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  • 1.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    A qualitative study of Swedish pupils perspectives on supportive school climates and help-seeking2023In: Pastoral Care in Education, ISSN 0264-3944, E-ISSN 1468-0122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore pupils perspectives on school climate, with a focus on help-seeking from teachers when experiencing unsafe incidents. Fifty-nine focus group interviews were conducted with pupils from two public schools in grades 1-9 (i.e. ages 7-15 years) in Sweden and analyzed with constructivist grounded theory. The findings address how the organizational support structure was crucial and three main categories were conceptualized from pupils perspectives: (1) teachers as sources of support; (2) availability of support; and (3) consistent and responsive support. The way in which pupils perceived these three dimensions, and thus the organizational support structure, were crucial to whether they considered help-seeking from teachers when they experienced unsafe incidents such as violence, bullying or conflicts. To conceptualize the pupils perspectives on the organizational support structure and help-seeking we adopted a social-ecological perspective as a theoretical framework. Social-ecological factors such as scheduling, and information provided (exosystem) and the pupil-teacher relationships (microsystem) were found to be especially important in relation to the organizational support structure and pupils help-seeking. Our findings suggests that it is imperative for schools to pay attention to the organizational support structure and especially consider the teacher-pupil relationship quality and how scheduling, information about support sources, and a consistent and responsive approach from all teachers affects pupils help-seeking and the building of a supportive school climate and safety for all pupils at school.

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  • 2.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för Individ och Samhälle.
    Individual Group Work Assessment in Cooperative Learning: Possibilities and Challenges2023In: Contemporary Global Perspectives on Cooperative Learning Applications Across Educational Contexts / [ed] Robyn M. Gillies, Barbara Mills, Neil Davidson, New York: Routhledge , 2023, 1, p. 94-108Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Combining individual group work assessment with expectations of collaboration and shared learning can be seen as a paradox. In this chapter we explore and problematise whether it is possible to combine cooperative learning, an approach that has great potential to contribute to joint knowledge development between students, with teacher’s curricula knowledge requirements to assess student knowledge and abilities individually. The latter can create competition between the students. We propose adding a further dimension of contemporary global perspectives on cooperative learning in education by increasing knowledge about what happens in the meeting between cooperative learning and individual group work assessment. We will address some salient possibilities and challenges regarding individual group work assessment based on theory and research, but primarily we will discuss results from our group work assessment intervention project. We will also contribute by noting some practical implications presented as recommendations for teachers who employ the assessment practice when using cooperative learning. 

  • 3.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Individual Reflection Papers as a Means to Support Group Exams in PBL2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An individual reflection paper (IRP) is a structured method requiring a student’s written reflections on knowledge acquired and aspects of it to discuss at the student’s next tutorial meeting. Previous experience and research on problem-based learning (PBL) have shown that the use of IRPs can act as a support for students’ preparation for and learning in tutorial groups. It also appears that an IRP can facilitate tutors’ assessments and examinations of students’ individual engagement and contribution in tutorial groups. Against this backdrop, we aimed to explore if an IRP can act as a means to support group exams in PBL. Even though using group examinations aligns well with the epistemology of PBL, the dilemma of using joint learning while at the same time fulfilling individual assessment requirements is thought to make group exams become difficult to use. 152 IRPs were used as a basis to assess whether a particular group of students had acquired knowledge that would impact results on a group examination. By evaluating each student’s submitted IRP, examiners were able to determine the extent to which each of the group participants contributed newly acquired knowledge to the content of the examination. Overall, completed IRPs clearly showed concurrence between acquired and requested knowledge, except on a few occasions. The findings are promising and suggest that IRPs can act as a means to support group exams in PBL. 

  • 4.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teacher teams: A safe place to work on creating and maintaining a positive school climate2023In: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating and sustaining a positive school climate is not done in isolation but requires continuous ongoing work by several people within the school, and one of the most important actors are the teachers. In order to fulfil this very important task, the teachers need to collaborate with colleagues at school in an organized manner. In this study, we aim to explore and analyse teachers' perspectives on how their teacher team might be linked to their school climate work, and what team characteristics facilitate their work to create and maintain a positive and supportive climate within their school. To understand teachers' comprehension of their team, we applied a social psychology framework, using social interdependence theory and the concept of psychological safety. Data were collected by means of 14 semi-structured focus group interviews with 73 teachers from two compulsory schools in southeast Sweden. The findings revealed that teachers perceived the team as the most significant support structure when it comes to school climate work. According to them, the team was associated with shared responsibility, support and help, as well as safety and an open climate. By elucidating teachers' insider perspectives regarding their working conditions aligned to their work with school climate, we conclude that well-functioning teacher teams are experienced as a safe place to work on creating and maintaining a positive school climate.

  • 5.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Teachers’ perspectives on factors influencing the school climate: A constructivist grounded theory case study2023In: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 2245171Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore and analyse teachers’ perspectives on factors influencing the school climate, to better understand teachers’ everyday efforts in influencing the school climate, including obstacles they might experience. Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological theory was utilized as the overarching theoretical perspective. Data were collected by means of 14 semi-structured focus group interviews with 73 teachers from two compulsory schools in southeast Sweden. Findings revealed that teachers experienced the school climate as both positively and negatively influenced by a number of internal and external factors, perceived as influenceable or uninfluenceable. According to the teachers, four types of factors affected the quality of the school climate: social processes and values in school (i.e. influenceable internal factors), school premises and support structures (i.e. uninfluenceable internal factors, external relations (i.e. influenceable external factors) and external means of control (i.e. uninfluenceable external factors). A grounded theory of teachers’ perceptions of factors influencing school were developed. Our conclusion is that the teachers talked about a multidimensional and malleable phenomenon, emanated by a complex interplay across multiple agents and contexts both within and outside the school, aligning with all domains and features and acting as preconditions for the school climate. 

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  • 6.
    Liebech-Lien, Beathe
    et al.
    Department of Industrial Economics and Technology Management, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Davidson, Neil
    University of Maryland, USA.
    Teachers’ professional development for cooperative learning: A constructive controversy between long-term versus short-term professional development.2023In: Autonomy and responsibility journal of educational sciences, ISSN 2415-9484, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 65-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous scientific research has recognised the pedagogical model of cooperative learning (CL) as a best-practice pedagogy, which facilitates students’ academic and social learning. Teachers are crucial for implementing CL in the classroom. While they value the method, they often find it complex and challenging to use. Thus, it is crucial to support effective CL professional development (PD) for teachers. Various approaches, forms and lengths of PD in CL are available for teachers, and long- and short-term approaches have been debated in the literature. Based on the perspective of constructive controversy, the goal of this study is to examine teachers’ PD in CL, with a particular focus on long- and short-term PD. Drawing on our different perspectives and experiences with long- and short-term PD in CL, we aim to contribute knowledge that can support teachers’ learning and implementation of CL. To provide insights and reflections along with theoretical findings, we utilise a narrative approach, with one narrative on long-term PD and one on short-term PD. One issue that becomes clear is the lack of a consensus on what counts as PD for teachers, as PD is a holistic multidimensional construct. We propose four common characteristics that should be considered in developing successful PD regardless of the CL approach or the length of the PD: 1) It enables participating teachers to acquire a shared understanding and knowledge of the theoretical framework of CL; 2) It supports teachers in taking ownership of CL; 3) It involves collaboration (in different forms); and 4) It includes support structures. While both long- and short-term PD can support teacher learning, how the time is used is the most important factor for a successful outcome. Hence, short-term PD is better than no PD at all.

