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  • 1.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hitaishi, Vivek
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Padinhare, Harikesh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karami Rad, Meysam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Donahue, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Silverå Ejneby, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Division of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Biologically Interfaced Evolvable Organic Pattern Classifier2023In: Advanced Science, E-ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 10, no 14, article id 2207023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future brain-computer interfaces will require local and highly individualized signal processing of fully integrated electronic circuits within the nervous system and other living tissue. New devices will need to be developed that can receive data from a sensor array, process these data into meaningful information, and translate that information into a format that can be interpreted by living systems. Here, the first example of interfacing a hardware-based pattern classifier with a biological nerve is reported. The classifier implements the Widrow-Hoff learning algorithm on an array of evolvable organic electrochemical transistors (EOECTs). The EOECTs channel conductance is modulated in situ by electropolymerizing the semiconductor material within the channel, allowing for low voltage operation, high reproducibility, and an improvement in state retention by two orders of magnitude over state-of-the-art OECT devices. The organic classifier is interfaced with a biological nerve using an organic electrochemical spiking neuron to translate the classifiers output to a simulated action potential. The latter is then used to stimulate muscle contraction selectively based on the input pattern, thus paving the way for the development of adaptive neural interfaces for closed-loop therapeutic systems.

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  • 2.
    Massetti, Matteo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Silan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Padinhare, Harikesh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Burtscher, Bernhard
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Diacci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fully 3D-printed organic electrochemical transistors2023In: NPJ FLEXIBLE ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2397-4621, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are being researched for various applications, ranging from sensors to logic gates and neuromorphic hardware. To meet the requirements of these diverse applications, the device fabrication process must be compatible with flexible and scalable digital techniques. Here, we report a direct-write additive process to fabricate fully 3D-printed OECTs, using 3D printable conducting, semiconducting, insulating, and electrolyte inks. These 3D-printed OECTs, which operate in the depletion mode, can be fabricated on flexible substrates, resulting in high mechanical and environmental stability. The 3D-printed OECTs have good dopamine biosensing capabilities (limit of detection down to 6 mu M without metal gate electrodes) and show long-term (similar to 1 h) synapse response, indicating their potential for various applications such as sensors and neuromorphic hardware. This manufacturing strategy is suitable for applications that require rapid design changes and digitally enabled direct-write techniques.

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  • 3.
    Padinhare, Harikesh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Hanyan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhang, Silan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Donahue, Mary
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Caravaca, April S.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Huang, Jun-Da
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olofsson, Peder S.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. n Ink AB, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. n Ink AB, Sweden.
    Ion-tunable antiambipolarity in mixed ion-electron conducting polymers enables biorealistic organic electrochemical neurons2023In: Nature Materials, ISSN 1476-1122, E-ISSN 1476-4660, Vol. 22, p. 242-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biointegrated neuromorphic hardware holds promise for new protocols to record/regulate signalling in biological systems. Making such artificial neural circuits successful requires minimal device/circuit complexity and ion-based operating mechanisms akin to those found in biology. Artificial spiking neurons, based on silicon-based complementary metal-oxide semiconductors or negative differential resistance device circuits, can emulate several neural features but are complicated to fabricate, not biocompatible and lack ion-/chemical-based modulation features. Here we report a biorealistic conductance-based organic electrochemical neuron (c-OECN) using a mixed ion-electron conducting ladder-type polymer with stable ion-tunable antiambipolarity. The latter is used to emulate the activation/inactivation of sodium channels and delayed activation of potassium channels of biological neurons. These c-OECNs can spike at bioplausible frequencies nearing 100 Hz, emulate most critical biological neural features, demonstrate stochastic spiking and enable neurotransmitter-/amino acid-/ion-based spiking modulation, which is then used to stimulate biological nerves in vivo. These combined features are impossible to achieve using previous technologies.

