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  • 1. Order onlineBuy this publication >>
    Zanatta, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The diffusion of biogas systems in Brazil2024Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil is one of the largest economies in the Global South. Because of the country’s strong agribusiness and large population, it has a huge potential for biogas production that has yet to be realized. Biogas systems could potentially address a broad range of social, environmental, and economic issues, such as improving accessibility to clean energy sources in rural areas, alternative cooking fuel, and providing proper treatment of organic waste. Hence, biogas systems can play an important role in sustainability transitions by improving the environmental performance of energy generation, waste management systems, and food production. However, despite the availability of substrate for biogas production and the multiple benefits that biogas systems could bring, there is still a large implementation gap.  

    Biogas systems go beyond technical components and involve a multitude of stakeholders, infrastructure, knowledge, and formal and informal institutions. Therefore, the diffusion of biogas systems cannot be explained only by analyzing the technical components of biogas systems. Previous studies have explored the influences of societal contexts on technological diffusion, but these explored countries in the Global North. However, social, economic, and political aspects differ significantly between Global North and Global South countries.  

    This thesis aims to explain how societal contexts influence the diffusion of biogas systems in Brazil. The thesis distinguishes between societal contexts, delineating them as societal environments and socio-economic structures. Societal environments refer to the circumstances and aspects surrounding the diffusion process where alignment processes between new socio-technical systems and society happen across five environments: user, business, regulatory, cultural, and trans-local. Socio-economic structures refer to societal arrangements that shape social and economic aspects of society. The Varieties of Capitalism framework provides a tool for comparison of the socio-economic structures of different countries in the Global North and South. The thesis relies on case studies based on quantitative and qualitative data from documents (scientific articles, news articles, technical reports, research reports, official documents by governmental agencies, and policies) and interviews.   

    Societal contexts appear to be more unstable and fragmented compared to counterparts in the Global North, influencing the diffusion of biogas systems. Hierarchical structures in Brazil lead to power disparities between administrative levels (municipal, state, and federal levels), impacting policymaking and hindering local-level biogas system configurations. The thesis highlights socio-economic diversity among Brazilian states and how it influences where and which biogas system configurations are formed. This thesis emphasizes that studies on biogas systems’ potential should consider contextual aspects beyond substrate availability to comprehensively understand biogas systems diffusion in diverse settings. 

    List of papers
    1. Policy coherence in a fragmented context: the case of biogas systems in Brazil
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Policy coherence in a fragmented context: the case of biogas systems in Brazil
    Show others...
    2022 (English)In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 87, article id 102454Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Policy mixes are needed to overcome the different barriers hindering sustainability transitions. This creates the need for policy coherence. Policy coherence studies in sustainability transitions literature are dominated by European cases, limiting their generalizability. This article analyzes policy mixes related to biogas systems and their related coherence issues, and, how that influences biogas production and use in Brazil. We identified policy coherence within and between biogas related sectors and over time, showing how the pre-conditions for biogas production, distribution and use differ considerably between the Brazilian states. This points to a need for decentralized governance structures to enable policy differentiation, as a complement to policy coherence. The article concludes that the characteristics of biogas systems as being locally embedded constitutes a challenge in hierarchical market economies such as Brazil, where policy development, resource mobilization and allocation are highly centralized.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2022
    Keywords
    Policy differentiation, Policy analysis, Governance, Bioenergy, Policy mix, Global south, Policy incoherence
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-182351 (URN)10.1016/j.erss.2021.102454 (DOI)000737112000007 ()2-s2.0-85121659385 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies: Swedish Biogas Research Center (BRC) - Swedish Energy Agency [35624-3]