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  • 7.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The association between student-teacher relationship quality and school liking: A small-scale 1-year longitudinal study2023In: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 2211466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This 1-year longitudinal study examined the association between student-teacher relationship quality and school liking in a sample of 234 students from two public schools in Sweden, who completed an online questionnaire on two separate occasions. The age range was 9-15 years in Time 1 and 10-16 years in Time 2. A path analysis showed that students who were younger, liked their school more, and had more positive, warm, and supportive relationships with their teachers were more inclined to score high in school liking one year later. In addition, younger students and students who liked their school and had better relationships with their teachers at Time 1 were inclined to have better relationships with their teachers one year later.

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  • 8.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Univ West, Sweden.
    Group work assessment intervention project - A methodological perspective2022In: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 2095885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of individual knowledge and abilities should be frequently undertaken when learning is developed in interactions with other students, such as in group work and/or cooperative learning. Previous research reveals that group work assessment is a neglected research area, and this applies in particular to group work assessment interventions studies. The focus of this article is methodological, and its aim is to provide a reflective and critical account of a group work assessment intervention project, and the implications of the different choices made in this process. The intervention project that was scrutinized had a mixed-method longitudinal quasi-experimental design, and interventions in the form of shorter educational sessions were central to the project. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected, analyzed, and compiled. The methodological issues discussed and problematized were the importance of (a) establishing collaboration with teachers; (b) well-thought-out and delimited methodological choices, and subsequent consequences; and (c) including both teachers and students to secure successful effects of the interventions. As a result of the study, it was concluded that intervention could be beneficial as a means of increasing the scientific knowledge in relation to intervention studies, and also to the emerging discourse on group work assessment.

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  • 9.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    “I think we have a good time if there are no disputes”: pupils’ dynamic perspectives on being on breaktime2022In: Educational studies (Dorchester-on-Thames), ISSN 0305-5698, E-ISSN 1465-3400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    School climate is crucial for understanding everyday school life. For pupils, breaktime seems to be associated with how they feel about their school climate. To better understand school climate and what social processes pupils address, this study explores pupils perspectives on school climate with attention on how they perceive their breaktimes. The study was based on 29 focus group interviews (n = 164) with pupils from two public schools in grades 1-9 (i.e. 7-15 years old). Constructivist grounded theory guided data gathering and analysis. Findings revealed how breaktime was an indicator of how pupils perceived their school climate, but their perceptions were dynamic. We conceptualised breaktime as a social process influenced by three main categories: peer climate, levels of unsafe incidents, and availability of activities. We adopted a social-ecological perspective to conceptualise how pupils perceptions of breaktimes varied due to how breaktimes were nested within different social-ecological systems.

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  • 10.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Individual Group Work Assessment – Formative Written Feedback as a means for Promoting Collaboration and Individual Accountability2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group work can provide students with valuable opportunities for cooperative learning both of knowledge and abilities related to academic factors and of collaborative skills. However, the requirement from the curriculum to assess students’ knowledge and ability individually in group work is a challenging and complex task for teachers. In addition, research on group work assessment in educational context is a neglected research area, and especially individual group work assessment. Accordingly, little theoretical knowledge or useful tools have been provided to assist teachers in this important but difficult task. A special challenge, compared to traditional assessment in education, seems to be how to discern individual knowledge from the joint work when assessing. One way for teachers to assess students during group work, and simultaneously promote their further work and learning, is to provide them with individual formative assessment, by employing feedback. Recent studies indicates that teachers’ feedback to the students also may support individual accountability, i.e., facilitates students’ ability to work more independently in group work where everyone is responsible for their part of the work but also for the group's joint assignments. Against this backdrop, the aim of this presentation is to explore and problematize in what way teachers’ formative written feedback, on students’ individual work during group work promotes or impedes collaboration and individual accountability.  

     

    Social Interdependence Theory emphasizing positive interdependence as means for promoting collaboration as well as individual accountability for well-functioning group work, together with Shute’s (2008) guidelines for useful feedback, are utilized as overarching theoretical perspectives. Shute claims that there are several types of feedback that can be delivered and a large variability of the effects for the students. Useful feedback depends, according to Shute (2008), on motive, opportunity and means, that is, meet the student’s needs and is given when the student is prepared to use the feedback. 

     

    The study focuses on written formative feedback as means for formative assessment. Data were obtained through 149 feedback documents from six teachers. Feedback was given during a group work assignment when students were working on the individual part of the common group task. The teachers were asked to use their own words in the written response to each student. The analysis was accomplished using an inductive thematic approach and Shute’s (2008) synthesized recommendations and guidelines to interpret and understand the teachers’ written feedback. 

     

    The results display that the written feedback to the students includes comments on following levels: individual (“you”), group (“your group) and “not distinct” (not possible to discern which level). Furthermore, the results display that the teachers convey feedback in manageable units, focusing on the task to enhance the quality of the work or to promote collaboration and individual accountability. Thus, the paper contributes with relevant Nordic educational research by presenting theoretical knowledge on the sparsely researched area concerning written individual feedback as a means for formative assessment in connection with group work assessment.

    References 

    Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 153–189.

     

  • 11.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teachers´ perspectives on factors influencing their everyday efforts in facilitating and sustaining a positive school climate2022In: Education and involvement in precarious times. Abstract book. NERA confrence 2022 / [ed] Michael Dal, Reykjavik, 2022, p. 241-242Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Teachers with their unique key position in school, their everyday influence on school climate, and their professional responsibility to establish a positive and healthy school climate, possess crucial information for facilitating and sustaining a positive school climate. Previous research commonly describes the multidimensional features acting as precondition for the school climate in four domains: academic climate, community, safety, and institutional environment. Each domain contributes individually but also jointly to the school climate and how it is collectively experienced both from inside and outside the school. While teachers have a significant impact on the school climate, less is known about teachers’ perspectives on these matters. To better understand teachers’ everyday efforts in influencing the school climate, the aim of this study was to explore and analyse a) teachers’ perspectives on factors influencing the school climate and b) the teachers’ apprehension of their possibility to influence these factors 

    Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological theory was adopted as a theoretical framework in the present study. Data were collected by means of 14 semi-structured focus groups interviews with 73 teachers from two compulsory schools in southeast Sweden. The analysis was guided by a constructivist grounded theory approach. 

