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  • 1.
    Gundlegård, David
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Allström, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ringdahl, Rasmus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bayen, Alexandre M.
    University of California, Berkeley, USA.
    Travel Time and Point Speed Fusion Based on a Macroscopic Traffic Model and Non-linear Filtering2015In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015, p. 2121-2128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number and heterogeneity of traffic sensors are steadily increasing. A large part of the emerging sensors are measuring point speeds or travel times and in order to make efficient use of this data, it is important to develop methods and frameworks for fusion of point speed and travel time measurements in real-time. The proposed method combines a macroscopic traffic model and a non-linear filter with a new measurement model for fusion of travel time observations in a system that uses the velocity of cells in the network as state vector. The method aims to improve the fusion efficiency, especially when travel time observations are relatively long compared to the spatial resolution of the estimation framework. The method is implemented using the Cell Transmission Model for velocity (CTM-v) and the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) and evaluated with promising results in a test site in Stockholm, Sweden, using point speed observations from radar and travel time observations from taxis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Fowler, Scott
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sarfraz, Jalal
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Abbas, M. Muddassir
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Angelakis, Vangelis
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Evaluation and prospects from a measurement campaign on real multimedia traffic in LTE vs. UMTS2014In: Wireless Communications, Vehicular Technology, Information Theory and Aerospace Electronic Systems (VITAE'14), IEEE 4th International Conference on, IEEE Press, 2014, p. 1-5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The LTE standard has been developed for high-bandwidth mobile access for today’s data-heavy applications. With broadband cellular available already from the UMTS system, users are expecting the LTE network to provide high quality communication. To ensure the quality and correctness of complex systems of LTE, it is important to evaluate the behavior of traffic on a LTE network in relation to UMTS. In this paper, LTE and UMTS measurements on video traffic were performed in a real environment, allowing for greater development, and understanding of network traffic performance.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Ericsson, Research Area Packet Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekelin, Svante
    Ericsson, Research Area Packet Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Real-time bandwidth measurements over mobile connections2011In: European transactions on telecommunications, ISSN 1124-318X, E-ISSN 2161-3915, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 255-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first study that investigates the characteristics of received probe packets and the reliability of bandwidth estimates when actively measuring the available bandwidth over radio interfaces in mobile communication networks is presented. Knowledge of available bandwidth is very useful in various contexts, e. g. in network management and adaptive streaming applications. Bandwidth measuring tools have so far primarily been designed for and evaluated in wired networks. However, such tools should also be examined in wireless networks since the use of, e. g., mobile broadband is rapidly increasing. The properties of wired and wireless links differ substantially, which affect the performance of the tools. We have made active-probing experiments over a high-speed downlink shared channel, which is used for High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) in the mobile communication technology UMTS, and over a forward traffic channel in CDMA2000 1xEV-DO. Both experiments were performed over commercial networks. They show that one cannot always expect uniform per-packet processing over the radio channel in mobile networks, which is expected by many probing tools. This reduces the reliability of the available-bandwidth estimates, however we suggest how this can be handled. Finally, the mobile-network measurements are compared to experiments performed in an IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN, where the radio channel does not create the same packet-processing behaviour. We also discuss the possibility of using the probe traffic for the purpose of identifying the communication technology at the bottleneck of the network path, assumed this is a wireless broadband link, by mapping specifications of standardised communication technologies to observed probe-traffic characteristics.

  • 4. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Available-Bandwidth Estimation in Packet-Switched Communication Networks2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents novel methods that are able to perform real-time estimation of the available bandwidth of a network path. In networks such as the Internet, knowledge of bandwidth characteristics is of great significance in, e.g., network monitoring, admission control, and audio/video streaming.

    The term bandwidth describes the amount of information a network can deliver per unit of time. For network end users, it is only feasible to obtain bandwidth properties of a path by actively probing the network with probe packets, and to perform estimation based on received measurements. In this thesis, two active-probing based methods for real-time available-bandwidth estimation are presented and evaluated.

    The first method, BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time), uses Kalman filtering for the analysis of received probe packets. BART is examined analytically and through experiments which are carried out in wired and wireless laboratory networks as well as over the Internet and commercial mobile broadband networks. The opportunity of tuning the Kalman filter and enhancing the performance by introducing change detection are investigated in more detail. Generally, the results show accurate estimation with only modest computational efforts and minor injections of probe packets.