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  • 4.
    Wu, Hanyan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Huang, Jun-Da
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. n Ink AB, Sweden.
    Jeong, Sang Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Liu, Tiefeng
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Ziang
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    van der Pol, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Qingqing
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stoeckel, Marc-Antoine
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. n Ink AB, Sweden.
    Li, Qifan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Woo, Han Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. n Ink AB, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. n Ink AB, Sweden.
    Stable organic electrochemical neurons based on p-type and n-type ladder polymers2023In: Materials Horizons, ISSN 2051-6347, E-ISSN 2051-6355, no 10, p. 4213-4223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are a rapidly advancing technology that plays a crucial role in the development of next-generation bioelectronic devices. Recent advances in p-type/n-type organic mixed ionic-electronic conductors (OMIECs) have enabled power-efficient complementary OECT technologies for various applications, such as chemical/biological sensing, large-scale logic gates, and neuromorphic computing. However, ensuring long-term operational stability remains a significant challenge that hinders their widespread adoption. While p-type OMIECs are generally more stable than n-type OMIECs, they still face limitations, especially during prolonged operations. Here, we demonstrate that simple methylation of the pyrrole-benzothiazine-based (PBBT) ladder polymer backbone results in stable and high-performance p-type OECTs. The methylated PBBT (PBBT-Me) exhibits a 25-fold increase in OECT mobility and an impressive 36-fold increase in & mu;C* (mobility x volumetric capacitance) compared to the non-methylated PBBT-H polymer. Combining the newly developed PBBT-Me with the ladder n-type poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL), we developed complementary inverters with a record-high DC gain of 194 V V-1 and excellent stability. These state-of-the-art complementary inverters were used to demonstrate leaky integrate-and-fire type organic electrochemical neurons (LIF-OECNs) capable of biologically relevant firing frequencies of about 2 Hz and of operating continuously for up to 6.5 h. This achievement represents a significant improvement over previous results and holds great potential for developing stable bioelectronic circuits capable of in-sensor computing.

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  • 5.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strandberg, Jan
    Rise Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ersman, Peter Andersson
    Rise Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    High-Gain Logic Inverters based on Multiple Screen-Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors2022In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 2101642Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electronic circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are attracting great attention due to their printability, flexibility, and low voltage operation. Inverters are the building blocks of digital logic circuits (e.g., NAND gates) and analog circuits (e.g., amplifiers). However, utilizing OECTs in electronic logic circuits is challenging due to the resulting low voltage gain and low output voltage levels. Hence, inverters capable of operating at relatively low supply voltages, yet offering high voltage gain and larger output voltage windows than the respective input voltage window are desired. Herein, inverters realized from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate-based OECTs are designed and explored, resulting in logic inverters exhibiting high voltage gains, enlarged output voltage windows, and tunable switching points. The inverter designs are based on multiple screen-printed OECTs and a resistor ladder, where one OECT is the driving transistor while one or two additional OECTs are used as variable resistors in the resistor ladder. The inverters performances are investigated in terms of voltage gain, output voltage levels, and switching point. Inverters, operating at +/-2.5 V supply voltage and an input voltage window of 1 V, that can achieve an output voltage window with similar to 110% increment and a voltage gain up to 42 are demonstrated.

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  • 6.
    Wu, Hanyan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Li, Qifan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kolhe, Nagesh B.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Strakosas, Xenofon
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stoeckel, Marc-Antoine
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Ziang
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Jin, Wenlong
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Savvakis, Marios
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kroon, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Woo, Han Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, Tekn Ringen 7, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jenekhe, Samson A.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, Tekn Ringen 7, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Influence of Molecular Weight on the Organic Electrochemical Transistor Performance of Ladder-Type Conjugated Polymers2022In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 34, no 4, article id 2106235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) hold promise for developing a variety of high-performance (bio-)electronic devices/circuits. While OECTs based on p-type semiconductors have achieved tremendous progress in recent years, n-type OECTs still suffer from low performance, hampering the development of power-efficient electronics. Here, it is demonstrated that fine-tuning the molecular weight of the rigid, ladder-type n-type polymer poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL) by only one order of magnitude (from 4.9 to 51 kDa) enables the development of n-type OECTs with record-high geometry-normalized transconductance (g(m,norm) approximate to 11 S cm(-1)) and electron mobility x volumetric capacitance (mu C* approximate to 26 F cm(-1) V-1 s(-1)), fast temporal response (0.38 ms), and low threshold voltage (0.15 V). This enhancement in OECT performance is ascribed to a more efficient intermolecular charge transport in high-molecular-weight BBL than in the low-molecular-weight counterpart. OECT-based complementary inverters are also demonstrated with record-high voltage gains of up to 100 V V-1 and ultralow power consumption down to 0.32 nW, depending on the supply voltage. These devices are among the best sub-1 V complementary inverters reported to date. These findings demonstrate the importance of molecular weight in optimizing the OECT performance of rigid organic mixed ionic-electronic conductors and open for a new generation of power-efficient organic (bio-)electronic devices.