    The results reveal that teachers experienced the school climate as both positively and negatively influenced by several internal and external factors perceived as either influenceable or uninfluenceable. According to how teachers reasoned, four types of factors affected the quality of the school climate and their everyday efforts in facilitating and sustaining a positive school climate: Social processes and values in school (i.e. influenceable internal factors), school premises and support structures (i.e. uninfluenceable internal factors impossible to influence), external relations (i.e. influenceable external factors) and external means of control (i.e. uninfluenceable external factors). The conclusion is that the teachers’ talked about school climate as a multidimensional and malleable phenomenon, emanated by a complex interplay across multiple agents and contexts both within and outside the school aligning with all domains and features acting as precondition for the school climate. 

     The findings are relevant to Nordic educational research and suggest that teachers try to accommodate desired school climate and work with the conditions that exist in a constructive way. Further, the findings shed light on a contemporary societal discussion about what characterises the responsibility of the school. Notwithstanding, highlighted in this study, there are factors outside the school influencing the school climate that are beyond the influence of the school and its teachers.

     

  • 12.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bjereld, Ylva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Teacher-Student Relationship Quality and Student Engagement: A Sequential Explanatory Mixed-Methods Study2022In: Research Papers in Education, ISSN 0267-1522, E-ISSN 1470-1146, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 840-859Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the links between teacher-student relationship quality and student engagement, delimited to affective and behavioural engagement. We used a sequential explanatory mixed methods research approach that consisted of a quantitative phase, in which survey data were collected and analysed within a short-term longitudinal design, followed by a qualitative phase, in which focus group interviews and constructed grounded theory analysis were conducted. Participants included 234 students from two Swedish compulsory schools in the quantitative phase, and 120 in the qualitative phase. The quantitative findings revealed that teacher-student relationship quality predicted student engagement one year later, even when controlling for sex, age, and prior student engagement. The longitudinal association between teacher-student relationship quality and student engagement was unidirectional. The qualitative findings reported students own perspectives on what they considered to be a good teacher and their ideas of how their teachers and classroom setting influence their affective and behavioural engagement at school. Two significant categories emerged: teacher being and teacher doing.

  • 13.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Efficacy beliefs and interdependence when being assessed working in a group2021In: Educational studies (Dorchester-on-Thames), ISSN 0305-5698, E-ISSN 1465-3400, Vol. 47, no 5, p. 509-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors that can predict collective efficacy in student work groups year 5 and 8 at compulsory school and to see if there are gender and year differences for efficacy beliefs and aspects of interdependence. A total of 283 completed questionnaires were analysed. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to predict collective efficacy and 2 × 2 ANOVA was used to analyse gender and year differences and interactions for following five factors: collective efficacy, self-efficacy, negative interdependence, positive interdependence and importance of good assessment and marks. The result showed that independent of gender, year and school, self-efficacy, positive and negative interdependence predicted collective efficacy in connection with group work assessment. The result also showed that there were better conditions for cooperation in year 5 compared to year 8. Additionally, it was significantly more important for girls than boys to achieve good assessment and marks.

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    Efficacy beliefs and interdependence when being assessed working in a group
  • 14.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploring pupils perspectives on school climate2021In: Educational research (Windsor. Print), ISSN 0013-1881, E-ISSN 1469-5847, Vol. 63, no 4, p. 379-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: School climate is crucial: its character can affect pupils academic achievement, teachers working conditions and the wellbeing of everyone at school. A major concern for teachers is how to prevent and manage disruptive behaviours. Against this backdrop, there is a need for thorough investigation of pupils perspectives to better understand their perceptions of the climate at their schools and their views about why disruptive behaviours occur. Purpose: In this small-scale, qualitative study, we aimed to contribute to the body of school climate research by exploring pupils perspectives on school climate, teachers and relationships at school. Method: We conducted an in-depth qualitative analysis, exploring pupils perspectives on these issues through focus group interviews. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted (n = 104) with grade 1-9 (7- to 15-year-old) pupils from a school in Sweden. The interview guide included questions about sense of safety, relationships at school and in classrooms, and pupils views of teachers. Constructivist grounded theory was used as the analytical framework. Findings: A recurrent pattern identified in the data was the focus on disruptive behaviours and how these were connected to the pupils learning environment, sense of safety and teachers. Three core categories were conceptualised from the pupils perspectives: (a) within-pupil explanations, (b) teaching style explanations and (c) peer group process explanations. We adopted a social-ecological approach to conceptualise the complexities and interplay of factors addressed by the pupils in their perspectives on disruptive behaviours. Conclusions: Our findings provide insight into the way that different factors interplay in the emergence of disruptive behaviours in the classroom, nested within both contextual and structural aspects. This analysis of pupil perspectives also points to the importance of a whole-school approach in which teachers establish a warm, responsive and confident teaching style in the classroom and in the playground to influence the social dynamics.

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  • 15.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Individual feedback in connection with cooperative learning: a possible way to support individual accountability2021Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that very few studies concerning assessment in connection with cooperative learning (CL) has been conducted (van Aalst, 2013; Forsell et al., 2020). Accordingly, very little theoretical knowledge or useful tools have been provided to assist teachers in this significant but difficult task. Besides, teachers often express feelings of uncertainty about how to make group work assessments (Ross & Rolheiser, 2003) and a special challenge seems to be how to disentangle the individual from the joint work when assessing (Forsell et., al 2020). Consequently, there is a need to develop theoretical knowledge and instruments for assessing in connection with CL (van Aalst, 2013; Johnson & Johnson, 2004). However, research is making progress and some promising findings, as well as practical tools, are beginning to emerge (e.g. Bookhart, 2013; Johnson & Johnson, 2004). Recent research also indicates that teachers’ feedback to the students may support students ability to work more independently in CL and thereby gain more equal opportunities in the their work (Forslund Frykedal & Hammar Chiriac, 2018). Assessment in connection with CL can also be about the quest for equitability providing students with equal educational opportunity, as students tend to find assessment in connection with CL unjust (Forslund Frykedal & Hammar Chiriac, 2016). 

    One way for teachers to assess students during CL is to provide the students with formative assessment, by employing feedback. The objective in this paper is to explore and problematize if teachers’ formative assessment, by way of written feedback, on students’ individual work during CL supports or impedes student’s further work with the task, hence guiding or hampering the students’ possibility for individual accountability. 