    Available from: 2022-01-17 Created: 2022-01-17 Last updated: 2023-12-27Bibliographically approved
    2. Circular economy, varieties of capitalism and technology diffusion: Anaerobic digestion in Sweden and Paraná
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circular economy, varieties of capitalism and technology diffusion: Anaerobic digestion in Sweden and Paraná
    Show others...
    2022 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 335, article id 130300Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a circular economy relies on systems that facilitate waste recovery and recirculation of resources. These systems are based on certain enabling technologies. The aim of this paper is to explain how socio-economic structures influence the diffusion of such technologies. It applies a framework built on societal embedding and varieties of capitalism to compare the diffusion of anaerobic digestion (AD) in Sweden in northern Europe and Paraná in southern Brazil. Both Sweden and Paraná have experienced accelerated diffusion of AD, but there are significant differences in the respective diffusion patterns. The comparative analysis points to a tradeoff between system complexity and speed of diffusion. It illustrates how AD can be presented as a solution to various problems, and it further shows how the specific problems that gain attention shape diffusion patterns. By showing how socio-economic structures influence the appointment of problem owners, their agency, and legitimate forms of institutional support, the analysis demonstrates how economic systems condition technology diffusion.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2022
    Keywords
    Biogas, Circular economy, Diffusion of innovations, Geography of sustainability transitions, Societal embedding, Varieties of capitalism
    National Category
    Business Administration Economics Energy Systems Other Environmental Engineering Economic Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-182538 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2021.130300 (DOI)000772777700001 ()2-s2.0-85122037114 (Scopus ID)
    Projects
    Biogas Research Center
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, 35624–3
    Note

    Funding: Swedish Energy AgencySwedish Energy AgencyMaterials & Energy Research Center (MERC) [35624-3]

    Available from: 2022-01-25 Created: 2022-01-25 Last updated: 2023-12-27Bibliographically approved
    3. To conform or to transform? A comparative case analysis of the societal embedding of biogas systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>To conform or to transform? A comparative case analysis of the societal embedding of biogas systems
    2023 (English)In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of new socio-technical systems is essential for tackling contemporary sustainability challenges. Against the backdrop of literature on societal embedding this paper explores the diffusion of socio-technical systems as a process of co-constructing innovations and their societal environments. This paper uses a comparative research design to analyze the diffusion of biogas systems across four Brazilian states. In doing so, this paper makes two contributions. First, it contributes with nuances regarding the fit-and-conform and stretch-and-transform typology, showing that innovations exhibit not only hybrid patterns across societal environments but also across different sectors (e.g. agriculture, sanitation, and waste management). Furthermore, innovations exhibit hybrid conform and transform patterns across different administrative levels (e.g. municipal, state, and national). Second, it broadens the empirical base of societal embedding studies to the Global South and biogas technologies which represent a fragmented context and a complex innovation, respectively. Altogether, the paper contributes to further understanding of why multi-functional socio-technical systems, such as biogas systems, diffuse in certain contexts and not in others.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    London, England: Taylor & Francis, 2023
    Keywords
    Sustainability transitions; socio-technical interactions; anaerobic digestion; diffusion; societal embedding; Global South
    National Category
    Environmental Management Energy Systems Social and Economic Geography
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198018 (URN)10.1080/17597269.2023.2257960 (DOI)001067267400001 ()
    Projects
    Biogas Solutions Research Center
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P2021-90266
    Note

    Funding: Energimyndigheten

    Available from: 2023-09-21 Created: 2023-09-21 Last updated: 2023-12-27
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  • 2.
    Lindfors, Axel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zanatta, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hållbar export: Definitioner, tillämpning och efterfrågan2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att bidra till arbetet med att integrera och beakta olika hållbarhetsaspekter i det svenska exportstödsystemet genom att beskriva hur begreppet hållbar export används samt sammanställa och analysera utbudet av exportfrämjande aktiviteter där hållbarhetsaspekter ingår. Rapporten ger svar på följande frågeställningar:

    1. Hur används och förstås begreppet hållbar export i vetenskaplig litteratur och av svenska exportstödjande aktörer?
    2. Vilka exportfrämjande aktiviteter som integrerar hållbarhetsaspekter erbjuds av svenska exportstödjande aktörer?
    3. Hur upplevs efterfrågan av exportfrämjande aktiviteter som integrerar hållbarhetsaspekter av svenska exportstödjande aktörer?
    4. Hur ser efterfrågan på svenska produkter och tjänster med hög hållbarhetsprestanda ut på mottagande marknader?