    However, it is possible to identify weaknesses of BART, and a summary of these as well as general problems and challenges in the field of available-bandwidth estimation are laid out in the thesis. The second method, E-MAP (Expectation-Maximization Active Probing), is designed to overcome some of these issues. E-MAP modifies the active-probing scheme of BART and utilizes the expectation-maximization algorithm before filtering is used to generate a bandwidth estimate.

    Overall, this thesis shows that in many cases it is achievable to obtain efficient and reliable real-time estimation of available bandwidth by using light-weight analysis techniques and negligible probe-traffic overhead. Hence, this opens up exciting new possibilities for a range of applications and services in communication networks.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Titel: Available-Bandwidth Estimation in Packet-Switched Communication Networks
    Download (pdf)
    Cover
    Download (pdf)
    Commentary/Clarification
  • 5.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelin, Svante
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Performance Study of Bandwidth Measurement Tools over Mobile Connections2009In: 2009 IEEE 69th Vehicular Technology Conference Spring: Proceedings, IEEE , 2009, p. 2978-2982Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The knowledge of the present available bandwidth on a network path is essential in numerous contexts, such as network management and streaming applications. A network path nowadays often contains at least one wireless link. This is obviously true for mobile users having a wireless connection to the Internet through a laptop or mobile terminal. The existing tools for measuring end-to-end available bandwidth are developed and optimized for paths with only guided media links. Since the characteristics for wired links and radio links differ in many aspects, such as fluctuations in capacity and stability, the network tools need to be evaluated also for network paths containing wireless links. In this investigation we have performed experiments over a high-speed downlink UMTS channel. This makes the present paper unique in the sense that it evaluates and analyzes the applicability of available-bandwidth measurement tools over a radio interface in a wide-area mobile communication network. For the experiments, a commercial mobile network has been used. The measurements show that it is feasible to achieve reliable estimates under certain circumstances. However, some cases pose challenges which motivate further studies.

  • 6.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Ericsson, Research Area Packet Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekelin, S.
    Ericsson, Research Area Packet Technologies, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Real-time available-bandwidth estimation using filtering and change detection2009In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, Vol. 53, no 15, p. 2617-2645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a filter-based method BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time) for real-time estimation of end-to-end available bandwidth in packet-switched communication networks. BART relies on self-induced congestion, and repeatedly samples the available bandwidth of the network path with sequences of probe-packet pairs. The method is light-weight with respect to computation and memory requirements, and performs well when only a small amount of probe traffic is injected. BART uses Kalman filtering, which enables real-time estimation. It maintains a current estimate, which is incrementally improved with each new measurement of the inter-packet time separation in a sequence of probe-packet pairs. It is possible to tune BART according to specific needs. The estimation performance can be significantly enhanced by employing a change-detection technique. An implementation of BART has been evaluated in a physical test network with carefully controlled cross traffic. In addition, experiments have been performed over the Internet as well as over a mobile broadband connection. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 7.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Ekelin, Svante
    Ericsson Research.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Bandwidth Estimation over a High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel in UMTS2008In: Nordic Conference on Radio Science and Communications RVK,2008, Sweden: RVK , 2008, p. 73-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bergfeldt, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Real-Time Estimation of Available Bandwidth using the Expectation-Maximization Algorithm2008In: Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop SNCNW,2008, Sweden: SNCNW , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Hartikainen, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Network Control Lab., Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelin, Svante
    Network Control Lab., Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Change Detection and Estimation for Network-Measurement Applications2007In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM workshop on Performance monitoring and measurement of heterogeneous wireless and wired networks, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2007, p. 1-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

       This paper presents a method for improving filter-based network-state estimation by adding detection and estimation of sudden changes in the system state. This can be of benefit in various contexts, e.g. in network management and adaptive streaming applications. In particular, it is shown that the performance of available-bandwidth estimation can be significantly enhanced by employing change detection in conjunction with a filter-based estimator. The use of filtering makes it feasible to track the communication network state and to estimate selected properties in real-time. In addition, filter-based methods may be combined with change detection in order to overcome the trade-off regarding stable estimation versus speed of adaptation to change. We discuss filtering and change detection in general, and present the novel approach of combining the filter-based available-bandwidth estimator BART with the Generalized Likelihood Ratio (GLR) change-detection test, which estimates both the time and magnitude of changes.