  • 16.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ‘Suddenly the tutorial group was online’: group dynamics and collaboration in tutorial groups during a quick transition from campus to distance learning2021In: ESPLAT2021 conference Teaching and Learning Psychology in Times of COVID and Beyond2, Heidelberg, 3 September 2021, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic quickly and radically changed conditions for working and learning in tutorial groups in problem-based learning (PBL) in the psychologist programme at Linköping University, Sweden. From previously conducting work in tutorial groups on site at the university, where the students physically met, the tutorial groups were suddenly implemented online using Zoom. This transition to distance learning for tutorial groups was, for necessary reasons, implemented abruptly without giving the students any education in or opportunity for practicing on how to create and maintain well-functioning online learning environments. This unique adjustment affected the work, processes and learning in the tutorial groups. The aim of this study was to understand what happens in tutorial groups when the learning environment changes drastically at very short notice with no training or previous experience to take advantage of. Data was collected from six tutorial groups using self-assessment surveys and from three tutorial groups using diary reports. The preliminary results show that that the quick transition to distance mode affected group dynamics and collaboration in the tutorial groups in several ways. Elements of group dynamics became more prominent, and problems connected with goals, structures and communication were enhanced in distance learning tutorial groups. Norms changed and group cohesion weakened due to difficulty in using the same social cues as in a physical meeting. The move to distance learning forced the tutorial groups to discover new strategies for creating and maintaining well-functioning online learning environments.

  • 17.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    ‘Suddenly the tutorial group was online’: group dynamics and collaboration in tutorial groups during a quick transition from campus to distance learning2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic quickly and radically changed conditions for working and learning in tutorial groups in problem-based learning (PBL) in the psychologist programme at Linköping University, Sweden. From previously conducting work in tutorial groups on site at the university, where the students physically met, the tutorial groups were suddenly implemented online using Zoom. This transition to distance learning for tutorial groups was, for necessary reasons, implemented abruptly without giving the students any education in or opportunity for practicing on how to create and maintain well-functioning online learning environments. This unique adjustment affected the work, processes and learning in the tutorial groups. The aim of this study was to understand what happens in tutorial groups when the learning environment changes drastically at very short notice with no training or previous experience to take advantage of. Data was collected from six tutorial groups using self-assessment surveys and from three tutorial groups using diary reports. The preliminary results show that that the quick transition to distance mode affected group dynamics and collaboration in the tutorial groups in several ways. Elements of group dynamics became more prominent, and problems connected with goals, structures and communication were enhanced in distance learning tutorial groups. Norms changed and group cohesion weakened due to difficulty in using the same social cues as in a physical meeting. The move to distance learning forced the tutorial groups to discover new strategies for creating and maintaining well-functioning online learning environments.

  • 18.
    Forsell, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Teachers’ perceived challenges in group work assessment2021In: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 1886474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group work assessment is a challenging and complex practice for teachers. This study focuses on the challenges teachers perceive before and after participating in a group work assessment project that emphasizes individual assessment. By conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of twelve interviews with six teachers at upper secondary schools in Sweden, several challenges could be identified. The most prominent challenge concerning group work assessment is how to discern students’ individual performance within groups. This challenge has consequences for both the validity and the fairness of the assessment. Further, teachers experienced challenges with (un)fairness in group work assessment, in terms of both achieving fairness and having to deal with students’ emotions regarding perceived unfairness. The results also show how teachers perceive inadequate conditions, such as a lack of time and methods, and generate challenges in their practice, which is also related to reliability.

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  • 19.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Sjovold, Endre
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Norway.
    Björnstjerna Hjelm, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    The effect of group-dynamics, collaboration and tutor style on the perception of profession-based stereotypes: a quasi-experimental pre- post-design on interdisciplinary tutorial groups2021In: BMC Medical Education, E-ISSN 1472-6920, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundGroup processes in inter-professional Problem-Based Learning (iPBL) groups have not yet been studied in the health-care educational context. In this paper we present findings on how group-dynamics, collaboration, and tutor style influence the perception of profession-based stereotypes of students collaborating in iPBL groups. Health-care students are trained in iPBL groups to increase their ability to collaborate with other healthcare professionals. Previous research focusing iPBL in healthcare implies that more systematic studies are desired, especially concerning the interaction between group processes and internalized professional stereotypes. The aim of this study is to investigate whether changes in group processes, collaboration, and tutor style, influence the perception of profession-based stereotypes of physician- and nursing-students.MethodsThe study is a quasi-experimental pre- post-design. The participants included 30 students from five different healthcare professions, mainly medicine and nursing. Other professions were physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech therapy. The students were divided into four iPBL groups, each consisting of six to nine students and a tutor. Data were collected through systematic observation using four video-recorded tutorials. SPGR (Systematizing the Person Group Relation), a computer-supported method for direct and structured observation of behavior, was used to collect and analyze the data.ResultsTraditional stereotypical profession-based behaviors were identified in the first observed group meeting. Although the groups followed different paths of development, the group-dynamics changed in all groups over the 6 weeks of collaboration. Two of the groups became more cohesive, one became more fragmented and one became more polarized. Stereotypical behaviors became less frequent in all groups. Our findings indicate that tutor behavior has a strong influence on the development of the groups dynamics.ConclusionOur findings strongly suggest iPBL is a means of reducing stereotypical behaviors, and may positively increase members ability to engage in inter-professional collaboration. Although the pattern of dynamics took different forms in different groups, we argue that iPBL forces students to see the colleague behind his or her profession, thus breaking professional boundaries. The tutor style significantly influenced the iPBL groups development. This study contributes to our field by emphasizing the effect of group-processes in increasing mutual understanding across professions.

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  • 20.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Att leda grupparbete2020In: Lärare som ledare: i och utanför klassrummet / [ed] Gunnar Berg, Frank Sundh, Christer Wede, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 2, p. 115-138Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupparbete är inte en enhetlig aktivitet utan flera olika aktiviteterunder olika förhållanden. Dessutom kan grupparbetet förändras fleragånger under arbetets och gruppens livstid. Arbetsformen kommeratt fungera olika bra under olika delar av grupparbetet och gruppensmedlemmar kan behöva stöd och hjälp av olika slag under arbetets gång.Detta innebär i sin tur att lärarens roll påverkas av var i grupparbetetgruppen befinner sig och vilka processer som utspelas i gruppen.