    Frågeställningar besvarades genom en tredelad metod bestående av en litteraturstudie som genomlyste både vetenskaplig och så kallad grå litteratur, en enkät som skickades till aktörer inom nätverket för Regional exportsamverkan (RES) och sex fördjupande intervjuer med exportstödjande aktörer.

    Utifrån studien kunde tre olika användningssätt för begreppet hållbar export utrönas. Hållbar export används för det första för att beskriva export av produkter och tjänster med hög hållbarhetsprestanda, det vill säga, produkter och tjänster utformade för att lösa hållbarhetsrelaterade problem (exempelvis renhållningsteknik eller medicinteknik) eller som är, exempelvis, mer miljövänliga än det globala genomsnittet. Här appliceras ett livscykelperspektiv på hållbarhetsprestandan vilket gör att alla delar av exportvarans livscykel inkluderas (från råmaterialutvinning till kassering). Den andra användningen av begreppet är för att beskriva export från företag som aktivt arbetar med att förbättra sin hållbarhet, alltså det används för att beskriva när hållbara företag exporterar. Även här appliceras ett livscykelperspektiv då företagets underleverantörers och kunders hållbarhetsarbete inkluderas. Det tredje användningssättet för hållbar export är för att beskriva att själva exportaffären bidrar till hållbar utveckling. Här fokuseras det ofta på anti-korruption, tillförlitlighet mellan partnerna i exportaffären samt arbetsvillkor och miljöpåverkan i själva implementeringen av exportvaran (exempelvis om något måste monteras på plats).

    På grund av dessa distinkt olika användningssätt och att det upplevs råda stor samstämmighet mellan aktörer som använder begreppet hållbar export så rekommenderas att begreppet fortsätter användas som ett samlingsbegrepp för att innefatta alla dessa tre användningssätt. Detta ger begreppet stor flexibilitet i användning och ökad funktionalitet. Vid behov av mer precist språkbruk bör andra begrepp än hållbar export användas som är anpassade till det specifika behovet. Exempelvis finns flera mer specifika begrepp som inryms i samlingsbegreppet hållbar export, så som miljöteknikexport eller medicinteknikexport, vilka bör användas om användaren vill precisera ett visst fokusområde inom hållbar export.

    I studien identifierades ett brett utbud av exportfrämjande aktiviteter som integrerar hållbarhetsaspekter inom nätverket för RES. I detta utbud dominerar utbildningsaktiviteter vilka syftar till att förmedla kunskap, information eller färdigheter till exporterande företag (exempelvis via coachning, seminarium eller kurser). Inom nätverket finns även aktörer som erbjuder finansiella stödaktiviteter så som kontantstöd, lån eller garanter. En avsaknad av mobilitetsrelaterade stöd identifierades dock men detta kan bero på COVID-pandemin och att det är aktörer utanför RES-nätverket som erbjuder denna typ av stöd. Efterfrågan av stödaktiviteter upplevdes av de tillfrågade aktörerna som varken stor eller liten trots att intresset för hållbar utveckling i exportsammanhang upplevdes som stort. Detta kan eventuellt förklaras med att många av dessa aktiviteter är relativt nya och att företag inte är medvetna om det utbud av stödaktiviteter som finns samt vilka krav som de eventuellt ska uppnå för att ta del av stöden. Om så är fallet bör efterfrågan av dessa aktiviteter öka under de kommande åren förutsatt att stödaktiviteterna fortsätter att erbjudas.

    Från aktörerna i enkät- och intervjustudien framgick att det fanns ett stort intresse för svenska produkter och tjänster med hög hållbarhetsprestanda och att det i allt större grad ställs krav på god affärssed och affärsetik i exportaffärer (exempelvis genom att olika uppförandekoder ska följas). Gällande specifika geografiska marknader kunde studien inte säkerställa huruvida någon specifik marknad efterfrågade hållbar export i större grad eller ställde högre hållbarhetsrelaterade krav på exportvaror. Indikationer gavs utifrån respondenterna att det möjligen fanns större efterfrågan på varor med hög hållbarhetsprestanda i Nordeuropa (Norge, Finland, Danmark, Tyskland och Nederländerna) men att behovet borde vara större i utvecklingsländer där hållbarhetsproblemen ofta är värre. I dessa länder krävs dock ökad beställarkompetens varför svenska stödaktörer som är intresserade av dessa marknader bör rikta in sig på att bygga funktionella marknader på dessa platser vilka i sin tur kan efterfråga svensk export.