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  • 7.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Hanyan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Padinhare, Harikesh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Massetti, Matteo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stoeckel, Marc-Antoine
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kroon, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, Teknikringen 7, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, Teknikringen 7, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Low-Power/High-Gain Flexible Complementary Circuits Based on Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors2022In: Advanced Electronic Materials, E-ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 2100907Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to accurately extract low-amplitude voltage signals is crucial in several fields, ranging from single-use diagnostics and medical technology to robotics and the Internet of Things (IoT). The organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), which features large transconductance values at low operating voltages, is ideal for monitoring small signals. Here, low-power and high-gain flexible circuits based on printed complementary OECTs are reported. This work leverages the low threshold voltage of both p-type and n-type enhancement-mode OECTs to develop complementary voltage amplifiers that can sense voltages as low as 100 mu V, with gains of 30.4 dB and at a power consumption of 0.1-2.7 mu W (single-stage amplifier). At the optimal operating conditions, the voltage gain normalized to power consumption reaches 169 dB mu W-1, which is >50 times larger than state-of-the-art OECT-based amplifiers. In a monolithically integrated two-stage configuration, these complementary voltage amplifiers reach voltage gains of 193 V/V, which are among the highest for emerging complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor-like technologies operating at supply voltages below 1 V. These flexible complementary circuits based on printed OECTs define a new power-efficient platform for sensing and amplifying low-amplitude voltage signals in several emerging beyond-silicon applications.

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  • 8.
    Padinhare, Harikesh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Manan Dar, Abdul Manan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Armada Moreira, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Massetti, Matteo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kroon, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bliman, David
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olsson, Roger
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Stavrinidou, Eleni
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, Tekn Ringen 7, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, Tekn Ringen 7, SE-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Organic electrochemical neurons and synapses with ion mediated spiking2022In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future brain-machine interfaces, prosthetics, and intelligent soft robotics will require integrating artificial neuromorphic devices with biological systems. Due to their poor biocompatibility, circuit complexity, low energy efficiency, and operating principles fundamentally different from the ion signal modulation of biology, traditional Silicon-based neuromorphic implementations have limited bio-integration potential. Here, we report the first organic electrochemical neurons (OECNs) with ion-modulated spiking, based on all-printed complementary organic electrochemical transistors. We demonstrate facile bio-integration of OECNs with Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) to induce lobe closure upon input stimuli. The OECNs can also be integrated with all-printed organic electrochemical synapses (OECSs), exhibiting short-term plasticity with paired-pulse facilitation and long-term plasticity with retention >1000 s, facilitating Hebbian learning. These soft and flexible OECNs operate below 0.6 V and respond to multiple stimuli, defining a new vista for localized artificial neuronal systems possible to integrate with bio-signaling systems of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. The integration of artificial neuromorphic devices with biological systems plays a fundamental role for future brain-machine interfaces, prosthetics, and intelligent soft robotics. Harikesh et al. demonstrate all-printed organic electrochemical neurons on Venus flytrap that is controlled to open and close.

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  • 9.
    Zhang, Silan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Massetti, Matteo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Ziang
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Lee, Yoonjoo
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Kroon, Renee
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Persson, Per O A
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Woo, Han Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Muller, Christian
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden; Chalmers Univ Technol, Sweden.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Synergistic Effect of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes and Ladder-Type Conjugated Polymers on the Performance of N-Type Organic Electrochemical Transistors2022In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 32, no 1, article id 2106447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have the potential to revolutionize the field of organic bioelectronics. To date, most of the reported OECTs include p-type (semi-)conducting polymers as the channel material, while n-type OECTs are yet at an early stage of development, with the best performing electron-transporting materials still suffering from low transconductance, low electron mobility, and slow response time. Here, the high electrical conductivity of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and the large volumetric capacitance of the ladder-type pi-conjugated redox polymer poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline) (BBL) are leveraged to develop n-type OECTs with record-high performance. It is demonstrated that the use of MWCNTs enhances the electron mobility by more than one order of magnitude, yielding fast transistor transient response (down to 15 ms) and high mu C* (electron mobility x volumetric capacitance) of about 1 F cm(-1) V-1 s(-1). This enables the development of complementary inverters with a voltage gain of >16 and a large worst-case noise margin at a supply voltage of <0.6 V, while consuming less than 1 mu W of power.

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  • 10.
    Gerasimov, Jennifer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zhao, Dan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sultana, Ayesha
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abrahamsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Han, Shaobo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bliman, David
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Simon, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Olsson, Roger
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Biomimetic Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor2021In: Advanced Electronic Materials, E-ISSN 2199-160X, Vol. 7, no 11, article id 2001126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomimicry at the hardware level is expected to overcome at least some of the challenges, including high power consumption, large footprint, two-dimensionality, and limited functionality, which arise as the field of artificial intelligence matures. One of the main attributes that allow biological systems to thrive is the successful interpretation of and response to environmental signals. Taking inspiration from these systems, the first demonstration of using multiple environmental inputs to trigger the formation and control the growth of an evolvable synaptic transistor is reported here. The resulting transistor exhibits long-term changes in the channel conductance at a fixed gate voltage. Biomimetic logic circuits are investigated based on this evolvable transistor that implement temperature and pressure inputs to achieve higher order processes like self-regulation of synaptic strength and coincidence detection.