  • 21.
    Rosander, Michael
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Univ West, Sweden.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Attitudes towards being assessed in group work: The effects of self-efficacy and collective efficacy moderated by a short educational intervention2020In: Psychology in the schools (Print), ISSN 0033-3085, E-ISSN 1520-6807, Vol. 57, no 9, p. 1404-1416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being assessed in group work is a balance between cooperation and competition. Self-efficacy and collective efficacy are important concepts in understanding how group work progresses and what attitudes assessment evokes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a short educational intervention on the association between efficacy beliefs and attitudes towards being assessed in group work. In a randomized, controlled study of 22 pupil work groups, half of them got a short educational intervention. The work groups were formed for this study. The pupils answered a questionnaire before the intervention and after doing group work for 3 to 6 weeks with a study-specific task. A moderated mediation analysis showed that attitudes towards being assessed in group work significantly are related to self-efficacy mediated through perceived collective efficacy and that this relationship is stronger in the intervention group. In the context of work group assessment, we have shown that self-efficacy and collective efficacy are two separate, but related concepts that are dependent on each other when it comes to pupil attitudes towards group work assessment, and that a relatively short educational intervention to teachers and pupils had an effect on the attitude. However, the older girls attitude towards group work assessment was the least positive of all, which may indicate that the intervention depends on gender and age.

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  • 22.
    Hempel, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Avslutning och kommentarer2020In: Handbok för grupparbete – att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] E. Hammar Chiriac & A. Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 4, p. 307-328Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Redaktörerna Anders Hempel och Eva Hammar Chiriac avrundar boken med kapitel 13, Avslutning och kommentarer, där ett urval av teman som behandlats i boken lyfts fram och belyses ytterligare. Tanken är att det avslutande kapitlet ska bidra med ytterligare reflektioner som kan användas för att börja arbeta med att utveckla studiegrupper i utbildning.

  • 23.
    Wiggins, Sally
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Mag- tarmmedicinska kliniken.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Törnqvist, Tove
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Breaking the ice: how students present themselves to the group in an interprofessional problem-based learning context2020In: Interactional Research in Problem-Based Learning. / [ed] Susan M. Bridges, Rintaro Imafuku, West Lafayette: Purdue University Press, 2020, p. 197-222Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first time that students meet for a problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial is important for setting the framework for the rest of the PBL process (Hempel & Jern, 2000). This occasion typically involves introducing themselves, meeting the tutor, writing a group contract, and starting work on the first scenario or case. When students are working in interprofessional groups—with peers from other educational programmes—there is the additional complexity of establishing common ground while maintaining one’s own professional focus. It is within this context of interprofessional health education that the current chapter is based. We provide a discursive analysis of the early moments of the first tutorial in which students introduce themselves to their fellow group members. The research question is: How do students present themselves in the first tutorial of a new PBL group in which they come from different professional programmes? In the remainder of the introduction, we situate this work within a broader theoretical and empirical context of work on interprofessional learning and communication, group formation, and academic identities.

  • 24.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Elementary and secondary school students' perspectives on school climate2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Elementary and secondary school students’ perspectives on school climate2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forskning om grupparbete2020In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac, Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 4, p. 33-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I kapitel 1, Forskning om grupparbete, av Eva Hammar Chiriac, presenteras uppdaterad relevant forskning om studerandeaktiva samarbetsformer. Kapitlet innehåller dessutom fler referenser till grupparbete på alla nivåer i utbildningsväsendet samt studier som baseras på såväl lärares som studerandes erfarenheter av att delta i grupparbeten. Nya teoretiska tillskott i denna fjärde upplaga är teorin om ömsesidigt beroende (the social interdependence theory, SIT; Johnson & Johnson, 1989, 2002, 2013) och modellen för gruppvärdig uppgift (group worthy task; Lotan, 2003, 2014). Båda är nya bidrag som vidareutvecklar den teoretiska grunden för lärare som vill öka förståelsen för att skapa väl fungerande grupparbeten och kan vara till stöd för lärare vid planering av ett grupparbete.

  • 27.
    Forsell, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Group Work Assessment: Assessing Social Skills at Group Level2020In: Small Group Research, ISSN 1046-4964, E-ISSN 1552-8278, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 87-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group work assessment is often described by teachers as complex and challenging, with individual assessment and fair assessment emerging as dilemmas. The aim of this literature review is to explore and systematize research about group work assessment in educational settings. This is an integrated research area consisting of research combining group work and classroom assessment. A database search was conducted, inspired by the guidelines of the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses). The analysis and categorization evolved into a typology consisting of five themes: (a) purpose of group work assessment, (b) what is assessed in group work, (c) methods for group work assessment, (d) effects and consequences of group work assessment, and (e) quality in group work assessment. The findings reveal that research in the field of group work assessment notably focuses on social skills and group processes. Peer assessment plays a prominent role and teachers as assessors are surprising absences in the reviewed research.

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    Group Work Assessment: Assessing Social Skills at Group Level
  • 28.
    Granström, Kjell
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grupparbete – en försummad möjlighet.2020In: Lärare som ledare: i och utanför klassrummet / [ed] Gunnar Berg, Frank Sundh, Chriser Wede, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 2, p. 175-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupparbete som undervisningsmetod har tyvärr fått ett oförtjäntdåligt rykte. En vanligt förekommande missuppfattning är att grupparbeteinte har någon inlärningspotential vad gäller ämneskunskaper,och det ses ofta mer som ett inslag i skolans sociala fostran. Det ärolyckligt att en mycket effektiv inlärningsform som grupparbete användsså lite i skolan. När ropen skalla ”kateder åt alla” borde man ocksåverka för att övervinna hinder och motstånd mot det äkta grupparbetet,en arbetsform som råkat i vanrykte på grund av oskicklig och ogenomtänkttillämpning.I det här kapitlet beskriver vi hur ett rätt använt grupparbete, medläraren som arbetsledare, är en effektiv arbetsform som borde tillämpasoftare. För att ta reda på vad lärare kan göra för att skapa det godagrupparbetet och undvika det dåliga, lät vi två ”expertgrupper” kommatill tals: elever och forskare.

  • 29.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grupparbete för alla: mångfald i grupper2020In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac, Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 4, p. 249-276Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Grupparbete för alla – mångfald i grupper definieras och problematiseras begreppet mångfald. Mångfaldens olika dimensioner och aspekter illustreras genom två olika modeller: isbergsmodellen och en modell för kategorisering av mångfald i studiegrupper, vilka båda har uppdaterats i denna fjärde upplaga. Nytt för upplaga fyra är att könsidentitet eller könsuttryck inkluderas i mångfaldsaspekterna. Mångfald som möjlighet eller hinder uppmärksammas i likhet med samspelet mellan gruppdynamik och mångfald. Grupper som undviker att ta hänsyn till den interna mångfalden kan få problem med gruppens dynamik. I kapitlet presenteras också några härskartekniker kopplade till mångfald och grupparbete i utbildning. Slutligen diskuteras några möjliga sätt att främja och utnyttja mångfald vid grupparbete i undervisning. I denna upplaga uppmärksammas också risken för minoritetstress.