    På grund av studiens ringa tidsomfång (studien genomfördes mellan november 2022 och januari 2023) krävs ytterligare studier för att styrka de slutsatser som presenteras i rapport. Utöver detta identifierades andra intressanta områden för fortsatta studier. Exempelvis identifierades att aktörer som erbjuder finansiellt stöd ofta har dialoger med företag runtomkring finansieringsprocessen, varför en studie kring hur dessa dialoger kan bidra till ökad hållbarhet i exportaffären eller i det exporterande företaget skulle vara intressant. Utöver detta vore det intressant att studera den indirekta påverkan som utbudet av stödaktiviteter har på svenska exporterande företag eftersom ett brett erbjudande inom hållbart exportstöd kan indirekt påverka företags strategiska arbete utan att de deltar i stödaktiviteter.

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  • 3.
    Zanatta, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    To conform or to transform? A comparative case analysis of the societal embedding of biogas systems2023In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diffusion of new socio-technical systems is essential for tackling contemporary sustainability challenges. Against the backdrop of literature on societal embedding this paper explores the diffusion of socio-technical systems as a process of co-constructing innovations and their societal environments. This paper uses a comparative research design to analyze the diffusion of biogas systems across four Brazilian states. In doing so, this paper makes two contributions. First, it contributes with nuances regarding the fit-and-conform and stretch-and-transform typology, showing that innovations exhibit not only hybrid patterns across societal environments but also across different sectors (e.g. agriculture, sanitation, and waste management). Furthermore, innovations exhibit hybrid conform and transform patterns across different administrative levels (e.g. municipal, state, and national). Second, it broadens the empirical base of societal embedding studies to the Global South and biogas technologies which represent a fragmented context and a complex innovation, respectively. Altogether, the paper contributes to further understanding of why multi-functional socio-technical systems, such as biogas systems, diffuse in certain contexts and not in others.

  • 4.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. School of Business, Innovation and Sustainability, Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Zanatta, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Circular economy, varieties of capitalism and technology diffusion: Anaerobic digestion in Sweden and Paraná2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 335, article id 130300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to a circular economy relies on systems that facilitate waste recovery and recirculation of resources. These systems are based on certain enabling technologies. The aim of this paper is to explain how socio-economic structures influence the diffusion of such technologies. It applies a framework built on societal embedding and varieties of capitalism to compare the diffusion of anaerobic digestion (AD) in Sweden in northern Europe and Paraná in southern Brazil. Both Sweden and Paraná have experienced accelerated diffusion of AD, but there are significant differences in the respective diffusion patterns. The comparative analysis points to a tradeoff between system complexity and speed of diffusion. It illustrates how AD can be presented as a solution to various problems, and it further shows how the specific problems that gain attention shape diffusion patterns. By showing how socio-economic structures influence the appointment of problem owners, their agency, and legitimate forms of institutional support, the analysis demonstrates how economic systems condition technology diffusion.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Kanda, Wisdom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zanatta, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Halmstad Univ, Sweden.
    Hjelm, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Larsson, Madeleine
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Policy coherence in a fragmented context: the case of biogas systems in Brazil2022In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 87, article id 102454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy mixes are needed to overcome the different barriers hindering sustainability transitions. This creates the need for policy coherence. Policy coherence studies in sustainability transitions literature are dominated by European cases, limiting their generalizability. This article analyzes policy mixes related to biogas systems and their related coherence issues, and, how that influences biogas production and use in Brazil. We identified policy coherence within and between biogas related sectors and over time, showing how the pre-conditions for biogas production, distribution and use differ considerably between the Brazilian states. This points to a need for decentralized governance structures to enable policy differentiation, as a complement to policy coherence. The article concludes that the characteristics of biogas systems as being locally embedded constitutes a challenge in hierarchical market economies such as Brazil, where policy development, resource mobilization and allocation are highly centralized.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
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