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  • 11.
    Yang, Chiyuan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stoeckel, Marc-Antoine
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ruoko, Tero-Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wu, Hanyan
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Liu, Xianjie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kolhe, Nagesh B.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Wu, Ziang
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Puttisong, Yuttapoom
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Musumeci, Chiara
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Massetti, Matteo
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sun, Hengda
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Xu, Kai
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chen, Weimin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Electronic and photonic materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Woo, Han Young
    Korea Univ, South Korea.
    Fahlman, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jenekhe, Samson A.
    Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA; Univ Washington, WA 98195 USA.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. N Ink AB, S-58330 Linkoping, Sweden.
    A high-conductivity n-type polymeric ink for printed electronics2021In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 2354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conducting polymers, such as the p-doped poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), have enabled the development of an array of opto- and bio-electronics devices. However, to make these technologies truly pervasive, stable and easily processable, n-doped conducting polymers are also needed. Despite major efforts, no n-type equivalents to the benchmark PEDOT:PSS exist to date. Here, we report on the development of poly(benzimidazobenzophenanthroline):poly(ethyleneimine) (BBL:PEI) as an ethanol-based n-type conductive ink. BBL:PEI thin films yield an n-type electrical conductivity reaching 8Scm(-1), along with excellent thermal, ambient, and solvent stability. This printable n-type mixed ion-electron conductor has several technological implications for realizing high-performance organic electronic devices, as demonstrated for organic thermoelectric generators with record high power output and n-type organic electrochemical transistors with a unique depletion mode of operation. BBL:PEI inks hold promise for the development of next-generation bioelectronics and wearable devices, in particular targeting novel functionality, efficiency, and power performance. The development of n-type conductive polymer inks is critical for the development of next-generation opto-electronic devices that rely on efficient hole and electron transport. Here, the authors report an alcohol-based, high performance and stable n-type conductive ink for printed electronics.

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  • 12.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engquist, Isak
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ersman, Peter Andersson
    RISE Res Inst Sweden, Sweden.
    Designing Inverters Based on Screen Printed Organic Electrochemical Transistors Targeting Low-Voltage and High-Frequency Operation2021In: Advanced Materials Technologies, E-ISSN 2365-709X, Vol. 6, article id 2100555Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-voltage operating organic electronic circuits with long-term stability characteristics are receiving increasing attention because of the growing demands for power efficient electronics in Internet of Things applications. To realize such circuits, inverters, the fundamental constituents of many circuits, with stable transfer characteristics should be designed to provide low-power consumption. Here, a rational inverter design, based on fully screen printed p-type organic electrochemical transistors with a channel size of 150 x 80 mu m(2), is explored for driving conditions with input voltage levels that differs of about 1 V. Further, three different inverter circuits are explored, including resistor ladders with resistor values ranging from tens of k ohm to a few M ohm. The performance of single inverters, 3-stage cascaded inverters and 3-stage ring oscillators are characterized with respect to output voltage levels, propagation delay, static power consumption, voltage gain, and operational frequency window. Depending on the application, the key performance parameters of the inverter can be optimized by the specific combination of the input voltage levels and the resistor ladder values. A few of the inverters are in fact fully functional up to 30 Hz, even when using input voltage levels as low as (0 V, 1 V).

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  • 13.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mixed ion-electron transport in organic electrochemical transistors2020In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 117, no 8, article id 080501Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have shown great promise in a variety of applications ranging from digital logic circuits to biosensors and artificial synapses for neuromorphic computing. The working mechanism of OECTs relies on the mixed transport of ionic and electronic charge carriers, extending throughout the bulk of the organic channel. This attribute renders OECTs fundamentally different from conventional field effect transistors and endows them with unique features, including large gate-to-channel capacitance, low operating voltage, and high transconductance. Owing to the complexity of the mixed ion-electron coupling and transport processes, the OECT device physics is sophisticated and yet to be fully unraveled. Here, we give an account of the one- and two-dimensional drift-diffusion models that have been developed to describe the mixed transport of ions and electrons by finite-element methods and identify key device parameters to be tuned for the next developments in the field.

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  • 14.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Zabihipour, Marzieh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE Acreo, Department of Printed Electronics, Bredgatan 33, Norrköping, SE-602 21, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Monolithic integration of display driver circuits and displays manufactured by screen printing2020In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 024001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here, we report all-screen printed display driver circuits, based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), and their monolithic integration with organic electrochromic displays (OECDs). Both OECTs and OECDs operate at low voltages and have similar device architectures, and, notably, they rely on the very same electroactive material as well as on the same electrochemical switching mechanism. This then allows us to manufacture OECT-OECD circuits in a concurrent manufacturing process entirely based on screen printing methods. By taking advantage of the high current throughput capability of OECTs, we further demonstrate their ability to control the light emission in traditional light-emitting diodes (LEDs), where the actual LED addressing is achieved by an OECT-based decoder circuit. The possibility to monolithically integrate all-screen printed OECTs and OECDs on flexible plastic foils paves the way for distributed smart sensor labels and similar Internet of Things applications. 