  • 30.
    Hempel, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Grupputveckling och gruppkontrakt2020In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac, Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 4, p. 135-157Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En av de saker som är gemensamma för olika typer av grupper som arbetar tillsammans inom undervisning, är att de existerar under en begränsad tid. Exempel på grupper för lärande kan vara projektgrupper, läsgrupper, examinationsgrupper, och så kallade basgrupper (se Inledning). Det begränsade tidsutrymmet gör att lärare kanske bortser från betydelsen av hur gruppen utvecklas. I grupplitteraturen (Jacobsson & Åkerlund, 2019; Jern, 2004, 2016; Olsson, 1998; Wheelan, 2005, 2013; Sjøvold, 2008, 2014, 2019a, 2020) redovisas olika teoretiska modeller för grupputveckling. I detta sammanhang är dels frågan om gruppens bildande, etablering, dels innebörden av utveckling av speciellt intresse. För att en grupp ska etableras och bli effektiv, behöver den träffas och lägga upp en plan för arbetet. Överenskommelsen kan sedan sammanfattas i en sorts kontrakt. I kapitlet som följer kommer frågor som hänger ihop med ovanstående att avhandlas, nämligen grupputveckling, gruppkontrakt, gruppklimat och etiska frågor i samband med gruppbaserat studiearbete.

  • 31.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Inledning – fjärde upplagan2020In: Handbok för grupparbete – att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] E. Hammar Chiriac & A. Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 4, p. 17-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Grupparbete har blivit allt vanligare i skola och utbildning. Ibland fungerar det väl, och till de studerandes belåtenhet. Vid andra tillfällen uppstår mindre konstruktiva processer. Både studerande och lärare har efterlyst mer kunskap om arbetsformen. Denna skrift syftar till att belysa några viktiga aspekter av arbetsformen. I fjärde upplagan av Handbok för grupparbete – att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning har flera delar aktualiserats och vidareutvecklats. Dessutom har antologin kompletterats med några, för boken nya, teorier och aspekter som är av intresse och bör beaktas för att skapa ett fungerande grupparbete. Boken inkluderar kunskaper och erfarenheter om studiegrupper på alla nivåer i utbildningsväsendet, från grundskolan till universitet.

  • 32.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hempel, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Konflikt och konflikthantering vid grupparbete2020In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac, Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 4, p. 219-248Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    När personer ska arbeta tillsammans i grupp uppstår det ibland konflikter, så även i studiegrupper vid utbildning. Det kan finnas olika anledningar till varför konflikterna uppstår och vad det är för sorts konflikt. Vilken genomslagskraft som konflikten får på gruppen och dess arbete kan också variera, samt vilka konsekvenser den ger. I likhet med att konflikterna ser olika ut finns också ett flertal sätt att hantera konflikter på. I det här kapitlet kommer konflikt och konflikthantering i studiegrupper att problematiseras, samt frågan behandlas om, och i så fall hur, det är möjligt att förebygga att konflikter uppstår i grupper. Vidare tas några konflikthanteringsstrategier upp. Därtill belyses även etiska aspekter på konflikthantering.

  • 33.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för Individ och Samhälle.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Lärares ledarskap vid grupparbete2020In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac, Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 4, p. 185-201Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärarens roll som ledare har stor betydelse för hur grupparbete genomförs men också för hur elever och studenter kommer att uppleva undervisningsmetoden. Rollen som ledare påbörjas innan grupparbetet startas och fortgår under hela grupparbetet. Arbetet avslutas först när utvärdering och bedömning är slutförda. Arbetsledarrollen inkluderar ansvar för planering, organisering, genomförande samt uppföljning (Gillies, Ashman & Terwel, 2008; Forslund Frykedal & Hammar Chiriac, 2017, 2018; Hammar Chiriac, 2020; Thornberg, 2020). Dessa viktiga aspekter av lärarens ledarskap kommer att problematiseras i det här kapitlet vilket innebär att betydelsen av gruppens utveckling och betydelsen av vilka processer gruppen genomgår kommer att belysas med avseende på lärarens ledarskap. Det finns alltså ett ömsesidigt beroende mellan gruppen, dess arbete och den ledarroll som läraren bör inta. Oavsett var i utbildningssystemet som de studerande befinner sig kommer lärarens ledarskap att påverka arbetet och processen i grupparbetet.

  • 34.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Olika sätt att arbeta i grupp2020In: Handbok för grupparbete: att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] Eva Hammar Chiriac, Anders Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 4, p. 105-118Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Alla lärare och studerande som använder sig av eller deltar i grupparbete vet att grupper fungerar på olika sätt. Arbetsformen kan ibland fungera mycket bra, men ibland fungerar grupparbetet tyvärr mindre bra. Tidigare forskning har också visat att grupparbete inte är en enhetlig aktivitet utan flera olika aktiviteter under olika förhållanden, det vill säga grupparbetet kan förändras flera gånger under arbetets och gruppens livstid. Förenklat kan detta uttryckas som att vissa arbetsformer passar bättre för vissa delar av grupparbetet än andra. Detta innebär också att grupparbetet periodvis kan fungera olika bra och att gruppen kan behöva stöd och hjälp av olika slag i de olika delarna av grupparbetet. Vad är det då som gör att grupparbeten ibland fungerar bättre än andra gånger? Är det något som kan påverkas, och i så fall hur? Visst kan såväl lärare som studerande påverka grupparbetet på flera sätt. I det här kapitlet kommer olika sätt för detta att behandlas: uppgiftens utformning, det periodiska systemet för att förstå grupprocesser, vilka processer som uppmuntras  samt belöningssystem och grupprocesser.

  • 35.
    Thornberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Forsberg, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Teacher–student relationship quality and student engagement: A short-term longitudinal study2020Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för Individ och Samhälle.
    An Educational Intervention to Increase Efficacy and Interdependence in Group Work2019In: Education Quarterly Reviews, ISSN 2621-5799, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 435-447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated whether an intervention, in the form of short educational sessions, influenced pupils’experiences of group work or cooperative learning (CL). The hypothesis tested was that an intervention forteachers and pupils would lead to pupils’ increased (a) collective efficacy, (b) self-efficacy and, (c) positiveinterdependence, as well as (d) less negative interdependence. The participants were pupils from years 5 and 8 inthree compulsory schools in Sweden, working in 22 groups divided into one intervention group and one controlgroup (11 work groups in each condition). Data were collected through a questionnaire before and afterparticipation in the study and analysed using a repeated measure ANOVA and 2×2 ANOVA. The results showedan increased collective efficacy, self-efficacy and positive interdependence and a reduction of negativeinterdependence. The conclusion is that the intervention provided for teachers and pupils did have an effect, thuspromoting successful working as a group.

  • 37.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björnstjerna Hjelm, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    En studie av ledningsgruppers samarbete inom svenska hjälporganisationer2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ledningsgruppers samarbete har stor betydelse för gruppens förmåga att leda organisationen. Hur väl ledningsgruppen kan anpassa sig till kontext och uppgiften är viktiga faktorer. Med hjälp av SPGR genomförs under våren 2019 en studie av svenska hjälporganisationers ledningsgrupper. För att organisationerna så effektivt som möjligt ska kunna hjälpa de mest utsatta samhällsmedborgarna är ledarskapet centralt.

