major risk factors of developing type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes was formerly called adultonset diabetes but today, probably due to the rise in childhood obesity, it is also seen in children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes is diagnosed when the body no longer can control the glucose levels in the blood. This is due to an insulin resistant state in the insulin responding tissues, liver, adipose and muscle and insufficient production of insulin in the pancreas. However, in spite of extensive research the mechanisms behind insulin resistance is still not known.

    The adipose tissue is believed to play a major role in the development of whole body insulin resistance. Adipocytes are the most important sites for storage of the high energy containing triacylglycerols. Insulin stimulation causes the adipocyte to increase the uptake of glucose and to reduce lipolysis: the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol and release of glycerol and fatty acids. The insulin signalling network is complex with numerous proteins involved. These signaling proteins not only transmit the insulin signal but also create negative and positive feedbackloops and induce cross talk between different parts of the network and with the signalling of other hormones. One important positive feedback in insulin signalling is the mTORC1 mediated feedback to phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307. In paper I we found that in human adipocytes this feedback is not likely catalysed by the assumed kinase S6K1. However we find an immunoprecipitate of mTOR to contain a ser307 phosphorylating kinase.

    Scaffolding proteins serve as docking sites for several proteins to promote protein-protein interactions that facilitate signal transduction. In paper II we demonstrate the existence of the scaffolding protein IQGAP1 in human adipocytes and that the expression of IQGAP1 is downregulated in type 2 diabetes. We reveal that IQGAP1 co-localises with caveolae, invaginations of the plasma membrane where the insulin receptor is situated, and that this interaction is increased upon insulin stimulation.

    In paper III we focus on the control of lipolysis, and sought to understand the interplay between insulin and beta-adrenergic stimulation. We demonstrated that the re-esterification of fatty acids is downregulated in type 2 diabetes causing an increased release of fatty acids from the cells. We showed that beta-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol induced a negative feedback via PKA/Epac1 -> PI3K -> PKB -> PDE3B that reduced the cAMP levels and thereby also reduced lipolysis. We also showed that insulin, in addition to its well-known anti-lipolytic effect, at high concentrations had a positive effect on lipolysis. In conclusion we reveal an intricate control of the stimulation as well as the inhibition of lipolysis induced by both isoproterenol and insulin.

    List of papers
    1. Phosphorylation of IRS1 at Serine 307 in Response to Insulin in Human Adipocytes Is Not Likely to be Catalyzed by p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorylation of IRS1 at Serine 307 in Response to Insulin in Human Adipocytes Is Not Likely to be Catalyzed by p70 Ribosomal S6 Kinase
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    2013 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) is phosphorylated on serine 307 (human sequence, corresponding to murine serine 302) in response to insulin as part of a feedback loop that controls IRS1 phosphorylation on tyrosine residues by the insulin receptor. This in turn directly affects downstream signaling and is in human adipocytes implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The phosphorylation is inhibited by rapamycin, a specific inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in complex with raptor (mTORC1). The mTORC1-downstream p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6K1), which is activated by insulin, can phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in vitro and is considered the physiological protein kinase. Because the IRS1 serine 307-kinase catalyzes a critical step in the control of insulin signaling and constitutes a potential target for treatment of insulin resistance, it is important to know whether S6K1 is the physiological serine 307-kinase or not. We report that, by several criteria, S6K1 does not phosphorylate IRS1 at serine 307 in response to insulin in intact human primary adipocytes: (i) The time-courses for phosphorylation of S6K1 and its phosphorylation of S6 are not compatible with the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (ii) A dominant-negative construct of S6K1 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on the phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307; (iii) The specific inhibitor of S6K1 PF-4708671 inhibits the phosphorylation of S6, without effect on phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307. mTOR-immunoprecipitates from insulin-stimulated adipocytes contains an unidentified protein kinase specific for phosphorylation of IRS1 at serine 307, but it is not mTOR or S6K1.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2013
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93257 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0059725 (DOI)000317717300032 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Diabetes Fund||Novo Nordic Foundation||University of Linkoping||Swedish Research Council||

    Available from: 2013-05-28 Created: 2013-05-28 Last updated: 2023-03-13
    2. Scaffolding protein IQGAP1: an insulin-dependent link between caveolae and the cytoskeleton in primary human adipocytes?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Scaffolding protein IQGAP1: an insulin-dependent link between caveolae and the cytoskeleton in primary human adipocytes?
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    2016 (English)In: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 473, no 19, p. 3177-3188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitously expressed IQ motif-containing GTPase activating protein-1 (IQGAP1) is a scaffolding protein implicated in an array of cellular functions, in particular by binding to cytoskeletal elements and signaling proteins. A role of IQGAP1 in adipocytes has not been reported. We therefore investigated the cellular IQGAP1 interactome in primary human adipocytes. Immunoprecipitation and quantitative mass spectrometry identified caveolae and caveolae-associated proteins as the major IQGAP1 interactors alongside cytoskeletal proteins. We confirmed co-localization of IQGAP1 with the defining caveolar marker protein caveolin-1 by confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assay. Most interestingly, insulin enhanced the number of IQGAP1 interactions with caveolin-1 by five-fold. Moreover, we found a significantly reduced abundance of IQGAP1 in adipocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes compared with cells from nondiabetic control subjects. Both the abundance of IQGAP1 protein and mRNA were reduced, indicating a transcriptional defect in diabetes. Our findings suggest a novel role of IQGAP1 in insulin-regulated interaction between caveolae and cytoskeletal elements of the adipocyte, and that this is quelled in the diabetic state.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Portland Press, 2016
    National Category
    Cell Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131958 (URN)10.1042/BCJ20160581 (DOI)000393755500017 ()27458251 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: University of Linkoping; 3-year program at the Swedish Diabetes Fund; 5-year program at the Swedish Research Council