  • 10.
    Hartikainen, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Ekelin, Svante
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Enhanced Network-State Estimation using Change Detection2006In: 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, Proceedings 2006, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006, p. 683-693Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the concept of change detection for filter-based network-state estimation. This could be useful in various contexts; two examples are network management and adaptive applications. In particular, it is shown that the performance of available-bandwidth estimation can be significantly enhanced by employing a change-detection technique in conjunction with a filter-based estimator. By using filter-based approaches, it is possible to track the state of communication systems, and to estimate network properties in real-time. A virtue of filter-based methods is the ability to enhance the estimation performance by combining them with change detection. This makes it feasible to overcome the tradeoffs regarding speed of adaptation to changes versus stable estimation. We discuss filtering and change detection in general, and illustrate the power of this combination with the filter-based available-bandwidth estimator BART enhanced by the light-weight change-detection test CUSUM

  • 11.
    Hartikainen, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Filter-based bandwidth estimation for communication networks2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, there has been a rapid growth of interest in bandwidth estimation of communication networks. In the context of packet-switched data networks, such as the Internet, the term bandwidth commonly refers to the amount of information a network can deliver per time unit. Knowledge of bandwidth characteristics is of great significance in, e.g., end-to-end admission control, capacity planning, intelligent routing, audio/video streaming, and peer-to-peer applications.

    For network end users, it is difficult to obtain bandwidth properties of a particular network link or path. Normally, it is only achievable by actively probing the network, and to perform estimation based on received measurements. Probing implies transmission of specific data packets, which are expected to be affected by the characteristics of the utilized network path.

    In this thesis, the BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time) method for real-time estimation of end-to-end available bandwidth is presented and evaluated. The available bandwidth of a network path corresponds to the minimum unused bandwidth capacity among all links between two end hosts. Besides applying active probing, BART uses Kalman filtering for the analysis of received probe packets.

    BART is investigated both analytically and experimentally. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory network and over the Internet. The opportunity of tuning the Kalman filter with respect to desired tracking ability is studied in more detail, as well as the virtue of enhancing performance by introducing change detection. In general, the results show accurate estimation under various circumstances, even though the method only requires modest computational efforts and minor injections of probe packets.

    List of papers
    1. Real-Time Measurement of End-to-End Available Bandwidth using Kalman Filtering
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-Time Measurement of End-to-End Available Bandwidth using Kalman Filtering
    Show others...
    2006 (English)In: 10th IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, 2006. NOMS 2006., Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006, p. 73-84Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new method, BART (bandwidth available in real-time), for estimating the end-to-end available bandwidth over a network path. It estimates bandwidth quasi-continuously, in real-time. The method has also been implemented as a tool. It relies on self-induced congestion, and repeatedly samples the available bandwidth of the network path with sequences of probe packet pairs, sent at randomized rates. BART requires little computation in each iteration, is lightweight with respect to memory requirements, and adds only a small amount of probe traffic. The BART method uses Kalman filtering, which enables real-time estimation (a.k.a. tracking). It maintains a current estimate, which is incrementally improved with each new measurement of the inter-packet time separations in a sequence of probe packet pairs. The measurement model has a strong non-linearity, and would not at first sight be considered suitable for Kalman filtering, but we show how this non-linearity can be handled. BART may be tuned according to the specific needs of the measurement application, such as agility vs. stability of the estimate. We have tested an implementation of BART in a physical test network with carefully controlled cross traffic, with good accuracy and agreement. Test measurements have also been performed over the Internet. We compare the performance of BART with that of pathChirp, a state-of-the-art tool for measuring end-to-end available bandwidth in real-time