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka och få en bild av hur ledningsgrupper inom svenska hjälporganisationer samarbetar och om och i så fall hur det påverkar deras förmågan att leda. Genom att komplettera SPGRS:s självskattningsenkät med fokusgruppssamtal är målsättningen att fördjupa förståelsen för de beteenden som visar sig i självskattningsenkäten.

    Fokus vid i presentationen är att redogöra för studien och presentera några preliminära resultat.

  • 38.
    Björnstjerna Hjelm, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En studie om studenters samarbete och grupputveckling vid interprofessionellt problembaserat lärande2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vården blir allt mer specialiserad och antalet professioner ökar. För att vården ska fungera krävs ett utvecklat interprofessionellt samarbete och enligt Världshälsoorganisationen, WHO, är interprofessionell utbildning en av de viktigaste vägarna till effektiv, patientsäker sjukvård. Syftet med denna presentation är att redogöra för en studie om samarbete och grupputveckling i interprofessionellt sammansatta basgrupper vid grundutbildningen till olika vårdprofessioner. Med stöd av SPGR (Systematisera Person – Grupp i Relation) observerades studenternas beteende vid videoinspelade basgruppsmöten under problembaserat lärande (PBL) med fokus på hur professionella roller och stereotyper påverkade basgruppernas samarbete och utveckling. Resultatet visar att samtliga basgrupper utvecklades men på olika sätt. Resultatet visar även att professionella stereotypiska beteenden minskade över tid samt att basgruppshandledarens agerande påverkade grupputvecklingen. En slutsats är att PBL kan vara ett sätt att minska stereotypt beteende i basgrupper och att handledarens stil är en viktig faktor för framgång med tillvägagångssättet. Fokus vid presentationen är att beskriva studien och dess resultat utifrån de gjorda observationerna med SPGR.

  • 39.
    Vestergren, Sara
    et al.
    Keele Univ, England.
    Drury, John
    Univ Sussex, England.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How Participation in Collective Action Changes Relationships, Behaviours, and Beliefs: An Interview Study of the Role of Inter- and Intragroup Processes2019In: The Journal of Social and Political Psychology, E-ISSN 2195-3325, JOURNAL OF SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 76-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has shown that numerous psychological changes can occur in and through collective action. Previous research on psychological consequences of participation in collective action has mainly focused on one change at a time and has rarely included a theoretical explanation for the change. The present study therefore investigates the range and possible connections between changes occurring in collective action. We interviewed participants (n = 28) involved in an environmental campaign in Sweden which included interaction with the police. Through thematic analysis of the data we found that the participants connected several psychological changes to aspects of their participation. Specifically, participants related these changes to two intertwined processes: intergroup interaction and intragroup interaction. We suggest that intergroup interaction (specifically conflict with the police outgroup) can affect intragroup processes (e.g., support and unity), which in turn can influence psychological change (e.g., empowerment and skills). Through the study, we develop and contribute to previous research by: 1) documenting a range of possible changes occurring through collective action participation, and 2) exploring the different psychological processes related to the changes. The implications of this research and future challenges are discussed in relation to developing the social identity approach.

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  • 40.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Intervention as a means to improving assessment practice in cooperative learning2019In: Cooperative Learning in Far-East Asia and the World: Achieving and Sustaining Excellence, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this workshop is to provide an opportunity for delegates to participate in an intervention as means for enhancing assessment skills in cooperative learning. To differentiate assessment of individuals' intellectual abilities, academic and social skills from the whole group's when using cooperative learning instructions is according earlier research a challenge for teachers (e.g. Forslund Frykedal & Hammar Chiriac, 2011; Ross & Rolheiser, 2003). In this workshop participants will take part in, discuss and reflect upon objects and methods concerning assessment in cooperative learning. This by, in small groups, use Social Interdependence Theoy's five elements (a) interdepedence, (b) accountability, (c) promotive interaction, (d) iterpersonal and small group skills and (e) group processes when reviewing and discerning assessable objects in cooperative situations. The discerned objects will then be presented, discussed nd reflected upon in cross-groups. Additionally, participation in the workshop also includes peer-assessment of group-members abilities and skills in terms of "two stars and a wish". During this interactive workshop, participants will work in different constellations, such as pairs, small groups and cross-groups, giving experiences in the interdependence between CL and assessment. An exercise that will give delegates assessment tools useful in pedagogical practice.

    References

    Forslund Frykedal, K., & Hammar Chiriac, E. (2011). Assessment of students' learning when working in groups. Educational Research, 3, 331-345.

    Ross, J., & Rolheiser, C. (2003). Student assessment practices in co-opertive learning. In R.M. Gillies & A.F. Ashman (Eds.), Co-operative learning. The social and intellectual outcomes of learning in groups (pp.119-135). New York: Routledge.

  • 41.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för Individ och Samhälle.
    Teachers’ Talk about Group Work Assessment before and after Participation in An Intervention2019In: Creative Education, ISSN 2151-4755, E-ISSN 2151-4771, Vol. 10, no 9, p. 2045-2068, article id 95471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that teachers use an indistinct vocabulary, employfew concepts, and expose an embryonic professional language whentalking about group work assessment, thus indicating a lack of a professionallanguage. Building on Granström’s three different modes of language useeveryday, pseudo-meta- and meta-language, the purpose of this article was toexamine the teachers’ use of languages when talking about group work assessment.Specifically, if and how teachers’ use of modes of languages are influencedby them partaking in 1) a study about assessment in group work and2) in an intervention in form of a short educational session. Data were gatheredfrom interviews with eight teachers working in years five and eight infive Swedish compulsory schools and analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively.The results revealed that all of the teachers use Granstöm’s mode oflanguages to a varying degree when talking about assessment in cooperativesituations. A core finding was that intervention in the form of a short educationinfluenced the teachers’ way of talking in a positive way. By participatingin the intervention, the teachers developed and expanded their mode of language,thereby promoting the use of a common professional language aboutgroup work assessment.

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  • 42.
    Wiggins, Sally
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Larsson Torstensdotter, Gunvor
    Törnqvist, Tove
    Being a professional, or just being a student? A discursive analysis of video-recorded interprofessional learning tutorials in a medical faculty2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enhancing psychological literacy  through a group selection exercise.2018Other (Refereed)
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    Enhancing psychological literacy through a group selection exercise
  • 44.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Einarsson, Charlotta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gruppobservationer : teori och praktik 2018 (ed. 3)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gruppobservationer kan användas för att studera och förstå grupper och grupprocesser. Denna bok belyser gruppobservationer ur ett forskningsperspektiv. Med utgångspunkt i en teoretisk modell visas olika sätt att systematisera och beskriva olika former av gruppobservationer. Modellen bygger på två dimensioner. Den första dimensionen handlar om det förhållningssätt eller den kunskapssyn som ligger till grund för den aktuella studien. Dimensionen skiljer mellan begreppen teoriprövande och teorigenererande. Den andra dimensionen avser vilken grad av struktur observationen har. För att beskriva dimensionen används benämningarna hög respektive låg grad av struktur.