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  • 15.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Lassnig, Roman
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Strandberg, Jan
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Keshmiri, Vahid
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Goran
    RISE Acreo, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    All-printed large-scale integrated circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors2019In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 5053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The communication outposts of the emerging Internet of Things are embodied by ordinary items, which desirably include all-printed flexible sensors, actuators, displays and akin organic electronic interface devices in combination with silicon-based digital signal processing and communication technologies. However, hybrid integration of smart electronic labels is partly hampered due to a lack of technology that (de)multiplex signals between silicon chips and printed electronic devices. Here, we report all-printed 4-to-7 decoders and seven-bit shift registers, including over 100 organic electrochemical transistors each, thus minimizing the number of terminals required to drive monolithically integrated all-printed electrochromic displays. These relatively advanced circuits are enabled by a reduction of the transistor footprint, an effort which includes several further developments of materials and screen printing processes. Our findings demonstrate that digital circuits based on organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) provide a unique bridge between all-printed organic electronics (OEs) and low-cost silicon chip technology for Internet of Things applications.

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  • 16.
    Ponseca, Carlito
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elfwing, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urbanowicz, Andrzej
    Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Lithuania.
    Krotkus, Arunas
    Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Lithuania.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Terahertz Helical Antenna Based on Celery Stalks2019In: International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves, IRMMW-THz, IEEE Computer Society , 2019, Vol. 2019-September, article id 8874137Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose-based helices retrieved from the plant celery with a conductive poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno [3,4-b]-[1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonate (PEDOT-S). A resonance close to 1 THz and a broad shoulder that extends to 3.5 THz was obtained, consistent with electromagnetic models. As helical antennas, it was shown that both axial and normal modes are present, which are correlated to the orientation and antenna electrical lengths of the coated helices. This work opens the possibility of designing tunable terahertz antennas through simple control of their dimensions and orientation. © 2019 IEEE.

  • 17.
    Elfwing, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ponseca, Carlito
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Urbanowicz, Andrzej
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania; TERAVIL Ltd, Lithuania.
    Krotkus, Arunas
    Ctr Phys Sci and Technol, Lithuania.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Inganäs, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Conducting Helical Structures from Celery Decorated with a Metallic Conjugated Polymer Give Resonances in the Terahertz Range2018In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, no 24, article id 1706595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method to decorate cellulose-based helices retrieved from the plant celery with a conductive polymer is proposed. Using a layer-by-layer method, the decoration of the polyanionic conducting polymer poly(4-(2,3-dihydrothieno [3,4-b]-[1,4]dioxin-2-yl-methoxy)-1-butanesulfonic acid (PEDOT-S) is enhanced after coating the negatively charged cellulose helix with a polycationic polyethyleneimine. Microscopy techniques and two-point probe are used to image the structure and measure the conductivity of the helix. Analysis of the optical and electrical properties of the coated helix in the terahertz (THz) frequency range shows a resonance close to 1 THz and a broad shoulder that extends to 3.5 THz, consistent with electromagnetic models. Moreover, as helical antennas, it is shown that both axial and normal modes are present, which are correlated to the orientation and antenna electrical lengths of the coated helices. This work opens the possibility of designing tunable terahertz antennas through simple control of their dimensions and orientation.

  • 18.
    Wang, Zhen
    et al.
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Malti, Abdellah
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ouyang, Liangqi
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tian, Weiqian
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wagberg, Lars
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; Wallenberg Wood Science Centre, Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hamedi, Mahiar Max
    Department of Fibre and Polymer Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Copper-Plated Paper for High-Performance Lithium-Ion Batteries2018In: Small, ISSN 1613-6810, E-ISSN 1613-6829, Vol. 14, no 48, article id 1803313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper is emerging as a promising flexible, high surface-area substrate for various new applications such as printed electronics, energy storage, and paper-based diagnostics. Many applications, however, require paper that reaches metallic conductivity levels, ideally at low cost. Here, an aqueous electroless copper-plating method is presented, which forms a conducting thin film of fused copper nanoparticles on the surface of the cellulose fibers. This paper can be used as a current collector for anodes of lithium-ion batteries. Owing to the porous structure and the large surface area of cellulose fibers, the copper-plated paper-based half-cell of the lithium-ion battery exhibits excellent rate performance and cycling stability, and even outperforms commercially available planar copper foil-based anode at ultra-high charge/discharge rates of 100 C and 200 C. This mechanically robust metallic-paper composite has promising applications as the current collector for light-weight, flexible, and foldable paper-based 3D Li-ion battery anodes.