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006
    Series
    IEEE IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, ISSN 1542-1201
    Keywords
    active measurement, available bandwidth, end-to-end, Kalman filter, probing, real-time
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36407 (URN)10.1109/NOMS.2006.1687540 (DOI)000261721300008 ()31270 (Local ID)1424401429 (ISBN)978-142440142-0 (ISBN)31270 (Archive number)31270 (OAI)
    Conference
    10th IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, Vancouver, Canada, 3-7 April 2006
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2016-06-16
    2. Tuning the Temporal Characteristics of a Kalman-Filter Method for End-to-End Bandwidth Estimation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tuning the Temporal Characteristics of a Kalman-Filter Method for End-to-End Bandwidth Estimation
    2006 (English)In: 4th IEEE/IFIP Workshop on End-to-End Monitoring Techniques and Services, 2006, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 58-65Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a way of tuning the temporal characteristics of a new available-bandwidth estimation method, BART. The estimation engine in this method is Kalman-filter based. A current estimate of the available bandwidth is maintained, and for each new sequence of probe packet pairs an updated estimate is produced. The main input parameters needed by the Kalman filter are the variance of the measurement noise and the covariance of the process noise. The former is measured by the method, whereas the latter is not in general attainable by analytical or empirical investigation. Instead, it is reasonable to treat this as a tunable parameter. We discuss how the temporal characteristics of the tracking of end-to-end available bandwidth may be tuned.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Press, 2006
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36402 (URN)10.1109/E2EMON.2006.1651280 (DOI)000238288300008 ()31250 (Local ID)1-4244-0145-3 (ISBN)31250 (Archive number)31250 (OAI)
    Conference
    4th IEEE/IFIP Workshop on End-to-End Monitoring Techniques and Services, Vancouver, Canada, April 3rd 2006
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2016-06-16
    3. Adjustment of the BART Kalman Filter to Improve Real-Time Estimation of End-to-End Available Bandwidth
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adjustment of the BART Kalman Filter to Improve Real-Time Estimation of End-to-End Available Bandwidth
    2005 (English)In: Proceedings of SNCNW 2005, Sweden: SNCNW , 2005, p. 56-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns simulation results using the network simulator ns-2 to validate the end-to-end available bandwidth estimation ability of the real-time measurement tool BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time). In addition to an active probing scheme, this method applies Kalman filtering in order to produce available bandwidth estimates. Simulation results show that clever use of an adjustable filter parameter yields great possibilities of achieving highly accurate estimates, even in the presence of harsh circumstances.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Sweden: SNCNW, 2005
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-32258 (URN)18138 (Local ID)18138 (Archive number)18138 (OAI)
    Conference
    3rd SNCNW 2005, Halmstad, November 23-24, 2005
    Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2016-06-16
    4. Enhanced Network-State Estimation using Change Detection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhanced Network-State Estimation using Change Detection
    2006 (English)In: 31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, Proceedings 2006, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006, p. 683-693Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the concept of change detection for filter-based network-state estimation. This could be useful in various contexts; two examples are network management and adaptive applications. In particular, it is shown that the performance of available-bandwidth estimation can be significantly enhanced by employing a change-detection technique in conjunction with a filter-based estimator. By using filter-based approaches, it is possible to track the state of communication systems, and to estimate network properties in real-time. A virtue of filter-based methods is the ability to enhance the estimation performance by combining them with change detection. This makes it feasible to overcome the tradeoffs regarding speed of adaptation to changes versus stable estimation. We discuss filtering and change detection in general, and illustrate the power of this combination with the filter-based available-bandwidth estimator BART enhanced by the light-weight change-detection test CUSUM