    Available from: 2016-10-12 Created: 2016-10-12 Last updated: 2023-10-12Bibliographically approved
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    Insulin Signalling in Human Adipocytes and its Interplay with beta-Adrenergic Control of Lipolysis
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  • 6.
    Jufvas, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Rajan, Meenu Rohini
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Strålfors, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Turkina, Maria V
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Scaffolding protein IQGAP1: an insulin-dependent link between caveolae and the cytoskeleton in primary human adipocytes?2016In: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 473, no 19, p. 3177-3188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ubiquitously expressed IQ motif-containing GTPase activating protein-1 (IQGAP1) is a scaffolding protein implicated in an array of cellular functions, in particular by binding to cytoskeletal elements and signaling proteins. A role of IQGAP1 in adipocytes has not been reported. We therefore investigated the cellular IQGAP1 interactome in primary human adipocytes. Immunoprecipitation and quantitative mass spectrometry identified caveolae and caveolae-associated proteins as the major IQGAP1 interactors alongside cytoskeletal proteins. We confirmed co-localization of IQGAP1 with the defining caveolar marker protein caveolin-1 by confocal microscopy and proximity ligation assay. Most interestingly, insulin enhanced the number of IQGAP1 interactions with caveolin-1 by five-fold. Moreover, we found a significantly reduced abundance of IQGAP1 in adipocytes from patients with type 2 diabetes compared with cells from nondiabetic control subjects. Both the abundance of IQGAP1 protein and mRNA were reduced, indicating a transcriptional defect in diabetes. Our findings suggest a novel role of IQGAP1 in insulin-regulated interaction between caveolae and cytoskeletal elements of the adipocyte, and that this is quelled in the diabetic state.

  • 7.
    Strid, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Zhang, Jie
    University of California.
    Qian, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sigvardsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammarström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fetal hepatic expression of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein is confined to colonizing hematopoietic cells2009In: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications - BBRC, ISSN 0006-291X, E-ISSN 1090-2104, Vol. 383, no 3, p. 336-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Leukotriene C-4 is a potent inflammatory mediator formed from arachidonic acid and glutathione. 5-Lipoxygenase (540), 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) and leukotriene C-4 synthase (LTC4S) participate in its biosynthesis. We report evidence from in situ hybridization experiments that FLAP mRNA is abundantly expressed in fetal mouse liver from e11.5 until delivery. In contrast very little or no FLAP mRNA was detected in adult liver. The fetal expression in liver was not uniform but occurred in patches. Cells from e15.5 livers were fractionated by fluorescence activated cell sorting into hepatocytes and other CD45(-) cells and CD45(+) hematopoietic cells. The latter were further separated into immature (Lin(-)) and mature (Lin(+)) cells and analyzed for FLAP mRNA content by quantitative RT-PCR. FLAP mRNA expression was confined to CD45(+) cells and the mature cells had approximately 4-fold higher FLAP mRNA levels compared to the immature cells.

  • 8.
    Strid, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Sigvardsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Söderström, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Qian, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Experimental Hematology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Hammarström, Sven
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Expression of leukotriene biosynthesis proteins in fetal and adult hematopoietic cells and its functional effects on hematopoiesisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Leukotrienes (LT) are potent pro-inflammatory mediators formed from arachidonic acid (AA) in reactions catalyzed by 5-lipoxygenase and either leukotriene A4 hydrolase or leukotriene C4 synthase. 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP) is also required. We have previously reported expression of FLAP in the hematopoietic compartment of the fetal liver raising questions regarding the role of leukotrienes in hematopoietic regulation. Here we report evidence from in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR experiments that the complete LT biosynthesis machinery is abundantly expressed in hematopoietic cells of the fetal mouse liver from e11.5 until birth. FACS sorting of hematopoietic cells from e15.5 liver and adult bone marrow into different subpopulations followed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that expression was confined mainly to myeloid cells but also detected in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Analysis of FLAP knockout mice showed that a lack of this gene abolished LT and reduced 5(S)- hydroxyeicosa-6E,8Z,11Z,14Z-tetraenoic acid (HETE) production. Furthermore,  decreased relative numbers of B-lymphocytes and increased numbers of T-lymphocytes were observed in peripheral blood and increased numbers of common lymphoid progenitor cells were observed in BM. Taken together these findings suggest that production of LTs can occur in cells of the fetal and adult hematopoietic compartments and that deficiency of the FLAP gene (and leukotrienes) may affect lymphocyte maturation.

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