    Modellens spännvidd och användbarhet visas genom att olika metoder för gruppobservationer presenteras. Därtill ges praktiska exempel på studier som författarna eller andra genomfört.

    I denna tredje uppdaterade upplaga har teoridelen utökats och delarna om observatörsroller och etiska överväganden bearbetats.

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  • 45.
    Vestergren, Sara
    et al.
    School of Psychology, Keele University, UK..
    Drury, John
    University of Sussex, Brighton, UK..
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    How collective action produces psychological change and how that change endures over time: A case study of an environmental campaign.2018In: British Journal of Social Psychology, ISSN 0144-6665, E-ISSN 2044-8309, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 855-877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research on collective action has suggested that both intra- and intergroup interactions are important in producing psychological change. In this study, we examine how these two forms of interaction relate to each other over time. We present results from a longitudinal ethnographic study of participation in an environmental campaign, documenting endurance and prevalence of psychological change. Participants, locals (n = 14) and self-defined activists (n = 14), connected enduring psychological changes, such as changes in consumer behaviour and attitudes to their involvement in the environmental campaign. Thematic analysis of interviews suggested that participants linked the process of change to categorizing themselves in a new environmental-activist way that influenced their everyday lives beyond the immediate campaign. This recategorization was a result of a conflictual intergroup relationship with the police. The intergroup interaction produced supportive within-group relationships that facilitated the feasibility and sustainability of new world views that were maintained by staying active in the campaign. The data from the study support and extend previous research on collective action and are the basis of a model, suggesting that intragroup processes condition the effects of intergroup dynamics on sustained psychological change.less thanbr /greater than (© 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.)

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  • 46.
    Wiggins, Sally
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Abrandt Dahlgren, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ekstedt, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Gastroentorology.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Larsson Torstensdotter, Gunvor
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Törnqvist, Tove
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    On doing ‘being a student amongst other kinds of students’: Managing academic identities in an interprofessional tutorial group2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Student Collaboration in Group Work: Inclusion as Participation2018In: International journal of disability, development and education, ISSN 1034-912X, E-ISSN 1465-346X, no 2, p. 183-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group work is an educational mode that promotes learning and socialisation among students. In this study, we focused on the inclusive processes when students work in small groups. The aim was to investigate and describe students’ inclusive and collaborative processes in group work and how the teacher supported or impeded these transactions. Social Interdependence Theory was utilised as the theoretical perspective overarching the study. The observational data employed were collected by video-recording group work. A part of Black-Hawkins framework of participation was used to define inclusion and for the analysis of inclusive and collaborative processes. The results suggest that students’ active participation in the discussions around the group work structures and analytical discussions, together with the teacher’s more defined feedback and avoidance of the traditional authoritative role, are examples of prerequisites for group work to be enacted in an inclusive manner.

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  • 48.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wiggins, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Forming groups: Enhancing psychological literacy through a group selection exercise2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social and group psychology has much to offer in terms of applicable knowledge and the development of psychological literacy in students. One area that is particularly suited for application is the formation of groups: how we select group members, and how we understand how group roles can impact on the effectiveness of group work. In light of many university courses using group work as part of teaching and learning activities, this is an ideal opportunity in which to apply psychological knowledge to the students’ own learning practices. This paper reports on the use of a group selection exercise as part of a social/group psychology course at Linköping University. The students are enrolled in the psychologist programme - a five-year educational programme that results in students becoming licensed psychologists – which uses problem-based learning (PBL) throughout its entirety. PBL is a pedagogical approach that is based on problem-solving, self-directed learning and group interaction. The group selection exercise involves: a lecture, the group-selection exercise (in which students must allocate themselves into groups of 6-8 people on the basis of their existing knowledge of group psychology theory), a whole-class reflection and finally a focused reflection on the task in their newly formed groups. This paper will report on each part of this task and will discuss how it enables students to put their understanding of group psychological theory into practice.

  • 49.
    Forslund Frykedal, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Student collaboration in group work - Inclusion as active participation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group work is an educational mode that promotes both learning and socialization among students, and students’ engagement and participation in the group work has proven to be important. Empirical research conducted on the implementation of inclusive and collaborative processes in group work is sparse. Based on social psychological perspective we will in this study focus on inclusive and collaborative processes when students are working in small groups.

     

    The aim of the study was to investigate and describe students’ inclusive and collaborative processes in group work and how the teacher supports or impedes these transactions.

     

    Social Interdependence Theory (Johnson & Johnson, 2002), one of the dominant influences on Cooperative learning, was utilized as the theoretical perspective overarching the study. Data were obtained through observations made from video-recording 500 minutes of group work undertaken in one Year 5 classroom at a municipal school in Sweden and were analysed using thematic analysis (Braun & Clark, 2006). Part of Black-Hawkins (2010, 2013) framework of participation was used to define inclusion and for the analysis of inclusive and collaborative processes.

     

    The results suggest that students’ active participation in the analytical discussions around the group task and discussions around group work structures, together with the teacher’s more defined feedback and avoidance of the traditional authoritative role are examples on prerequisites for group work to be enacted in an inclusive and collaborative manner. These prerequisites give the students opportunities to be accountable both for the individual and the group’s collective work. 

  • 50.
    Vestergren, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Drury, John
    University of Sussex, England.
    Hammar Chiriac, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The biographical consequences of protest and activism: a systematic review and a new typology2017In: Social Movement Studies, ISSN 1474-2837, E-ISSN 1474-2829, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 203-221Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most research on activist participation has aimed to explain motives to engage in protest and collective action or becoming an activist. The outcomes, for the individual, have been neglected. Therefore, we set out to systematically document and organize the psychological and behavioural changes associated with activism into a typology of change. The review contains 57 papers describing changes. Psychological changes identified in the literature can be classified into 19 main forms: marital status, children, relationship ties, work-life/career, extended involvement, consumer behaviour, identity, empowerment, radicalization/politicization, legitimacy, sustained commitment, self-esteem, general well-being, traits, self-confidence, religion, organizing, knowledge and home skills. Our analysis highlights the lack of analysis of the relation between type of protest and type of change, and lack of research into the processes behind the various psychological changes. What is needed now is more precise investigation of the relationship between types of protests, social and psychological processes, and psychological outcomes. Further, more longitudinal studies are required to explore the relationship.

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