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006
    Series
    PROCEEDINGS - CONFERENCE ON LOCAL COMPUTER NETWORKS, ISSN 0742-1303
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36408 (URN)10.1109/LCN.2006.322178 (DOI)000243785600102 ()31271 (Local ID)1-4244-0418-5 (ISBN)1-4244-0419-3 (ISBN)31271 (Archive number)31271 (OAI)
    Conference
    31st IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks, Tampa, U.S.A., 14-16 November 2006
    Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2016-06-16
    5. Real-time available-bandwidth estimation using filtering and change detection
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Real-time available-bandwidth estimation using filtering and change detection
    2009 (English)In: Computer Networks, ISSN 1389-1286, Vol. 53, no 15, p. 2617-2645Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a filter-based method BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time) for real-time estimation of end-to-end available bandwidth in packet-switched communication networks. BART relies on self-induced congestion, and repeatedly samples the available bandwidth of the network path with sequences of probe-packet pairs. The method is light-weight with respect to computation and memory requirements, and performs well when only a small amount of probe traffic is injected. BART uses Kalman filtering, which enables real-time estimation. It maintains a current estimate, which is incrementally improved with each new measurement of the inter-packet time separation in a sequence of probe-packet pairs. It is possible to tune BART according to specific needs. The estimation performance can be significantly enhanced by employing a change-detection technique. An implementation of BART has been evaluated in a physical test network with carefully controlled cross traffic. In addition, experiments have been performed over the Internet as well as over a mobile broadband connection. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2009
    Keywords
    Active probing; Available bandwidth; End-to-end; Kalman filtering; Network monitoring; Real-time estimation
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-21194 (URN)10.1016/j.comnet.2009.05.011 (DOI)000270059500002 ()
    Available from: 2009-09-30 Created: 2009-09-30 Last updated: 2016-06-16
  • 12.
    Ekelin, Svante
    et al.
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Martin
    Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS), Stockholm, Sweden, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Hartikainen, Erik
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Mångs, Jan-Erik
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Melander, Bob
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden.
    Björkman, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Real-Time Measurement of End-to-End Available Bandwidth using Kalman Filtering2006In: 10th IEEE/IFIP Network Operations and Management Symposium, 2006. NOMS 2006., Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Computer Society, 2006, p. 73-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new method, BART (bandwidth available in real-time), for estimating the end-to-end available bandwidth over a network path. It estimates bandwidth quasi-continuously, in real-time. The method has also been implemented as a tool. It relies on self-induced congestion, and repeatedly samples the available bandwidth of the network path with sequences of probe packet pairs, sent at randomized rates. BART requires little computation in each iteration, is lightweight with respect to memory requirements, and adds only a small amount of probe traffic. The BART method uses Kalman filtering, which enables real-time estimation (a.k.a. tracking). It maintains a current estimate, which is incrementally improved with each new measurement of the inter-packet time separations in a sequence of probe packet pairs. The measurement model has a strong non-linearity, and would not at first sight be considered suitable for Kalman filtering, but we show how this non-linearity can be handled. BART may be tuned according to the specific needs of the measurement application, such as agility vs. stability of the estimate. We have tested an implementation of BART in a physical test network with carefully controlled cross traffic, with good accuracy and agreement. Test measurements have also been performed over the Internet. We compare the performance of BART with that of pathChirp, a state-of-the-art tool for measuring end-to-end available bandwidth in real-time

  • 13.
    Hartikainen, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ekelin, Svante
    Ericsson Research, Stockholm, Sweden, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden .
    Tuning the Temporal Characteristics of a Kalman-Filter Method for End-to-End Bandwidth Estimation2006In: 4th IEEE/IFIP Workshop on End-to-End Monitoring Techniques and Services, 2006, Piscataway, New Jersey, USA: IEEE Press, 2006, p. 58-65Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a way of tuning the temporal characteristics of a new available-bandwidth estimation method, BART. The estimation engine in this method is Kalman-filter based. A current estimate of the available bandwidth is maintained, and for each new sequence of probe packet pairs an updated estimate is produced. The main input parameters needed by the Kalman filter are the variance of the measurement noise and the covariance of the process noise. The former is measured by the method, whereas the latter is not in general attainable by analytical or empirical investigation. Instead, it is reasonable to treat this as a tunable parameter. We discuss how the temporal characteristics of the tracking of end-to-end available bandwidth may be tuned.

  • 14.
    Hartikainen, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Ekelin, Svante
    Karlsson, Johan M
    Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems.
    Adjustment of the BART Kalman Filter to Improve Real-Time Estimation of End-to-End Available Bandwidth2005In: Proceedings of SNCNW 2005, Sweden: SNCNW , 2005, p. 56-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper concerns simulation results using the network simulator ns-2 to validate the end-to-end available bandwidth estimation ability of the real-time measurement tool BART (Bandwidth Available in Real-Time). In addition to an active probing scheme, this method applies Kalman filtering in order to produce available bandwidth estimates. Simulation results show that clever use of an adjustable filter parameter yields great possibilities of achieving highly accurate estimates, even in the presence of harsh circumstances.

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