  • 19.
    Szymanski, Marek
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Surface Physics and Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    2-D Drift-Diffusion Simulation of Organic Electrochemical Transistors2017In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 64, no 12, p. 5114-5120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2-D device model of the organic electrochemical transistor is described and validated. Devices with channel length in range 100 nm-10 mm and channel thickness in range 50 nm-5 mu m are modeled. Steady-state, transient, and AC simulations are presented. Using the realistic values of physical parameters, the results are in good agreement with the experiments. The scaling of transconductance, bulk capacitance, and transient responses with device dimensions is well reproduced. The model reveals the important role of the electrical double layers in the channel, and the limitations of device scaling.

  • 20.
    Keshmiri, Vahid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westerberg, David
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Silicon-Organic Hybrid Voltage Equalizer for Supercapacitor Balancing2017In: IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems, ISSN 2156-3357, E-ISSN 2156-3365, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 114-122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cell voltage equalizers are an important part in electric energy storage systems comprising series-connected cells, for example, supercapacitors. Hybrid electronics with silicon chips and printed devices enables electronic systems with moderate performance and low cost. This paper presents a silicon-organic hybrid voltage equalizer to balance and protect series-connected supercapacitor cells during charging. Printed organic electrochemical transistors with conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) are utilized to bypass excess current when the supercapacitor cells are fully charged to desired voltages. In this study, low-cost silicon microcontrollers (ATtiny85) are programmed to sense voltages across the supercapacitor cells and control the organic electrochemical transistors to bypass charging current when the voltages exceed 1 V. Experimental results show that the hybrid equalizer with the organic electrochemical transistors works in dual-mode, switched-transistor mode or constant-resistor mode, depending on the charging current applied (0.3-100 mA). With the voltage equalizer, capacitors are charged equally regardless of their capacitances. This work demonstrates a low-cost hybrid solution for supercapacitor balancing modules at large-scale packs.

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  • 21.
    Larsen, Christian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edman, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Design, fabrication and application of organic power converters: Driving light-emitting electrochemical cells from the AC mains2017In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 45, p. 57-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design, fabrication and operation of a range of functional power converter circuits, based on diode configured organic field-effect transistors as the rectifying unit and capable of transforming a high AC input voltage to a selectable DC voltage, are presented. The converter functionality is demonstrated by selecting and tuning its constituents so that it can effectively drive a low-voltage organic electronic device, a light-emitting electrochemical cell (LEC), when connected to high-voltage AC mains. It is established that the preferred converter circuit for this task comprises an organic full-wave rectifier and a regulation resistor but is void of a smoothing capacitor, and that such a circuit connected to the AC mains (230 V, 50 Hz) successfully can drive an LEC to bright luminance (360 cd m(-2)) and high efficiency (6.4 cd A(-1)). (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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  • 22.
    Malti, Abdellah
    et al.
    KTH, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Edberg, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abdollahi Sani, Negar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Rudd, S.
    University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Evans, D.
    University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Electromagnetic devices from conducting polymers2017In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 50, p. 304-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we report macroscopic electromagnetic devices made from conducting polymers. We compare their fundamental properties and device parameters with those of similar devices made from copper wires. By using self-standing supra-ampere conducting polymer wires, we are able to manufacture inductors that generate magnetic fields well over 1 G, and incorporate them in feedback LC oscillators operating at 8.65 MHz. Moreover, by utilizing the unique electrochemical functionality of conducting polymers, we demonstrate electrochemically-tunable electromagnets and electromagnetic chemical sensors. Our findings pave the way to lightweight electromagnetic technologies that can be processed (from water dispersions) using low-temperature protocols into flexible shapes and geometries. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

  • 23.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Organic Power Converters: Design, Fabrication, and Applications2017In: 2017 24TH INTERNATIONAL WORKSHOP ON ACTIVE-MATRIX FLATPANEL DISPLAYS AND DEVICES (AM-FPD), IEEE , 2017, p. 77-80Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been a challenging task for organic electronic devices to control and convert electric power due to their vulnerability when exposed to high voltages. In this work, the design, fabrication, and applications of AC-DC and DC-AC organic power converters based on high-voltage organic thin-film transistors are presented. The organic AC-DC converters, comprising diode-configured high voltage organic thin-film transistors as the rectifying unit, is capable of transforming a high AC input voltage to a selectable DC voltage. On the contrary, the organic DC-AC converter, using an astable multivibrator as oscillation generator, is capable of converting a high DC voltage to a high AC voltage as a power inverter. The functionality of the organic AC-DC power converter is demonstrated through charging supercapacitors as a quasi-constant current supply and, in addition, the successful driving of organic light-emitting devices to high luminescence and efficiency. Expanding the application of organic thin-film transistors into power conversion paves the road towards organic power electronics for cost-efficient and Eco-friendly power electronics in the future.

  • 24.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Westerberg, David
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Marie
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Åhlin, Jessica
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Eveborn, Annelie
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Lagerlöf, Axel
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Norberg, Petronella
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. RISE SICS East, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Göran
    RISE Acreo AB, Dept Printed Elect, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Screen printed digital circuits based on vertical organic electrochemical transistors2017In: Flexible and Printed Electronics, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 2, no 4, article id 045008Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vertical organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) have been manufactured solely using screen printing. The OECTs are based on PEDOT:PSS (poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly (styrene sulfonic acid)), which defines the active material for both the transistor channel and the gate electrode. The resulting vertical OECT devices and circuits exhibit low-voltage operation, relatively fast switching, small footprint and high manufacturing yield; the last three parameters are explained by the reliance of the transistor configuration on a robust structure in which the electrolyte vertically bridges the bottom channel and the top gate electrode. Two different architectures of the vertical OECT have been manufactured, characterized and evaluated in parallel throughout this report. In addition to the experimental work, SPICE models enabling simulations of standalone OECTs and OECT-based circuits have been developed. Our findings may pave the way for fully integrated, low-voltage operating and printed signal processing systems integrated with e.g. printed batteries, solar cells, sensors and communication interfaces. Such technology can then serve a low-cost base technology for the internet of things, smart packaging and home diagnostics applications.

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  • 25.
    Keshmiri, Vahid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsen, C.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Edman, L.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Current Supply with Single Organic Thin-Film Transistor for Charging Supercapacitors2016In: THIN FILM TRANSISTORS 13 (TFT 13), ELECTROCHEMICAL SOC INC , 2016, Vol. 75, no 10, p. 217-222Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a current supply, comprising a single organic thin-film transistor (OTFT), for the charging of supercapacitors. The current supply takes power from the electric grid (115 V AC, US standard), converts the AC voltage to a quasi-constant DC current (similar to 0.1 mA) regardless of the impedance of the load, and charges the supercapacitor. Solution-processed OTFTs based on the popular polymeric semiconductor poly(3-hexylthiophene- 2,5-diyl) have been developed to rectify the 115 V AC voltage. A diodeconfigured OTFT was used as a half-wave rectifier. The single OTFT current supply was demonstrated to charge a 220 mF supercapacitor to 1 V directly using 115 V AC voltage as the input. This work paves the road towards all-printable supercapacitor energy-storage systems with integrated chargers, which enable direct charging from a power outlet.

  • 26.
    Keshmiri, Vahid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westerberg, David
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Mats
    Acreo Swedish ICT AB, Sweden.
    The Applications of OECTs in Supercapacitor Balancing Circuits2016In: 2016 7TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN FOR THIN-FILM TRANSISTOR TECHNOLOGIES (CAD-TFT), IEEE , 2016, p. 23-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate using OECTs in differential amplifiers and cell voltage equalizers for supercapacitor balancing circuits. The differential amplifier based on OECTs can sense voltage difference and the voltage equalizer consisting of a microcontroller and OECTs can be used to charge supercapacitors to desired voltages.

  • 27.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Takimiya, Kazuo
    Hiroshima University, Japan.
    Zschieschang, Ute
    Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research.
    Klauk, Hagen
    Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Modeling of Drain Current Mismatch in OrganicThin-Film Transistors2015In: IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology, ISSN 1551-319X, E-ISSN 1558-9323, Vol. 11, p. 559-563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a consistent model to analyzethe drain current mismatch of organic thin-film transistors.The model takes charge fluctuations and edge effects into account,to predict the fluctuations of drain currents. A Poisson distributionfor the number of charge carriers is assumed to represent therandom distribution of charge carriers in the channel. The edge effectsdue to geometric variations in fabrication processes are interpretedin terms of the fluctuations of channel length and width. Thesimulation results are corroborated by experimental results takenfrom over 80 organic transistors on a flexible plastic substrate.

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  • 28.
    Won Lee, Sung
    et al.
    Yonsei University, South Korea.
    Shin, Minkwan
    Yonsei University, South Korea.
    Yoon Park, Jae
    Yonsei University, South Korea.
    Soo Kim, Bong
    Yonsei University, South Korea.
    Tu, Deyu
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Jeon, Sanghun
    Korea University, South Korea.
    Jeong, Unyong
    Yonsei University, South Korea.
    Thin Ion-Gel Dielectric Layer to Enhance the Stability of Polymer Transistors2015In: Science of Advanced Materials, ISSN 1947-2935, E-ISSN 1947-2943, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene)(P3HT) transistors with a thin ion-gel gate dielectric layer (100 nm thickness) was fabricated. The thin ion-gel dielectric layer retarded the capacitance drop at high frequencies and the diffusion of the ionic molecules in the polymer active layer that are severe drawbacks of the ion-gel dielectric transistors. Thereby, the thin ion-gel transistors showed hysteresis-free I-V characteristics, less frequency-dependence, and enhanced bias-stability. The average charge mobility was similar to 2 cm(2)/Vs and the on/off ratio was 10(4)similar to 10(5). The dependence of the capacitance and the kinetics of ion translation on the thickness of the ion-gel were discussed by both experiments and theoretical calculations.

  • 29.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nilsson, David
    Acreo AB, Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Electrochromic Electrochemical Transistors Gated With Polyelectrolyte-Decorated Amyloid Fibrils2013In: IEEE/OSA Journal of Display Technology, ISSN 1551-319X, E-ISSN 1558-9323, Vol. 9, no 9, p. 755-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the use of polyelectrolyte-decorated amyloid fibrils as gate electrolyte in electrochromic electrochemical transistors. Conducting polymer alkoxysulfonate poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT-S) and luminescent conjugate polymer poly(thiophene acetic acid) (PTAA) are utilized to decorate insulin amyloid fibrils for gating lateral poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) electrochemical transistors. In this comparative work, four gate electrolytes are explored, including the polyelectrolytes and their amyloid-fibril complexes. The discrimination of transistor behaviors with different gate electrolytes is understood in terms of an electrochemical mechanism. The combination of luminescent polymers, biomolecules and electrochromic transistors enables multi functions in a single device, for example, the color modulation in monochrome electrochromic display, as well as biological sensing/labeling.

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  • 30.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Self-oscillation in electrochemical transistors: An RLC modeling approach2012In: Solid-State Electronics, ISSN 0038-1101, E-ISSN 1879-2405, Solid-State Electronics: an international journal, ISSN 0038-1101, Vol. 69, p. 7-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose an RLC model for PEDOT:PSS electrochemical transistors to interpret the persistent oscillating currents observed in experiments. The electrochemical reaction is represented by an inductor in the equivalent circuit. The simulation results show that an electrochemical device can be operated as normal transistors or oscillators under different voltage bias. This model predicts that analog circuit functions can be realized with "inductor-like" electrochemical devices.

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  • 31.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kergoat, Loïg
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Norrköping Sweden.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Norrköping Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Norrköping Sweden.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Transient analysis of electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors2012In: SPIE Proceedings Vol. 8478: Organic Field-Effect Transistors XI / [ed] Zhenan Bao; Iain McCulloch, 2012, Vol. 8478, p. 84780L-1-84780L-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A terminal charge and capacitance model is developed for transient behavior simulation of electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors (EGOFETs). Based on the Ward-Dutton partition scheme, the charge and capacitance model is derived from our drain current model reported previously. The transient drain current is expressed as the sum of the initial drain current and the charging current, which is written as the product of the partial differential of the terminal charges with respect to the terminal voltages and the differential of the terminal voltages upon time. The validity for this model is verified by experimental measurements.

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  • 32.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kergoat, Loig
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Static Model for Electrolyte-Gated Organic Field-Effect Transistors2011In: IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, ISSN 0018-9383, E-ISSN 1557-9646, Vol. 58, no 10, p. 3574-3582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a dc model to simulate the static performance of electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors. The channel current is expressed as charge drift transport under electric field. The charges accumulated in the channel are considered being contributed fromvoltage-dependent electric-doublelayer capacitance. The voltage-dependent contact effect and short-channel effect are also taken into account in this model. A straightforward and efficient methodology is presented to extract the model parameters. The versatility of this model is discussed as well. The model is verified by the good agreement between simulation and experimental data.

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  • 33.
    Tu, Deyu
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Herlogsson, Lars
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics.
    Parameter extraction for electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistor modeling2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a methodology to extract parameters for an electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistor DC model. The model is based on charge drift/diffusion transport under electric field and covers all regimes. Voltage dependent capacitance, mobility, contact resistance and threshold voltage shift are taken into account in this model. The feature parameters in the model are simply extracted from the transfer or output characteristics of electrolyte-gated organic field effect transistors. The extracted parameters are verified by good agreements between experimental and simulated results.

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